Sample records for automatic seat belts

  1. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt reminde

  2. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  3. Seat belt restraint system (United States)

    Garavaglia, A.; Matsuhiro, D.


    Shoulder-harness and lap-belt restraint system was designed to be worn by individuals of widely different sizes and to permit normal body motion except under sudden deceleration. System is divided into two basic assemblies, lap belt and torso or shoulder harness. Inertia-activated reels immediately lock when seat experiences sudden deceleration.

  4. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents. (United States)

    Schichor, Aric; And Others


    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  5. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  6. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint. (United States)

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck


    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury.

  7. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  8. Seat belt sign and its significance. (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar


    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term "seat belt sign" was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries.

  9. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G


    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats.

  10. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations. (United States)

    Soule, David


    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  11. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel


    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  12. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  13. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  14. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses. (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest


    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  15. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Burkett, Katie M.; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second compo...

  16. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General... (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and... clarify prior interpretations of the seat belt and seating requirements of 14 CFR 91.107(a)(3). These... clarification states that the use of a seat belt and/or seat by more than one occupant is appropriate only...

  17. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion. (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  18. Biomechanics of seat belt restraint system. (United States)

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Hock, Davis


    Seat belt system restrains and protects occupants in motor vehicle crashes and any slack in seat belt system induces additional loading on occupant. Signs of belt loading are more obvious in high-speed frontal collisions with heavy occupants. However subtle changes may occur at low speeds or with low forces from occupants during rollovers. In certain cases, the seat belt webbing is twisted and loaded by the occupant. The loading of webbing induces an observable fold/crimp on the seat belt. The purpose of the study is to biomechanically evaluate the force required to produce such marks using an anthropometric physical test dummy. Two tests were conducted to determine the amount of force required to put an observable fold/crimp in a shoulder belt. A head form designed by Voight Hodgson was used to represent the neck which interacted with the belt. The force was applied with a pneumatic pull ram (central hydraulic 89182 N) and the force was measured with a 44,000 N transducer load cell (DSM-10K). Results indicate that the force of over 1,000 N produced a fold or crimp in the belt.

  19. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  20. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include re

  1. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General... (United States)


    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 91 [Docket No. FAA-2011-0628] Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt... interpretations of FAA's seat belt and seating requirements. These prior interpretations state that the shared use of a single restraint may be permissible. This clarification states that the use of a seat belt...

  2. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Loftin, Laurel; Barlament, James; Cotton, Carol; Davidson, Steve M; Burkett, Katie M.; Stephens, James


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was t...

  3. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  4. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013. (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  5. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.



    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include rear seats - has been conducted in the Netherlands. An evaluation of compliance with the law stipulating the use of rear seat belts was conducted by comparing the observation and surveys carried out ...

  6. Observed seat belt use in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. (United States)

    Afukaar, Francis K; Damsere-Derry, James; Ackaah, Williams


    We conducted an observational survey of seat belt use to determine the use rate of drivers and front-right passengers of vehicles in Kumasi, Ghana. Unobtrusive observations of seat belt use were made at 41 locations composed of signalized intersections and roundabouts where vehicles come to a halt or slow down considerably. The overall driver seat belt use rate was 17.6% compared to 4.9% for front-right passengers. Driver belt use was 33.2% for private cars, 9.0% for taxis, 8.3% for minibus (trotro), 13.1% for large buses and 9.7% for trucks. Overall seat belt use was higher for female drivers than for male drivers (44.8% versus 16.4%, p seat belt use rate increased with age. Passengers belted more often if drivers were belted, but about three-quarters of male passengers and 70-80% of female passengers were unbelted even when drivers were belted. In conclusion, the seat belt use rate was generally low in Kumasi, Ghana, and it is a function of occupant seating position, gender, vehicle type and usage, age group, and location setting. The results provide important preliminary data about seat belt use, particularly among male drivers and commercial vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests the need to develop effective strategies and programs that address low seat belt use in Ghana.

  7. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D


    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  8. Seat belt use during pregnancy in Iran: attitudes and practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Karbakhsh; Zahra Ershadi; Ali Khaji; Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf


    Objective: Seat belt use during pregnancy reduces injury to the mother and her fetus. During recent years, the use of seat belts has been mandated by law in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding seat belt use.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we asked 335 pregnant women at a hospital-based prenatal care clinic on the use of safety belt before and during pregnancy. SPSS version 13.0 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean age of study subjects was 27.3 years±5.3 years with the median of 27 years. Compared with the seat belt use before pregnancy, no change was detected in 48.7% of the women; seat belt use had increased in 17.5 %of them and decreased in 33.8 %. Eighty-one percent of women knew the correct placing of both lap belt and shoulder belt. Only 4% of women had received education on proper restraint use during pregnancy.Conclusions: The prevalence of seat belt use during pregnancy is lower than reports which are mostly from developed nations. The fact that about one-third of women have decreased their seat belt usage during pregnancy highlights the importance of education of mothers on this topic.

  9. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.


    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh

  10. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation. (United States)

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong


    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  11. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign. (United States)

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  12. Nonoperative management of pediatric aortic injury with seat belt syndrome. (United States)

    Parrish, Dan W; Barnhorst, Amanda; Trebska-McGowan, Katarzyna; Amendola, Michael; Haynes, Jeffrey H


    "Seat belt syndrome" was first described by Garret and Braunstein in 1962. The syndrome involves skin and abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) intra-abdominal solid organ and visceral injuries, as well as Chance fractures (compression and/or wedging deformity of the anterior portion of the vertebral body with disruption or fracture of the posterior elements, generally at L1-L3). We present a case of a 12-year-old male involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision wearing only a lap belt resulting in seat belt syndrome, with disruption of the abdominal wall, mesenteric avulsion with multiple intestinal perforations, abdominal aortic dissection, and an L2 Chance fracture with cord transection. Intraoperative decision making is outlined with this scenario of complex injuries, and the literature of seat belt syndrome associated with blunt aortic injuries and its management is reviewed.

  13. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  14. Method for drivers to wear seat belts really forensics system automatically%一种驾驶员是否真正佩戴安全带自动取证系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐远新; 施雯


    针对目前驾驶员是否系安全带的检测及报警装置仅仅只在本车内起报警作用,以及驾驶员虚佩戴安全带等问题,提出一种驾驶员是否真正佩戴安全带自动取证系统。该自动取证系统通过 nRF2401单芯片无线发射模块采集车辆自身安全带报警装置中驾驶员安全带佩戴信息和车辆车牌号信息,并将此信息发射出去,无线接收装置nRF2401固定安装在铺设有交通专用网络的路段,并通过串口设备联网服务器将接收到的信息上传至交通专用网络,通过上位机,从而记录下未系安全带的驾驶员所在车辆车牌号信息。%For the issues which current detection and alarm device only work in the cars and the driver dummy wearing seat belts, this paper presents an automatically forrnsic system which can detect accurately wether the driver is wearing the seat belt or not. The forensic system automatically collection belt seat warning device's information and vehicle license plate number by nRF2401 single chip wireless stransmitter module, and then information this transmitted out. nRF2401 wireless reception device fixedly mounted in the rode which laying with the private network, and through the serial device server letting received the information uploaded to a private network. Through the PC recording the information that wether driver wearing a seatbelt or not and the vehicle license plate number.

  15. The effects of Maine's change to primary seat belt law on seat belt use and public perception and awareness. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neil K; Tison, Julie; Casanova, Tara


    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Belt observations during the day and night were conducted along with awareness surveys in state licensing offices. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77-84%; night 69-81%). Although daytime belt use was generally higher, nighttime belt use showed a greater increase than daytime belt use. Awareness surveys indicated that Maine motorists were clearly aware of the law change and its consequences. Survey respondents also indicated having heard both messages about enforcement and messages encouraging belt use. Primary seat belt laws may have a stronger effect on belt use at night--when risk is higher--than during the day.

  16. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14131 Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be...

  17. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, All States (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2012 state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  19. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  20. China belting up or down? Seat belt wearing trends in Nanjing and Zhoushan. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Dan; Yu, Min; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Junhe; Tong, Zhendong; Wu, Ming; Wang, Peihua; Qin, Yu


    National seat belt wearing legislation became effective in China May 2004 and associated provincial and city regulations followed. Despite rapid motorisation seat belt studies in China have been scarce. Patterns and trends in urban seat belt wearing were observed for all driver, front and rear seating positions over the years 2005-2007 in two eastern cities Nanjing (Jiangsu Province) and Zhoushan (Zhejiang Province). There were 35,256 vehicles observed in Nanjing, 20,939 in Zhoushan and 95,933 occupants overall. Males dominated all seating positions, especially drivers. Seat belt wearing overall was significantly higher for drivers (49.9% Nanjing, 47.4% Zhoushan) than for front seat passengers (9.1% Nanjing, 1.0% Zhoushan) and virtually nonexistent for rear passengers (0.5% Nanjing, 0.2% Zhoushan). Generally levels declined significantly from year to year (drivers Nanjing 66.7%, 47.7%, 38.6%; Zhoushan 57.4%, 57.9%, 30.6%; front passengers Nanjing 19.2%, 6.6%, 3.2%). Zhoushan wearing did not initially decline, 2006 observations coinciding with anticipation of provincial regulations (July 2006). Observations revealed an absence of child restraints. Pretend wearing/belt tampering was observed almost exclusively in taxi drivers (14.2% of Nanjing taxi drivers, 11.3% of Zhoushan's). Awareness of and attitudes to urban seat belt laws should be investigated, appropriate countermeasures developed and enforcement reassessed.

  1. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners. (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R


    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  2. Intestinal stricture following seat belt injury in children. (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Albanese, C T; Meza, M P; Wiener, E S


    The most commonly reported intestinal injury from seat belts in children is perforation. A rarely reported late sequela following this type of injury is posttraumatic intestinal stricture (PTIS). A review of the literature reveals a common clinical pattern of presentation in children and adults but an apparent difference in the pathophysiologic mechanism between the pediatric and adult patient. Recently, we treated two children with PTIS. Each case is discussed, and a pathophysiological mechanism for this injury in children is proposed. Recommendations are made for the evaluation and treatment of these uncommon complications of seat belt-related blunt intestinal injury.

  3. Seat belt trauma: pectoralis muscle rupture and delayed mesh repair. (United States)

    Harvey, Kyle P; Adair, James D; Ali, M Azhar


    To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a seat belt-related rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and its successful delayed repair using mesh. We report a case of a 34-year-old white man who sustained a right pectoralis major muscle rupture from a seat belt during a motor vehicle crash. The patient presented to us 2 years after the injury. We introduce a technique using mesh that results in a successful repair of a cosmetically disfiguring chest wall defect.

  4. Anterior inferior iliac spine fracture: Another component of seat belt syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisal HUSSIN


    Full Text Available Seat belt syndrome occurs when seat belts are used improperly, and it is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The spectrum of seat belt syndrome includes spinal, intra-abdominal and vascular injury. Here, we report the case of anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion fracture in association with seat belt injuries in a 24-year old man involved in a head on motor vehicle collision. 

  5. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.


    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  6. 75 FR 4509 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... amendments to the regulations establishing the criteria for designing and conducting State seat belt use... seat belt use rates to NHTSA. NHTSA proposes these amendments so that future surveys will give...

  7. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  8. Seat Belt Education Program--A Model for Public Health Settings. (United States)

    Saunders, Stephen; Pine, Jeffrey


    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a brief seat belt group educational intervention could be incorporated into an existing public health program and result in increased use of seat belts. Seat belt use increased from 4.9 to 12.6 percent among 268 low-income mothers during the study. (Author/CH)

  9. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order...

  10. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (United States)


    ... protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors and crawler loaders; (2) Graders; (3) Wheel... October 24, 1988, that is equipped with ROPS and seat belts that meet the installation and...

  12. 77 FR 20550 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... implementation date for use of the revised uniform criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use.'' 76 FR 18042. That final rule amended the regulation...

  13. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. D Appendix D to Part 1240—Determination of National...

  14. Seat Belts Pay Off. The Use of Economic Incentives and Public Education to Increase Seat Belt Use in a Community. Final Report. (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; And Others

    A six-month campaign to increase seat belt use in Chapel Hill and Carrboro, North Carolina centered around the idea of giving out economic incentives for seat belt wearing. The approach was to stop vehicles at random and give all belted vehicle occupants a small prize and a chance for a large cash prize. Precampaign activities involve collecting…

  15. Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in farside impacts. (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Kankanala, Sundeep V; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W


    The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags. Six post-mortem human subjects, three small females and three medium sized males, were tested under conditions similar to those used for the dummy tests. The carotid arteries were pressurized in an attempt to simulate the corresponding neck vascular response of living humans. Post-test autopsies conducted on all test subjects indicated an absence of test-induced arterial or vertebral injuries. Further, comparative analysis of kinematics confirmed the adequacy of the BioSID and SID-IIs in simulating cadaveric response in farside impacts with harness style 4-point belts. A number of issues remain to be solved before the implementation of 4-point seat belts in vehicles, including, among others, the risk of injury to a pregnant woman and her fetus in frontal crashes. The risk of fetal injury in pregnant occupants may be related to the location of the 4-point seat belt's buckle and latch junction at the centerline of the mother's abdomen.

  16. Practical and medical aspects of the use of car seat belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, A. & Kampen, L.T.B. van


    An analysis is made of the influence of use and non-use of seat belts on type and severity of injuries to drivers and of the influence of seat belt type on type and severity of injuries to drivers. Users of lap belts and users of 3-point belts enjoy a comparable and considerable reduction of injury

  17. Factors associated with seat belt use: an evaluation from the Ontario Health Survey. (United States)

    Sahai, V S; Pitblado, J R; Bota, G W; Rowe, B H


    This study examines the factors associated with seat belt use for drivers and passengers in Ontario. Using the 1990 Ontario Health Survey, a population-based survey of non-institutionalized Ontario residents, factors associated with seat belt use among drivers and passengers were identified and are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% CI). Seat belt non-use in Ontario drivers was most strongly associated with younger age (p Seat belt non-use in passengers was associated with younger age (p seat belt use has been shown to reduce injuries in the event of a crash. Any strategy to increase seat belt use in Ontario should be targeted to involve both drivers and passengers. Attention should be paid to increasing seat belt usage by younger adults, males, and especially those living in northern and rural regions.

  18. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  19. Preventive Effects of Seat Belt on Clinical Outcomes for Road Traffic Injuries. (United States)

    Kwak, Bong Hun; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Yu Jin; Jang, Dayea Beatrice


    Proper seat belt use saves lives; however, the use rate decreased in Korea. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of seat belt on case-fatality across drivers and passengers. We used the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 17 EDs between 2011 and 2012. All of adult injured patients from road traffic injuries (RTI) in-vehicle of less than 10-seat van were eligible, excluding cases with unknown seat belt use and outcomes. Primary and secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality and intracranial injury. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of seat belt use and driving status for study outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. Among 23,698 eligible patients, 15,304 (64.6%) wore seat belts. Driver, middle aged (30-44 yr), male, daytime injured patients were more likely to use seat belts (all P seat belt group had higher proportions of case-fatality and intracranial injury compared to seat belt group (both P seat belt group, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt group were 10.43 (7.75-14.04) for case-fatality and 2.68 (2.25-3.19) for intracranial injury respectively. In the interaction model, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt use for case-fatality were 11.71 (8.45-16.22) in drivers and 5.52 (2.83-14.76) in non-driving passengers, respectively. Wearing seat belt has significantly preventive effects on case-fatality and intracranial injury. Public health efforts to increase seat belt use are needed to reduce health burden from RTIs.

  20. The prevalence of seat belt use in Jamaica. An observational study. (United States)

    Crandon, I W; Branday, J M; Simeon, D T; Rhoden, A; Thompson, H; Carpenter, R


    An observational cross-sectional survey showed that 21.1% of private motor vehicle drivers and 13.5% of front seat passengers voluntarily wore seat belts in Kingston, Jamaica, where there is no law requiring this. Rear passenger utilisation was not examined. Compared to males, females were significantly more likely to wear seat belts when driving but not as front seat passengers. Of all motor vehicles examined, 10.1% were not equipped with seat belts. The oldest group of vehicles were mostly not fitted with seat belts. Drivers of older vehicles were significantly less likely to use seat belts even when the vehicles were equipped with belts. Implementation of legislation can reduce mortality, morbidity and costs from road traffic accidents which are relatively frequent in Jamaica. Male drivers, drivers of older vehicles and all passengers may require specific targeting in an educational and enforcement campaign should legislation, which is highly desirable, be implemented.

  1. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (United States)


    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  2. Evaluation of a brief intervention for increasing seat belt use on a college campus. (United States)

    Pastò, L; Baker, A G


    The authors evaluated a brief intervention for increasing seat belt use among the front seat occupants of cars at a junior college, in a jurisdiction with a mandatory belt use law. The intervention included public posting of performance feedback and distribution of an informational flyer to cars in target parking lot. Feedback was the display of the proportion of drivers observed wearing seat belts on the previous observation day. Seat belt use among drivers increased from 64% during the baseline phase to 71% during the intervention phase. Seat belt use among front passengers increased from 49% during the baseline phase to 67% during the intervention phase. In both cases, seat belt use at follow-up was comparable to seat belt use during the intervention phase, although a trend toward decreasing belt use was noted. Also found was higher seat belt use among females as compared with males irrespective of their front seat occupant status (driver or passenger). Effects of the intervention are discussed in the context of increasing seat belt use in a hardcore nonuser population of predominantly young adults.

  3. Nonsanction seat belt law enforcement: a modern day tale of two cities. (United States)

    Hunter, W W; Stewart, J R; Stutts, J C; Marchetti, L M


    This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a nonsanction seat belt law enforcement program in two experimental communities of contrasting size in a state with a mandatory belt law. The main ingredients of the program were seat belt "salutes," public information and education, and limited use of inexpensive economic incentives. Driver shoulder belt use data collected before, during, and after the experimental programs, compared to similar data collected in a comparison community, showed the approach to be effective. While standard seat belt enforcement activities without incentives have been shown to be effective, many police departments, especially in smaller communities, are reluctant to make wholesale increases in seat belt citations. Although requiring some additional level of manpower and resources, a nonsanction approach to seat belt law enforcement can provide an alternate way of increasing belt use in these communities.

  4. Seat Belt Law Experience in Four Foreign Countries Compared to the United States. (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; Campbell, Frances A.

    This report examines the process of enacting laws requiring the use of seat belts in the United States. It assesses these laws against the perspective of benefits realized from such mandates in other nations. Chapter one is an introduction; chapter two provides background on seat belt installation in U.S. vehicles, introduction of belt use laws,…

  5. Pattern of seat belt use by drivers in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odekunle Abayomi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Trinidad and Tobago, the law on the mandatory use of seat belts was passed in 1995, but this law is hardly enforced. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and predictors of seat belt use by motor vehicle drivers in the country. Findings A cross-sectional study of 959 motor vehicle drivers using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Pearson Chi square test and multinomial logistic regression analysis in order to determine the possible predictors of seat belt use by the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago. A majority of the drivers sometimes (51.8% or always (31.6% use a seat belt. About 16.7%, 29% and 54.2% of the drivers perceived that the other drivers use their seat belts more frequently, with the same frequency and less frequently respectively compared to themselves. The main reason for not using seat belt by the drivers was given as frequent stops (40.7% and the main motivation to use seat belt by the drivers was given as stiffer penalties for non-compliance with the seat belt law (44.5%. The predictors of seat belt use were male driver, no formal or lower level of education, driving for less than 10 years, and the perception that the other drivers use seat belts with the same or higher frequency compared to the respondents. Conclusion Only a small proportion of the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago always use a seat belt when driving. There is the need to enforce the seat belt legislation in the country.

  6. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schievano Elena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. Methods The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003. Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Results Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Conclusion Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an

  7. A program to increase seat belt use along the Texas-Mexico border. (United States)

    Cohn, Lawrence D; Hernandez, Delia; Byrd, Theresa; Cortes, Miguel


    A school-based, bilingual intervention was developed to increase seat belt use among families living along the Texas-Mexico border. The intervention sought to increase seat belt use by changing perceived norms within the community (i.e., making the nonuse of seat belts less socially acceptable). The intervention was implemented in more than 110 classrooms and involved more than 2100 children. Blind coding, validity checks, and reliability estimates contributed to a rigorous program evaluation. Seat belt use increased by 10% among children riding in the front seat of motor vehicles in the intervention community, as compared with a small but nonsignificant decline in use among control community children. Seat belt use among drivers did not increase.

  8. How would increasing seat belt use affect the number of killed or seriously injured light vehicle occupants? (United States)

    Høye, Alena


    The expected effects of increasing seat belt use on the number of killed or seriously injured (KSI) light vehicle occupants have been estimated for three scenarios of increased seat belt use in Norway, taking into account current seat belt use, the effects of seat belts and differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers. The effects of seat belts on fatality and injury risk were investigated in a meta-analysis that is based on 24 studies from 2000 or later. The results indicate that seat belts reduce both fatal and non-fatal injuries by 60% among front seat occupants and by 44% among rear seat occupants. Both results are statistically significant. Seat belt use among rear seat occupants was additionally found to about halve fatality risk among belted front seat occupants in a meta-analysis that is based on six studies. Based on an analysis of seat belt wearing rates among crash involved and non-crash involved drivers in Norway it is estimated that unbelted drivers have 8.3 times the fatal crash risk and 5.2 times the serious injury crash risk of belted drivers. The large differences in crash risk are likely to be due to other risk factors that are common among unbelted drivers such as drunk driving and speeding. Without taking into account differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers, the estimated effects of increasing seat belt use are likely to be biased. When differences in crash risk are taken into account, it is estimated that the annual numbers of KSI front seat occupants in light vehicles in Norway could be reduced by 11.3% if all vehicles had seat belt reminders (assumed seat belt wearing rate 98.9%), by 17.5% if all light vehicles had seat belt interlocks (assumed seat belt wearing rate 99.7%) and by 19.9% if all front seat occupants of light vehicles were belted. Currently 96.6% of all (non-crash involved) front seat occupants are belted. The effect on KSI per percentage increase of seat belt use increases with increasing

  9. Seat belt syndrome in children: a case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Durbin, D R; Arbogast, K B; Moll, E K


    Characteristic patterns of injury to children in automobile crashes resulting from lap and lap-shoulder belts have been described for many years. These injuries are known as the "seat belt syndrome." We present a typical case of seat belt syndrome involving a 4-year-old boy and review the current literature on the topic, highlighting proposed mechanisms of intra-abdominal and spine injuries. In addition, recent research findings identifying a new pattern of injuries associated with inappropriate seat belt use in young children are reviewed. Emergency physicians must consider these seat belt-related injuries in the initial evaluation of any child involved in a motor vehicle crash who was restrained with the vehicle seat belt.

  10. Reduced Protection for Belted Occupants in Rear Seats Relative to Front Seats of New Model Year Vehicles (United States)

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer


    Effectiveness of the rear seat in protecting occupants of different age groups in frontal crashes for 2000–2009 model years (MY) of vehicles was estimated and compared to 1990–1999 model years of vehicles. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the front seat for various age groups in newer model year vehicles. The double paired comparison method was used to estimate relative effectiveness. For belted adults of the 25–49 age group, the fatality reduction effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the right front seat was 25 % (CI 11% to 36%), in the 1990–1999 model year vehicles. The relative effectiveness was −31% (CI −63% to −5%) for the same population, in the 2000–2009 model year vehicles. For restrained children 0–8 years old, the relative effectiveness was 55% (CI 48% to 61%) when the vehicles were of the 1990–1999 period. The level of effectiveness for this age group was reduced to 25% (CI −4% to 46%) in the 2000–2009 MYs of vehicles. Results for other age groups of belted occupants have followed a similar trend. All belted adult occupants of 25+ years old were significantly less protected in rear seats as compared to right front seats in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. For unbelted occupants however, rear seats were still a safer position than front seats, even in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. PMID:21050599

  11. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use. (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M


    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users.

  12. Increasing Seat Belt Use in Service Vehicle Drivers with a Gearshift Delay (United States)

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard


    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of…

  13. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Technical Analysis of the Literature. (United States)

    Splaine, Pam; Frankel, Steven M.

    This report, prepared for the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools superintendent and board members, identifies the questions concerning seat belt use in school buses, examines relevant literature, and draws some conclusions. According to the literature, seat belts are one of many alternative and interdependent safety devices built into…

  14. Seat Belts Don't Save Lives; Trained Drivers and Safe Vehicles Do. (United States)

    Bernard, Roscoe


    Presents five arguments against requiring seat belts on school buses, including the need for better trained drivers, the danger that students will be trapped by seat belts in emergencies, and other problems relating to practicality and cost. Included is an editorial insert indicating how safety advocates respond to such objections. (JBM)

  15. Studies on structural and biomechanical responses in seat integrated safety belt configurations



    The common 3-point safety belt usually has some anchor points on the car body. However, it is also possible to mount all anchor points on the seat structure. In general, different studies show some advantages with seat integrated safety belts. Thus, further investigations are motivated. One safety advantage appears in the case of so-called small overlap crashes. Also, the ride-down distance of the occupant may be increased by allowing controlled energy absorbing deformation of the seat struct...

  16. Mandatory seat belt laws in the states. A study of fatal and severe occupant injuries. (United States)

    Houston, D J; Richardson, L E; Neeley, G W


    This study examines the impact of mandatory seat belt laws on fatal and incapacitating injury rates in the states. Annual data for all 50 states for the period 1975-1991 are used. Pooled time series analysis is employed. The general conclusion that emerges from this analysis is that seat belt laws significantly impact state fatal injury rates. Primary enforcement and all-seat coverage provisions appear to be particularly effective in reducing fatality rates.

  17. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers. (United States)

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal


    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait.

  18. 30 CFR 57.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment. (United States)


    ....14130 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors..., that is equipped with ROPS and seat belts that meet the installation and performance requirements of...

  19. Seat belt syndrome: Delayed or missed intestinal injuries, a case report and review of literature (United States)

    Al-Ozaibi, Labib; Adnan, Judy; Hassan, Batool; Al-Mazroui, Alya; Al-Badri, Faisal


    Introduction Seat belt injuries are not uncommon. The use of seat belts is associated with a unique injury profile collectively termed “the seat belt syndrome”. The aim is to aid in the early diagnosis of seat belt injuries. Case presentation Two different patients presented to the emergency after sustaining a motor vehicle accident. Both were the drivers, restrained and had a frontal impact. On presentation they were hemodynamically stable with mild tenderness on the abdomen and the abdominal computed tomography (CT) did not show any signs of bowel or mesenteric injuries. The signs of peritonitis became obvious after 24 h in one case and after 3 days in the other. Discussion Early diagnosis provides better outcomes for patients with seat belt injuries, but this remains a challenge to trauma surgeons. The typical findings of peritonitis might not be present initially. The presence of abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) increases the chance of intraabdominal injuries by eight folds. Conclusion Clinical signs of intestinal injuries might not be obvious on presentation. In the presence of seat belt sign the possibility of bowl injury must be suspected. Admit the patient for observation even if no clinical or radiological findings are present at presentation. PMID:26826929

  20. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants. (United States)

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy


    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections.

  1. Initial rollover effectiveness evaluation of an alternative seat belt design for agricultural tractors. (United States)

    Rains, G C


    A test program was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a seat belt restraint in preventing occupant movement in a rollover accident. A baseline type-2 seat belt (pelvic and torso restraint), and an improved type-2 seat belt restraint, both designed to restrict occupant motion in a rollover accident, were tested in a rollover restraints tester (RRT). Each seat belt was placed on a H-III 50th percentile male dummy and testing conducted at a single roll rate and two D-ring adjustment positions. Each test simulated what was approximately a 260 degrees per second rollover parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tractor with the top of the ROPS impacting the ground after 180 degrees of roll. Forces on the dummy's head and neck were measured, and video was taken to measure the head motion in the x-, y-, and z-axis of the dummy. The average vertical, forward, and lateral head movement in the baseline seat belt was 144, 222, and 184 mm, respectively, when the adjustable D-ring anchorage supporting the shoulder belt was in its lowest position. At the lowest D-ring height, the shoulder belt became ineffective and the seat belt performance became similar to a type-1 restraint (required for tractors with ROPS) resulting in increased vertical, forward, and lateral movement. The improved restraint reduced vertical head movement by as much as 75% without increasing head and neck loads above established injury criteria. Testing seat belts for rollover effectiveness will become increasingly important as seat belt usage on tractors with ROPS increases.

  2. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Study by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Prepared for the Wisconsin Legislature: S.B.7. Bulletin No. 9078. (United States)

    Richards, William T.

    The hypothesis of this study was that installation and use of seat belts in all large school buses are needed to prevent injuries and deaths to children in accidents as a result of no seat belts. Basic questions and summary arguments for and against the use of seat belts are listed. An analysis of research studies done on seat belts in school…

  3. Ninety five percent: an evaluation of law, policy, and programs to promote seat belt use in Washington state. (United States)

    Salzberg, Philip M; Moffat, John M


    Seat belt use in Washington state was 83% in 2001. In 2002, a series of law, policy, and program initiatives coalesced to produce a dramatic increase in seat belt use. Washington enacted a primary enforcement seat belt, the Chief of the Washington State Patrol made safety belt enforcement one of the core missions of that agency, and Washington participated in the national Memorial Day Click It or Ticket program during May 2002 and continued the program into 2003. Evaluation of these initiatives was accomplished through observation surveys of seat belt use, analysis of seat belt violation data, and analysis of data on traffic deaths of motor vehicle occupants. The major findings were that there was a two- to three-fold increase in enforcement of the seat belt law, belt use rates increased to 93% in 2002 and again to 95% in 2003, and motor-vehicle occupant fatalities decreased by 13%. IMPACT ON PRACTICE AND POLICY: The primary seat belt law and Click It or Ticket program activities were critical factors in increasing belt use in Washington state. Media and enforcement programs targeting seat belt use can be very effective in raising the belt use rate, but a long-term commitment to continuation of these program activities is essential. Other states implementing new primary seat belt laws should consider delivering a Click It or Ticket campaign prior to the effective date of the primary law and continuing these activities during subsequent months and years.

  4. Kinematics and shoulder belt position of child rear seat passengers during vehicle maneuvers. (United States)

    Bohman, Katarina; Stockman, Isabelle; Jakobsson, Lotta; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Bostrom, Ola; Arbogast, Kristy B


    Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children and previous research highlighted vehicle maneuvers prior to impact as possible contributing factors. The aim was to quantify kinematics of child occupants during swerving maneuvers focusing on the child's lateral movement and seat belt position relative to the child's shoulder. A study was conducted on a closed-circuit test track with 16 children aged 4-12, restrained in the rear seat of a modern passenger vehicle. A professional driving instructor drove at 50 km/h making sharp turns in a repeatable fashion, resulting in inboard motion of the children. The children were exposed to two turns in each of two restraint systems. Shorter children were on a booster or highback booster cushion. The taller children were seated on a booster cushion or with only a lap and shoulder seat belt. Four film cameras were fixed in the vehicle monitoring the child. Vehicle data were also collected. The seat belt slipped off the shoulder in 1 of 5 turns, varying by age and restraint type. Among shorter children, the belt slipped off in a majority of turns when seated on a booster cushion while the belt remained on the shoulder when seated on the highback booster cushion. Among taller children, the shoulder belt moved far laterally on the shoulder in half of the turns. This data provides valuable knowledge on possible pre-impact postures of children as a result of vehicle swerving maneuvers for a variety of restraint systems.

  5. The effects of a combined enforcement and public information campaign on seat belt use.



    It is generally agreed that seat belt use is effective in preventing (fatal) driver injuries, and that legislation is an effective measure for increasing their use. Nevertheless, legislation alone rarely proves sufficient to achieve anything near universal usage. Policy makers can reach for a number of measures to bolster seat belt use. This paper presents some of the results of an evaluation of a combined enforcement and public information campaign that was conducted in 1984 in Friesland.

  6. Increasing Seat Belt Use on a College Campus: An Evaluation of Two Prompting Procedures



    Seat belt use is an important factor in the prevention of automobile accidents involving injuries and fatalities. The current study used a multielement design to compare the “Click It or Ticket” and “Please Buckle Up—I Care” procedures. Results indicate that the Click It or Ticket prompt resulted in a 20-percentage-point increase in seat belt use, and Please Buckle Up—I Care resulted in a 14-percentage-point increase.

  7. Increasing Seat Belt Use on a College Campus: An Evaluation of Two Prompting Procedures (United States)

    Clayton, Michael C.; Helms, Bridgett P.


    Seat belt use is an important factor in the prevention of automobile accidents involving injuries and fatalities. The current study used a multielement design to compare the "Click It or Ticket" and "Please Buckle Up--I Care" procedures. Results indicate that the Click It or Ticket prompt resulted in a 20-percentage-point increase in seat belt…

  8. Seat Belt Use and its Effect on Abdominal Trauma: A National Trauma Databank Study. (United States)

    Nash, Nick A; Okoye, Obi; Albuz, Ozgur; Vogt, Kelly N; Karamanos, Efstathios; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios


    We sought to use the National Trauma Databank to determine the demographics, injury distribution, associated abdominal injuries, and outcomes of those patients who are restrained versus unrestrained. All victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) were identified from the National Trauma Databank and stratified into subpopulations depending on the use of seat belts. A total of 150,161 MVC victims were included in this study, 72,394 (48%) were belted. Young, male passengers were the least likely to be wearing a seat belt. Restrained victims were less likely to have severe injury as measured by Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Score. Restrained victims were also less likely to suffer solid organ injuries (9.7% vs 12%, P belted victims with adjusted mean difference: -1.36 (-1.45, -1.27) and -0.96 (-1.02, -0.90), respectively. Seat belt use was associated with a significantly lower crude mortality than unrestrained victims (1.9% vs 3.3%, P seat belts have a significant reduction in the severity of injuries in all body areas, lower mortality, a shorter hospital stay, and decreased length of stay in the intensive care unit. The nature of abdominal injuries, however, was significantly different, with a higher incidence of hollow viscous injury in those wearing seat belts.

  9. Legislation and research in The Netherlands in the field of traffic safety regarding seat belts and crash helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Legislation on seat belts and crash helmets has been introduced since 1975. Safety belts are used by 50-75% of car drivers and passengers. Crash helmets are used by virtually all motorcyclists and moped riders. Fatalities have been reduced due to the use of seat belts by 60%, and due to the helmets

  10. Using Accelerator Pedal Force to Increase Seat Belt Use of Service Vehicle Drivers (United States)

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian


    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in…

  11. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use: A multivariate analysis of cultural variables. (United States)

    Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Dasgupta, Kohinoor; Yang, Yang; Nair, Vijayan N; Pollock, Stephen M


    There is considerable variation in seat belt use within the United States despite extensive evidence that the use of seat belts saves lives. Previous studies have identified some important factors that affect belt use rates, including gender, age, race, vehicle type, seat-belt enforcement laws, and amount of fine for belt-use law violation. In this study, we examined the influence of additional socio-demographic factors on state-level use rates: education (percentage of high school educated population), racial composition (percentage White), median household income, political leaning (percentage Democrat), and a measure of religiosity. These variables, which collectively characterize the 'culture' of a state, have received little attention in seat-belt studies. The paper reports results from a multiple regression analysis of data from the 2008 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Many of the use rate patterns in FARS data were consistent with those found in other data sets, suggesting that conclusions based on FARS data are likely to hold for the population-at-large. Of the five cultural factors considered in the study, three were identified as important in explaining the differences in seat belt use at the state level: religiosity, race (percentage White), and political leaning (percentage Democrat). The other two variables - income and education - were not significant. Hold-out analyses confirmed that this conclusion was consistent across different subsets of data. The findings from this study are preliminary and have to be confirmed on other data sets. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the potential usefulness of cultural factors in explaining state-to-state variation in seat belt use rates. If factors such as religiosity are indeed important, they can be used to develop culturally appropriate programs for increasing belt use.

  12. Modeling school bus seat belt usage: Nested and mixed logit approaches. (United States)

    Mehta, Gaurav; Lou, Yingyan


    School bus seat belt usage has been of great interest to the school transportation community. Understanding factors that influence students' decisions about wearing seat belts or not is important in determining the most cost-effective ways to improve belt usage rate, and thus the seat belt safety benefits. This paper presents a rigorous empirical analysis on data from Alabama School Bus Pilot Project using discrete choice modeling framework. In order to collect relevant information on individual student-trips, a new data collection protocol is adopted. Three choice alternatives are considered in the study: wearing, not wearing, and improperly wearing seat belts. A student's choice probabilities of these alternatives are modeled as functions of the student's characteristics and trip attributes. The coefficients of the variables in the functions are estimated first using standard multinomial logit model. Moreover, to account for potential correlations among the three choice alternatives and individual-level preference and response heterogeneity among users, nested and mixed logit models are employed in the investigation. Eight significant influence factors are identified by the final models. Their relative impacts are also quantified. The factors include age, gender and the home county of a student, a student's trip length, time of day, seat location, presence and active involvement of bus aide, and two levels of bus driver involvement. The impact of the seat location on students' seat belt usage is revealed for the first time by this study. Both hypotheses that some of the choice alternatives are correlated and that individual-level heterogeneity exists are tested statistically significant. In view of this, the nested and the mixed logit model are recommended over the standard multinomial logit model to describe and predict students' seat belt usage behaviors. The final nested logit model uncovers a correlation between improper wearing and not wearing, indicating

  13. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity. (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R


    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  14. Compliance with Use of Seat Belt among Commercial Drivers in a Nigerian Community

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    Oluwole C. Omolase


    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at determining compliance with use of seat belt among commercial intercity drivers. METHOD: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Owo, South West Nigeria among commercial intercity drivers between June and September, 2009. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria prior to commencement of this study. The permission of the leadership of Road Transport Workers’ Union was also sought and obtained. Ninety intercity commercial drivers out of the estimated one hundred and sixty intercity commercial drivers in the community were enrolled in this study. Informed consent was obtained from each of the respondents. The data obtained was collated and analyzed with SPSS 15.0.1 statistical soft ware version. RESULTS: Ninety respondents were enrolled in this study. The driving experience of the respondents revealed that most respondents: 53 (58.9% had more than 20 years driving experience. Most respondents;78 (86.7% complied with use of seat belt .The main barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip;28 (50.9%.Most respondents; 67 (74.4%were in support of penalization of defaulters. The major source of awareness about seat belt was Federal Road Safety Corps;59 (65.6%. CONCLUSION: Most respondents complied with use of seat belt. The major barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip within the community. The Federal Road Safety Corps should enforce compliance with the use of seat belt most especially within communities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 281-286

  15. Buckled-up children: understanding the mechanism, injuries, management, and prevention of seat belt related injuries. (United States)

    Davies, Kimberly L


    In the United States motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children. Although laws and public awareness campaigns have increased the use of passive restraints, many children continue to be unrestrained or improperly restrained. Age-appropriate child restraint systems are a vital means to prevent injury and death. The young school-aged child presents unique challenges to standardized vehicle restraint systems. As these children outgrow child safety seats, they frequently are placed in lap/shoulder belt systems designed for the adult. When prematurely graduated to the vehicle's restraint systems they are predisposed to injuries to the abdomen and lumbar spine known as the "seat belt syndrome" or "lap belt complex." These injuries often present subtly, and are not as obvious as the often life-threatening injuries found in the unrestrained pediatric trauma patient. However if undetected or missed these injuries can significantly impact the child's recovery and functional outcome. This article will provide a comprehensive overview of pediatric seat belt injuries. Content will explore the mechanisms responsible for producing the typical patterns of injury, recognition of these potential injuries during the trauma assessment, diagnostic evaluation and management of children with suspected or actual seat belt injuries. Prevention strategies will be discussed that will enable trauma nurses to effectively advocate the use of booster seats for the young school-aged child.

  16. Seat-belt use among drivers and front passengers: an observational study from the Islamic Republic of Iran. (United States)

    Sadeghnejad, F; Niknami, S; Hydarnia, A; Montazeri, A


    Although seat-belts are the most effective means of preventing severe injuries and deaths from road accidents, drivers and passengers in many developing countries neglect to wear them. This study aimed to measure the rate of use of seat-belts and factors affecting their use in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. In direct observations of 7718 vehicles at randomly selected sites in Tehran, 77.9% of drivers and 43.7% of front passenger had seat-belts fastened. More women used seat-belts than did men while driving but fewer as front-seat passengers. Rates of seat-belt wearing among both drivers and front passengers of vans and pick-up vehicles was low. In a separate interview study of 666 citizens, 62.4% stated that they always wore seat-belts while driving. The most frequently reported reasons for using seat-belts were avoiding fines, fear of injuries and respecting the law. To improve seat-belt use, it is recommended that law enforcement accompanied by public education should be a priority.

  17. Farm tractors, and the use of seat belts and roll-over protective structures. (United States)

    Kelsey, T W; May, J J; Jenkins, P L


    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) on farm tractors could significantly reduce the rate of fatal occupational injury on farms, but comparatively few tractors have them. Many of the policy discussions have focused on trying to identify the percentage of tractors that do not have ROPS, even though such a focus probably does not accurately represent effective protection by ROPS. This study investigates whether including differences in hours of usage, tractor activities, and seat belt use affects estimates of farm operators' protection by ROPS. In general, tractors used more hours a year were more likely to have ROPS. ROPS status also varied by tractor activity. When adjusting for seat belt use, effective ROPS protection is much less than when considering just ROPS status. Measures of the effective coverage of ROPS and policy responses should reflect these differences in hours, activities, and seat belt use.

  18. Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Hallman, Jason J


    A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length. An increase in stature of 350 mm (approximately the range from 5th-percentile female to 95th-percentile male in the U.S. population) was associated with the lap belt 14 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, the shoulder belt 37 mm more outboard relative to the body centerline, and 38 mm less shoulder belt webbing length. Among the driver factors considered, body mass index had the greatest effects. An increase of BMI in 20 kg/m^2, which spans approximately the central 90% of U.S. adults, was associated with the lap belt being placed 102 mm further forward and 94 mm higher, relative to the pelvis, and increases in lap and shoulder belt webbing length of 276 and 258 mm, respectively. Gender did not have important effects on the analyzed belt fit measures after taking into account stature and body mass index. These results offer important considerations for future crash safety assessments and suggest that further research is needed to consider belt fit for older and obese occupants.

  19. Impact of the Illinois Seat Belt Use Law on Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries. (United States)

    Rock, Steven M.


    The impact of the 1985 Illinois seat belt law is explored using Box-Jenkins Auto-Regressive, Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) techniques and monthly accident statistical data from the state department of transportation for January-July 1990. A conservative estimate is that the law provides benefits of $15 million per month in Illinois. (SLD)

  20. The effects of a combined enforcement and public information campaign on seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M.


    It is generally agreed that seat belt use is effective in preventing (fatal) driver injuries, and that legislation is an effective measure for increasing their use. Nevertheless, legislation alone rarely proves sufficient to achieve anything near universal usage. Policy makers can reach for a number

  1. Seat belt syndrome: Delayed or missed intestinal injuries, a case report and review of literature

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    Labib Al-Ozaibi


    Conclusion: Clinical signs of intestinal injuries might not be obvious on presentation. In the presence of seat belt sign the possibility of bowl injury must be suspected. Admit the patient for observation even if no clinical or radiological findings are present at presentation.

  2. Self-reported and observed seat belt use--A case study: Bosnia and Herzegovina. (United States)

    Lipovac, Krsto; Tešić, Milan; Marić, Bojan; Đerić, Miroslav


    The issue of seat belt use in middle- and low-income countries is strongly evident and has as a result higher rates of fatalities and seriously injured on the roads. The first systematic field research of the seat belt use while driving was carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 2011-2012. Research methodology consisted of two mutually conditioned parts (observation and self-reported behavior). Specific features of the methodology used are in the relationship between the observed and interviewed drivers which enabled the analysis of their observed and self-reported behavior while driving. The logistic regression method was used in this work to make the analysis of the influence of personal human characteristics (gender, age, education, exposure) and vehicles' characteristics (age) on the observed and self-reported driving behavior, from the point of view of seat belt use while driving. The influence of the listed factors on driving behavior, depending on road type (urban or rural), was given special attention in the analysis. The paper shows that certain factors do not have the same impact on driving behavior, in various conditions. Based on results from this study, it will be possible to define certain critical groups of road users and the way in which they must be addressed in order to increase the seat belt wearing rate.

  3. Differences in thoracic injury causation patterns between seat belt restrained children and adults. (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Locey, Caitlin M; Zonfrillo, Mark R


    The objective of this research was to delineate age-based differences in specific thoracic injury diagnoses for seat belt restrained rear seat occupants and describe the associated injury causation in order to provide insight into how the load of the seat belt is transferred to occupants of various sizes. Using data from the Crash Investigation Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), 20 cases of rear seated, lap and shoulder belt restrained occupants with AIS2+ thoracic injuries in frontal crashes were reviewed. Seven were children and adolescents age 8-15 years, 5 were 16-24 years, 3 were 25-54 years, and 5 were 55+ years. Six of the seven 8-15 year olds sustained injuries to the lung in the form of pulmonary contusion or pneumothorax. Only three of the seven sustained a skeletal (sternum or rib) fracture; only one of these three involved multiple ribs bilaterally. In contrast, four of the five 16-24 year olds sustained at least one rib fracture - often multiple and bilateral. The adult cohort (25+ years) was involved in predominantly more minor crashes; however they all sustained complex rib fractures - seven of the eight involved multiple ribs, four of the eight were also bilateral. Belt compression - either from the shoulder belt or the lap belt - was identified as the primary cause of the thoracic injuries. Often, there was clear evidence of the location of belt loading from AIS 1 chest contusions or abrasions. These findings have implications for age-based thoracic injury criteria suggesting that that different metrics may be needed for different age groups.

  4. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan


    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  5. Factors affecting self-reported use of seat belt among commercial vehicle drivers in Gusau metropolis Zamfara State north-western Nigeria. (United States)

    Idris, Suleman Hadejia; Nasir Sambo, Mohammed; Gambo, Hilda; Hassan, Amina


    Optimal and adequate prevention of road traffic injuries in developing countries has been hampered by limitations of knowledge and poor attitude towards use of cost effective safety and preventive measures like the seat belt. The objective of the study was to determine the level of self-reported use of seat belt and the factors affecting it among commercial motor vehicle drivers. The study was cross-sectional descriptive, data was obtained using interviewer-administered, structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Knowledge of seat belt was low, (11%), more than half (55.3%) admitted that use of seat belts prevents ejection of vehicle occupants. Less than half (47%) reported use of seat belt always. Age and educational level were significantly associated with use of seat belts (p seat belts coupled with low level of use. Innovative public health education approaches with enforcement could mitigate the low level of use.

  6. Seat Belt Usage Interventions for Motor Vehicle Crash Prevention on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota. (United States)

    Amiotte, Joseph; Balanay, Jo Anne; Humphrey, Charles


    Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are the leading cause of death from severe injuries on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (PRIR), averaging 16 MVC deaths per year from 2002 to 2011. The Sacred Cargo Coalition was established in PRIR in 2007 to implement intervention strategies to increase seat belt usage and reduce MVC fatalities, including seat belt law enforcement, creating a traffic court system, and educational campaigns on MVC prevention. The study described in this article examined the effectiveness of the interventions on increasing the seat belt usage rates and reducing MVC deaths. Secondary data were collected from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and other federal and local agencies. Seat belt usage rates increased an average of 6.8 percentage points from 2007 (10%) to 2012 (44%). MVC fatalities decreased by 46.7% from the preintervention to the intervention period. Maintenance and improvement of the intervention strategies may be achieved by seeking additional funding and including appropriate engineering activities in PRIR.

  7. The Mechanical Behavior Of A Nylon Seat Belt Exposed To Cyclical Loads: A Numerical Approach

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    Lucas Nogueira Assis,


    Full Text Available This work aims to study the mechanical behavior of a nylon seat belt when it is exposed to cyclical loads through the Finite Element Methods. This work used as base the brazilian regulamentoy standard ABNT NBR 7337:2011 to create the virtual model of the seat belt, with the following dimensions: 1.20mm thick, 48mm width and 250mm length. The next step was to import this CAD model to ANSYS 14.5 software, to create the correct material model for this case and apply the correct boundary conditions in order to analyze its behavior under a load that varies from 0 to 2000 N at a 10 Hz frequency. The final step was to analyze this numerical results that referring to this component under these conditions.

  8. Finite Element Based Stress Analysis of Seat Belt Using Integrated Force Method

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    Anjali Kale


    Full Text Available Integrated force method (IFM has been developed for solving various continuum mechanics problems, where all the internal forces are taken as independent variables. The system equilibrium equations (EE's are mathematically concatenated with the MATLAB based compatibility conditions (CC's to form the global set of equations. This paper explains the solution strategy of prototype seat-belt component using integrated force method. Actual seat belt component is taken here to verify IFM based FE element are readily used which is named as REC_5F_8D and REC_13F_16D where 5F and 13F reflects number of internal unknowns and 8D and 16D are number of total displacements respectively. The results for “Von Mises Stress” and Maximum Displacement using IFM based formulation and compared with ANSYS.

  9. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits. (United States)

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D


    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  10. Seat-belt-related injuries to the supra-aortic arteries. (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Calio, F G; Bertagni, A; Mangialardi, N; Martinelli, V


    Five seat-belt-related injuries occurring in four adults are reported. One injury involved the common carotid artery, two the internal carotid and two the subclavian arteries. Three of the four injured persons were asymptomatic and one had delayed-onset symptoms; none suffered stroke. There was no operative mortality or morbidity. Overall, the functional results of arterial reconstruction were good, with satisfactory patency at follow-up averaging 15 months.

  11. An Immediate Death by Seat Belt Compression; a Forensic Medicine Report

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    Fares Najari


    Full Text Available Although death is a gradual process, sometimes sudden death occurs in a fraction of a minute or seconds. Here we report a 49-year-old man without any underlying disease, which has instantly died in an accident scene due to compression of neck critical elements by a three-point seat belt. The examination of the body and the results of the autopsy, toxicology and pathology tests are described from the viewpoint of forensic medicine.

  12. Clinical importance of the "seat belt sign" in blunt trauma to the neck. (United States)

    DiPerna, Costanzo A; Rowe, Vincent L; Terramani, Thomas T; Salim, Ali; Hood, Douglas B; Velmahos, George C; Weaver, Fred A


    Currently a carotid duplex scan is the initial screening modality routinely used to evaluate occult extracranial carotid artery injuries secondary to blunt neck trauma. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of carotid artery duplex scanning in patients who suffered blunt trauma to the neck with a "seat belt sign." The medical records of 131 consecutive patients who sustained blunt trauma to the neck from a motor vehicle accident were reviewed. Patients with the cervical seat belt sign underwent a complete physical examination and carotid duplex scan in an accredited vascular laboratory. An intimal flap with severe carotid artery stenosis was found in one of 131 patients (0.76%). This patient has multiple injuries to the face, head, chest, lateralizing neurological signs, and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8. In an era of cost containment, resource consumption should target appropriate populations. A cervical seat belt sign should not serve as a sole indicator for evaluation of the carotid artery in the absence of other pertinent signs or symptoms.

  13. The rate of compliance to seat belt usage among automobile drivers on three categories of roads in Nigeria: an observational survey. (United States)

    Ipingbemi, Olusiyi


    Injuries to head, chest and abdomen are a major cause of death for unrestrained vehicle occupants, particularly the drivers. The use of seat belts therefore plays a significant role in reducing the severity of injuries. The study examined the compliance rate of seat belt use on different road hierarchies in Abeokuta (Nigeria) using an observatory method. Findings indicated that there was 54%, 37.3% and 13.6% compliance rate on three categories of roads studied. Also, females complied more with the use of seat belts on each of the roads with compliance rates at 43.3%, 47.2% and 50% compared with males who had 32.6%, 38.6% and 39.6% seat belt compliance rates. Chi-square analysis showed significant variations in the use of seat belt on the roads (p seat belts among motorists in Nigeria.

  14. Traumatic duodenal lesions in children due to two-point seat-belt: the seat-belt syndrome. (United States)

    Guanà, R; Sangiorgio, L; Tessiatore, P; Seymandi, P


    Two consecutive children, motor vehicle accident victims, were treated between December 2006 and January 2007. They reported duodenal perforations due to lap-belt action. In the first case (a 9-year-old boy), symptoms became immediately evident after the trauma. Early computerized tomography (CT) scan demonstrated biliaryhemoperitonitis and free sub-diaphragmatic air. At the laparotomy a complete duodenal transection, at the level of duodenal bulb, was found. In the second patient, early X-ray and CT scan revealed no free abdominal air; only the second CT scan, repeated after 48 hours, when general conditions of the girl become critical, demonstrated biliary peritonitis and aerial extraluminal gas image in the right peri-kidney space. At the surgical exploration a duodenal laceration was noted, at the passage between the second and the third duodenal portion, in the postero-lateral wall, with an extension of 6 cm. In both children direct suture of duodenal injury without stoma construction was performed. Not early or late postoperative complications were registered (follow-up: 18 months). In the traumatic duodenal lesions an early diagnosis is not always possible because of the paucity of the clinical signs. Tightened clinical and radiological monitoring of the patient is fundamental in the successive hours to the trauma. Early diagnosis and high level of suspicious rest crucial for better prognosis in this group of patients.

  15. 汽车电动座椅与安全带的结构与控制(上)%The Structure and Control of Electric Seats and Safety Belts for Auto(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴基安; 董素荣


    This paper expounds in detail the adjustable functions of the electric seats.The structure of electronic control system and the automatic adjusting process are introduced and the distributions and functions of automatic adjustable seats and safety belts are also expounded.%详述汽车电动座椅可实现的各种调节功能,介绍其电子控制系统的结构以及自动调节的过程。简述可自动调节的座椅安全带在车上的布置及功能。

  16. The rate of seat belt use and its related factors among car drivers in Tehran, Iran after imposing new regulations. (United States)

    Nabipour, Amir Reza; Khanjani, Narges; Soltani, Zahrasadat; Akbari, Morteza


    The incidence of road crash deaths is high in Iran. Seat belts can reduce the risk of death or serious injury. This study aimed to estimate the rate of seat belt use and its related factors for car drivers in Tehran, Iran after proclamation of the 2011 legislation. A roadside observational study was conducted in 2012 and 10,752 cars and taxis commuting in different streets of Tehran were screened in regard to drivers' seat belt wearing. Other variables including gender, age range, type of street, district, time of day and day of week were also collected. The rate of seat belt use was 70.9%, and was significantly higher in females, elders and on freeways and significantly less in afternoon hours, side streets and in taxi drivers. The rate of seat belt use in Tehran (a representative of Iran) is still low despite the implementation of new legislations. More initiatives are needed to increase this rate especially in certain groups and areas.

  17. Development of an Emergency Locking Unit for a Belt-In-Seat (BIS System Using a MEMS Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Baek


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emergency locking unit (ELU for a seat belt retractor which is mounted on the back frame of a vehicle seat. The proposed unit uses a recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor and solenoid mechanism. The seat has an upper frame supported to tilt on a lower frame. The retractor in belt in seat (BIS system is supported by the upper frame. The proposed recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor comprises orientation means for maintaining a predetermined orientation of emergency relative to the lower frame independently of the force of gravity when the upper frame tilts on the lower frame. Experimental results show that the developed recliner sensor unit operates effectively with respect to rollover angles. Thus, the developed unit will have a considerable potential to offer a new design concept in BIS system.

  18. Influence of an enforcement campaign on seat-belt and helmet wearing, karachi-hala highway, pakistan. (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad


    This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants' age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8-6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2-8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6-16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan.

  19. Facial trauma in the largest city in Latin America, São Paulo, 15 years after the enactment of the compulsory seat belt law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarley Eloy Pessoa de Barros


    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are a reality throughout Brazil. The face is one of the anatomic parts most affected by these accidents, especially when a seat belt is not used. These accidents are costly for the public health system and have a significant impact on society and the lives of families involved. The compulsory use of seat belts in Brazil, especially in São Paulo, has decreased the rate of facial trauma. This suggests that the public health policies and measures adopted by the Brazilian authorities have benefited the population 15 years after the enactment of the law of compulsory seat belts in the city of São Paulo

  20. Occupant restraint in the rear seat: ATD responses to standard and pre-tensioning, force-limiting belt restraints. (United States)

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola


    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h DeltaV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5(th) percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50(th) percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p < or = 0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a DeltaV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    道路交通事故已成为现阶段我国居民特别是青壮年人群的主要伤害因素之一,安全带用于防止交通事故所致伤亡作用是肯定的.了解安全带的发展、作用、使用现况,并探讨提高使用率等相关干预措施.%Road traffic accidents have become one of the main damage factors among current residents, especially our young people. Seat belts have the affirmative effect to prevent injuries caused by traffic accidents. The aims of this article are to understand the development role, use the current situation, ways of improving the utilization of seat belts and other related interventions.

  2. Acute Pseudohepatitis in a Chronic Substance Abuser Secondary to Occult Seat Belt Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric CS Lam


    Full Text Available Causes of a massive elevation in serum aminotransferases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] in the substance-abusing patient include viral hepatitis and drug hepatotoxicity. A patient chronically addicted to injection heroin and cocaine presented to the emergency room in a confused state and was admitted to a medical ward with an AST of 4120 U/L, ALT 3820 U/L and right upper quadrant discomfort. Investigations for viral and hepatotoxic causes for the liver dysfunction revealed only hepatitis C seropositivity. A computed tomogram of the abdomen, however, revealed a significant contusion to the right lobe of the liver consistent with traumatic injury. A motor vehicle accident, in which the patient was wearing a seat belt, and which had occurred a few days before admission and had been thought to be minor, was the cause of the liver dysfunction. Significant blunt abdominal traumatic injuries are usually managed exclusively by surgical trauma units. This case underlines the need for medical specialists to be aware of hepatic contusion injuries and to have a high index of suspicion when investigating unexplained hepatocellular dysfunction in chronic substance abusers who have been in motor vehicle accidents.

  3. The "seat belt mark" sign: a call for increased vigilance among physicians treating victims of motor vehicle accidents. (United States)

    Velmahos, G C; Tatevossian, R; Demetriades, D


    The use of seat belts is shown to cause a specific pattern of internal injuries. Skin bruise corresponding to the site of the seat belt is known as the "seat belt mark" (SBM) sign and is associated with a high incidence of significant organ injuries. No study has yet defined the exact incidence of injuries requiring intervention at the presence of this sign. The objective of this study was to find the incidence of surgically correctable injuries in belted car occupants with a SBM sign and to define strategies of early detection and treatment of such injuries. The prospective study included consecutive patients involved in road traffic accidents who were admitted at an academic Level I trauma center. Of 650 car occupants, 410 (63%) were restrained and 77 (12%) had a SBM across the abdomen, chest or neck. The injuries of these 77 patients were compared with the injuries of belted patients without an SBM sign. Of patients with SBMs, 9 per cent had neck bruises, 32 per cent had chest bruises, 40 per cent had abdominal bruises, and 19 per cent had bruises in multiple sites. No significant neck injuries were detected. Three patients were found to have myocardial contusion, and 10 patients had intra-abdominal injuries (predominantly bowel and mesenteric lacerations) requiring laparotomy. There was a near 4-fold increase in thoracic trauma (22.5% versus 6%; P=0.01) and a near 8-fold increase in intra-abdominal trauma (23% versus 3%; P evaluation by specific diagnostic tests is not justified; rather, a high index of suspicion with a low threshold for appropriate diagnostic evaluation and/or surgical exploration should be maintained for the optimal management of such patients.

  4. Analysis of Vehicle Seat Belt Anchorage Strength%汽车安全带固定点强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国红; 杨浩; 杨鄂川; 张勇


    To analyze the vehicle seat belt anchorage strength, the finite element model of body-in- white, seats, seat belts and the body module (hip block, shoulder block cessing software Hypermesh, the explicit solution method in LS-DYNA ) is is established by pre-pro- used, the specified load condition is set according to the national standard, an accurate prediction is made on whether the structure can meet the standard, a method which uses the FEM to analyze the seat belt anchorage strength is found. This method can be extended to other quasi-static strength analysis problems, and analyze the model which is larger and more difficuh to calculate using the implicit integration, which has a strong practicality in product development.%为了进行汽车安全带固定点强度分析,运用有限元分析软件Hypermesh建立白车身、座椅、安全带、人体模块(臀块和肩块)有限元模型。采用LS-DYNA的显式求解模块,按照国家标准设置规定的载荷,分析结构通过标准的可能性。验证了运用有限元显式积分分析汽车安全带固定点强度的方法。该方法可推广到其他准静态强度分析中,用于分析那些比较大的、隐式积分计算比较困难的模型。

  5. A Method for Determining Sedimentary Micro-Facies Belts Automatically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linfu Xue; Qitai Mei; Quan Sun


    It is important to understand the distribution of sedimentary facies, especially the distribution of sand body that is the key for oil production and exploration. The secondary oil recovery requires analyzing a great deal of data accumulated within decades of oil field development. At many cases sedimentary micro-facies maps need to be reconstructed and redrawn frequently, which is time-consuming and heavy. This paper presents an integrated approach for determining the distribution of sedimentary micro-facies, tracing the micro-facies boundary, and drawing the map of sedimentary micro-facies belts automatically by computer technique. The approach is based on the division and correlation of strata of multiple wells as well as analysis of sedimentary facies. The approach includes transform, gridding, interpolation, superposing, searching boundary and drawing the map of sedimentary facies belts, and employs the spatial interpolation method and "worm" interpolation method to determine the distribution of sedimentary micro-facies including sand ribbon and/or sand blanket. The computer software developed on the basis of the above principle provides a tool for quick visualization and understanding the distribution of sedimentary micro-facies and reservoir. Satisfied results have been achieveed by applying the technique to the Putaohua Oil Field in Songliao Basin, China.

  6. Research on Dynamic Tension for Belt Conveyor with Constant Force Automatic Take-Up Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guo-ying; CHEN Jing-li; LI Yu-jin


    The article Provides a dynamic model for belt conveyor. Based on the drive-force of conveyor, take-up tension of take-up assembly, gravity of conveyor belt and material, and friction between belt and idlers, it gives a viscoelastic dynamic equation for conveyor belt. It presents a calculation method of analytic solution to both viscoelastic dynamic equation and geometric dynamic equation when automatic take-up assembly is applied to belt conveyor. The article also makes a study of design method of limiting and eliminating the conveyor belt's elastic vibration.

  7. The impact of seat-belts in limiting the severity of injuries in patients presenting to a university hospital in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa Joshua Ogundele


    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic injuries are major public health problems and a leading cause of death and injury around the world. Approximately 1.2 million people are killed each year in road crashes worldwide, with up to 50 million more injured. Over 95% of these deaths and injuries occur in the low- and middle-income countries of the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the use of seat-belts in reducing the severity of injuries from road traffic crashes and to determine the compliance and awareness of the importance of the use of seat-belts among Nigerian motorists. Patients and Methods: The injury patterns and outcome of care in 140 patients who were seen at the emergency department of our tertiary hospital were evaluated. Initial care and resuscitation was carried out on all patients using the advanced trauma life support protocol. Results: A total of 81 (57% patients used seat-belts, while 59 (42.1% did not. Nineteen (13.6% patients died as a result of their injuries; 4 (21.1% of these had used seat-belts, while 15 (79% had not ( P = 0.001. The mortality rate of 79% for patients who did not use seat-belt was statistically significant. Conclusions: The seat-belt is an effective safety tool that not only saves lives, but also significantly reduces the severity of the injury that a vehicle occupant may have sustained if they were not wearing the device. More public enlightenment is needed to increase the awareness and compliance of use of seat-belts among Nigerian motorists.

  8. Prevalence of seat belt and mobile phone use and road accident injuries amongst college students in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Ghorbanali


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To investigate the prevalence of mobile phone and seat belt use in driving in college stu- dents aged 18-24 years. Methods: The study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire was given to 265 college students. The sample contained 188 males and 77 females. In the second phase, the data pertaining to road accident injuries from March 20, 2007 to March 20, 2008 were collected from Bahonar Central Hospital in Kerman, Iran, and analyzed. Results: There were 14.0% of male and 19.0% of fe- male participants traveled belted while driving on urban roads. It indicated that the participants unbelted or using mobile phone were more involved in accidents in last three years. This study also revealed that 19.0% of male and 4.2% of female drivers considered using mobile phone in driving not hazardous. The highest injury and property damage crash rates were 87 and 137 per 100 000 inhabitants, which occured in male group aged 18-24 years. And 30% of all fatalities were 19-24 years old. Conclusions: More than 50% of college students trav- eled unbelted. The females were less involved in road acci- dent injuries. The college students aged 18-24 years had the highest percentages of trauma and head injury. Key words: Craniocerebral trauma; Accidents, traffic; Seat belts; Cellular phone

  9. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... centerline of the vehicle for forward and rear facing seats, and in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal... Figure 3, in a plane parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle for forward and rear facing seats, and in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle for side facing...

  10. An Experimental Approach Towards the Evaluation of a Seat Belt Campaign With an Inside View on the Psychology Behind Seat Belt Use



    A Belgian national safety belt campaign was evaluated by means of a questionnaire survey in a student sample. The evaluation was done through a three group after-only design with the use of one control group and two experimental groups. The first experimental group, the attentive group, was exposed to the campaign material in a very direct, attentive way, whereas the second experimental group, the pre-attentive group, was exposed rather inattentively. The framework of the Theory of Planned Be...

  11. Rear seat occupant safety: an investigation of a progressive force-limiting, pretensioning 3-point belt system using adult PMHS in frontal sled tests. (United States)

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Ridella, Stephen; Bostrom, Ola


    Rear seat adult occupant protection is receiving increased attention from the automotive safety community. Recent anthropomorphic test device (ATD) studies have suggested that it may be possible to improve kinematics and reduce injuries to rear seat occupants in frontal collisions by incorporating shoulder-belt force-limiting and pretensioning (FL+PT) technologies into rear seat 3-point belt restraints. This study seeks to further investigate the feasibility and potential kinematic benefits of a FL+PT rear seat, 3-point belt restraint system in a series of 48 kmh frontal impact sled tests (20 g, 80 ms sled acceleration pulse) performed with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Three PMHS were tested with a 3-point belt restraint with a progressive (two-stage) force limiting and pretensioing retractor in a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant environment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. Instrumentation included belt tension load cells, accelerometers on the head and at multiple locations on the spine, and chestbands to measure the chest deformation contours in the transverse plane. The kinematics of the subjects were quantified using off-board, high-speed video. The results of these tests were then compared to matched PMHS tests, published in 2008, performed in the same environment with a standard (not-force limited, not pretensioning) 3-point belt restraint. The FL+PT restraint system resulted in significant (pbelt tension (average +/- standard deviation: 4.4 +/- 0.13 kN with the FL+PT belt, 7.8 +/- 0. 6 kN with the standard belt) and 3 ms-resultant, mid-spine acceleration (FL+PT: 34 +/- 3.8 g; standard belt: 44 +/- 1.4 g). The FL+PT tests also produced more forward torso rotation caused by decreased forward excursion of the pelvis and increased payout out of the shoulder belt by the force-limiter. These results support the previous ATD studies that suggest that it may be possible to improve the kinematics of rear seat occupants in this type of collision using a

  12. Sustainability of the effects of the demerit points system on seat belt use: a region-wide before-and-after observational study in Italy. (United States)

    Zambon, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Milan, Giovanni; Brocco, Stefano; Marchesan, Maria; Cinquetti, Sandro; Spolaore, Paolo


    To assess the short and long term effects of the demerit points system on seat belt use, we set a region-wide cross-sectional observational study 3 months before, and 3 and 15 months after the introduction of the scheme (July 2003) in the Veneto Region, Italy. We analysed differences in seat belt use by year of observation, gender and position in the vehicle, and obtained adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) through Poisson regression. A total of 29,303 drivers, 28,778 front and 12,186 rear passengers were observed. Prevalence levels of 54% for drivers and 53% for front passengers in 2003 switched to 83 and 76%, respectively, 3 months after the new legislation, with further slight increases 15 months thereafter. Seventy-four percent rear passengers were still not compliant with the legislation in 2005. The probability of being belted was 25% lower in males than females (APR=0.75, 95% CI 0.73-0.77) at the beginning of the study period. However, the effect of the new legislation was 19% greater among males (APR=1.19, 95% CI 1.16-1.23). A substantial increase in seat belt use was reached and sustained with the demerit points system. Specific efforts should target rear passengers whose seat belt use still remains worryingly low.

  13. 飞机座椅安全带状态报警电路设计%Design of the Status Alarming Circuit for Airplane Seat Belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江兰; 包颖莹; 梁森


    飞机座椅安全带能够承受足够的载荷以抵抗巨大的冲击力,起到保护乘客的作用。但部分乘客容易疏忽在正常飞行中系好安全带,而现今飞机上并没有相应的安全带报警装置来约束每一位乘客主动扣紧安全带。使用传感器技术可以提高安全带的使用率。介绍了飞机座椅安全带状态报警电路的设计,并利用电流互感器作为安全带开路报警传感器,计算了电流互感器的参数。同时,利用RS-485总线实现上位机与从机单片机的通信和集中显示,组成报警系统,提高飞机乘客的安全性。%The seat belts on airplanes can withstand sufficient loads to resist huge impact for protecting passengers. Some of the passengers may often neglect to fasten seat belts in normal flights. However, at present, corresponding seat belt warning devices have not been equipped on the airplanes to constraint every passenger to actively fasten his or her seat belt. Using sensor technology can increase the usage rate of seat belts. The design of the status alarming circuit for airplane seat belts is introduced;the current transformer is adopted as the open loop alarm sensor for the seat belt, the parameters of the current transformer are calculated. Through RS-485 bus, the communication for host computer and slave single chip machines can be implemented to construct alarm system for centralized display; the security of passengers on the airplanes can be enhanced.

  14. The effects of video-based and activity-based instruction on high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to seat belt use (United States)

    Jones, Tudor Griffith, III

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of video-based science instruction and accompanying activity-based instruction on the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school students' use of seat belts. Secondarily, the purpose was to determine order effects and interactions between the two treatments used in the study: video-based instruction and hands-on activity-based instruction. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to investigate the factors influencing high school students' behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. This study used a pretest-posttest-posttest treatment design. Data were collected on 194 students in high school introductory biology and chemistry classes in Gainesville, Florida. Ten intact high school science classes (eight treatment and two control) took pretests and posttests measuring physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to and after participating in the two treatments. The treatment group students participated in at least 500 minutes of instructional time divided among five lessons over 10 instructional days. All participants were pretested on physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to two treatments. Treatment A was defined as participating in one 50-minute video-based instructional lesson. Treatment B was defined as participating in four hands-on science activities regarding crash-related physics concepts. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < .004) revealed that students who participated in either treatment showed significant differences in knowledge gains on 75% of the test items. The sequence of treatments did not produce significant differences in groups' posttest 2 knowledge mean scores. Combining the treatments resulted in higher mean knowledge scores than either

  15. 基于深度学习的安全带检测系统%Seat Belt Detection System Based on Deep Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Seat belt detection in intelligent transportation systems is an important research area. A seat belt detection algorithm for complex road backgrounds based on deep learning is proposed. It first extracts features from labeled vehicle, windshield, and seat belt regions, and those features are used to train the detection models by deep learning. Then, it detects the locations of the vehicle, windshield, and seat belt regions, and uses the relative positions among these vehicle components and their detection scores to train a support vector machine classification model. Finally, it performs a fine mapping and identification process using this classification model on the seat belt region. This method performs well when applied to a database of images collected by road surveillance cameras.%安全带检测是智能交通系统中的一个重要研究课题。本文提出了一种在复杂道路环境下,基于深度学习的安全带检测算法。首先从带标签的车辆区域、车窗区域以及安全带区域提取特征,通过深度学习算法训练检测器;然后,检测车辆、车窗及安全带3个部件的位置,根据各部件的相对位置关系以及检测得分训练一个支持向量机(SVM)分类模型,最后通过该分类模型对安全带区域进行精细定位与识别。该方法在道路监控摄像头采集的数据库上表现良好。

  16. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50(th) percentile male ATD. (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo


    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag ("airbelt") into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (pbelt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system also significantly reduced the flexion moment in the lower neck (airbelt: 169±3.3 Nm; standard belt: 655±26 Nm; FL+PT belt: 308±19 Nm). Similar

  17. Prevalence of seat belt and mobile phone use and road accident injuries amongst college students in Kerman,Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi


    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of mobile phone and seat belt use in driving in college students aged 18-24 years.Methods: The study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire was given to 265 college students. The sample contained 188 males and 77 females.In the second phase, the data pertaining to road accident injuries from March 20, 2007 to March 20, 2008 were collected from Bahonar Central Hospital in Kerman, Iran, and analyzed.Results: There were 14.0% of male and 19.0% of female participants traveled belted while driving on urban roads. It indicated that the participants unbelted or using mobile phone were more involved in accidents in last three years. This study also revealed that 19.0% of male and 4.2%of female drivers considered using mobile phone in driving not hazardous. The highest injury and property damage crash rates were 87 and 137 per 100 000 inhabitants, which occured in male group aged 18-24 years. And 30% of all fatalities were 19-24 years old.Conclusions: More than 50% of college students traveled unbelted. The females were less involved in road accident injuries. The college students aged 18-24 years had the highest percentages of trauma and head injury.

  18. Biomechanics of side impact injuries: evaluation of seat belt restraint system, occupant kinematics and injury potential. (United States)

    Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred; Frieder, Russell; Friedman, Keith; Renfroe, David


    Side impact crashes are the second most severe motor vehicle accidents resulting in serious and fatal injuries. One of the occupant restraint systems in the vehicle is the three point lap/shoulder harness. However, the lap/shoulder restraint is not effective in a far-side crash (impact is opposite to the occupant location) since the occupant may slip out of the shoulder harness. The present comprehensive study was designed to delineate the biomechanics of far-side planar crashes. The first part of the study involves a car-to-car crash to study the crash dynamics and occupant kinematics; the second part involves an epidemiological analysis of NASS/CDS 1988-2003 database to study the distribution of serious injury; the third part includes the mathematical MADYMO analysis to study the occupant kinematics in detail; and the fourth part includes an in-depth analysis of a real world far-side accident to delineate the injury mechanism and occupant kinematics. Results indicate that the shoulder harness is ineffective in far-side crashes. The upper torso of the belted driver dummy slips out of the shoulder harness and interacted with the opposite vehicle interior such as the door panel. The unbelted occupants had a similar head injury severity pattern compared to belted occupants. The present study is another step to advance towards better understanding of the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of side impact injuries.

  19. An academic, business, and community alliance to promote evidence-based public health policy: the case of primary seat belt legislation. (United States)

    Goldzweig, Irwin A; Schlundt, David G; Moore, Wayne E; Smith, Patricia E; Zoorob, Roger J; Levine, Robert S


    An academic, business, and community alliance comprising 285 organizations, including 43 national groups represented on a Blue Ribbon Panel organized by the U.S. Secretary of Transportation, targeted Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Wisconsin for high involvement/intervention consisting of community organization and other political action to support passage of primary seat belt laws. State-level alliance activities began in January 2003. All six states enacted a primary seat belt law between 2004 and 2009. From January 2003 to May 2010, passage of primary legislation was 4.5 times as likely (95% CI 1.90, 10.68) in states with high versus low alliance involvement. Positive interaction between high alliance involvement and offers of federal incentives may have occurred as well. This evidence of success suggests that academic-business-community alliances for action to promote evidence-based public health policy may be effective.

  20. The complexity of seat belt injuries including spinal injury in the pediatric population: a case report of a 6-year-old boy and the literature review. (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Athanasios; Stanton, Jeremy; Sinha, Prateek; Forder, Justin; Skyrme, Andrew


    We present, along with a literature review, the case report of a 6-year-old boy, involved in a high-speed motor vehicle accident, who sustained a seat belt injury of the lumbar spine. We discuss the clinical presentation of thoracolumbar fractures in children, the sensitivity of clinical examination and radiographic evaluation and the associated abdominal injuries that are commonly present with seat belt spinal injuries. Computerized tomography is limited in the detection of soft tissue spinal fractures because these fractures occur in the plain of the section. Plain lateral x-rays of the lumbar spine and computerized tomographic three-dimensional reconstruction images can be helpful but they cannot evaluate the extent of the soft tissue injury. The magnetic resonance imaging scan is the best diagnostic tool to provide the diagnosis.

  1. Bilateral iliac vein thrombosis after seat belt-related trauma revealing hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava--a case report. (United States)

    Granel, Brigitte; Serratrice, Jacques; Bartoli, Jean Michel; Disdier, Patrick; Piquet, Philippe; Weiller, Pierre-Jean


    Hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava can be revealed by a deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. Associated precipitating factors or clotting defects leading to thrombosis are frequently observed. A case of bilateral iliac veins thrombosis occurring after a motor vehicle accident with seat belt injury is reported, revealing hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava. This young man was totally asymptomatic up to the crash, and did not have coagulation abnormalities. The patient had a very good outcome after anticoagulant treatment with complete regression of venous thromboses. Hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava was a predisposing anatomic abnormality that led to thrombosis, but seat belt trauma was probably the precipitating factor. This observation should be kept in mind in the evaluation of a deep venous lower limb thrombosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bianchi


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to explore selfreported seat belt use and group differences in different scenarios in a Brazilian sample and research the variables related to it. 120 college students answered a questionnaire with variables from the theory of planned behavior in order to evaluate the intention of seat belt use among car occupants. Results indicated that attitude and intention were the variables that most contributed to explaining seat belt use. Intention was highly correlated with seat belt use, and attitude was correlated with intention. Seat belt use was more frequent among drivers and taxi passengers, but not among front and rear seat passengers. The article discusses the implications of the findings for possible interventions to encourage the use of seat belts among drivers and passengers.

  3. Electroporation-based treatment planning for deep-seated tumors based on automatic liver segmentation of MRI images. (United States)

    Pavliha, Denis; Mušič, Maja M; Serša, Gregor; Miklavčič, Damijan


    Electroporation is the phenomenon that occurs when a cell is exposed to a high electric field, which causes transient cell membrane permeabilization. A paramount electroporation-based application is electrochemotherapy, which is performed by delivering high-voltage electric pulses that enable the chemotherapeutic drug to more effectively destroy the tumor cells. Electrochemotherapy can be used for treating deep-seated metastases (e.g. in the liver, bone, brain, soft tissue) using variable-geometry long-needle electrodes. To treat deep-seated tumors, patient-specific treatment planning of the electroporation-based treatment is required. Treatment planning is based on generating a 3D model of the organ and target tissue subject to electroporation (i.e. tumor nodules). The generation of the 3D model is done by segmentation algorithms. We implemented and evaluated three automatic liver segmentation algorithms: region growing, adaptive threshold, and active contours (snakes). The algorithms were optimized using a seven-case dataset manually segmented by the radiologist as a training set, and finally validated using an additional four-case dataset that was previously not included in the optimization dataset. The presented results demonstrate that patient's medical images that were not included in the training set can be successfully segmented using our three algorithms. Besides electroporation-based treatments, these algorithms can be used in applications where automatic liver segmentation is required.

  4. Electroporation-based treatment planning for deep-seated tumors based on automatic liver segmentation of MRI images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Pavliha

    Full Text Available Electroporation is the phenomenon that occurs when a cell is exposed to a high electric field, which causes transient cell membrane permeabilization. A paramount electroporation-based application is electrochemotherapy, which is performed by delivering high-voltage electric pulses that enable the chemotherapeutic drug to more effectively destroy the tumor cells. Electrochemotherapy can be used for treating deep-seated metastases (e.g. in the liver, bone, brain, soft tissue using variable-geometry long-needle electrodes. To treat deep-seated tumors, patient-specific treatment planning of the electroporation-based treatment is required. Treatment planning is based on generating a 3D model of the organ and target tissue subject to electroporation (i.e. tumor nodules. The generation of the 3D model is done by segmentation algorithms. We implemented and evaluated three automatic liver segmentation algorithms: region growing, adaptive threshold, and active contours (snakes. The algorithms were optimized using a seven-case dataset manually segmented by the radiologist as a training set, and finally validated using an additional four-case dataset that was previously not included in the optimization dataset. The presented results demonstrate that patient's medical images that were not included in the training set can be successfully segmented using our three algorithms. Besides electroporation-based treatments, these algorithms can be used in applications where automatic liver segmentation is required.

  5. Study on the situation of seat belt wearing among drivers and front-seat passengers of vehicles in Yixing in 2010%宜兴市2010年机动车驾乘人员安全带佩戴现况及态度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱骏; 杨亚明; 杨婕; 沈冲; 包青松


    OBJECTIVE To explore the situation of seat belt wearing and related attitude among drivers and front passengers in Yixing city in 2010. METHODS Four sites were selected to investigation the situation of seat belt wearing among drivers and front passengers on four types of vehicles including taxi, cars, minibus and pickups during different time blocks in Yixing. Questionnaire is used to explore the attitudes toward seat belt wearing. RESULTS 12 473 vehicles, their drivers and 4 182 passengers in front seat were observed. The prevalence rates of seat belt wearing in drivers and passengers and not wearing among drivers were 19.9% and 3.5%, respectively. The drivers who did not wearing seat belt would increase the risk of not wearing seat belt among front seat passengers (Oft = 8.3, P < 0.001). A total number of 1073 drivers and passengers were surveyed. The prevalence rates of seat belt wearing situations which included always wearing, sometimes wearing, not wearing were 51.7% , 25.4% and 22.9%. The most important reason for not wearing seat belt were 'feeling not flexible' and 'feeling uncomfortable'. The most effective measures to increase seat belt wearing were ' serious fines to not wearing' and ' crash reports describing lives were saved by seat belts fastening'. CONCLUSION The awareness of wearing seat belt among drivers and front seat passengers had a certain level of consciousness; However, the actual seat belt wearing rate was still relatively low, more effective measures should be carried out to improve the situation.%目的 了解宜兴市驾乘人员安全带佩戴现况及态度.方法 在市区内选取4个观察点,在不同的时间段对出租车、小轿车、面包车和“皮卡”4种车型的司机和前排乘车人安全带的佩戴情况进行观察.同一时期对驾驶人员进行有关安全带佩戴态度问卷调查.结果 共观察12 473辆车辆和司机以及4 182名前排乘车人.其中司机安全带佩戴率为19.9%;

  6. Design and Clinical Application of Additional Type Wheelchair Seat Belts%附加式轮椅安全带的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芳; 张洪霞


    Objective To design a homemade additional type wheelchair seat belt and to investigate its ifxation effect.Methods The seat belt was made by using the cotton fabric with good water absorption and quality. Then, 300 patients who used a wheelchair for 15~20 min in a single time were divided into two groups: Control Group (140 cases) and Experiment Group (160 cases). Patients in Control Group were ifxed with conventional wheelchair seat belts; while, the additional type one was used for Experiment Group so as to observe the fixation effect and comfort degree for patients.Results The incidence of physical movement in Experiment Group during the use of wheelchairs was signiifcantly lower; while the physical comfort was signiifcantly improved compared with Control Group (P<0.05). Conclusion The homemade additional type wheelchair seat belts could attain excellent effect on physical ifxation, improve the physical comfort of wheelchair users, and enhance the safety of wheelchair activities.%目的:设计附加式轮椅安全带并探讨其固定效果。方法采用吸水性能佳、材质结实柔软的棉布制作附加式轮椅安全带,将单一时间内使用轮椅15~20 min的300例患者分为对照组(140例)和观察组(160例),对照组采用常规轮椅安全带进行固定,观察组采用附加式轮椅安全带进行固定,观察两组的固定效果及患者舒适度。结果观察组患者使用轮椅时的身体移动发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。身体舒适度明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论附加式轮椅安全带能够起到良好的身体固定效果,能改善轮椅使用者的舒适度,提高轮椅活动的安全性。

  7. Automatic detection of the belt-like region in an image with variational PDE model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoutao Li; Xiaomao Li; Yandong Tang


    In this paper, we propose a novel method to automatically detect the belt-like object, such as highway,river, etc., in a given image based on Mumford-Shah function and the evolution of two phase curves. The method can automatically detect two curves that are the boundaries of the belt-like object. In fact, this is a partition problem and we model it as an energy minimization of a Mumford-Shah function based minimal partition problem like active contour model. With Eulerian formulation the partial differential equations (PDEs) of curve evolution are given and the two curves will stop on the desired boundary. The stop term does not depend on the gradient of the image and the initial curves can be anywhere in the image. We also give a numerical algorithm using finite differences and present various experimental results. Compared with other methods, our method can directly detect the boundaries of belt-like object as two continuous curves, even if the image is very noisy.

  8. 提高车辆安全带锚固点强度的方法研究%Study on improving the strength of the seat-belts anchorages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    按照国家标准要求,对某型汽车座椅安全带进行强度试验,发现后排座椅安全带锚点处的后地板破裂.针对该问题,在ANSYS软件中建立了座椅安全带的有限元模型,通过有限元分析结果与试验结果的对比,证明有限元模型的可靠性.利用非线性有限元法对安全带锚固点的强度进行了研究,提出了一些可以提高安全带锚固点强度的方法.%According to the national standards requiements , the strength test was done to the seat-belts of a certain type of cars. The results show that the strength of rear seat-belt anchorages cound not meet the national standards. According to the national standards, a finite element model of the seat-belts was built using ANSYS software. The results of the finite element simulation analysis were compared with the experimental results, which proved the reliability of finite element model. The strength of belts anchorages was studied using nonlinear finite element method, and some methods were put forward in order to improve the strength of seat-belt anchorages.

  9. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 9: Good practice in the selected key areas : speeding, drink driving and seat belt wearing : results from meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erke, A. Goldenbeld, C. & Vaa, T.


    The main objective of task 4.2 in the EU-project PEPPER on traffic law enforcement measures has been to give a systematic review of evaluation studies on speed, drink driving and seat-belt enforcement by applying meta-analyses to assess the best estimates of the effects of enforcement measures on ac

  10. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 9: Good practice in the selected key areas : speeding, drink driving and seat belt wearing : results from meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erke, A. Goldenbeld, C. & Vaa, T.


    The main objective of task 4.2 in the EU-project PEPPER on traffic law enforcement measures has been to give a systematic review of evaluation studies on speed, drink driving and seat-belt enforcement by applying meta-analyses to assess the best estimates of the effects of enforcement measures on ac

  11. 基于灰度积分投影的安全带佩戴识别方法%A Method of Recognizing Seat-belt Wear Based on Gray Scale Integral Projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛如海; 胡满江; 符凯


    为进一步提高安全带佩戴率,针对目前安全带佩戴提示系统存在的不足,提出了一种基于灰度积分投影的安全带佩带识别方法.该方法在对采集到的乘员图像进行预处理得到灰度分配较为均匀图像的基础上,采用全局阚值分割法对图像进行阈值分割得到二值化图,再对二值化图像分别进行垂直和水平灰度积分投影,结合安全带几何特征的先验知识,得到安全带特征点的位置坐标,从而达到安全带佩戴识别的目的.实验结果表明,该方法能有效识别乘员安全带佩戴状况,具有较高的适用性和准确性.%To further increase the seat belt wearing rate, and in view of the inadequacy of existing prompt system for seat belt wear, a new recognition method of seat belt wear is proposed based on gray scale integral projection. With the method, by preprocessing the collected occupant pictures, an image with a relatively uniform gray scale distribution is obtained, which is converted into binary images by global threshold segmentation. Then both vertical and horizontal gray scale integral projections are conducted on binary images, combined with a priori knowledge on the geometric features of seat-belt, to get the position coordinates of the feature points of seat-belt. Finally, the recognition on seat belt wear is realized. The results of tests show that the method proposed can effectively recognize the seat-belt wear state of occupants with relatively high applicability and accuracy.

  12. Evaluation of the effectiveness of single-session school-based programmes to increase children's seat belt and pedestrian safety knowledge and self-reported behaviours. (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Kiriakou, Sophie


    Young children experience many injuries as pedestrians and as passengers in vehicles. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two single-session school programmes, one to increase pedestrian safety knowledge and behaviour among Grade 1 children and the other to increase seat belt safety knowledge and usage among Grade 2 children. In the intervention groups, assessments were conducted on three occasions: before; soon after; and 2 months after the programmes; control groups did not receive the programme. The results revealed positive effects of these single-session safety programmes, as indicated by significant improvement and long-term retention of safety knowledge for both Grade 1 and Grade 2 children and self-reported increases in safety behaviours. Implications for future research and injury-prevention programming are discussed.

  13. Traffic safety behaviour among young people in different residential settings: the use of seat belts, bicycle helmets, and reflectors by young people in Sweden. (United States)

    Wall, Erika


    This study examines if, and how, the size of the community in which people live may contribute to explaining differences in traffic safety behaviour (self-reported behaviour regarding the use of seat belts, bicycle helmets and reflectors) among young people in Sweden. The study is based on a Swedish nationwide traffic safety survey with a net sample of 2854 respondents aged 16-25. Ordered logit regressions were performed, and place of residence is shown to have an impact on traffic safety behaviour. The results are presented and discussed in relation to risk exposure and traffic safety facilities in different settings. The implications of the study are considered, and the importance of investigating the way in which young people see traffic safety behaviour is emphasised.

  14. Intelligent Seat Belt Pretension System for Active Safety%面向主动安全的智能预紧式安全带系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关志伟; 杨玲; 乔富强; 郑明锋


    Based on the analysis of the control process of intelligent occupant restraint system, it brings out the control strategy and design scheme of intelligent seat belt pretension system, designs the test method of occupant restraint system, develops the .software and hardware of intelligent occupant restraint system. It uses high-performance embedded hardware platform of 32Bit ARM for hardware system, applies the hardware core of PHILIPS LPC2290 chip based on ARM7TDMI - S to ECU,builds the system software with Nucleus PLUS system. The experimental prototype can do experiment about the match of intelligent seat belt pretension system and occupant restraint.%在分析了智能乘员约束系统的控制过程的基础上,提出了智能预紧式安全带的控制策略及设计方案,构建了乘员约束系统测试实验台方案,进行了智能预紧式安全带控制系统的软硬件设计.系统硬件平台采用高性能32位ARM嵌入式硬件平台,系统采用集成ARM7TDMI -S内核的PHILIPS的LPC2290作为系统中的电控单元(ECU),系统软件运用Nucleus PLUS嵌入式操作系统进行开发.在此基础上开发了实验样机,可以进行智能预紧式安全带与乘员约束系统匹配的相关实验.

  15. Shape Optimization Design of the Automobile Seat Belt Bracket%汽车安全带固定支架的形貌优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志彬; 汪攀; 赵锴


    The finite element model of an automobile seat belt bracket was built by the HyperWorks software. The bracket of original design was carried out CAE analysis. The results show that the largest stress of the bracket of original design is 347MPa, which exceed 340MPa ,the yield strength of the material. So it need optimization. Using shape optimization technology determined the best distribution of reinforcement and optimize the design. The results showed that the maximum deformation of optimized automobile safety belts bracket was reduced by 36.7%, stress decreased by 17.6%, total strain energy decreased by 32.9%. The mechanical properties of car safety belts bracket was improved, which achieve the optimal effect.%利用hyperworks软件建立了某汽车安全带固定支架的有限元模型,对原设计支架进行了CAE分析,结果表明原设计的支架最大应力为347MPa,超过材料屈服强度340Mpa,需优化设计。用形貌优化技术确定了加强筋的最佳分布方案,进行了优化设计。结果表明,优化后的汽车安全带固定支架最大变形量减少36.7%,最大应力降低17.6%,总体应变能减小32.9%。改善了汽车安全带固定支架的力学性能,达到了优化效果。

  16. Optimal design of a seat belt restraint system based on approximate model management%基于近似模型管理的汽车安全带约束系统优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 吴钢; 尹来荣


    In order to improve the protection capability of seat belt restraint systems,a numerical model of seat belt restraint systems was calibrated by vehicle crash experiments and an approximation model was constructed according to the radial basis function.The IP-GA genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the key parameters of the seat belt restraint system dynamic characteristics.To reduce the error from the approximate model,the management framework was used to update the approximate model and control the error in the optimization process.The optimal solutions with errors in given range can be treated as solutions to the problem.It was demonstrated that the proposed method could effectively find the optimal parameters of seat belt restraint systems and ensure their safety.%为提高汽车安全带约束系统的安全防护能力,通过实车碰撞实验对安全带约束系统数值模型进行校正;基于径向基函数建立安全带约束系统的近似模型,运用 IP -GA 遗传算法对安全带约束系统的动态特性参数进行优化。优化中为控制由近似模型所致误差,通过模型管理更新近似模型,并将误差达到允许范围内优化解作为实际问题的解。结果表明,该方法能快速有效获得安全带约束系统的最佳匹配参数,确保汽车乘员的安全性。

  17. Development of deep-seated joint sets in the different stages of mountain building: a preliminary study in the northern fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan (United States)

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Angelier, Jacques; Begerat, Françoise


    Systematic joint sets are one of the most common and persistent features within a brittle deformation regime, usually found in intact rocks, such as massive sandstone. However, joint occurrence can take place under different circumstances from very shallow to rather deep crust, which raise challenges for understanding the mechanisms of its development and thus provokes debates in past decades. In this study, we characterize the deformation structures, including micro fault and joint, by comparing their geometric relation with stratigraphic bedding plane. We intend not only to differentiate the relative chronology of different structures but also to determine the chronological orders and stages during thrust stacking processes in which rocks buried to certain depths and then exhumed from depths to surface. We take the northern fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan as our case study area. The study area is composed of Pleistocene to Oligocene, terrestrial to shallow marine sedimentary deposits, which was exhumed accompanied with a series of imbricate thrusts during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny of arc-continent collision between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. We study four cross sections from little deformed rock formations in the foreland to intense folded and even slightly metamorphosed terrains in the slate belt, in order to characterize and distinguish different brittle structures at different depths. Particular attention is paid to the development of the joint sets at different depths and their relationship with the bedding plane and other associated deformation features where joints happen to occur. We found that 1) the most predominant joint sets are deep-seated and tectonics related, in comparison with shallow released joints, although their relation with tectonic stress orientation remains inconclusive; 2) the onset depths of development of joint sets can be as shallow as 3-4 km and as deep as 10-15 km. As to whether the development occurs during burial or

  18. Study on the situation of seat belt wearing among drivers and front-seat passengers of vehicles in Nanjing in 2005 - 2007%南京市2005-2007年机动车驾乘人员安全带佩戴情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃玉; Virginia Routley; JoanOzanne-Smith; 武鸣; 杨婕; 周金意; 向全永; 陶然; 韩仁强; 潘晓群; 林萍


    目的 调查道路安全法或条例出台3年后南京市机动车驾乘人员安全佩戴情况.方法 在市区内选取4个观察点,在不同时间段对出租车、小轿车(8座以内)、厢式小货车和"皮卡"4种车型的司机和前排乘车人安全带的佩戴情况进行观察.结果 2005-2007年共观察35 256辆车辆和司机,以及15 772名前排乘车人.其中司机安全带佩戴率为49.9%,不佩戴率和假戴率分别为44.1%和4.6%;乘车人安全带佩戴率为9.1%,不佩戴率90.9%.在调整了性别、车型等因素后,3年来无论是司机还是前排乘车人安全带佩戴率均呈现下降趋势(P<0.01),司机不佩戴安全带会增加前排乘车人不佩戴的风险(OR=8.10,P<0.01).结论 现有法律或条例在司机和乘牟人佩戴安全带方面并无具体的规定,妨碍了法律或条例的有效执行.%Objective To find out the situation of seat belt wearing among drivers and passengers in Nanjing after the National Road Traffic Safety Law and its Ordinance had been issued for 3 years, in Jiangsu province. Methods Situation on seat belt wearing among drivers and front passengers on four types of vehicles including taxi, cars (below 8 seats), vans and pickups was studied during different time blocks at 4 sites in the city. Results A total number of 35 256 vehicles, their drivers and another 15 772 passengers sitting in the front, were observed. The prevalence rates of seat belt wearing, not wearing and pretend wearing among drivers were 49.9%, 44.1%, and 4.6% respectively while among front-seat passengers were 9.1% and 90.9% respectively. There were significantly declining trends in seat belt wearing among both drivers and front-seat passengers during the 3-years of observation, after adjustment by sex, types of vehicles and other factors (P<0.01). Risk of not wearing among front seat passengers was higher for those 'not-wearing' drivers (OR=8.10, P<0.01). Conclusion Neither the current law nor ordinance in Jiangsu

  19. Seat Belt Detection Based on Maximum Local Variation%基于最大局部变化的安全带检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    While the effect of traditional edge detection algorithms is largely dependent on the selection of threshold value, and a new edge detection method based on maximum local variation and 2D OTSU was proposed. The method calculated the difference of the gray values of the all pixels and the center pixel in a local area in an image and used the biggest difference values in different local areas to describe the edge distribution information of the image. To do this, an edge distribution information image could be obtained, and then the method used the 2D OTSU method to segment the edge distribution information image and gained the edge binary image. Based on the edge binary image and some prior information of the vehicle, an algorithm for car window area and driver area localiza-tion was proposed. In the end, a seat belt detection method was proposed by detecting whether there is a line meeting the seatbelt prior characteristics in the driver area. The experimental results show that the method can accurately locate the car window edges and the pi-lot area, and can be applied to detect the seat belts, and then has a certain practical value.%传统的边缘检测算法的效果很大程度上取决于阈值的选取,针对这个问题,提出了基于局部最大变化和二维OTSU的边缘检测方法,该方法利用图像局部区域的所有像素灰度值与中心像素灰度值的最大差值来描述图像边缘分布信息,从而得到图像边缘分布信息图,然后利用二维OTSU方法对该边缘分布信息图进行二值化处理得到边缘二值图。利用该边缘二值图,结合车辆的一些先验信息,提出车窗定位算法,并进一步确定驾驶员区域,最后通过在驾驶员区域内检测是否存在满足安全带先验特征的直线来判断驾驶员是否佩戴安全带。实验结果表明,该方法能够准确定位车窗边缘和驾驶员区域,可以应用于安全带的检测,具有一定的实用价值。

  20. Research on Intelligent Seat Belt-pretensioner Control Model and Experiment%智能预警式汽车安全带控制模式及实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫光辉; 戴明; 王少华


    分析了普通预警式安全带的机械结构组成和预警工作过程,针对其自身存在的不足,提出了智能预警式安全带控制系统,构建了距离预警子系统、车辆横向稳定预警子系统、车辆纵向稳定预警子系统以及碰撞预警子系统,同时确定了系统控制参数。结合智能预警安全带控制软件,设定了与前车相对时间距离、车辆横摆角速度、方向盘转角、车辆减速度4种车辆不稳定输入信号进行实验,结果表明:智能预警式安全带收紧量有效控制在0~10 cm范围内,预警力控制在0~20 N范围内,最大反应时间为19 ms,起到了预警与收紧作用,能有效地对驾乘人员提供防护。%The mechanical structure composition of general seat belt-pretensioner and its pretension process were analyzed.In connection with its own shortcomings,the control system of intelligent seat belt-pretensioner was proposed.Early warning subsystems of distance,vehicle crosswind stability,vehicle longitudinal stability and crash were built,and the system control parameters were also set.With the control software of intelligent seat belt-pretensioner,four input signals of vehicle instability were set for experiment,including relative time distance from ahead-vehicle,vehicle yaw rate,steering wheel angle and vehicle deceleration.The test results show that intelligent seat belt′s pretention length can be controlled within 0~10 cm;pretention force can be controlled within 0~20 N,and the maximum reaction time is 19 ms.The intelligent seat belt-pretensioner plays an important role in early warning and tightening,in order to effectively protect the drivers and passengers.

  1. Seating position, seat belt wearing, and the consequences in facial fractures in car occupants Posição no veículo, uso de cinto de segurança e suas conseqüências nas fraturas de face em ocupantes de carros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Siqueira Franco Fonseca


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Trauma caused by traffic accidents is among the main etiologies involved in the occurrence of facial fractures throughout the world. However, the trauma mechanisms involved are different according to the location where the study was performed, due to different conditions of development, legislation, and culture. A retrospective study was done between February 2001 and July 2006, with the purpose of determining the epidemiology and the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of facial fractures among car occupants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. METHODS: Data were collected from 297 patients admitted with facial fractures to the emergency room of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. Within this period, 151 individuals had been involved in traffic accidents, among which 56 (37.08% were inside passenger cars. These were grouped based on the seating position that they were occupying at the time of the accident and the wearing of seat belts. Data concerning the number and location of fracture lines were obtained from the different groups, and a fracture/patient index (F/P I was calculated to compare and make reference to the impact energy among these groups, for subsequent analysis and discussion. RESULTS: 323 fracture lines occurred among 56 patients who were car occupants. By applying the F/P I, we obtained higher values in the group of rear-seat passengers who were not wearing seat belts (7.23 fractures per patient, followed by the group of drivers not wearing seat belts (6.33 fractures per patient, the group of front-seat passengers not wearing seat belts (5.58 fractures per patient, the group of drivers wearing seat belts (5.54 fractures per patient and, finally, the group of front-seat passengers wearing seat belts (4.00 fractures per patient. None of the rear-seat passengers was wearing seat belts. CONCLUSION: The data collected indicate that the driver position shows a high incidence of facial

  2. Retractor-Based Stroking Seat System and Energy-Absorbing Floor to Mitigate High Shock and Vertical Acceleration (United States)


    III 50th Male Dummy Parts Catalogue, Rev. 4, July 2013 [8] Seat Belt Retractor Performance Evaluation in Rollover Crashes. Klima, M., Toomey, D., and...Weber, M., " Seat Belt Retractor Performance Evaluation in Rollover Crashes," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1702, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-1702 [9...restrained with a standard automotive seat belt system. A retractor-based seat belt system is attached to the seat structure with varying load

  3. Development of High-precision Torque Test System of Coil Spring on Car Seat Belt%高精度汽车安全带卷簧扭矩测试系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹利钢; 冯浩; 汪用瑜; 于盛睿


    为方便、准确地测试汽车安全带卷簧的扭矩性能,以高性能数据采集卡 PCI-8602 为核心开发了系统硬件;以 VC6.0 为开发环境,采用 MFC 多文档-视图结构和多线程技术设计了人机交互、数据采集与控制等软件功能模块;对软件功能和系统精度进行了实测.结果表明,测试精度达到 0.001 N·m;测试系统满足汽车安全带卷簧扭矩测试的要求.%To test torque performance of coil spring on car seat belt correctly and conveniently, system hardware is developed based on.high performance data acquisition card of PCI-8602.Software function modules which include interactive module, data acquisition and control module etc., are developed with technique of document-view architecture based on MFC and multithreading technique in VC6.0 development environments.At last, software function and system precision are tested.The test results show that precision of torque test system is up to 0.001 N · m.The developed software satisfy test requirement of coil spring of car seat belt.

  4. FE simulation of the occupant crash protection performance of the negative Poisson's ratio seat belt webbing%负泊松比安全带织带乘员碰撞保护性能的FE仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓昌; 安文姿; 杨姝


    为减轻汽车碰撞事故中安全带可能造成的乘员伤害,提出了具有负泊松比(NPR)特性的安全带织带的概念。建立了包含人体胸部简化模型的织带性能仿真有限元模型。对比了NPR织带与传统织带的乘员保护效能;研究了泊松比、摩擦因数对NPR织带保护效能的影响;Madymo假人碰撞仿真,验证了NPR织带的有效性。结果表明:与传统织带相比,NPR织带能有效减小乘员胸部压缩变形量;泊松比越小,保护效能越佳;而胸部与织带间的摩擦不利于NPR织带保护效能的发挥。%A concept of seat belt webbing with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) characteristic was proposed for mitigating the harm to occupants by the seat belt in car-crash accidents. A ifnite element (FE) model with a simpliifed human chest model was established and used for webbing performance simulation. The occupant protection performances of NPR webbing were compared with that of the traditional webbing. The effects of Poisson’s ratio and friction coefifcient on the NPR webbing’s performance were investigated. The effectiveness of the NPR webbing was veriifed by MADYMO dummy crash simulation. The results indicate that compared with the traditional seat belt webbing, the NPR webbing can effectively reduce the occupant chest delfection;the smal er the Poisson’s ratio, the better the protection performance;friction between the occupant chest and the NPR webbing is not conducive to the effectiveness of the NPR webbing.

  5. Seat Interfaces for Aircrew Performance and Safety (United States)


    manikin lumbar and cervical spine loads/forces and moments, head, chest and pelvis accelerations, shoulder straps and lap belt loads, seat pan and...consisted of manikin lumbar and cervical spine loads/forces and moments, head, chest and pelvis accelerations, shoulder straps and lap belt loads, Figure 5. The manikin coordinate system used was an inverted SAE J211 system. The torques were reversed from SAE J211. Flexion was measured

  6. Beslissingsprocessen van verkeersdeelnemers : covernota bij de rapporten van W.H. Janssen: "Risk compensation and the effect of an incentive : a laboratory study" (IFZ 1988 C-26), "An experimental evaluation of safety incentive schemes" (IZF 1989 C-19), en "Seat belt wearing and driving behaviour : an empirical investigation" (IZF 1991 C-15).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.


    This cover note comments on the following three TNO Institute for Perception (IZF) Reports: (1) "Risk compensation and the effect of an incentive: a laboratory study"; (2) "An experimental evaluation of safety incentive schemes"; and (3) "Seat belt wearing and driving behaviour: an empirical investi

  7. Impact of weathering on the geomechanical properties of rocks along thermal metamorphic contact belts and morpho-evolutionary processes: The deep-seated gravitational slope deformations of Mt. Granieri Salincriti (Calabria Italy) (United States)

    Pellegrino, A.; Prestininzi, A.


    Numerous Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSDs) occur throughout Italy, that originate from particular tectono-stratigraphic settings, relief, seismicity, deglaciation, as well as from intense and deep processes of chemico-physical weathering of crystalline-metamorphic rocks. These DSGSDs are particularly widespread in the Calabrian mountains. This study is focused on the Mt. Granieri-Salincriti slope, on the Ionian side of the Serre Massif, where granites and granodiorites (Stilo Unit, Palaeozoic) are in contact with metamorphites through a thermal-metamorphic aureole. This setting generates deep geochemical processes, inducing intense chemical weathering. These processes are mainly due to the interaction between groundwater and the sulphides that are contained in the local pegmatitic-hydrothermal intrusions, especially along the thermal-metamorphic contact belt. The Mt. Granieri-Salincriti slope has an important DSGSD, which is associated with many active and/or quiescent landslides. Among these landslides, the Salincriti rock avalanche-debris flow (about 2 M m 3) represents the paroxysmal and terminal stage of the deep creep deformations of Mt. Granieri, typifying a geological setting that is common in the Calabrian Arc. This multi-disciplinary study assessed the weathering susceptibility of the local crystalline-metamorphic rocks, especially those lying along thermal-metamorphic contact belts, by characterising the weathering horizons and the spatial distribution of weathering in the rock mass. The study was also aimed at identifying the relations between weathering, above all deep geochemical processes, effects on rocks and slope morphodynamics. The methodology was based on detailed geological data, geological-engineering surveys, geomorphology and surface hydrogeology analyses, as well as physico-mechanical laboratory tests. These investigations, supported by a monitoring program, led to the development of an engineering-geological model of the

  8. 基于模糊增强的安全带佩戴识别方法%A method of recognizing seat-belt wearing based on fuzzy enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万臣; 张晋


    To overcome the insufficency of existing warning systems for seat⁃belt wearing, and to further increase the seat⁃belt wearing rate, a new method for recognizing whether a seat⁃belt is worn or not is proposed based on fuzzy enhancement. In this method, firstly, the collected images of the driver are processed by light compensation. After using the customized Canny operator for edge detection, the straight⁃line detecting based on Hough transform and the preliminary judgment are proceeded. By processing the images in which the seat belt hasn’ t been detected, a picture with fuzzy enhancement is obtained, then the Otsu method is used to select the optimal threshold for image segmentation, deriving the binary images. And then the straight⁃line detection is proceeded and thus the final con⁃clusion is reached. The test results show that the method proposed can effectively recognize the seat⁃belt wearing state with high accuracy.%为了弥补目前安全带佩戴提示系统的不足,提高驾驶员安全带佩戴率,提出一种基于模糊增强的安全带识别方法。该方法首先对采集到的驾驶员图像进行光补偿处理,采用自定义的Canny算子进行边缘检测,再使用Hough变换对处理过的图像进行直线检测和初步判断,对于没有检测到安全带的图像进行模糊增强,采用最大类间方差法选择最佳阈值进行图像分割得到二值化图,再进行直线检测并得到最后结论。实验证明,该方法有效地完成对驾驶员安全带佩戴情况的识别,具有较高的准确率。

  9. Study on Locking Time for Compound Sensitive Seat Belt%复合敏感式安全带锁止时间的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓昱; 王晓聪; 王岩松; 汪佳农


    针对某型符合国家强制标准GB 14166-2013《机动车乘员用安全带、约束系统、儿童约束系统ISOFIX儿童约束系统》的复合敏感式安全带锁止机构进行了研究,分析其结构组成和运行原理。建立了车感、带感、承力锁止机构的运动方程,获得了锁止机构锁止时间的解析方程。利用ADAMS软件进行锁止机构锁止时间的仿真分析,并与理论解析解进行比较,结果表明,二者锁止时间相近。%This paper presented a locking structure of compound sensitive retractor ,which was in accordance with the Standard GB14166-2013 “safety-belts ,restraint systems ,child restraint systems and ISOFIX child restraint systems for occupants of power-driven vehicles” .The retractor’s structur-al composition and operation principles were analyzed .The equations of motion for the body reactor , belt reactor ,and inclined locking mechanism were established .An analytical model for locking time was obtained .A simulation of safty belt locking time was analyzed by ADAMS .The simulation re-sults are in agreement with the analytical solutions .

  10. Lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt--On deep-seated xenoliths in Minggang region of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Fengxiang; WANG; Chunyang; ZHENG; Jianping


    Swarms of mafic-intermediate volcaniclastic bodies occur in the Minggang region of Henan Province, a tectonic boundary between the North Qinling and the North China Block, and emplaced at (178.31±3.77) Ma. These volcanic rocks are subalkaline basaltic andesites and contain abundance of lower crust and mantle xenoliths. Thus this area is an ideal place to reveal the lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt. Geochemical data indicate that these mafic granulites, eclogites and metagabbros have trace elemental and Pb isotopic characteristics very similar to those rocks from the South Qinling Block, representing the lower part of lower crust of the South Qinling which subducted beneath the North China Block. Talcic peridotites represent the overlying mantle wedge materials of the North China Block, which underwent the metasomatism of the acidic melt/fluid released from the underlying lower crust of the South Qinling Block. Deep tectonic model proposed in this paper is that after the Late Paleozoic South Qinling lithosphere subducted northward and decoupled, the upper part of the lithosphere emplaced under the North Qinling and the lower part continuously subducted northward under the North China Block. In Early Mesozoic, the North Qinling Block obducted northward and the North China Block inserted into the Qinling orogenic belt in a crocodile-mouth shape.

  11. Research on the Relationship between B-Pillar Acceleration and Seat Belt Selection in the Frontal Impact Test%正面碰撞中车体B柱加速度与安全带选配间的关联性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商恩义; 师玉涛; 杨劲松; 张世凯


    根据近似程度,将正面碰撞试验中车体B柱(x向)加速度波形分成前低后高、前高后低2种阶梯形类型,研究了2种波形在假人相对车体运动中的表现及对假人胸部造成的伤害,并推导出理想B柱加速度波形。对3种波形下安全带的选配进行研究,指出在安全带选配时,应从腰带能够平衡假人相对运动、肩带能够调节假人运动姿态角度出发进行考虑,并具体指出了各波形下安全带的选配方向。%In this paper, based on the degree of approximation, we divide the vehicle B-pillar acceleration waves (x direction) in the frontal impact test into two kind of ladder waves, one is that the front is high and the back is low, the other is that the front is low and the back is high. The state of the dummy moving relative to vehicle motion and the dummy' chest injury in two ladder waves are studied, and the ideal B-pillar acceleration wave curve is derived. Through the research on the selection of seat belt in three kinds of wave, it is indicated that, when selecting the seat belt, it should take into consideration that the waist belt can balance the dummy relative movement and the shoulder belt can adjust the dummy's motion posture, the guidance on selection of the seat belt for each kind of waves is also indicated in the paper.

  12. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  13. Development of deep-seated joint sets in the early stage of mountain building and its role on subsequent micro faulting during thrust stacking: a case study in the northern fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan (United States)

    Lee, J.; CHU, H.; Angelier, J.


    Systematic joint sets are one of the most common and persistent features within a brittle deformation regime, usually found in intact rocks, such as massive sandstone. However, joint occurrence can take place under different circumstances from very shallow to rather deep crust, which pose challenges for understanding the mechanisms of its development and thus provokes debates in past decades. In this study, we characterize the deformation structures, including micro fault and joint, by comparing their geometric relation with stratigraphic bedding plane. We intend not only to differentiate the relative chronology of different structures but also to determine the chronological orders and stages during thrust stacking processes in which rocks exhume from depths to surface. We take the northern fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan as our case study area. It is composed of Pleistocene to Oligocene, terrestrial to shallow marine sedimentary deposits, which was exhumed accompanied with a series of imbricate thrusts during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny of arc-continent collision between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. We study four cross sections from little deformed rock formations in the foreland to intense folded and even slightly metamorphosed terrains in the slate belt, in order to characterize and distinguish different brittle structures at different depths. Particular attention is paid to the development of the joint sets at different depths and their relationship with the bedding plane where joints happen to occur. We found that 1) the most predominant joint sets are deep-seated and tectonics related, in comparison with shallow released joints, although their relation with tectonic stress orientation remains inconclusive; 2) the onset depths of development of joint sets can be as shallow as 1-2 km and as deep as 10-15 km. As to whether the development occurs during burial or exhumation, it remains questionable; 3) micro faults with striated slip, mainly under NW

  14. Lesão contusa de artéria ilíaca comum esquerda por cinto de segurança Blunt injury to the left common iliac artery caused by seat belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mesquita de Souza


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de paciente de 17 anos, vítima de acidente automobilístico com impacto frontal, que apresentava, ao socorro médico, dor abdominal intensa e tatuagem transversa, em região infra-umbilical, causada pelo cinto de segurança. Foi submetida a laparotomia exploradora, que evidenciou pequena lesão lacerante de jejuno terminal, não sendo encontradas outras lesões à inspeção. Ao término da cirurgia, verificou-se cianose moderada em região plantar esquerda, com ausência de pulsos tibiais e poplíteos. O pulso da artéria femoral encontrava-se diminuído. A arteriografia realizada mostrou obstrução do fluxo em artéria ilíaca comum esquerda. A reconstrução foi realizada com interposição de prótese de Dacron de 6 mm.The authors report a case of a 17-year-old female patient involved in a head-on motor vehicle collision. The patient presented to the emergency department complaining of severe abdominal pain. She also had a transverse bruise in the inferior anterior abdominal wall, suggesting a seat-belt sign. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy, which showed a small distal jejunal perforation. Other lesions were not found at inspection. At the end of the operation, moderate cyanosis of the plantar aspect of the left foot was observed, and popliteal and distal pulses were absent. The intensity of the femoral pulse was decreased. An arteriography revealed obstruction of the left common iliac artery. Repair was successfully achieved with a 6-mm Dacron graft interposition.

  15. Belt conveyer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwieczek, A.; Dembinski, C.


    The patented belt conveyor is distinguished by the fact that the rate of motion of the belt changes smoothly depending on the load: the greater the load the higher the rate. This makes it possible to prolong the service life of the belt, i.e., during idling of the conveyor it is exposed to deformation on the drive and tension drums a fewer number of times. The essence of the invention is based on the use for driving the drum of a friction transmission. One of the elements of this transmission is the drive drum of the conveyor, and the other is the drive wheel which is pressed to the inner (or outer) surface of the drum. Change in rotation velocity of the drum is reached by changing the diameter of the drive wheel. The rim of the latter has an elastic tire to which compressed air is fed. The diameter of the drive wheel depends on the quantity of air in the tire. It is set automatically by a regulating system depending on the conveyor load. Variants are patented for the belt conveyor which is distinguished by the design of the friction transmission. It contains 1, 2 or more drive wheels. It can have a cylindrical or conical inner surface of the drive drum, etc.

  16. In-vehicle vibration study of child safety seats. (United States)

    Giacomin, J; Gallo, S


    This paper reports experimental measurements of the in-vehicle vibrational behaviour of stage 0&1 child safety seats. Road tests were performed for eight combinations of child, child seat and automobile. Four accelerometers were installed in the vehicles and orientated to measure as closely as possible in the vertical direction; two were attached to the floor and two located at the human interfaces. An SAE pad was placed under the ischial tuberosities of the driver at the seat cushion and a child pad, designed for the purpose of this study, was placed under the child. Four test runs were made over a pave' (cobblestone) surface for the driver's seat and four for the child seat at both 20 km h(-1) and 40 km h(-1). Power spectral densities were determined for all measurement points and acceleration transmissibility functions (ATFs) were estimated from the floor of the vehicle to the human interfaces. The system composed of automobile seat, child seat and child was found to transmit greater vibration than the system composed of automobile seat and driver. The ensemble mean transmissibility in the frequency range from 1 to 60 Hz was found to be 77% for the child seats systems as opposed to 61% for the driver's seats. The acceleration transmissibility for the child seat system was found to be higher than that of the driver's seat at most frequencies above 10 Hz for all eight systems tested. The measured ATFs suggest that the principal whole-body vibration resonance of the children occurred at a mean frequency of 8.5, rather than the 3.5 to 5.0 Hz typically found in the case of seated adults. It can be concluded that current belt-fastened child seats are less effective than the vehicle primary seating systems in attenuating vibrational disturbances. The results also suggest the potential inability of evaluating child comfort by means of existing whole-body vibration standards.

  17. Sistema de Medición Automático para el Consumo de Material Utilizado en Vestiduras Automotrices Automatic Measurement System for Material Consumption in Automobile Seat Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia H Rascón


    Full Text Available Se presenta el proceso de diseño y aplicación de un sistema para la medición automática de material utilizado en el proceso de corte de vestiduras automotrices. El diseño consta de un carrete medidor de material, sensores de presencia, un microcontrolador y una computadora. El microcontrolador cuenta los periodos de la señal de salida del codificador y calcula la medición de material. El sistema registra en una base de datos la cantidad de material utilizado, el material restante en el rollo y el material excedente utilizado en cada requerimiento de corte. El sistema de medición automático no interfiere con el proceso de corte, mide con mayor exactitud el material utilizado y disminuye sustancialmente el material de desperdicio.This work describes the design and application of a system for the automatic measurement of the quantity of material utilized in automobile seat covers. The design consists of a reader system, sensors, a controller, a microcontroller and a computer. When the cutting process finishes, a microprocessor store the measurement. This measurement is sent to a database for further analysis. The system counts the material utilized in the cutting process and the material that is left on a roll. The system adaptation does not interfere with the normal cutting process, allows measuring correctly the material consumption and diminishes the scrap material.

  18. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B


    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  19. Analysis and optimization of protection provided by vehicle anti-shock seat safety belt systems under vertical intensive shock loads%垂向强冲击载荷下车辆缓冲座椅的安全带系统防护性能分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦鹏; 吕振华


    针对特种车辆受到垂向强冲击时缓冲座椅的安全带系统防护性能进行研究,建立了地板-座椅-乘员系统的有限元模型,对驾驶室地板结构施加冲击位移输入,应用数值仿真方法比较分析了缓冲座椅分别匹配两点式、三点式、四点式和六点式安全带时对乘员的约束效能。在垂向强冲击载荷下,具有六点式安全带的缓冲座椅可有效地减小腰椎轴向压力峰值,同时降低乘员与车身结构发生冲击碰撞的可能性。进一步对六点式安全带的预紧特性和限力特性参数进行了多设计方案分析和优化,具有匹配优化后的预紧特性和限力特性的六点式安全带可使乘员的腰椎轴向压力峰值比优化前降低10.7%,比三点式安全带显著地提高了缓冲座椅抗垂向强冲击的安全性。%A finite element model of a cab floor-seat occupant sub system was developed for special purpose vehicles to study the vertical shock protection provided by anti-shock seat systems with safety belts. The model inputs are a set of shock displacement-time histories experienced by the vehicle cab floor. Numerical simulations are used in a comparative study of the protection provided by safety belts anchored at two, three, four and six points during vertical intensive shock loads. The safety belts with six anchor points reduce the axial compression force on the lumbar spine and effectively prevent secondary impact between the lower limbs and the vehicle structures. The influences of the pretension and the forceqimit characteristics of the safety belts with six anchor points on occupant injuries are analyzed to optimize the pretension and force-limit parameters. The results show that the optimal safety belts with six anchor points reduce the peak axial compression force on the lumbar spine by 10. 7% compared with the initial design. The vertical shock protection provided by the anti shock seat system is effectively improved compared to

  20. Numerical prediction of seating position in car seats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Markwijk, R. van; Verver, M.M.; Furtado, R.; Pewinsky, W.


    Two of the main design objectives for car interiors are comfort and safety. These aspects are both determined by the seating position of the occupant. Seat manufacturers use the SAE Three-Dimensional H-Point Machine™ to measure seating positions to design, audit, and benchmark seats. The seating pos

  1. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry. (United States)

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  2. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects. (United States)

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon


    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance.

  3. Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts. (United States)

    Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P


    Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could

  4. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection. (United States)


    .... S3. Application. This standard applies to school buses. S4. Definitions. Contactable surface means... 5 seconds. S5.1.6Quasi-static test of compartmentalization and Type 2 seat belt performance. This... belt anchor point specified by S4.1.3.2(a) of Standard No. 210 (49 CFR 571.210) and Φ is the angle...

  5. Evaluation of pediatric use patterns and performance of lap shoulder belt systems in the center rear. (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K


    Lap and shoulder belts have been required in rear outboard positions since 1989. A recent congressional mandate encouraged the requirement of a lap and shoulder belt in the center rear seat position. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to quantify changes in seating patterns for children in vehicles that already have this feature compared to those which do not and measured the safety benefit associated with the provision of a shoulder belt in the center rear seat position. The data demonstrate that the presence of a shoulder belt in the center rear seating position influences seating practices only when there is a single child occupant in the vehicle. Belted children in the center rear of vehicles equipped with a lap shoulder belt are at an 81% reduction in risk of injury than those belted in the center rear equipped with a lap only belt. The data suggest that by requiring lap shoulder belts in the center rear, benefits would be realized to belted children, specifically the 4-8 year old group.

  6. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.


    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could acceler

  7. Fire resistant aircraft seat program (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.


    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  8. Seatbelt submarining injury and its prevention countermeasures: How a cantilever seat pan structure exacerbate submarining. (United States)

    Thorbole, Chandrashekhar K


    The purpose of this study and a case report was to demonstrate seat belt webbing induced injury due to seatbelt submarining during the frontal motor vehicle crash. Submarining is an undesired phenomenon during a frontal crash scenario and is dependent on design features of the seat pan and seatbelt system. The lack of adequate anti-submarining features at any seating position with three-point restraint can cause abdominal solid and hollow organ injuries. This paper reports a case of submarining and factors that exacerbated this phenomenon leading to critical occupant abdominal injury. This case report and the following injury causation analysis demonstrate the shortcomings of a cantilever seat pan design in context to the occupant safety. The inadequate seat pan anti-submarining feature in association with lack of seatbelt load-limiter and Pretensioner reduces the level of occupant protection offered by the seat belt system in the rear seat. This case report shows the dangers of cantilever seat pan design and its association with increased risk of submarining causing severe abdominal injuries.

  9. 深根茎中药材收获机夹持带转速自动控制系统%Automatic Control System in the Gripping-belt Velocity of Root Chinese Traditional Herbal Harvesting Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金侠; 王俊发; 于泳红; 李丽敏


      我国现有的深根茎中药材收获机械简易,工作效率低,作业质量差,成为中药材种植业发展的一个瓶颈。为此,以AT89 C52单片机为控制核心,以开关传感器为检测手段,结合自动控制原理设计了深根茎中药材收获机夹持带转速自动调节系统。该系统能使夹持带转速实时跟踪机器作业速度变化,从而大大提高了药材的收获效率,降低了药材损失率和破损率。室内土槽试验表明,此控制系统达到了预期设计要求。%Chinese herbal medicine harvester in agricultural production plays an increasingly important role in .However , our Chinese herbal medicine harvester is still poor work quality , low efficiency , fault etc .Good performance , automa-tion, high intelligent degree of the Chinese herbal medicine harvester will be the aspect of development in the future . Therefore , this paper takes the SCM as core , combined with automatic control theory to the design of the traditional Chi-nese medicine harvesting machine clamping belt automatic speed control system .The system according to the operation of the machine speed changes , regulation of harvesting machine clamping belt speed , the machine speed and grip tape speed to achieve the best match , thus greatly improving the performance of the harvesting machine .

  10. Can Pelvis Angle be Monitored From Seat Support Forces in Healthy Subjects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van Paul; Veltink, Peter H.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.


    Individuals who cannot functionally reposition themselves often need dynamic seating interventions that change body posture from automatic chair adjustments. Pelvis alignment directly affects sitting posture, and systems that adjust and monitor pelvis angle simultaneously might be applicable to cont

  11. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis. (United States)

    Verver, M M; de Lange, R; van Hoof, J; Wismans, J S H M


    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could accelerate this process. The objective of this paper is to establish a protocol for the development of seat models using numerically efficient simulation techniques. The methodology is based on multi-body techniques: arbitrary surfaces, providing an accurate surface description, are attached to rigid bodies. The bodies are connected by kinematic joints, representing the seat back recliner and head restraint joint. Properties of the seat foam and frame have been lumped together. Further, experiments have been defined to characterise the mechanical properties required for the seat model for comfort applications. The protocol has been exemplified using a standard car seat. The seat model has been validated based on experiments with rigid loading devices with human-like shapes in terms of force-deflection characteristics. The response of the seat model agrees well with the experimental results. Therefore the presented method can be a useful tool in the seat development process, especially in early stages of the design process.

  12. Safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez


    Conclusion: Our study shows noticeably high prevalence of people not wearing safety belt in the rear seats. Moreover, four out of one hundred drivers still use the mobile phone while driving during a moment of the trip.

  13. The Prediciton of Seat Transmissibility from Measures of Seat Impedance (United States)

    Wei, L.; Griffin, J.


    A method of predicting seat transmissibility from mathematical models of the seat and the human body is described. The complex dynamic stiffness of a seat is determined by measurement using an indenter rig, and its stiffness and damping subsequently determined by curve-fitting. By using the fitted stiffness and damping of the seat model, and a previously determined dynamic model of the human body, the seat transmissibility is predicted mathematically. The method is illustrated with data obtained with a car seat and also a rectangular sample of foam. The seat and foam transmissibilities were predicted over the frequency range 1·25-25 Hz using two alternative models of the human body (a one-degree-of-freedom model and a two-degree-of-freedom model). The predicted seat transmissibilities were close to those measured in a group of eight subjects over the entire frequency range. The two-degree-of-freedom model of the human body provided better predictions where the seat and foam showed a second resonance around 8 Hz. The need for a non-linear mathematical model of the human body and a non-linear seat model is discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Pediatric Use Patterns and Performance of Lap Shoulder Belt Systems in the Center Rear



    Lap and shoulder belts have been required in rear outboard positions since 1989. A recent congressional mandate encouraged the requirement of a lap and shoulder belt in the center rear seat position. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to quantify changes in seating patterns for children in vehicles that already have this feature compared to those which do not and measured the safety benefit associ...

  15. Seat belt-induced chylothorax: a cause of idiopathic chylothorax? (United States)

    Agrawal, Vishal; Doelken, Peter; Sahn, Steven A


    Chylothoraces are associated with multiple etiologies including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and surgical trauma, representing 50% and 25% of all chylothoraces, respectively. Intrathoracic operations such as repair of coarctation of the aorta and esophagectomy are commonly associated with surgical trauma. Idiopathic chylothoraces may account for up to 15% of all chylothoraces. When a thorough evaluation finding is negative, further history to identify possible blunt, nonpenetrating trauma to the chest is warranted.

  16. Seat belt-related injuries: A surgical perspective (United States)

    Masudi, Tahir; McMahon, Helen Capitelli; Scott, Jennifer L.; Lockey, Andrew S.


    Introduction: Legislation making seatbelt use mandatory is considered to have reduced fatal and serious injuries by 25%, with UK government estimates predicting more than 50,000 lives saved since its introduction. However, whilst the widespread use of seatbelts has reduced the incidence of major traumatic injury and death from road-traffic collisions (RTCs), their use has also heralded a range of different injuries. The first ever seatbelt related injury was described in 1956, and since then clear patterns of seatbelt-related injuries have been recognised. Methodology and Findings: This review of the published literature demonstrates that the combination of airbags and three-point seatbelts renders no part of the body free from injury. Serious injuries can, and do, occur even when passengers are properly restrained and attending clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for overt or covert intra-abdominal injuries when patients involved in RTCs attend the Emergency Department. Bruising to the trunk and abdomen in a seatbelt distribution is an obvious sign that suggests an increased risk of abdominal and thoracic injury, but bruising may not be apparent and its absence should not be falsely reassuring. A high index of suspicion should be retained for other subtler signs of injury. Children and pregnant women represent high-risk groups who are particularly vulnerable to injuries. Conclusion: In this review we highlight the common patterns of seatbelt-related injuries. A greater awareness of the type of injuries caused by seatbelt use will help clinicians to identify and treat overt and covert injuries earlier, and help reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality following RTCs.

  17. Seat belt-related injuries: A surgical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Masudi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Legislation making seatbelt use mandatory is considered to have reduced fatal and serious injuries by 25%, with UK government estimates predicting more than 50,000 lives saved since its introduction. However, whilst the widespread use of seatbelts has reduced the incidence of major traumatic injury and death from road-traffic collisions (RTCs, their use has also heralded a range of different injuries. The first ever seatbelt related injury was described in 1956, and since then clear patterns of seatbelt-related injuries have been recognised. Methodology and Findings: This review of the published literature demonstrates that the combination of airbags and three-point seatbelts renders no part of the body free from injury. Serious injuries can, and do, occur even when passengers are properly restrained and attending clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for overt or covert intra-abdominal injuries when patients involved in RTCs attend the Emergency Department. Bruising to the trunk and abdomen in a seatbelt distribution is an obvious sign that suggests an increased risk of abdominal and thoracic injury, but bruising may not be apparent and its absence should not be falsely reassuring. A high index of suspicion should be retained for other subtler signs of injury. Children and pregnant women represent high-risk groups who are particularly vulnerable to injuries. Conclusion: In this review we highlight the common patterns of seatbelt-related injuries. A greater awareness of the type of injuries caused by seatbelt use will help clinicians to identify and treat overt and covert injuries earlier, and help reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality following RTCs.

  18. Seat belt Use Intention among Brazilian Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Torquato


    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron explorar el uso del cinturón de seguridad y su diferencia entre varios escenarios (e. g. conductor, pasajero de taxi, etc., e investigar las variables relacionadas con dicho uso. Para tal fin, 120 estudiantes universitarios, procedentes de Brasil, respondieron un cuestionario que evaluó las variables propuestas por la teoría del comportamiento planeado sobre la intención de uso del cinturón. Los resultados indicaron que las variables actitud eintención contribuyeron en gran medida a la explicación del uso del cinturón de seguridad. La intención estuvo altamente correlacionada con el uso del cinturón de seguridad, y la actitud con la intención. El uso del cinturón de seguridad fue más frecuente en conductores y pasajeros de taxi, que en pasajeros en la silla delantera y trasera. Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados en intervenciones orientadas a fomentar su uso entre conductores y pasajeros.

  19. 78 FR 68748 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Designated Seating Positions (United States)


    ... for reconsideration of the October 2008 final rule. The petitioners are SAE International (SAE), BMW North America (BMW), the Alliance of ] Automobile Manufacturers (Alliance), Volkswagen of America... paragraph (c)(2). 8. Closely Adjoining Seat Belt Buckles BMW petitioned the agency to allow two...

  20. Evaluation of Primary Safety Belt Laws in California, Louisiana, and Georgia



    This study evaluated three states that changed to primary enforcement of safety belt laws, collecting statewide seat belt observation data for several years and conducting monthly seat belt observations for 6 months after passage of the primary law in 6 California cities, 5 Louisiana cities, and 5 Georgia cities (average 1,000–6,000 vehicles a month); monthly motorist surveys at DMVs for 6 months in these sites (n=7,061); focus groups with law enforcement officers and supervisors in each site...

  1. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  2. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  3. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  4. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  5. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 1 - Boston (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  6. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  7. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  8. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  9. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  10. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  11. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms


    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  12. Monitoring switch-type sensors and powering autonomous sensors via inductive coupling: application to removable seats in vehicles


    Albesa Querol, Joan


    This thesis explores the feasibility of using inductive links for a vehicle application where wiring an electronic control unit (ECU) to the sensors or detectors become unfeasible or unpractical. The selected application is occupancy and belt detection in removable vehicle seats. Two ways of using inductive links are considered: 1) passive detection of the state of the seat detectors from a readout unit and 2) remote power transmission to a detection unit and subsequent data transmission by a...

  13. Variable temperature seat climate control system (United States)

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.


    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  14. Comfort model for automobile seat. (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz


    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a differenc

  16. Human neuronal interlimb coordination during split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, V.; Zijlstra, W.G.; Duysens, J.E.J.


    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a differenc

  17. Evaluation of the Seat Index Point Tool for Military Seats (United States)


    of less than 5 degrees, the J826 slides forward in the seat (even with the foot on braced accelerator pedal) and the back angle measurement becomes...attached to the frame , slid forward during the installation of the J826 manikin, which is probably not representative of the way a sitter would use

  18. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats (United States)


    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  19. Sociometry and Classroom Seat Selection. (United States)

    Hufman, Melody; Barbour, Alton

    Since attraction and close proxemic distances have been found to be associated throughout the study of nonverbal communication, a study was conducted that hypothesized that attraction would be a more important predictor of seat selection than any other variables. Subjects included students enrolled in introductory speech communication classes who…

  20. Belt attachment and system (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  1. Car Seat Inspection Among Children Older Than Three: Using Data to Drive Practice in Child Passenger Safety (United States)

    Kroeker, Amber M.; Teddy, Amy J.; Macy, Michelle L.


    Background Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children ages 4-12 in the United States. Despite this high risk of injury from MVCs in this age group, parental awareness, and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables included, if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. Chi-square statistics were used to compare change in restraint use upon arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Results Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected [rear-facing carrier (40.3%), rear-facing convertible (10.2%), and forward-facing (19.3%) car seats]. Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children age 4 and above were found to be in a sub-optimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Conclusion Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Forgotten Child. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26308122

  2. Comparison of two pelvic positioning belt configurations in a pediatric wheelchair. (United States)

    Cimolin, Veronica; Avellis, Martino; Piccinini, Luigi; Corbetta, Claudio; Cazzaniga, Andrea; Turconi, Anna Carla; Galli, Manuela


    Maintenance of stability for children in a wheelchair, particularly for those with spasticity, can be achieved through external stabilization components, such as pelvic positioning belts. Different kinds of pelvic belts exist on the market and one of the main characteristics is the different number of attachment points between the seat and the belt. As literature on this topic is limited to qualitative assessments, this study compared quantitatively 4-point versus 2-point pelvic positioning belts for the trunk fixation in 20 young patients with spasticity. Our data showed that 70% of the children required the use of pelvic belts on wheelchairs for stability and a better stability was observed with the 4-point belts than compared to the 2-point. Data generally showed in fact a higher percent of variation in terms of trunk flexion angleand knee joint angle with the 2-point belt than the 4-point belt, indicating increased submarining with the 2-point belt during sitting maintenance if compared to the 4-point belt (p < 0.05). According to our results, the 4-point belts seem to be the most effective configuration for patient stabilization, suggesting that its use prevents the thigh from submarining.

  3. Performance evaluation of child safety seats in far-side lateral sled tests at varying speeds. (United States)

    Ghati, Yoganand; Menon, Rajiv A; Milone, Mary; Lankarani, Hamid; Oliveres, Gerardo


    Protection of children in Child Safety Seats (CSS) in side impact crashes has been a topic of recent studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CSS in far-side impacts through a series of sled tests conducted at varying test speeds. Forty eight sled tests were conducted at three speeds (24 km/h, 29 km/h and 36 km/h), under two different CSS attachment conditions (LATCH and seat belt attached), using rear facing and forward facing CSS from four different manufacturers. Analyses were conducted to examine head retention within the CSS, velocity of the head as it passes an imaginary plane (cross over into other occupant space or door), lateral trajectory of the head and knee; head, chest and pelvis accelerations; neck and lumbar loads and moments. In addition to these parameters, the CSS were visually inspected for structural integrity after each test. Results from these sled tests highlighted the differential performance of CSS in far-side impacts. During the tests, all CSS experienced significant lateral movement irrespective of attachment type. In rear facing CSS tests, one of the designs failed as the seat disengaged from its base. In forward facing CSS tests, it was observed that the seat belt attached CSS experienced less rotational motion than the LATCH attached CSS. ATD head retention within the seat was not achieved with either CSS attachments at any speed. The findings from this study augment the current efforts to define regulatory sled setup procedure for far-side impact crashes involving children in CSS, which currently does not exist and will eventually further the protection of children in automobiles.

  4. Evaluation of seat and non-seat post preparation design using conventional and computational methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Subrata


    Full Text Available Background: Design of root canal preparation especially in cervical-third area of the root, is one of many factors involved in the success of post-core restoration. Seat design that is used in Prosthodontics Installation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Padjadjaran, is in the contrary to minimal preparation design. The root fracture resistance of this design has not been proven yet. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the root fracture resistance of seat compare to non-seat design, with two different research methods: experimental laboratory and computer simulation with Finite Element Method (FEM. Method: The experimental laboratory investigation used 20 upper central incisors: 10 used seat design and 10 non-seats, with the cast posts cemented in the preparation. The specimens were tested by using Universal Testing Machine with compressive force until the root fracture. The FEM used 2D digital models: seat and non-seat design of maxillary central incisors using a finite element software. The distribution of internal stress caused by static loading 110N at 135° angle with longitudinal axis of the tooth was evaluated. Result: The results of the fracture strength test showed a significant difference (p = 0.05 between the non-seat group (852.27N ± 112.6N and the seat group (495.78N ± 82.90N. The FEM showed a lower stress concentration in non-seat compare to seat group. This study proved that non-seat distributes stress better than seat design. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the FEM confirmed the result of the laboratory method. Stress concentration will cause fracture, therefore root fracture resistance in the non-seat design was higher than the seat design.

  5. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor (United States)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert


    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  6. Rear-facing car seat (image) (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  7. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.


    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load distribu

  8. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating. (United States)


    ... this section, the suitability of each person it permits to occupy an exit seat, in accordance with this... public at all passenger loading gates and ticket counters at each airport where it conducts passenger...-holding district office. (o) Certificate holders shall assign seats prior to boarding consistent with...

  9. Active vibration attenuating seat suspension for an armored helicopter crew seat (United States)

    Sztein, Pablo Javier

    An Active Vibration Attenuating Seat Suspension (AVASS) for an MH-60S helicopter crew seat is designed to protect the occupants from harmful whole-body vibration (WBV). Magnetorheological (MR) suspension units are designed, fabricated and installed in a helicopter crew seat. These MR isolators are built to work in series with existing Variable Load Energy Absorbers (VLEAs), have minimal increase in weight, and maintain crashworthiness for the seat system. Refinements are discussed, based on testing, to minimize friction observed in the system. These refinements include the addition of roller bearings to replace friction bearings in the existing seat. Additionally, semi-active control of the MR dampers is achieved using special purpose built custom electronics integrated into the seat system. Experimental testing shows that an MH-60S retrofitted with AVASS provides up to 70.65% more vibration attenuation than the existing seat configuration as well as up to 81.1% reduction in vibration from the floor.

  10. Heads for shifting new generation of belt conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.


    New design of belt conveyors characterized by rigid section joints and conveyor to pontoon joints significantly influences loading of machines shifting belt conveyors to new locations. A new belt conveyor shifting machine head design, called SGP12 (selflocking head for vertical loads up to 120 kN) is described. Design is shown in 4 diagrams. It is stressed that in the SGP-12 the force clamping rollers on rails is automatically controlled depending on the height to which the rails are lifted. Clamping force is proportional to the height. This means of controlling the clamping force excludes damage to the head and reduces wear of the rollers. The SGP12 is, therefore, superior to the GP-12 shifting head of similar capacity. It is suggested that the SGP-12 is characterized by simple design, easier operation, higher reliability and greater safety. The SGP-12 can be used to shift belt conveyors with belts 2250 mm to 3000 mm wide.

  11. Biomechanical assessment of a rear-seat inflatable seatbelt in frontal impacts. (United States)

    Sundararajan, Srinivasan; Rouhana, Stephen W; Board, Derek; DeSmet, Ed; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Miller, Carl S; Schneider, Lawrence W


    This study evaluated the biomechanical performance of a rear-seat inflatable seatbelt system and compared it to that of a 3-point seatbelt system, which has a long history of good real-world performance. Frontal-impact sled tests were conducted with Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and with post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using both restraint systems and a generic rear-seat configuration. Results from these tests demonstrated: a) reduction in forward head excursion with the inflatable seatbelt system when compared to that of a 3-point seatbelt and; b) a reduction in ATD and PMHS peak chest deflections and the number of PMHS rib fractures with the inflatable seatbelt system and c) a reduction in PMHS cervical-spine injuries, due to the interaction of the chin with the inflated shoulder belt. These results suggest that an inflatable seatbelt system will offer additional benefits to some occupants in the rear seats. Further research is needed to assess the field effectiveness, customer comfort and acceptance and change in the belt usage rate with the inflatable seatbelt system.

  12. Human neuronal interlimb coordination during split-belt locomotion


    Dietz, V; Zijlstra, W G; Duysens, J.E.J.


    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a difference in belt speed within 10–20 stride cycles.This adaptation was achieved by a reorganization of the stride cycle with a relative shortening of the duration of the support and lengthening of the swin...

  13. Technical note: spine loading in automotive seating. (United States)

    Zenk, R; Franz, M; Bubb, H; Vink, P


    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load distribution", based on the identification of a close relationship between the pressure on the seat and the discomfort felt by the person sitting. An in vivo measurement of the pressure in the spinal disc, which is an indicator of the load in the spine, was performed. For this research, a pressure sensor was implanted with a canula in the middle of the disc intervertebralis of a participant. The local pressure on the disc was established for the participant in an automobile seat set in various seat positions. The results indicate that in the seat position with the pressure distribution corresponding to the most comfortable posture the pressure in the intervertebral disc is lowest. The pressure in this position is 0.5 bar, while in the upright seated position the pressure is 1.6 bar.

  14. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt (United States)

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei


    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  15. Assessing the rider's seat and horse's behavior: difficulties and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Aronsson, A.; Hartmann, K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Keeling, L.


    correct seat and position are the basis for a good performance in horseback riding. This study aimed to measure deviations from the correct seat, test a seat improvement program (dismounted exercises), and investigate whether horse behavior was affected by the rider's seat. Five experienced trainers

  16. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  17. Peltier Junction heats and cools car seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, M.A.


    Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle.

  18. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems. (United States)


    ... procedures specified in S5. S4.3. Restraining device for hinged or folding seats or seat backs. Except for a.... S5.1Apply the forces specified in S4.2(a) and S4.2(b) as follows: S5.1.1For a seat whose seat back... seat bench, as shown in Figure 3. S5.2Develop the moment specified in S4.2(d) as shown in Figure 4....

  19. Assessing the rider's seat and horse's behavior: difficulties and perspectives


    Blokhuis, H.J.; Aronsson, A.; Hartmann, K; Reenen, van, C.G.; Keeling, L


    correct seat and position are the basis for a good performance in horseback riding. This study aimed to measure deviations from the correct seat, test a seat improvement program (dismounted exercises), and investigate whether horse behavior was affected by the rider's seat. Five experienced trainers defined 16 seat deviations and scored the occurrence in 20 riders in a dressage test. Half the riders then carried out an individual training program; after 9 weeks, riders were again scored. The ...

  20. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich


    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  1. SAFEGUARD seat/compartment evaluation methodology for vehicles with suspended seats (United States)

    Hostens, I.; Amditis, A.; Stefani, O.; Dangelmaier, M.; Bekiaris, E.; Schaerli, H.; Bullinger, A.; Ramon, H.


    Back pain is observed in a high percentage of professional drivers of heavy-duty vehicles and trucks. It was found that whole-body vibrations, prolonged sitting and posture, because of task handling and seating system, are the main factors in the development of back pain. The attenuation of vibrations and the provision of a good ergonomic posture at all times are therefore becoming more important. To achieve this a better knowledge of human behaviour towards vibrations and when seated on suspended seats is required using more appropriate evaluation techniques. The EC project SAFEGUARD aims at developing a new seat evaluation methodology where with controlled vibration tests and virtual reality simulations as many features as possible of human behaviour when seated on suspended seats are combined. The results of this combined methodology will lead to better understanding of the driver-seat-cabin system and the relation to comfort and health. They will also provide a more accurate way to interpret the efficiency of new seat features in improving comfort and health.

  2. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface (United States)

    Gohmert, D. M.


    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  3. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions. (United States)

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza


    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  4. Avaliação dos níveis de vibração vertical no assento de um trator agrícola de pneus utilizando um sistema de aquisição automática de dados Evaluation of the vertical vibration levels in a tire tractor seat by applying an automatic data aquisition system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando dos Santos Filho


    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá (FEG-UNESP, SP, no laboratório de vibração e acústica em uma área experimental, com os objetivos de: a determinar os níveis de vibração vertical no assento e na base do assento de um trator agrícola, executando a operação de gradagem para diferentes velocidades de trabalho; b caracterizar a faixa de freqüência que apresenta os maiores picos de vibração vertical no assento do operador do trator; e c analisar o conforto do operador, comparando os níveis de vibração obtidos com as principais normas vigentes. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi constituído por sensores de vibração, por condicionadores e amplificadores e por um conversor analógico-digital, instalados em um microcomputador e embarcados no trator ensaiado. Posteriormente os dados foram tratados pelo programa ORIGIN 50. Com base nos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: os níveis de aceleração encontrados na parte superior do assento foram consideravelmente inferiores aos níveis da base para as três velocidades, sendo a terceira marcha a que apresentou os maiores níveis de vibração; a faixa de freqüência que apresentou os maiores picos de vibração vertical foi entre 2 e 4 Hz; os valores de aceleração ponderada global encontraram-se bem acima dos limites definidos pela norma ISO 2631 para um período de 8 horas de trabalho; e houve crescimento dos níveis de vibração com o aumento da velocidade do sistema trator-implemento.A study was carried out at the Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá - FEG-UNESP, SP, in the acoustic and vibration laboratory as well as in an experimental area, to: a determine the levels of vertical vibration in both the seat and seat base of an agricultural tire tractor under operation (harrowing at different forward speeds; b characterize the frequency range presenting the highest vertical vibration peaks in the tractor operator seat; c analyze ride

  5. 皮带输煤巷中继站尘源特性及全自动气水雾化除尘系统研究%Research on dust source characteristics and automatic air-water atomization dedusting system in the relay station of coal belt roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐庆杰; 董子文; 汪日生; 周新华; 杨桢


    Considering the characteristics of excessively high dust concentration and complex dust source in the re-lay station of high-loading coal belt roadway, and taking the relay station of main incline shaft of Tongxin mine as the research object, the characteristics of dust producing strength, concentration variation, and particle size distri-bution were studied by adopting the combined method of field measurement and experimental analysis.An automat-ic air-water atomization dedusting system based on multi-sensor joint monitoring was designed and developed, and it was applied to the field.The results showed that the dust producing strength of relay station was up to as high as 3.344 ×105 mg/min, giving priority to with respiratory dust, so the pollution was serious.Both the mass concentra-tion of whole dust and respiratory dust were decreased by about 85%with the operation of automatic air-water atom-ization dedusting system, and the dedusting effect was obvious.The system has a good practical popularization.%考虑高负载皮带输煤巷中继站粉尘浓度过高且尘源复杂的特点,以同忻矿主斜井中继站为研究对象,采用现场实测和实验分析相结合的方法对粉尘产生强度、浓度变化、粒径分布等特性进行研究分析,设计研发了基于多种传感器联合监测的全自动气水雾化除尘系统,并应用于现场。结果表明:中继站内粉尘产生强度高达3.344×105 mg/min,且以呼吸性粉尘为主,污染严重;全自动气水雾化除尘系统的运行使得中继站内全尘和呼尘的质量浓度均下降85%左右,降尘效果明显,具有良好的实用推广性。

  6. Dynamic characteristics of conveyor belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-fu; MENG Qing-rui


    The dynamic characteristics of a belt conveyor are determined to a large extent by the properties of the belt. This paper describes experiments designed to establish the dynamic properties of belting material. The dynamic elastic modulus, viscous damping and theological constants of the belt were measured. Several properties were studied as a function of the tensile loading on the belt. These included longitudinal vibration, the natural vibration frequency in the transverse direction and the response to an impulse excitation. Vibration response was observed under several different excitation frequencies. Most of these properties have not been tested previously under conditions appropriate for the ISO/DP9856 standard. Two types of belt were tested, a steel reinforced belt and a fabric reinforced belt. The test equipment was built to provide data appropriate for designing belt conveyors. It was observed that the stress wave propagation speed increased with tensile load and that tensile load was the main factor influencing longitudinal vibrations.

  7. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts. (United States)

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R


    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi

  8. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; D Himabindu; N Srinivasulu


    Semi-detailed gravity investigations were carried out over an area of approximately 2750 sq km with maximum N-S and E-W extents of 55 and 50km respectively in the Gadag region in the Dharwar craton with a view to obtain a clearer perception of the structural configuration of the region. From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are inferred: the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep seated fault. While the N-S trend of the Gadag schist belt is bounded on its east by the NW-SE trending Chitradurga thrust fault and on its west by another major NNW-SSE trending fault, the NW-SE extension is likewise bounded by two other NW-SE major faults. Quantitative evaluation from forward modeling/inversion of five profiles in the region, assuming a density contrast of 0.29 gm/cc of the anomalous schistose body with the gneissic host rocks indicated a synclinal structure plunging to the southeast along its axis for the Gadag schist belt. The maximum width and depth from surface of the schist belt are 22km and 5.6km respectively.

  9. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  10. Three-dimentional architecture and dynamic analysis of the Qinling Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国伟; 郭安林; 刘福田; 肖庆辉; 孟庆任


    On the basis of synthetic studies of geology, geophysics and geochemistry, the present Qinling Orogenic Belt can be described as a 3-D "flyover-type" geometric model with rheological layering structures. Furthermore, the tectonic dynamic analyses have been done based on the structural geometry and kinematic features. Thus it can be concluded that its present structure has resulted from an adjustment of deep-seated mantle dynamics and lithosphere coupling relationship since the Mesozoic-Cenozoic time.

  11. Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology Demonstration (United States)


    ARL-TR-7743 ● AUG 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology...AUG 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology Demonstration by Muthuvel...COVERED (From - To) 10 January 2012–29 February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology

  12. Injuries to Seat Occupants of Light Airplanes. (United States)


    PI-M *20 IBJIMIES TO SEAT OCCUPMuTS OF LiiUiTNZEflziE(U) ’ IFEE. IVIATION MNINISTRATION WASNINGTON OC OFFICE OF WICLSSIFED VISTIOU MEDCINE E J...Parametric Statistics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY 1956. 27. Snyder R, Crashworthiness Investigation of General Aviation Accidents, Society

  13. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles (United States)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy


    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  14. Improved Design of Guided Shell’s Sliding Belt%制导炮弹滑动弹带强度改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    某尾翼稳定制导炮弹采用由弹带座和铜带构成的滑动弹带,针对该滑动弹带在炮弹结构强度试验中暴露的弹带座划膛问题,采用 ANASYS 对其设计强度进行有限元仿真分析,通过仿真找出了弹带座强度设计的薄弱环节并进行了改进设计,改进后的滑动弹带经仿真和试验验证其强度满足要求。%A fin‐stabilized guided shell uses sliding belt which composed of belt seat and copper belt .In order to solve the problem of insufficient strength of the belt seat ,ANASYS is used to simulate and analyze its’ design strength ,the simu‐lation result finds out the weak links with strength design ,and the design of belt seat is improved .Through simulation and experiment ,the improved sliding belt meets the requirements .

  15. Radiation belts of jupiter. (United States)

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S


    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  16. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions (United States)


    primarily the “Air Force seat”, since 1970’s) ADAMS = Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (6-DOF software , MSC Corporation) AEPS...friction, catapult thrust, net acceleration, etc.). The ADAMS Ejection Trajectory Model, built in software … 45th Space Wing, Safety...test (110E-A1-Aft; 95th percentile pilot with a man-seat mass of ~390lbm, ejection from an F-16 mockup at 600KEAS, straight-and-level). In this test

  17. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions (United States)

    Gagliani, J.


    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  18. Characteristics of mantle degassing and deep-seated geological structures in different typical fault zones of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO; Mingxin; XU; Yongchang; SHI; Baoguang; JIANG; Zhongt


    In this paper a comprehensive tracing study is conducted on mantle degassing and deep-seated geological structures in different types of fault zones in the continent of China based on the helium isotope data, coupled with some indices such as CO2/3He, CH4/3He and 40Ar/36Ar,and geological tectonics data. There are four representative types of fault zones: (1) Lithospheric fault zones in the extensional tectonic environment are characterized by a small Earth's crust thickness, a lower CH4/3He-high R and lower CO2/3He-high R system, the strongest mantle degassing, and the dominance of mantle fluid, as is represented by the Tancheng-Lujiang fault zone.(2) The lithospheric fault zones or the subduction zone in the strongly compresso-tectonic environment, for instance, the Bangonghu-Nujiang fault zone, are characterized by a huge thick Earth's crust, with the R/Ra values within the range of 0.43-1.13, and weak mantle degassing with mantle-source helium accounting for 5%-14% of the total. (3) The deep-seated fault zones at the basinal margins of an orogenic belt are characterized by R values being on order of magnitude of 10-7, and the CH4/3He values, 109-1010, CO2/3He values, 106-108; as well as much weak mantle degassing. (4) The crustal fault zones in the orogenic belt, such as the Yaojie fault zone (F19), possess a high CH4/3He-low R (10-8) and high CO2/3He-low R system, with no obvious sign of mantle degassing. Studies have shown that the deep-seated huge fault zones are the major channel ways for mantle degassing, the main factors controlling the intensity of mantle degassing are fault depth, tectonic environment and crust thickness; the intensity of mantle degassing can reflect the depth and the status of deep-seated tectonic environment of fault, while the geochemical tracing studies of gases can open up a new research approach; upwelling activity of hydrothermal fluids from the deep interior of the Earth may be one of the driving forces for the formation and

  19. Radiation Belt Dynamics (United States)


    document for any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the Government...release; distribution is unlimited. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information...Radiation Belt Modeling,” co-lead by J. Albert (AFRL), W. Li (UCLA), S. Morley ( LANL ), and W. Tu (UWV). Figure 6. Precipitating Energy Flux, Simulated

  20. Kuiper Belt Occultation Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Wesley C; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W; Kavelaars, JJ; Brown, Michael E; Bianco, Federica B; Boyle, Richard P; Brucker, Melissa J; Hetherington, Nathan; Joner, Michael; Keel, William C; Langill, Phil P; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Russet J; Young, Leslie


    Here we present observations of 7 large Kuiper Belt Objects. From these observations, we extract a point source catalog with $\\sim0.01"$ precision, and astrometry of our target Kuiper Belt Objects with $0.04-0.08"$ precision within that catalog. We have developed a new technique to predict the future occurrence of stellar occultations by Kuiper Belt Objects. The technique makes use of a maximum likelihood approach which determines the best-fit adjustment to cataloged orbital elements of an object. Using simulations of a theoretical object, we discuss the merits and weaknesses of this technique compared to the commonly adopted ephemeris offset approach. We demonstrate that both methods suffer from separate weaknesses, and thus, together provide a fair assessment of the true uncertainty in a particular prediction. We present occultation predictions made by both methods for the 7 tracked objects, with dates as late as 2015. Finally, we discuss observations of three separate close passages of Quaoar to field star...

  1. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry. (United States)

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François


    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  2. Comparative biomechanical evaluation of different wheelchair seat cushions. (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Andreoni, G; Pedotti, A


    The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative biomechanical analysis of four antidecubitus wheelchair cushions. Thirty wheelchair users were considered divided into three groups: paraplegic subjects (with no cutaneous sensation), neurologic subjects (with intact cutaneous sensation), and elderly subjects. The biomechanical evaluation was performed using a piezoresistive sensor matrix system to quantify parameters referred to pressure distribution, seating surface and posture. Dedicated software was developed for the automatic elaboration of the raw data and the computation of the parameters of interest. Differences among cushion types and subject groups were analyzed. An analysis of time-transient behaviors was also performed. Results showed that no significant differences in pressure peak reduction were found among the four cushions. Moreover, no time-transient behavior was shown by any cushions. However, both the location of pressure peaks and posture were dependent on cushion types. Comparison of the three subject groups showed that elderly subjects had the highest mean pressure and the lowest contact surface, while paraplegics presented the highest pressure peaks. This procedure appears indicated for individualizing the prescription of a wheelchair cushion and even for customizing a cushion to induce a specific posture.

  3. Responses and Injuries to PMHS in Side-Facing and Oblique Seats in Horizontal Longitudinal Sled Tests per FAA Emergency Landing Conditions. (United States)

    Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; DeWeese, Richard L; Moorcroft, David M; Taylor, Amanda M; Peterson, Brian


    The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level. While the tension mechanism was associated with cervical spine injuries, complex distraction-coupled with bending and tension was attributed to thoracolumbar spine injuries. Skeletal fractures to the ribcage were attributed to compression induced by the restraint from the seatbelt, the presence of the armrest, and/or severe motions of the unconstrained torso. Pelvic injuries were also attributed to restraint offered by the lap belt on the accelerating torso-pelvis complex in the absence of the armrest. Lower extremity injuries occurred due to the unconstrained motion (flailing mechanism). These results serve as an initial dataset to understand the kinematics of different body regions, injuries and patterns, and potential injury mechanisms describing PMHS responses in the aviation environment.

  4. 78 FR 79074 - Technical Report Evaluating Seat Belt Pretensioners and Load Limiters (United States)


    ... that are available in the system: (a) ``Quick Search'' to search using a full-text search engine, or (b...: Internet: To submit comments electronically, go to the U.S. Government regulations Web site at...

  5. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies. (United States)


    .... Hip breadth (sitting) 325 mm 419 mm. Hip circumference (sitting) 925 mm 1199 mm. Waist circumference (sitting) 599 mm 1080 mm. Chest depth 190 mm 267 mm. Chest circumference: Nipple 775 mm 1130 mm. Upper...

  6. [Management of seat-belt aorta in severe polytrauma: a review]. (United States)

    Hornez, E; Bourgouin, S; Baudoin, Y; Prunet, B; Monchal, T; Schlienger, G; Meyrat, L; Thouard, H


    Blunt trauma of the abdominal aorta is rare. Secondary to high-energy trauma, it is observed mainly in association with complex lesions. Evaluation of injury to the aorta must be a priority due to the risk of life-threatening massive hemorrhage. The clinical presentation can be quite obvious but also variable and often misleading. If in doubt, a systematic injected whole body scan is essential to diagnose aortic lesions. Hemorrhage or ischemia dictates emergency laparotomy. Opening the retroperitoneum increases the risk of infection if there is an associated gastrointestinal tract injury and may contraindicate use of arterial prostheses. Endovascular treatment can be proposed for less symptomatic lesions, including intimal dissection. Stents can be inserted via a femoral approach. In the event of juxtarenal dissection, there is a risk of renal artery thrombosis. Endovascular treatment is currently not recommended. This treatment can be delayed for a few days if necessary. Morbidity is low and long-term results are good.

  7. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference (United States)


    ... Male Dummy,'' Volume 2, UMTRI, DOT HS 806 716. NHTSA developed the specifications for the FAD2, the... and the FAD2, and, for comparison purposes, the dimensions of the Hybrid III (HIII) test dummies... submitted to the docket electronically by logging into . Follow the...

  8. 汽车安全带织带质量特性%Seat Belt Webbing Qualiy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 汽车安全带是主要的乘员约束系统,由织带、卷收器、带机锁等组成.其作用主要是约束前碰和翻滚过程中人体相对于车体的运动.为了提高安全带的约束性能,人们在安全带系统中增加预紧器和卷收器,并且针对没有锁止功能的卷收器,开发了自动锁止卷收器(ALR)和紧急锁止卷收器(ELR).

  9. 论汽车安全带损伤%Study On the seat belt injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  10. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (United States)


    ... combination of structural analysis and static load tests to limit load; or (3) Static load tests to ultimate... resulting from the ultimate static load factors prescribed in § 23.561(b)(2) of this part. Each occupant... resulting from the ultimate static load factors prescribed in § 23.561(b)(2) of this part, or they...

  11. 76 FR 18042 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... could use its own map, aerial photos or satellite images in site selection. (WI State Patrol at 2.) As stated in the rule, a State may use its own map, aerial photos or satellite images if it is approved by... a similar urban bias. For example, vehicle registrations likely are closely correlated...

  12. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies (United States)


    ... devote resources towards this at this time. B. Preliminary Analysis of Real World Crash Data Although the petitioner did not provide data showing a real world safety problem, the agency examined its crash data as... purchase aftermarket webbing cutters. The agency reviewed its data on fatal crashes and could...

  13. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger... (United States)


    ... Standards (telephone: 202-366-0247) (fax: 202-366-4921), NVS-113. For legal issues, Ms. Dorothy Nakama... 305 mm (8.5 in x 12.2 in) rigid plate be used to ``simulate the shape of a single 6-year-old'' child, and that the agency should ballast the plate to ensure an evenly-distributed 22 kg (48.4 lb) mass....

  14. Should a standing or seated reference posture be used when normalizing seated spine kinematics? (United States)

    Cotter, Brendan D; Nairn, Brian C; Drake, Janessa D M


    Currently in the literature there is no consensus on which procedure for normalizing seated spine kinematics is most effective. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in the range of motion (ROM) of seated posture trials when expressed as a percent of maximum standing and seated ROM. A secondary purpose was to determine whether the typical maximum planar calibration movements (flexion, lateral-bend, and axial twist) elicited the respective maximum ROM values for each spine region versus postures with specific movement instruction. Thirteen male participants completed seven different movement trials. These consisted of the maximum planar movement trials, with the remaining four postures being combinations of specific lumbar and thoracic movements. Global and relative angles for the upper-thoracic, mid-thoracic, lower-thoracic, and lumbar regions were calculated and normalized to both a seated and standing reference posture. When normalizing both global and relative angles the standing reference appears optimal for flexion, twisting and lateral bend angles in all spine regions, with the exception of relative flexion angle in the mid-thoracic region. The maximum planar movement trials captured the greatest ROM for each global angle, relative lower-thoracic angle and relative lumbar flexion angle, but did not for all other relative angles in the upper-thoracic, mid-thoracic, and lumbar regions. If future researchers can only collect one reference posture these results recommend that a standing reference posture be collected for normalizing seated spine kinematics, although a seated reference posture should be collected if examining relative flexion angles at the mid-thoracic region.

  15. Optimization Design of Anchorage Structure for Safety Belt on Rear Floor%后地板安全带固定点结构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻培培; 李宏华; 赵福全


    针对后地板安全带固定点的3种结构形式,对后地板安全带固定点相关法规进行了介绍,并对后排安全带固定点的强度进行了分析.通过分析某车型后地板安全带固定点强度失效原因,对其后地板安全带固定点结构和焊点进行了优化,优化后的结构在模具冲压和车身焊接中均未出现问题,满足了静拉试验相关法规要求.%The three structural types of anchorage point of safety belt on rear floor and the regulations of anchorage point of rear safety belts are introduced in this paper, and the strength of rear seat belt anchorage point is analyzed. By analyzing cause of failure of seat belt anchorage of rear floor of a vehicle model, optimization is made to seat belt anchorage structure and welding point of its rear floor, the optimized structure does not fail either in die stamping nor body welding, and related regulation requirement of static tensile test is thus satisfied.

  16. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  17. Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis: Drop Tower Data Review (United States)


    particular seat with green or red, respectively, for the 5 th percentile female during 350 g tests . Lumbar compression is red or yellow (meaning at least...occurs, which is not common in drop tower testing unless a roof structure is installed over the seat. The 5 th percentile female was most sensitive...MODELING & SIMULATION, TESTING AND VALIDATION (MSTV) TECHNICAL SESSION AUGUST 12-14, 2014 - NOVI, MICHIGAN BLAST MITIGATION SEAT ANALYSIS – DROP TOWER

  18. Dunlop Enerka Belting supplies and installs Europe's longest conveyor belt at British Coal-Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Dunlop Enerka Belting of Farington, U.K., has supplied a steel cord conveyor belt to the mine complex at Selby in North Yorkshire operated by RJB Mining plc. The new conveyor belt replaces the belt supplied and installed in 1981 by Dunlop Enerka Belting (then BTR Belting Ltd.).

  19. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork (United States)

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura


    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  20. Coronal radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, H S; Frewen, S F N; DeRosa, M L


    The magnetic field of the solar corona has a large-scale dipole character, which maps into the bipolar field in the solar wind. Using standard representations of the coronal field, we show that high-energy ions can be trapped stably in these large-scale closed fields. The drift shells that describe the conservation of the third adiabatic invariant may have complicated geometries. Particles trapped in these zones would resemble the Van Allen Belts and could have detectable consequences. We discuss potential sources of trapped particles.

  1. Automatic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>Reading is the key to school success and,like any skill,it takes practice.A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other.The great athlete practises until he can play quickly,accurately and without thinking.Ed- ucators call it automaticity.

  2. Correct use of safety belts and child restraint devices in cars among children in Goiânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Medeiros de Sousa


    Full Text Available Objective:to conduct an observational study, by means of campaigns, regarding the use of child restraint devices in cars in Goiânia.Methods:this was a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample built up as cases arose. The data were gathered into an Excel spreadsheet and were analyzed descriptively and statistically (SPSS 16.0, using chi-square and taking p < 0.05 as significant.Results:in 2006, 410 cars were evaluated, and in 2010, 544 cars were evaluated. Around 85% of the occupants were using seat belts correctly at both times (p = 0.650. In 2006, it was observed that a total of 273 passengers were occupying the rear seats, while in 2010 there were 226. Among these, 178 and 170 were using seat belts, respectively, i.e. 65.2% and 75.22% (p = 0.001. In 2006, five children were occupying the front seat without using the seat belt, while in 2010, this number was 42 (p < 0.001. In 2010, it was observed that 458 vehicles were transporting children on the rear seats, and this was being done correctly in 214 vehicles, i.e. 46.72%. In 2006, of the 410 vehicles analyzed, only 90 of them (21.95% were transporting children correctly (p < 0.001. In addition, there was a difference in the variables within the year evaluated, in which transportation done correctly in the front seat was much more frequent than transportation done correctly in the rear seats, in both years (p < 0.001. Cars transported one to four children, while vans transported one to nine children. In 2006, one van transporting children irregularly was observed, while in 2010 it was done correctly in all cases.Conclusion:comparing these two years (2006 and 2010 in which data were gathered, we can conclude that changes in behavior among drivers in Goiânia have begun, with regard to safety when transporting children in vehicles, with an improvement of 25% (p < 0.001. A large part of this has come through changes in knowledge among this segment of the population, through campaigns that

  3. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  4. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Microgravity on Seated Height (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond will be highly dependent on the seat layout. A primary concern with the seat layout design of the new vehicle is the amount of seated height growth that occurs in space; this could cause a major accommodation issue. The design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation are all critically affected due to the increase in height that occurs in microgravity. The increase in height due to spinal elongation caused by the absence of gravity could lead to inadequate clearances that would have implications for the ability of crewmembers to return safely or to conduct nominal operations during the mission. This study was designed to reduce the risk of inadequate design of the vehicle, environment, tools, equipment, etc. (SHFE risk and safely return crewmembers to earth from low-earth orbit travel, ISS, and beyond. In order to safely return the crewmembers, the design requirements must anticipate microgravity growth, elongation of the spine, bone and muscle loss, fluid shifts, etc. Thus, this study is to determine the amount of torso growth (spinal elongation) for a seated posture during Shuttle and ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to quantify the amount of growth that occurred as a result of microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement which allows for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that , during flight, seated height increases by a range of approximately 2-6 percent compared to pre-launch seated height.

  5. 76 FR 9551 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    .../Commercial Fishing seats, Heritage Tourism seat, and Economic Development seat. Applicants are chosen based... Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research, North Carolina Maritime Museums... Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Virginia Department of Historic Resources, the National...

  6. Hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinjie; Guo, Konghui; Lv, Jiming; Yang, Yi


    Scissor seat suspension has been applied widely to attenuate the cab vibrations of commercial vehicles, while its design generally needs a trade-off between the seat acceleration and suspension travel, which creates a typical optimisation issue. A complexity for this issue is that the optimal dynamics parameters are not easy to approach solutions fast and unequivocally. Hence, the hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure is proposed, providing a top-down methodology with the globally optimal and fast convergent solutions to compromise these design contradictions. In details, a characteristic-oriented non-parametric dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension is formulated firstly via databases, describing its vertical dynamics accurately. Then, the ideal vertical stiffness-damping characteristic is cascaded via the characteristic-oriented model, and the structure parameters are optimised in accordance with a structure-oriented multi-body dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension. Eventually, the seat effective amplitude transmissibility factor, suspension travel and the CPU time for solving are evaluated. The results show the seat suspension performance and convergent speed of the globally optimal solutions are improved well. Hence, the proposed hierarchical optimisation methodology regarding characteristic and structure of the scissor seat suspension is promising for its virtual development.

  7. Relationship of Assigned Classroom Seating Area to Achievement Variables. (United States)

    Wulf, Kathleen M.

    Using two university classroom groups taught by the same instructor, this study investigated the relationship of seating choice to number of verbal classroom responses, cumulative grade point average (GPA), and grade in class for both rows and "action zones" to identify classroom areas. Class 1 (where students chose seats) showed a significant…

  8. Musculoskeletal analysis of driving fatigue: The influence of seat adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majid, Noor Aliah binti Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Fareez Edzuan; Jamaludin, Mohd Syahmi


    Main causes for discomfort experienced by vehicle drivers during driving were investigated using a rigid-body model originally developed in the AnyBody Modeling System [1]. The interactions between the human body and the car-seat in various combinations of seat-pan/backrest inclinations and the e...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1103-1 - Automatic fire sensors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors. 75.1103-1 Section 75.1103-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... fire sensors. A fire sensor system shall be installed on each underground belt conveyor. Sensors...

  10. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats (United States)


    from testing. U.S. Patent Application: FLEXIBLE SURROGATE SPINE ASSEMBLY FOR CRASH TEST DUMMY Serial No.: 13/427,381 – Filed: March 22, 2012...Pilot testing has been conducted to compare SIP results with the SAE J826 H-point • An initial conceptual design for a back angle probe is being...tested. SIP Tool J1163 ISO 5353 J826 H-point Manikin Back Angle Probe Prototype UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 43 Accommodation Models • Seating

  11. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.

  12. Physiological responses to kayaking with a swivel seat. (United States)

    Michael, J S; Smith, R; Rooney, K


    The present study compared the physiological characteristics of flat-water kayaking utilising two seat conditions, the traditional fixed seat and novel swivel seat on an air-braked kayak simulator. The testing protocol included a submaximal warm up and one maximal ergometer paddling test. Ten elite kayakers (age 25+/-6 years, body mass 84.9+/-5.8 kg) were randomised to perform the testing protocol twice, once on each seat. During the testing protocol, expired air, heart rate (HR) and power output (PO) were continuously measured and gross efficiency (GE (kayak)) was calculated. Lactate (La) was recorded at the conclusion of each test. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that paddling with the swivel seat generated significantly greater mean PO over the two-minute race duration compared to the fixed seat (299.1+/-24.9W and 279.8+/-19.2W respectively; p<0.05). This equated to a 6.5% increase in PO. A similar (6.9%) but non-significant difference in efficiency was generated as there was no significant difference recorded in the metabolic load over the two-minute ergometer test. No significant differences were present in any other variable measured. This greater PO generated with a swivel seat may be a significant advantage during on-water competition if the results from present ergometer test transfer.

  13. Research of Contact Stresses between Seat Cushion and Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervan Stjepan


    Full Text Available Design optimization of seat cushions is associated with the need to investigate their softness using, for this purpose, various kinds of loading pads. The aim of the investigation was: to determine seat cushion stiffness of a chair selected from a set of dining-room furniture, to determine values and distributions of contact strains on the seat surface caused by loading pad of different hardness, numerical calculation of contact strains between the seat cushion and the loading pad and to verify the results of these calculations with the results of laboratory experiments. The performed tests showed that the assessment of the seat cushion stiffness and the evaluation of contact stresses on their surface should be carried out using an equally stiff loading pad. In numerical calculations, polyurethane foams should be modeled as hyperfoam bodies of σ=f(ε characteristics determined in an axial compression test. Contact stresses between the seat cushion and the user’s body should be reduced as a result of application of a frictionless connection of thin layers of polyurethane foams with foam forming the proper elastic layer of the seat.

  14. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... for the following vacant seats: Heritage Tourism seat, Citizen-at-Large seat, Recreational Diving seat...-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research... to provide the sanctuary manager with advice on: (1) Protecting natural and cultural resources,...

  15. Northern Belt of Jupiter (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere, absorb sunlight. That

  16. Backrest Shape Affects Head–Neck Alignment and Seated Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Ukita


    Full Text Available Unstable back support against gravity results in a forward head posture and contributes to buttocks pressure ulcers. However, the association between these health problems and a wheelchair backrest is unclear. Our newly developed wheelchair (N-WC supports the back of the pelvis and thorax from obliquely underneath. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different backrest shapes on head–neck alignment and seated pressure. Data from 28 healthy subjects were analyzed. Outcome measures were head–neck alignment angles, support angles of the backrest, and pressure distributions on the supporting surfaces. Compared with a typical wheelchair that has a flat backrest, the seat pressure decreased and the center of pressure was located in the middle of both the seat and backrest in the N-WC. Moreover, the head–neck alignment when seated in the N-WC was upright. These results highlight the importance of the shape of the wheelchair backrest.

  17. Controversial Swedish science minister loses seat in reshuffle

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylawan, P


    Carl Tham, who introduced sweeping changes to higher education and research, has lost his seat in a cabinet reshuffle. As science minister for 4 years he redirected funding to applied science and established new regional universities (1 page).

  18. Designing for Comfort and Reliability in an Intelligent Car Seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab


    Full Text Available Today, intelligent safety systems are installed in modern cars in view of minimising road hazards. An intelligent air bag system for example, comprised several subsystems that are integrated to include the weight sensor system, image sensor system, crash sensor system and tyre pressure monitoring system. These systems when poorly positioned into the car seat, will certainly affect comfort and reliability of the car seat. This research presents the design work on an intelligent car seat, which is equipped with a load cell type-sensory system. The load cells are used to detect the weight of a passenger for the deployment of an air bag system. The proposed design is validated against displacement and stress analysis using an 80 kg load to simulate the weight of a passenger. Results from the design validation indicated that the proposed configuration and material is appropriate for use in the intelligent car seat application.

  19. [Emerging deep-seated fungal infection, trichosporonosis]. (United States)

    Tokimatsu, Issei; Kadota, Jun-ichi


    Deep-seated trichosporonosis is a lethal opportunistic infection occasionally found in immunocompromised patients, particularly those who are neutropenic due to cytotoxic therapy for hematological malignancies. Trichosporon asahii is considered the principal etiologic agent of non-Candida fungemia and disseminated trichosporonosis in Japan. This infection may disseminate to multiple organs and difficult to diagnosis and treat. Because clinical findings and courses of trichosporonosis are similar to disseminated candidasis, it is impossible to distinguish these infections without fungal isolation. Monotherapy of amphotericin B is thought to be unsuccessful for this infection, and new antifungal agents echinocandins are also not active against Trichosporon species. Some clinical reports and animal models suggest that triazoles and combination therapies are most effective drugs against trichosporonosis. Recently, T. asahii isolates with reduced susceptibility in vitro to multi-antifungal agents are reported. T. asahii is the allergen of summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis and sometimes isolated from the houses environments, but it is not clear that the environmental strains directly infect to human. There is no clinical evidence that Trichosporon is the common outbreak pathogen in the hospital. However, it is necessary for a clinician to pay enough care as the lethal infections in immunocompromised patients.

  20. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.


    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  1. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation) (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.


    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  2. Optimal seat suspension design based on minimum "simulated subjective response". (United States)

    Wan, Y; Schimmels, J M


    This work addresses a method for improving vertical whole body vibration isolation through optimal seat suspension design. The primary thrusts of this investigation are: (1) the development of a simple model that captures the essential dynamics of a seated human exposed to vertical vibration, (2) the selection and evaluation of several standards for assessing human sensitivity to vertical vibration, and (3) the determination of the seat suspension parameters that minimize these standards to yield optimal vibration isolation. Results show that the optimal seat and cushion damping coefficients depend very much on the selection of the vibration sensitivity standard and on the lower bound of the stiffnesses used in the constrained optimization procedure. In all cases, however, the optimal seat damping obtained here is significantly larger (by than a factor of 10) than that obtained using existing seat suspension design methods or from previous optimal suspension studies. This research also indicates that the existing means of assessing vibration in suspension design (ISO 7096) requires modification.

  3. Kuiper Belts Around Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; Risacher, C; Rodmann, J; Augereau, J -C; Bergman, P; Eiroa, C; Fridlund, M; Thébault, P; White, G J


    In order to detect and characterise cold extended circumstellar dust originating from collisions of planetesimal bodies in disks, belts, or rings at Kuiper-Belt distances (30--50\\,AU or beyond) sensitive submillimetre observations are essential. Measurements of the flux densities at these wavelengths will extend existing IR photometry and permit more detailed modelling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the disks spectral energy distribution (SED), effectively constraining dust properties and disk extensions. By observing stars spanning from a few up to several hundred Myr, the evolution of debris disks during crucial phases of planet formation can be studied. // We have performed 870\\,$\\mu$m observations of 22 exo-Kuiper-Belt candidates, as part of a Large Programme with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Dust masses (or upper limits) were calculated from integrated 870\\,$\\mu$m fluxes, and fits to the SED of detected sources revealed the fractional dust luminosities $f_{\\mathrm{dust}}$, dust temperatures...

  4. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors (United States)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves


    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  5. Mathematical modeling and analytical solution for stretching force of automatic feed mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志芳; 陈国光


    Load of an automatic feed mechanism is composed of the stretching force of feed belt at the entrance to lower flexible guidance and the friction force between feed belt and flexible guidance. A mathematical model for computing the load was presented. An optimization problem was formulated to determine the attitude of the flexible guidance based on the principle that the potential energy stored in the system was the minimum at the equilibrium. Then the friction force was obtained according to the attitude of guide leaves and the moving velocity of the feed belt and the friction factor. Consequently, the load of the automatic feed mechanism can be calculated. Finally, an example was given to compute the load when the horizontal and elevating firing angles of the automation were respectively 45° and 30°. The computing result can be a criterion to determine the designing parameters of automat.

  6. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft (United States)

    Carden, Huey D.


    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  7. A finite element model of the human buttocks for prediction of seat pressure distributions. (United States)

    Verver, M M; van Hoof, J; Oomens, C W J; Wismans, J S H M; Baaijens, F P T


    Seating comfort is becoming increasingly important for the automotive industry. Car manufacturers use seating comfort to distinguish their products from those of competitors. However, the development and design of a new, more comfortable seat is time consuming and costly. The introduction of computer models of human and seat will accelerate this process. The contact interaction between human and seat is an important factor in the comfort sensation of subjects. This paper presents a finite element (FE) model of the human buttocks, able to predict the pressure distribution between human and seating surface by its detailed and realistic geometric description. A validation study based on volunteer experiments shows reasonable correlation in pressure distributions between the buttocks model and the volunteers. Both for simulations on a rigid and a soft cushion, the model predicts realistic seat pressure distributions. A parameter study shows that a pressure distribution at the interface between human and seat strongly depends on variations in human flesh and seat cushion properties.

  8. Seat inventory control methods for Chinese passenger railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包云; 刘军; 马敏书; 孟令云


    Railway seat inventory control strategies play a crucial role in the growth of profit and train load factor. The railway passenger seat inventory control problem in China was addressed. Chinese passenger railway operation features and seat inventory control practice were analyzed firstly. A dynamic demand forecasting method was introduced to forecast the coming demand in a ticket booking period. By clustering, passengers’ historical ticket bookings were used to forecast the demand to come in a ticket booking period with least squares support vector machine. Three seat inventory control methods:non-nested booking limits, nested booking limits and bid-price control, were modeled under a single-fare class. Different seat inventory control methods were compared with the same demand based on ticket booking data of Train T15 from Beijing West to Guangzhou. The result shows that the dynamic non-nested booking limits control method performs the best, which gives railway operators evidence to adjust the remaining capacity in a ticket booking period.

  9. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L van Eck


    Full Text Available In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary focus here is the method used in South Africa, namely the largest remainder method with a Droop quota. It is shown that as the number of parties increases, the number of lost votes (votes not used to allocate seats increases when using this method. Other existing allocation methods are discussed and compared with each other as well as with three optimisation methods (based on mathematical programming introduced in this paper. Applying these mathematical programming methods results in allocations that are more fair than the existing methods of seat allocation, if South African voting data are used. These mathematical models attempt to minimise a number of different measures of the deviation between the actual percentage of votes received and the percentage of seats allocated to a certain party. Ideally this deviation should be zero, but due to the discrete nature of seats this is virtually impossible to achieve.

  10. [Current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumors]. (United States)

    Hiraoka, M; Abe, M


    The current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumor is reviewed. Heating methods include external heating, intraluminal heating and interstitial heating, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages. Hyperthermia alone has significant effects on deep-seated tumors. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has been widely applied, resulting in 10-15% complete regression and 10-40% partial regression in the treatment of locally advanced tumors. The response rate of thermoradiotherapy was higher than that of radiotherapy for tumors in the brain, rectum and esophagus in the non-randomized study. The clinical application of thermochemotherapy is increasing and its effect is demonstrated in the prevention and treatment of peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancers. Reports of serious complications are rare. The technology for deep-heating and thermometry, and the new criteria for the assessment of thermotherapy for deep-seated tumors seems a promising new treatment modality.

  11. Optimization of Semi-active Seat Suspension with Magnetorheological Damper (United States)

    Segla, Stefan; Kajaste, J.; Keski-Honkola, P.

    The paper deals with modeling, control and optimization of semiactive seat suspension with pneumatic spring and magnetorheological damper. The main focus is on isolating vertical excitation from the cabin of a bucket-wheel excavator in order to protect the excavator driver against harmful vibration. Three different control algorithms are used to determine the desired semi-active damping force: skyhook control, balance control and combination of balance and skyhook controls. The dynamic behavior of the semi-active system is optimized using genetic algorithms. As the objective function the effective value of the seat (sprung mass) acceleration is used.

  12. Development of a Backpack Survival Kit for Ejection Seats. (United States)



  13. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.


    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  14. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas


    of the complexity and dimensionality of the Dynamic Program (DP), which prohibits computation for realistic size problems. We review several DP models developed for seat-allocation and overbooking over a time span of 40 years, reflecting changed business environments. In this report we link these models together...... by means of two transformations: The marginal revenue transformation of Fiig et al. [2010] and the equivalence charging scheme of Subramanian et al. [1999]. These transformations enable us to transform the joint seat allocation and overbooking problem for fare family fare structures into an equivalent...

  15. The Off-line Group Seat Reservation Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Hjorth, Allan Nordlunde; Nielsen, Morten


    In this paper we address the problem of assigning seats in a train for a group of people traveling together. We consider two variants of the problem. One is a special case of two-dimensional knapsack where we consider the train as having fixed size and the objective is to maximize the utilization...... of the seats in the train. The second is a special case of two-dimensional bin packing where all requests must be accommodated while trying to minimize the number of passenger cars needed. For both variants of the problem we present a number of bounds and develop exact algorithms. Computational results...

  16. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus (United States)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua


    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  17. Ring current and radiation belts (United States)

    Williams, D. J.


    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  18. Seat adjustment--capacity and repeatability among occupants in a modern car. (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Svensson, Mats Y; Björnstig, Ulf


    Families in the Western world have a car and several family members share the same car. In this study, 154 participants have adjusted a driver's seat three times. The primary objective was to study intrapersonal repeatability and intraclass correlation (ICC) on seat; length adjustment, backrest angle, seat front edge and seat rear edge adjustment, related to participant age, sex, stature and weight. Length adjustment has the best intrapersonal repeatability within two repetitions, 49 mm and ICC-value 0.87. Females and younger participants (age < 40 years) adjust seats generally more accurately. Females adjust the seat 41 mm more forward, 120 mm compared to men 79 mm counted from 0-starting position. Females sit with more upright seat backrests, 46 degree compared to 43 degrees for males counted from 0-starting position. Females sit higher than males in both the frontal and rear part of the seat cushion.

  19. Optimum design of automobile seat using statistical design support system; Tokeiteki sekkei shien system no jidoshayo seat eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwamura, T. [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Shiratori, M.; Yu, Q.; Koda, I. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)


    The authors proposed a new practical optimum design method called statistical design support system, which consists of five steps: the effectivity analysis, reanalysis, evaluation of dispersion, the optimiza4ion and evaluation of structural reliability. In this study, the authors applied the present system to analyze and optimum design of an automobile seat frame subjected to crushing. This study should that the present method could be applied to the complex nonlinear problems such as large deformation, material nonlinearity as well as impact problem. It was shown that the optimum design of the seat frame has been solved easily using the present system. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. 智能集成式儿童安全座椅的台车正面碰撞试验研究%A Study on Frontal Crash Sled Test for Intelligent Integrated Child Safety Seat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞锋; 曹立波; 陈亚


    To study the protective effect of intelligent integrated child safety seat for children occupants, frontal crash sled tests are conducted using Q6 ATD dummy with intelligent safety seat plus three schemes of safety belt use:correct use of four-point safety belt and three-point safety belt, and misuse of four-point safety belt. The injury situation of child dummy is assessed by various injury criteria defined in regulations. The results show that the protective effects of the correct use of four-point safety belt and three-point safety belt meet the requirements of regu-lations, and the protection performance of three-point safety belt is superior to that of four-point safety belt with in-adequate tension. Finally improving measures are put forward for enhancing the restraint effects of four-point safety belt based on test situations.%为研究智能集成式儿童安全座椅对儿童乘员的保护效果,采用Q6 ATD 6岁儿童假人开展了正确使用四点式安全带和三点式安全带,以及误用四点式安全带3种情形下的正面碰撞台车试验,通过法规中要求的各项儿童假人的损伤指标来评定儿童假人损伤情况。结果表明,正确佩戴四点式安全带和三点式安全带时座椅的保护效果满足法规要求,佩戴三点式安全带的保护性能优于松弛状态下四点式安全带。最后根据试验情况提出了提高四点式安全带约束效果的改进措施。

  1. Considerations for Classroom Seating Arrangements and the Role of Teacher Characteristics and Beliefs (United States)

    Gremmen, Mariola C.; van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.; Segers, Eliane; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.


    As a part of classroom management, teachers face the question of how and where to seat their students. However, it is far from clear what considerations teachers have when making seating arrangements. Therefore, in this study seating arrangement considerations from 50 teachers in grades 4-6 of elementary school were assessed. In Phase 1, teachers…

  2. Considerations for classroom seating arrangements and the role of teacher characteristics and beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Mariola; van den Berg, Y.H.M.; Segers, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    As a part of classroom management, teachers face the question of how and where to seat their students. However, it is far from clear what considerations teachers have when making seating arrangements. Therefore, in this study seating arrangement considerations from 50 teachers in grades 4–6 of eleme

  3. Modeling energy absorption in commercial airline seating with MADYMO dynamic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruitt, D.; Muller, D.W.; Marshall, R.; Altamore, P.


    Dynamic testing of aircraft seats has been incorporated to enhance the survivability of aircraft mishaps for over 10 years. This standard may be introduced into aircraft with certification basis prior to this introduction if seat loads can be limited to the structural capabilities of the seat track.

  4. 78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats (United States)


    ... infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR 45242. The requirements for infant bath seats are set forth... COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath...

  5. The Mutual Impact of Personality Traits on Seating Preference and Educational Achievement (United States)

    Hemyari, Camellia; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Parva, Mohammad; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali


    Several studies have investigated the association between students' seating positions and their classroom performance. However, the role of personality traits on seating preference in the classroom has not been well investigated. The aim of the study was to understand how students choose their seats according to their personality traits in a…

  6. Considerations for classroom seating arrangements and the role of teacher characteristics and beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    As a part of classroom management, teachers face the question of how and where to seat their students. However, it is far from clear what considerations teachers have when making seating arrangements. Therefore, in this study seating arrangement considerations from 50 teachers in grades 4-6 of eleme

  7. Aircraft Seat Fire Blocking Layers. Effectiveness and Benefits under Various Scenarios. (United States)


    Observations 21 In-Flight Cabin Fires 22 Series One: Single Seat Ignition Tests 22 Series Two: Gas Fire on Seats 29 Series Three: Large-Scale In-Flight...newspapers. SERIES TWO: GAS FIRE ON SEATS. Objective of Tests. The objective of this series of tests was to study the effect of a gasoline fire on blocking

  8. Development and initial validation of the Seated Posture Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Barks, PhD, ARNP


    Full Text Available Literature shows that some health outcomes (e.g., eating, breathing, and speaking are directly related to posture. Evidence of outcomes mediated by wheelchair seated posture is limited to interface pressure, physical function, and wheelchair skills and safety. This study’s purpose was to develop and validate a rapid, low-burden, paper-pencil assessment of wheelchair seated posture for research use and to test feasibility of its use with a sample of older adults. We used a prospective design and a convenience sample of older adults who were receiving rehabilitation services in a community living center. Forty-nine older wheelchair users participated. Main measures were the Seated Posture Scale (SPS, Modified Ashworth Scale, Barthel Index, Visual Descriptor Scale, scale-content validity index (S-CVI, Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability. Rating by six experts yielded the overall content validity score (S-CVI of 0.744. Total SPS score correlated positively with physical function (Barthel Index, r = 0.46, p < 0.001 and negatively with muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale, r = –0.44, p = 0.001, supporting SPS construct validity. Internal consistency was 0.66 (Cronbach alpha. Test-retest reliability yielded Pearson product-moment correlations of 0.89 to 0.99. We conclude that the SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support its use as an evaluation of wheelchair seated posture in outcomes research.

  9. Dynamic Performance Assessment of Side Facing Troop Seats During Impact (United States)


    test and on both the CV- 22 and CH-53 tests. The H-60 seat was run at 18G’s again due to complete failure of the restraint system and inertial reel...Stanaker, R. et al., "Size, Weight and Biomechanical Impact Response Requirements for Adult Size Small Female and Large Male Dummies," SAE Technical Paper

  10. Deep-seated Problems Haven't Yet Been Addressed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zuliu


    @@ China's capital market has changed remarkably in recent times, finally recovering after a long period of painful adjustment. In the depths of extreme market depression, people have profoundly experienced and understood some deep-seated problems confronting China's capital market in the last four years.

  11. Seating Position and Interaction in Triads: A Field Study (United States)

    Silverstein, C. Harris; Stang, David J.


    Relationships between seating position, length of acquaintance between subjects, observer bias toward the experimental outcome, and interaction rates are examined in a field study. Subjects with greatest visual centrality spoke most often. Length of acquaintance between subjects was unrelated to interaction rates. (Author/DEP)

  12. Numerical Simulation of Helicopter Cockpit Seat subjected to Crash Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Sulaiman


    Full Text Available Sikorsky S-61 or better known as “Nuri” had served the Malaysian aviation sector for the past four decades. It is mainly used for transportation, combat search and rescue purposes. However, there were Nuri helicopter crashes or accident cases reported during its operation period which involved loss of its occupants. The pilot survivability rate can be improved provided that the vertical impact loading on the helicopter is reduced during the crash accident. Utilization of an energy absorbing pilot seat or cockpit structure maybe one of the approaches to minimize the impact shock exerted to the occupants. However, the shock or maximum acceleration of the cockpit/pilot seat has to be first determined before a thorough design scheme can be undertaken. In this study, a vertical crash event of the Nuri pilot seat from 500 feet altitude was simulated and the maximum acceleration rate was determined using MSC PATRAN/LSDYNA. The pilot survivability was determined by comparing the result with human tolerance criteria data available in other published works. From the result, it was found that the maximum acceleration of the Nuri pilot seat was 584.4g at 19. 63 milliseconds, thus it can be concluded that the survivability aspect of the pilot is fatal when compared to other published works.

  13. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction (United States)


    ..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard for... final rule, this phrase is redundant, and the final rule, therefore eliminates it.'' 75 FR...

  14. Territoriality: Seat Preferences in Different Types of Classroom Arrangements (United States)

    Kaya, Naz; Burgess, Brigitte


    Students' degree of territoriality based on gender and seat preferences in different types of classroom arrangements was studied. The types of classroom arrangements included rows of tablet-arm chairs, U-shaped, clusters, and rows of tables with individual chairs. The study was carried out through a survey at a large public institution in the…

  15. Engine valve and seat insert wear study with a simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.S.Wang; S.Narasimhan


    The demands on higher performance and the increasing use of alternative fuels chal-lenge engine valves now with greater wear problems than before. A seat wear simulator was builtto evaluate the compatibility and wear of valve and seat insert. The rig test results have been suc-cessfully correlated with engine test results. In this study, intake valves made from Sil 1 materialwere treated with salt bath nitride processes and tested against six different insert materials. Wearresistance of these combinations was ranked and compared to the Sil 1 valve without nitriding.The test results demonstrate that nitriding improved valve seat wear resistance. In the total valveseat recession ranking, the combination of nitrided Sil 1 valve against T 400 insert exhibited theleast total recession among the nineteen combinations of valve and insert tested. The results indi-cate that the valve seat wear mechanisms are a complex combination of adhesion and shearstrain. The nitrides in the compound layer of nitrided valves gave strong atomic bonding, higherhardness, compressive residual stresses, and possible low friction, thus resulted in the superiorwear performance.

  16. Simulation Analysis of Influence and Damage by Booster Seat Performance Parameters%增高座椅性能参数影响及损伤仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翔; 张学荣; 任美娟


    In order to reduce the rate that child passengers injury their chest and head in a collision,this paper analyzes the parameters of the child restraint system.It uses the multi body dynamics software MADYMO to establish the child occupant crash simulation model and verifies the validity of the model in accordance with the FMVSS213 regulations.The coefficient of friction between booster seat and car seat,car seat safety belt stiffness and influence on children injury when booster seat changes in the height direction are also analyzed.The results show that covering friction material to boost seat bottom surface in order to improve the coefficient of friction,improving safety belt stiffness and maintaining the current seat height of this booster seat can reduce the injuries on children's head and chest in collisions significantly.%为了降低儿童乘员在碰撞过程中胸部和头部的损伤率,对增高座椅儿童约束系统进行参数化分析.本文采用多体动力学软件MADYMO建立儿童乘员碰撞仿真模型,并按照FMVSS213法规验证模型的有效性.在此基础上,以头部质心合成加速度、头部损伤准则HIC36、胸部合成加速度为损伤指标,分析增高座椅与台车座椅之间的摩擦系数、汽车座椅安全带刚度、增高座椅在高度方向上变化对儿童损伤的影响,仿真结果表明:在增高座椅底面涂以摩擦材料以提高摩擦系数,适当提高安全带刚度及维持现有座椅高度可以显著减少儿童在碰撞过程中的头部和胸部损伤.

  17. Biomechanical analysis of padding in child seats and head injury. (United States)

    Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred


    Head injury is a common finding for infants and young children involved in automobile accidents. Although the child restraint seats have increased the level of safety for the pediatric population, skull fracture and/or brain injury occur during the interaction between the child's head and interior of the car seats with no padding. The introduction of effective and sufficient padding may significantly reduce the head injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the biomechanical effects of padding in child seats to reduce the potential for head injury. A head drop test of a six-month old anthropomorphic dummy was conducted. The side of the dummy head impacted the interior wing of child car seats of relatively soft and stiff materials, and a rigid metal plate at velocities of 2.2, 4.5 and 6.7 m/s. In all tests, three types of padding environments were used (no padding, comfort foam, 16 to 19 mm polypropylene padding). All data were collected at 10 kHz and filtered. A total of 39 tests were conducted. The head injury criteria (HIC), and head acceleration, and head angular acceleration were obtained. The HIC was calculated over a 36 ms interval from the resultant tri-axial acceleration. The angular accelerations were derived from the angular velocity data. The head injury biomechanical parameters decreased with the addition of padding. The HIC, peak acceleration, and angular acceleration were reduced up to 91%, 80%, and 61% respectively. The present results emphasize the importance of energy absorbing padding to provide an improved safety environment in child car seats.

  18. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  19. 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database (United States)


    TR-14-18 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. March...the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database”, AFRL-VS-PS-TR- 2006-1079, Air Force Research Laboratory...Roth, B., “Blue Ribbon Panel and Support Work Assessing the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database

  20. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu


    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  1. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)


    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  2. a Vibrational Model of Open Celled Polyurethane Foam Automotive Seat Cushions (United States)

    Patten, W. N.; Sha, S.; Mo, C.


    A mechanistic model of a seat cushion is developed. The work relates the kinematic motion of the seat to the geometric and constitutive properties of the cellular foam used in the seat. The model includes the influence of pneumatic damping caused by friction between the gas within the open-celled foam and matrix polymer. A continuous shape function is introduced to characterize the piecewise continuous stress-strain characteristic of flexible open-celled foam. After some simplification, a non-linear dynamic automotive seat cushion model is derived, which relies explicitly on the constitutive properties of polyurethane foams and on the geometry of the seat cushion. Experimental and analytical models of the two automotive seats are compared to verify the model. The comparisons indicate that the new model is able to predict the dynamic performance of an automotive seat cushion with fidelity.

  3. The transmission of vertical vibration through seats: Influence of the characteristics of the human body (United States)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.


    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting

  4. The effectiveness of a combination of police enforcement and public information for improving seat-belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M.


    This chapter presents a part of the results of a study carried out to evaluate the effects of a combined enforcement and publicity campaign conducted in the Dutch province of Friesland in 1984. Some evidence is presented to show that the effects of such a campaign are not only impressive in terms of

  5. 切莫忽视您的"救命使者"--安全带%Life-Saving Device--Seat Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 现在的汽车除了部分货车外,基本上都装有安全带.顾名思义,安全带是一种能够确保安全的带子.有些驾驶员和乘员由于怕麻烦、图省事,而忽视了它的存在,却不知它可是交通事故中您的"救命使者".我们不但应该更多地了解安全带,还应该掌握如何正确地使用安全带.

  6. Wet processing of car seat belts%汽车安全带的染整加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了汽车安全带的质量指标、染料助剂的选择以及染整工艺设计.汽车安全带原材料采用高强低伸的涤纶长丝,选择TERATOP汽车专用染料和连续浸轧热溶染色生产工艺,染色温度210~225℃,时间1~2 min.采用该工艺,产品质量易控,能够满足汽车整车厂商的质量指标要求.

  7. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use. (United States)

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  8. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge (United States)

    Sheppard, Scott


    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  9. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere (United States)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.


    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  10. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em


    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  11. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt (United States)

    Anderson, Terry


    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  12. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack o

  13. Mediation and Automatization. (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    This paper discusses the relationship between the mediation of task performance by some structure that is not inherent in the task domain itself and the phenomenon of automatization, in which skilled performance becomes effortless or phenomenologically "automatic" after extensive practice. The use of a common simple explicit mediating…

  14. Digital automatic gain control (United States)

    Uzdy, Z.


    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  15. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  16. Seating, Money, and Food at an Amdo Village Funeral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rin chen rdo rje


    Full Text Available Seating, food, and money are discussed in the context of funerals held in the Amdo Tibetan village of Lo khog, located in Mar khu thang Town, Gcan tsha County, Rma lho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, PR China. An analysis of these three elements, combined with an intimate personal account of the funeral of the first author's close relative in 2005, offer insights into villagers' social status, and power and gender roles in their everyday lives.

  17. Efficient design and manufacturing of the seats of the Superbus


    Terzi, A.; Ozcelik, D.; Ockels, W.J.


    The Superbus is a new public transport vehicle designed for fast, safe, comfortable, sustainable and flexible transportation. The vehicle travels at 250 km/h on its dedicated infrastructures and at conventional speed on existing roads, and transports passengers and goods from point to point, without the need to change transport during the journey. Due to the challenging vehicle operational requirements, the seat design had to be optimized with regard to comfort, weight constrains, accessibili...

  18. Design Optimisation and Conrol of a Pilot Operated Seat Valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard


    The paper gives an approach for optimisation of the bandwidth of a pilot operated seat valve for mobile applications. Physical dimensions as well as parameters of the implemented control loop are optimised simultaneously. The frequency response of the valve varies as a function of the pressure drop...... across the valve, and it is found to be necessary to scale the controller parameters in the optimised design as a function of pressure drop....

  19. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. (Geophysics Lab., Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Physics Dept., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (US))


    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  20. Crust-Mantle Interaction in Dabie Orogenic Belt, Central China: Geochemical Evidence from Late Cretaceous Basalts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡少平; 张本仁


    It has been suggested that eclogites in the Dabie orogenic belt are exhumation prod-ucts, which had subducted into the deep-seated mantle and undergone ultra-high pressure meta-morphism during the Triassic. But no direct evidence supports this process except the calculatedp-T conditions from mineral thermobarometers. The Late Cretaceous basalts studied in the pres-ent paper, however, have provided some geochemical evidence for crust-mantle interaction inthe area. These basalts are distributed in Mesozoic faulted basins in central and southern Dabieorogenic belt. Since little obvious contamination from continental crust and differentiation-crys-tallization were observed, it is suggested, based on a study of trace elements, that the basaltsare alkaline and resultant from batch partial melting of the regional mantle rocks, and share thesame or similar geochemical features with respect to their magma source. In the spider diagramnormalized by the primitive mantle, trace element geochemistry data show that their mantlesources are enriched in certain elements concentrated in the continental crust, such as Pb, K,Rb and Ba, and slightly depleted in some HFSE such as Hf, P and Nb. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic com-positions further suggest the mantle is the mixture of depleted mantle (DM) and enriched one( EMI + EMII). This interaction can.explain the trace element characteristics of basaltic mag-mas, i.e. , the enrichment of Pb and the depletion of Hr, P and Nb in basalts can be interpre-ted by the blending of the eclogites in DOB (enriched in Pb and depleted in Hf, P and Nd)with the East China depleted mantle (As compared to the primitive mantle, it is neither en-riched in Pb nor depleted in Hf, P and Nb). It is also indicated that the eclogites in the Dabieorogenic belt were surely derived from the exhumation materials, which had delaminated into thedeep-seated mantle. Moreover, the process subsequently resulted in compositional variation ofthe mantle (especially in trace elements

  1. Effect of Cognitive Load on Seating Posture in Children. (United States)

    Igarashi, Go; Karashima, Chieko; Hoshiyama, Minoru


    Although children are frequently required to sit upright, it is often difficult to maintain this posture when performing cognitive tasks. Information about the relationship between a cognitive tasks and postural seating control is important for children to complete tasks more effectively. To determine the muscle activity and body sway of children in a seated posture while performing a cognitive task, changes in muscle activity and center of pressure (COP) were recorded while 4(th) grade children performed arithmetic tasks. Electromyography was recorded from the internal oblique and lumbar multifidus muscles, and the COP was recorded using a baropodometer placed on the stool. These variables were measured during easy (EA) and difficult (DA) arithmetic tasks. EMG activity decreased during the EA and DA tasks, while the COP was displaced in the DA task. The results of the arithmetic tasks were not related to the EMG or COP changes. Attention to maintain a seated posture may be reduced when children perform cognitive tasks. Therefore, it may be better to allow children to alter their posture especially when they are performing difficult tasks. In this research, we only used arithmetic tasks as the cognitive exercise, and therefore, other types of tasks should be examined.

  2. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar (United States)

    Gonçalves, R. M.


    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome.

  3. Finding of corundum-bearing rocks in the Lapland granulite belt (United States)

    Terekhov, E. N.; Shcherbakova, T. F.; Konilov, A. N.


    Corundum-bearing rocks are described for the first time in the Kandalaksha structure of the Lapland granulite belt. Corundum is confined to rocks of two types: metagabbro‒anorthosites constituting lenses among metaanarthosites of the Kandalaksha massif and basic granulites. Corundum crystals (up to 200 μm long) occur in plagioclase and garnet and differ from each other depending on the host mineral, which serves as evidence against their xenogenic nature. Some corundum crystals exhibit an axial zone, which may indicate their crystallization from the gaseous phase. Corundum-bearing rocks are accompanied by piclogites (pyroxene‒garnet varieties with olivine). Piclogites and their minerals (clinopyroxene, garnet) are characterized by a positive Eu anomaly, which implies rock reworking by fluids during corundum formation, when deep-seated complexes were subjected to exhumation.

  4. Late-Neoproterozoic hydrothermal fluid activity in the Tandilia belt, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Martínez


    Full Text Available In the Barker - Villa Cacique area, Tandilia belt, alteration mineral assemblages were studied by petrography, XRD and EMPA at three different stratigraphic levels: (1 a phyllic alteration at the unconformity palaeoproterozoic basement-neoproterozoic sedimentary succession (TLPU; (2 an advanced argillic alteration in the Las Águilas Formation (middle level; and (3 a phyllic alteration on pyroclastic rocks of the Olavarría Formation (upper level. Special emphasize was placed on the chemical characterization of K-white micas and chlorites. Secondary K-white micas of altered migmatites, from the Las Aguilas and Olavarría Formations have a low paragonite content (Na* 9.5 km for the entire sedimentary pile. Hot fluids would rise from deep-seated realms, metamorphic and/or hidden igneous sources. A correlation with a Brasiliano thermo-tectonic event is hypothesized.

  5. 正面碰撞时轿车后排乘员的保护%Protection of Rear Seat Passenger in Front Crash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田金鑫; 吴云腾; 何新


    为提高轿车后排乘员在发生正面碰撞时的安全性,文章利用碰撞仿真分析软件MADYMO,建立包括某轿车车体、安全带和假人的乘员约束系统正面碰撞模型,并与碰撞试验结果进行对比,验证了模型有效性。利用该模型对安全带形式和座垫角度对乘员的HIC、胸部3ms加速度和左右大腿力等损伤值的影响进行了比较,表明使用3点式安全带同时匹配座垫倾角25。的方法,能使头部损伤下降59%,胸部伤害下降20%,腿部损伤下降70%.有效提高后排乘员的安全性。%In order to improve the safety of rear occupants when front crash happens, an occupant restraint system model consisting of car bodies, safety belts and a dummy was established and its validity was verified by contrasting with the vehicle impact test based on the software MADYMO for impact simulation analysis. The effect of design parameters including belts and cushion angles on passenger injury values was researched by using this model. With the improvement of decreasing the HIC, T3ms, as well as the head injury, chest injury and leg injury by 59%, 20%, and 70% respectively, the method of using three- point seat belts and seat cushions at the angle of 25° was proposed so that the safety of the rear seat occupants can be effectively improved.

  6. Research on Vibration Characteristics Between Human Body and Seat, Steering Wheel, and Pedals (effects of Seat Position on Ride Comfort) (United States)



    Experimental results are presented of the vibrational characteristics of the automotive subsystem comprising the human body, seat, steering wheel and pedals. The magnitude of the vibrations transferred to a driver from the seat, steering wheel and pedals have been measured with both sinusoidal and random excitations in the vertical direction at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Measurement points were located on the surface of the head, chest, hip, thigh, shin, upper arm and lower arm. Eleven subjects were used to investigate the effect of some variable factors, such as arm angle, that may affect human dynamic behavior. It was found that arm angle in driving posture has a substantial influence on the dynamic behavior of the human body while driving. Some results are presented in the form of parametric graphs and tables. The results are useful for improving ride comfort, maneuverability and safety.

  7. Feasibility of closed-loop controller for righting seated posture after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie O. Murphy, BSE


    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI can compromise the ability to maintain an erect seated posture. This study examined the feasibility of a sensor-based threshold controller to automatically modulate stimulation to paralyzed hip and trunk extensor muscles to restore upright sitting from forward leaning postures. Forward trunk tilt was estimated from the anterior-posterior component of gravitational acceleration sensed by a sternum-mounted wireless accelerometer. Stimulation increased if trunk tilt exceeded a specified flexion threshold and ceased once upright sitting was resumed. The controller was verified experimentally in five volunteers with SCI and successfully returned all subjects to upright postures from forward leaning positions. Upper-limb effort exerted while returning to erect posture was significantly reduced (to 7.4% +/– 3.7% of body mass pooled across all volunteers while using the controller compared with using continuous and no stimulation (p < 0.03. Controller response times were consistent among subjects when applied while sitting with (0.30 +/– 0.05 s or without (0.34 +/– 0.11 s a backrest. The controller enabled volunteers to lean farther forward (59.7° +/– 16.4° in wheelchairs without upper-limb effort than with no stimulation. Clinical utility of the system for facilitating reach or preventing falls remains to be determined in future studies.

  8. Mechanism of sound absorption by seated audience in halls. (United States)

    Nishihara, N; Hidaka, T; Beranek, L L


    Four methods are explored for predicting the reverberation times in fully occupied halls for music as related to the sound absorption by their audiences. The methods for providing audience absorptions include two that use reverberation chambers, namely, the ISO 354 method (and other similar standards) (ISO) and Kath and Kuhl's method (K & K) [Acustica 15, 127-131 (1965)], and two that use average data from halls, i.e., Beranek's method (COH) [Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, Melville, NY, 1996)], and the average audience power-per-seat absorption which in practice is multiplied by the number of seats (AA). These methods are applied to the calculation of reverberation times in six existing halls, fully occupied, and the results were compared with actual measurements. The COH method was best for predictions over the entire frequency range. The K & K method showed the highest accuracy at mid-frequencies. Both the ISO and the K & K methods yielded wide differences for the measurements in the 125- and 250-Hz bands. The AA method was as good as the COH method when the measurements for the six halls were averaged, but showed a wide spread in the predictions around the average because it does not consider the degree of upholstering of the seats. It was hypothecated by the authors that the principal reasons for the ISO and K & K discrepancies at low frequencies were (a) differences between the degree of sound diffusion in actual halls and that in reverberation chambers, and (b) lack of information on the mechanisms of absorption of sound by people seated side-by-side in rows, particularly for near-grazing incidence sound fields. First, this article explores the sound diffusivity in a reverberation chamber and in the halls using CAD models. A probability density function of the incident angles of the sound rays that impinge on the audiences is defined and was measured for each case. Using a unique method, the sound absorption

  9. 滑块式皮带排线机构设计%Design of slipper block belt traversing machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房亚; 刘勺华; 周洪如; 李彦


    Specific to the problems available in the existing traversing mechanism, such as complex structures, high manufacturing costs,high precision requirement in assembly as well as huge impact force and easy to wear and so on, a new slider type belt traversing mechanism was designed,which belt is driven by a gear motor and traverse through the bore of cable guide pulley seat.Since a thrust block with inclined hole which is movable in radial direction is mounted at the bore of the pulley seat, the thrust block moves back and forth up and down in the reciprocating process of oblique slider driven by the cylinder,thus the pulley seat shall clamp respectively the upper side and lower side of the belt and move back and forth with the belt.The mechanism is characterized with its advantages of simple structure,high manufacturing precision as well as low manufacturing cost and less impact force in changing of direction.%针对目前排线机构结构复杂,制造成本高,装配精度要求高、受冲击力大,易造成磨损等问题,设计了一种新型滑块式皮带排线机构.该机构通过减速电机驱动皮带运行,而皮带穿过排线导轮座的内孔,由于排线导轮座的内孔安装有内设有斜孔并能径向移动的止推块,通过气缸使斜形滑块在往复移动过程中,使止推块沿径向上下往复移动,从而使排线导轮座分别夹紧皮带的上边或下边,使皮带带动排线导轮座左右作往复运动.具有结构简单,制造精度高,制造成本低廉,换向时冲击力小等优点.

  10. Multi-leg Seat Inventory Control Based on EMSU and Virtual Bucket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan


    Full Text Available Expected marginal seat revenue (EMSR is a well-known method for airline seat inventory control airlines. However, this method employs a static model to study the dynamic reservation process, and does not take into account the risk tolerance of policy makers. Expected marginal seat utility (EMSU replaces revenue by utility, which addresses the real situation of seat inventory control. However, there is still a lack of multi-leg seat control algorithms based on EMSU. Therefore, using EMSU and bucket algorithms, this paper applies the Markov decision-making process to simulate the flight reservation process and builds a dynamic multi-leg seat inventory control model. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Computer-aided design of conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karolewski, B.; Pytel, J.


    Possibilities are discussed for using mathematical models of belt conveyors for development of computer-aided design of conveyors for coal mining. Examples of optimization tasks and methods for their solution using computerized simulation are analyzed. The analysis is illustrated by an algorithm used to design a starter for the drive system of a belt conveyor. Electromagnetic moment and starting current are used as optimization criteria. A simplified model of a belt conveyor is used. The model consists of an equation of motion with variable braking moment and variable moment of inertia. 3 references.

  12. Collisional evolution of the early asteroid belt (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, Ricardo; Brunini, Adrián


    We present numerical results obtained by a simulation of the collisional process between asteroids and scattered comets from the Uranus-Neptune zone. This mechanism allows the use of single exponent incremental size distributions for the initial belt reaching a final distribution that matches the observed population very well. Since the cometary bombardment was extremely efficient removing mass from the primordial asteroid belt in a very short time, we always obtained belts with total masses less than 0.001 M ⊕ after ≈ 2×10 7 yrs. This result allows processes with an important initial mass preserving Vestas basaltic crust.

  13. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua


    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  14. Word Automaticity of Tree Automatic Scattered Linear Orderings Is Decidable

    CERN Document Server

    Huschenbett, Martin


    A tree automatic structure is a structure whose domain can be encoded by a regular tree language such that each relation is recognisable by a finite automaton processing tuples of trees synchronously. Words can be regarded as specific simple trees and a structure is word automatic if it is encodable using only these trees. The question naturally arises whether a given tree automatic structure is already word automatic. We prove that this problem is decidable for tree automatic scattered linear orderings. Moreover, we show that in case of a positive answer a word automatic presentation is computable from the tree automatic presentation.

  15. Car safety seat usage and selection among families attending University Hospital Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scully, P


    The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.

  16. Application of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing for sharp corner and tangent contact lens seats (United States)

    Hopkins, C. L.; Burge, J. H.


    This paper outlines methods for dimensioning and tolerancing lens seats that mate with spherical lens surfaces. The two types of seats investigated are sharp corner and tangent contact. The goal is to be able to identify which seat dimensions influence lens tilt and displacement and develop a quantifiable way to assign tolerances to those dimensions to meet tilt and displacement requirements. After looking at individual seats, methods are then applied to multiple lenses with examples. All geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is according to ASME Y14.5M - 1994.

  17. Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat design. (United States)

    Makhsous, M; Hendrix, R; Crowther, Z; Nam, E; Lin, F


    A new car seat design, which allows the back part of the seat (BPS) to lower down while a protruded cushion supports the lumbar spine, was quantitatively tested to determine its effectiveness and potentials in reducing whole-body vibration (WBV) and musculoskeletal disorders in automobile drivers. Nine subjects were tested to drive with the seat in: 1) the conventional seating arrangement (Normal posture); and 2) the new seating design (without BPS (WO-BPS) posture). By reducing contact between the seat and the ischial tuberosities (ITs), the new seating design reduced both contact pressure and amplitude of vibrations transmitted through the body. Root-mean-squared values for acceleration along the z-axis at the lumbar spine and ITs significantly decreased 31.6% (p spine and ITs by 43.0% (p < 0.05) and 34.5% (p < 0.01). This reduction in WBV allows more sustained driving than permitted by conventional seating devices, by several hours, before sustaining unacceptable WBV levels. Such seating devices, implemented in large trucks and other high-vibration vehicles, may reduce the risk of WBV-related musculoskeletal disorders among drivers.

  18. Development of Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry Data in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle based off of new anthropometric requirements. These requirements specify the need to account for a spinal elongation factor for anthropometric measurements involving the spine, such as eye height and seated height. However, to date there is no data relating spinal elongation to a seated posture. Only data relating spinal elongation to stature has been collected in microgravity. Therefore, it was proposed to collect seated height in microgravity to provide the Constellation designers appropriate data for their analyses. This document will describe the process in which the best method to collect seated height in microgravity was developed.

  19. A new landing impact attenuation seat in manned spacecraft biologically-inspired by felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hui


    Full Text Available When manned spacecraft comes back to the earth, it relies on the impact attenuation seat to protect astronauts from injuries during landing phase. Hence, the seat needs to transfer impact load, as small as possible, to the crew. However, there is little room left for traditional seat to improve further. Herein, a new seat system biologically-inspired by felids’ landing is proposed. Firstly, a series of experiments was carried out on cats and tigers, in which they were trained to jump down voluntarily from different heights. Based on the ground reaction forces combined with kinematics, the experiment indicated that felids’ landing after self-initial jump was a multi-step impact attenuation process and the new seat was inspired by this. Then the construction and work process of new seat were redesigned to realize the multi-step impact attenuation. The dynamic response of traditional and new seat is analyzed under the identical conditions and the results show that the new concept seat can significantly weaken the occupant overload in two directions compared with that of traditional seat. As a consequence, the risk of injury evaluated for spinal and head is also lowered, meaning a higher level of protection which is especially beneficial to the debilitated astronaut.

  20. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  1. Association between thrombophilia and seated immobility venous thromboembolism. (United States)

    Siniarski, Aleksander; Wypasek, Ewa; Fijorek, Kamil; Gajos, Grzegorz; Undas, Anetta


    Prolonged work and recreation-related seated immobility increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Little is known about links of thrombophilia and prolonged immobility. We sought to determine factors associated with the occurrence of seated immobility venous thromboembolism (SIT). Four hundred and ninety-three consecutive outpatients with a history of first-ever VTE, aged up to 65 years were referred for evaluation of suspected thrombophilia. Exclusion criteria were provoked VTE unless family history of VTE was positive, arterial thrombosis, cancer, infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. The prolonged immobility group was defined as being seated at least 8 h daily and at least 3 h daily without getting up, or 10 h daily and 2 h daily without getting up, or 12 h daily and 1 h daily without getting up during 12 weeks prior to VTE onset. SIT was observed in 115 patients (24.5%). Inherited thrombophilia was more common among SIT patients than in the remainder [Odds ratio (OR) 3.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.55-6.25], with a major impact of factor V Leiden mutation (FVL) (OR 4.86, 95% CI 2.95-8.05). In multivariate analysis, FVL (OR 5.43, 95% CI 3.23-9.15), trauma (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.30-4.99), current smoking (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.06-2.67) and varices (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.27-3.40) were independent predictors of SIT. Moreover, FVL (OR 4.05, 95% CI 2.12-7.76), prothrombin G20210A variant (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.47-10.05) and computer use (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.43-5.63) were independent predictors of unprovoked VTE in the SIT group. Inherited thrombophilia, current smoking and varices characterize patients with SIT.

  2. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    DeMeo, Francesca E; Walsh, Kevin J; Chapman, Clark R; Binzel, Richard P


    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization with over half a million known asteroids and over 100,000 with some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the Main Asteroid Belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of Solar System evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the Asteroid Belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire Solar System?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after Solar System formation. This article reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of...

  3. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.


    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  4. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.


    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  5. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Renu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64,000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that Plummer's (1916) conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution: there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than $\\sim0.1$ and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance: the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modeled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Ra...

  6. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  7. Selected Design Parameters for Reclining Seats Based on Engineering Anthropometry (United States)


    Height 21.8 0.92 Not available Sitting Cervicale Height 25.5 0.86 Not available Sitting Knee Height 21.8 0.83 21.97 0.94 * All linear dimensions in...proper targets were affixed on these landmarks. *A horizontal line at the level of the spinous process of T-4 (4th thoracic vertebra ) was drawn on the... vertebra at upright seated position. Point #13 is the body point of contact with the subject’s back and the back rest. T-4 mark t Tý) 1- 419-- 0 t si g

  8. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  9. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive? (United States)

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D


    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  10. System for conveyor belt part picking using structured light and 3D pose estimation (United States)

    Thielemann, J.; Skotheim, Ø.; Nygaard, J. O.; Vollset, T.


    Automatic picking of parts is an important challenge to solve within factory automation, because it can remove tedious manual work and save labor costs. One such application involves parts that arrive with random position and orientation on a conveyor belt. The parts should be picked off the conveyor belt and placed systematically into bins. We describe a system that consists of a structured light instrument for capturing 3D data and robust methods for aligning an input 3D template with a 3D image of the scene. The method uses general and robust pre-processing steps based on geometric primitives that allow the well-known Iterative Closest Point algorithm to converge quickly and robustly to the correct solution. The method has been demonstrated for localization of car parts with random position and orientation. We believe that the method is applicable for a wide range of industrial automation problems where precise localization of 3D objects in a scene is needed.

  11. Decay rate of the second radiation belt. (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loinard


    Full Text Available Observaciones que utilizan la interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI por sus siglas en ingl´es pueden proveer la posición de radiofuentes compactas con una precisión del orden de 50 micro-segundos de arco. Esto es suficiente para medir la paralaje trigonométrica y los movimientos propios de cualquier objeto localizado hasta 500 pc del Sol con una precisión mejor que unos porcientos. Por ser magnéticamente activas, las estrellas jóvenes a menudo emiten emisión radio compacta detectable usando técnicas VLBI. Aquí, mostraremos cómo observaciones VLBI ya han restringido la distancia a las regiones de formación estelar cercanas más frecuentemente estudiadas (Tauro, Ofiuco, Orión, etc. y han empezado a revelar su estructura y su cinemática interna. Luego, describiremos un gran proyecto (llamado The Gould's Belt Distance Survey diseñado para proveer una vista detallada de la formación estelar en la vecindad Solar, usando observaciones VLBI.

  13. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.


    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  14. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke


    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  15. Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment (Spinal) (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen


    The primary objective of this project is to provide information pertaining to changes in seated height due to spinal elongation in a microgravity environment. The proposed experiment aims to collect seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments, provide information relating to seated height rate of change over time, and feed new information regarding the elongation of the spine forward into the design of Constellation systems. Historical data indicates that spinal elongation occurs when crewmembers are subjected to microgravity. In as little as two days, the typical crewmember will exhibit increases in stature of up to 3 percent. However, data has been collected only for crewmembers in standing postures, and a limited pool of subjects was available. Due to the criticality of seated height in the design of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Small changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the CEV. The proposed study will directly measure changes in seated height for crewmembers in the Shuttle cockpit. An anthropometer will be used to record measurements to the top of the head of a seated subject, and an orthogonal photograph will be taken in order to measure seated height based on scaling references of known sizes as well as verify the posture and positioning remained consistent throughout the study. Data gained from this study will provide better information to CEV designers. Accurate measurements of crew seated height will be valuable for vehicle and habitation designers for future programs as well.

  16. Numerical simulation and disaster prevention for catastrophic fire airflow of main air-intake belt roadway in coal mine-A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周刚; 程卫民; 张睿; 沈宝堂; 聂文; 张磊; 王昊


    Coal mine belt fire develops very rapidly and is difficult to control. If not suppressed quickly, a belt fire could easily lead to airflow disorder and undermine the ventilation system. However, belt fire can be prevented effectively by establishing fire airflow control system. In this work, the 5th belt roadway of Kongzhuang coal mine was taken as the object of investigation, where geometrical models of this roadway were established firstly. Then, based on mathematical model of fire smoke flow, the CO volume fraction, smoke density distribution, air temperature and pollutant velocity vector in the roadway before and after taking airflow control measures were simulated by using Fluent software. It can be known from the simulation that with the normal ventilation status in 5th belt roadway, the countercurrent of smoke does not happen when a fire occurs; the roadway’s section is almost filled with CO at 10 m downstream from the fire source, and with air velocity getting stable gradually, the CO concentration reaches about 15 %. After taking airflow control measures, the effect range of temperature field which are harmful to the miners decreases from 69 m to 30 m; and the distance of the roadway fully filled with CO is 5 m farther than that before taking measures. Finally, according to the numerical simulation results and the actual condition of the belt roadway, the warning and automatic remote airflow control system with short-circuit method for the 5th belt roadway was designed to guarantee the safety production.

  17. Improved Seat, Console, and Workplace Design: Annotated Bibliography, Integration of the Literature, Accommodation Model, and Seated Operator Reach Profiles (United States)


    1.1 in.). (6) The backrest is most effective within the range of the 2nd to the 5th lumbar vertebrae . Th., distance of the backrest to the seat of...made. SIGIICANT RESULTS Measurement Mean S.D. Weight 171.40 lbs. 19.09 lbs. Stature 69.94 in. 2.33 in. Cervicale height 59.51 in. 2.18 in. Sitting...trouble between the 5th lumbar and the lst sacral vertebrae . The mean age for males wea 55 years and for females 59 years. APPARATUS: A reat was used

  18. Restaurant No. 1 seating capacity increases by 240

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    These days you need patience when looking for a seat in Restaurant No. 1 to eat your lunch. The opening of the new dining room, which will increase the restaurant’s seating capacity by 240, should alleviate the problem and improve service.   The new restaurant area. For the past several years the number of people using Restaurant No. 1 has grown steadily. Now, for a change, the restaurant itself is growing. Luz Lopez-Hernandez, leader of the project in the GS Department, explains: “Enlarging the restaurant has been on the GS Department's agenda for several years, but the project really got off the ground in 2009. Once it was approved and the design completed, construction itself only took seven months.” Seven months later, the restaurant extension is indeed on the verge of opening. One of the people who will be particularly happy is Joël Nallet, who manages the Novae restaurant: “I am thrilled, because until now, even if we managed to increase...

  19. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)


    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  20. Research on Impact Parameters of 3 Years Old Child Safety Seat Based on MADYMO%基于MADYMO的3岁儿童汽车安全座椅的安全性影响参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王枫红; 陈炽坤; 胡小强


    The security of child safety is very important. It must be past the standard collision test. The simulation collision based on MADYMO can help designers to know about influence of the main design parameters to the security of child safety seat, and improve the succeed of the design. Based on MADYMO, it carries some simulation collision tests with different coefficients of friction, analyzes the shoulder positions of the lift belt, rigidities of the lift belt and rigidities of the seat, shows the detail about the test resultsl.%儿童汽车安全座椅的安全性至关重要,必须通过相关的标准碰撞测试.基于MADYMO软件的虚拟碰撞技术,可以帮助设计师在产品设计阶段就清晰了解影响座椅主要设计参数对安全性的影响,从而提高设计的成功率.基于MADYMO,分别进行了不同座椅摩擦系数、安全带肩位位置、安全带的刚度以及座椅刚度等情况下的虚拟碰撞,并对测试结果进行了详细的分析.

  1. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  2. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by members of the IFIP Working Group 2.1 of which Bob was an active member. All papers are related to some of the research interests of Bob and, in particular, to the transformational development of programs and their algorithmic derivation from formal specifications. Automatic Program Development offers......Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his...... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers...

  3. Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests. (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Bohman, Katarina; Bussières, Alain


    Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car. The near-side seating position was occupied by a Hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in the sled tests, and a rear or front facing child restraint or a 5th percentile side impact ATD in the crash tests. Head impacts occurred more frequently in vehicles where a forward facing child restraint was present behind the driver seat for both the low and high back booster seats. Pretensioners were found to reduce lateral head displacements in all sled test configurations but the greatest reduction in lateral excursion was obtained with a high back booster seat secured with LATCH and tested in combination with pretensioners.

  4. Optimization of geometry of annular seat valves suitable for Digital Displacement fluid power pumps/motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    work an annular seat valve suitable for use in Digital Displacement units is considered, and the ring geometry is optimized using finite element analysis including non-linear material behaviour, contact elements and fluid pressure penetrating load, closely reflecting the actual load of the seat valve...

  5. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule (United States)


    ... use is not known. Data from a 2005 survey by the American Baby Group (2006 Baby Products Tracking... entail use with wet, naked babies. The data associated with these two incidents suggest that the unique... for bath seats, leaving the designer ample freedom to design a bath seat that allows easy entry...

  6. Seat Adjustment Design of an Intelligent Robotic Wheelchair Based on the Stewart Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Er Hsu


    Full Text Available A wheelchair user makes direct contact with the wheelchair seat, which serves as the interface between the user and the wheelchair, for much of any given day. Seat adjustment design is of crucial importance in providing proper seating posture and comfort. This paper presents a multiple‐DOF (degrees of freedom seat adjustment mechanism, which is intended to increase the independence of the wheelchair user while maintaining a concise structure, light weight, and intuitive control interface. This four‐axis Stewart platform is capable of heaving, pitching, and swaying to provide seat elevation, tilt‐in‐space, and sideways movement functions. The geometry and types of joints of this mechanism are carefully arranged so that only one actuator needs to be controlled, enabling the wheelchair user to adjust the seat by simply pressing a button. The seat is also equipped with soft pressure‐sensing pads to provide pressure management by adjusting the seat mechanism once continuous and concentrated pressure is detected. Finally, by comparing with the manual wheelchair, the proposed mechanism demonstrated the easier and more convenient operation with less effort for transfer assistance.

  7. Effect of seat surface inclination on postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van der Heide, Jolanda C.; Fock, Johanna M.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert


    Background and Purpose Because it is debatable whether seat surface inclination improves motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the effect of seat surface tilting on postural control and quality of reaching was studied. Subjects The subjects were 58 children with CP aged 2 to 11 years

  8. Vibration control of electrorheological seat suspension with human-body model using sliding mode control (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Han, Young-Min


    This paper presents vibration control performance of a semi-active electrorheological (ER) seat suspension system using a robust sliding mode controller (SMC). A cylindrical type of ER seat damper is manufactured for a commercial vehicle seat suspension and its field-dependent damping force is experimentally evaluated. A vertical vibration model of human-body is then derived and integrated with the governing equations of the ER seat suspension system. The integrated seat-driver model featured by a high order degree-of-freedom (dof) is reduced through a balanced model reduction method. The SMC is then designed based on the reduced model and the state observer is formulated to estimate feedback states which cannot be directly measured from sensors. By imposing a semi-active actuating condition, the synthesized SMC is experimentally realized. In the experimental implementation, a driver directly sits on the controlled seat. Both vertical displacement and acceleration are measured at seat frame and driver's head, respectively. Control performances are evaluated under various road conditions and compared with those obtained from conventional passive seat suspension system.

  9. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats (United States)


    ... modifications to reduce further the risk of injury associated with infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of August 30, 2013 (78 FR 53734),...

  10. Gender Differences in Student Attitude for Seating Layout in College Classrooms (United States)

    Burgess, Brigitte; Kaya, Naz


    This study examined whether gender influenced college students' attitudes regarding classroom seating layout. Seating layouts included: a) rows of tablet-arm chairs, b) U-shaped, c) clusters, and d) rows of tables with individual chairs. The sample consisted of 912 college students. Factor analysis yielded two dimensions: "Feeling at Ease" and…

  11. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel


    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  12. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike


    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  13. Effect of Therapy Ball Seating on Learning and Sitting Discomforts among Saudi Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas Al-Eisa


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of therapy ball seating as an alternative for typical chair seating in a classroom. We evaluated the effect of ball seating on the student's sitting discomfort and academic performance using Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire and problem-based learning scales, respectively. A sample of convenience was taken. Data was collected and analyzed using t-test. Subjects experienced a major discomfort at neck and a minor discomfort at knee joint. Results showed that there was a significant improvement (P≤0.05 in sitting discomfort and student's performance when seated on therapy balls compared to typical classroom chairs. This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of therapy balls as a classroom seating for students who exhibit sitting discomfort and problem-based learning.

  14. Effect of a Dynamic Seating Surface on Postural Control and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; Trew, Lisa

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate if a seating system involving a dynamic material covering the seat back and base improves postural control, alignment and function in children with cerebral palsy and to investigate consequences of adapting The Seated Postural Control Measure to a target...... group with multifunctional disabilities. Relevance: Developing sitting systems for disabled persons is of great importance to avoid sitting problems, to increase the level of functioning and postural control which will have an impact on their daily living and activities. This project takes its starting...... Ethical Committee. Outcome measures were Seated Postural Control Measure (SPCM), which was modified to meet the children’s needs, was used to measure alignment and function. Force Sensitive Applications (FSA) on the seat surfaces was used to measure postural movements and interface pressure. All tests...

  15. Optimization of Car Seats in the Interaction of Sitting Man on the Size of the Contact Pressure (United States)

    Martonka, R.; Fliegel, V.

    The crew vehicle, the driver and passengers are in a car in direct interaction with the car seat while driving, which affects a sitting person in many areas such as safety, comfort, a feeling of comfort and customization to individual requirements, ergonomics and variability. All these effects are caused by one or a group of elements used in the construction of the seat. Objective assessment of the requirements for the construction of car seats, regardless of the characteristics of the occupant is not possible to provide a subjective feeling of comfort for any seated person. Therefore, we include in the design of automotive seat occupant's subjective feelings. It is clear that car seats must "adapt" individual characteristics of a seated man (weight, corpulence, age, gender,…). One of the subjective feelings of a man sitting in the seat is comfortable for any seated person defined differently. Correlation was found between comfort seats and contact pressure distribution depending on the weight of a seated man. It is understandable that every sitting person has a different distribution of contact pressure. This has resulted in the same seat each person differently seems comfortable-hard. The research objective is always to ensure maximum contact area for any seated person. Parameter that must be optimized is the hardness of butt pads sitting person (usually polyurethane pad coated fabric cover).In the conventional design seat cushion hardness is fixed, without the possibility of adaptability by the individuality sitting man. This article deals with the assessment, definition and optimization of hardness of pad in the automobile seat, the contact pressure distribution and determining the regulatory range of hardness depending on the weight of a seated man.

  16. 两种典型安全带布局对乘员的保护比较%Comparison between Two Typical Seat Occupant Protection Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾栋; 邱信明


    In order to exploit the effectiveness of safety belt in occupant protection, the finite element model of the seat occupant protection systems were build by applying Dytran and ATB codes. Two typical sets of safety belt are evaluated under the given impact condition in compliance with the FAA requirements. Comparisons are drawn in accordance with occupant dynamic response and injury criteria, and characteristics of both sets are concluded respectively.%为了探究飞机坠毁过程中,安全带座椅系统对乘员的保护情况,利用DYTRAN软件结合ATB数字假人进行了有限元仿真计算.分别针对装备斜三点式和四点式安全带的两种典型的座椅系统,参照FAA对航空用座椅实验的要求,设置了两组冲击载荷.通过对比其碰撞动态响应,并评估可能的乘员损伤情况,总结了两种安全带形式各自的优缺点.

  17. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.


    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  18. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads


    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  19. Exploring Automatization Processes. (United States)

    DeKeyser, Robert M.


    Presents the rationale for and the results of a pilot study attempting to document in detail how automatization takes place as the result of different kinds of intensive practice. Results show that reaction times and error rates gradually decline with practice, and the practice effect is skill-specific. (36 references) (CK)

  20. Automatic Color Sorting Machine Using TCS230 Color Sensor And PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunhimohammed C K


    Full Text Available Sorting of products is a very difficult industrial process. Continuous manual sorting creates consistency issues. This paper describes a working prototype designed for automatic sorting of objects based on the color. TCS230 sensor was used to detect the color of the product and the PIC16F628A microcontroller was used to control the overall process. The identification of the color is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Two conveyor belts were used, each controlled by separate DC motors. The first belt is for placing the product to be analyzed by the color sensor, and the second belt is for moving the container, having separated compartments, in order to separate the products. The experimental results promise that the prototype will fulfill the needs for higher production and precise quality in the field of automation.

  1. Automaticity and Reading: Perspectives from the Instance Theory of Automatization. (United States)

    Logan, Gordon D.


    Reviews recent literature on automaticity, defining the criteria that distinguish automatic processing from non-automatic processing, and describing modern theories of the underlying mechanisms. Focuses on evidence from studies of reading and draws implications from theory and data for practical issues in teaching reading. Suggests that…

  2. Sliding Threshold Identification of a Deep-Seated Potential Landslide (United States)

    Wang, K.-L.; Liao, J.-T.; Chen, C.-W.; Lin, M.-L.; Lin, H.-H.


    The process for a creep landslide to rapid landslide is quite difficult to solve owing to each landslide is unique. The initiation of landslide probably results from heavy rainfall, seismic force, or even cut off at toe. However, the sliding deformation can be monitored once the sliding is still happening. The index to identify sliding usually uses displacement especially one directional displacement. Thus the design of landslide warning system usually includes displacement across stale part and sliding part, GPS, and rainfall. A deep-seated potential landslide site is selected to develop a relationship between rainfall, groundwater level, 3-D deformation, tilting. Monitored data was documented from 2005 to 2011, including at least three heavy rainfall events. Measured deformation data such as GPS data, slope indicators, scar displacement, in-hole displacement, terrestrial LiDAR, and photogrammetry are summed to discuss sliding process. Threshold indexes such as 3-D deformation and tilting angle under extreme conditions will be proposed in this study.

  3. Stress analysis and design strategy for lightweight car seat frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.G. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Jeonju Univ., Jeonju (Korea)


    A seat frame structure in automotive vehicles made of polymer matrix composite(PMC) with reinforced by X-shape steel frame was developed to obtain weight reduction at low cost. The frame structure was designed and analysed using finite element analysis(FEA) and was compared with experimental impact test to verify the structural safety after fabricated. The design model based on safety was analysed with appropriate boundary conditions and loading conditions. Each result was utilized to modify the actual shape to obtain a lighter, safer and stabler design. It was found that the substitution of PMC material reinforced by an X-shaped steel frame resulted in a weight reduction effect with equivalent strength, impact characteristics and fracture property. (orig.)

  4. Hardfacing materials used in valves for seating and wear surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, W.G.


    Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity.

  5. Ionospheric heating for radiation-belt control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, W.J.; Villalon, E.


    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons, as formulated by Kennel and Petschek 1, describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a slot region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. We describe a set of planned, active experiments in which VLF radiation will be injected from ground and space based transmitters in conjunction with the CRRES satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments will measure the intensity of waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves. An ability to reduce the flux of energetic particles trapped in the radiation belts by artificial means could improve the reliability of microelectronic components on earth-observing satellites in middle-altitude orbits.

  6. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  7. Effect Of Vibration Amplitude Level On Seated Occupant Reaction Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amzar Azizan


    Full Text Available The past decade has seen the rapid development of vibration comfort in the automotive industry. However little attention has been paid to vibration drowsiness. Eighteen male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Before commencing the experiment total transmitted acceleration measured at interfaces between the seat cushion and seatback to human body was adjusted to become 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s and 0.4 ms-2 r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration with frequency band 1-15 Hz at two level of amplitude low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude for 20-minutes in separate days. For the purpose of drowsiness measurement volunteers were asked to complete 10-minutes PVT test before and after vibration exposure and rate their subjective drowsiness by giving score using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale KSS before vibration every 5-minutes interval and following 20-minutes of vibration exposure. Strong evidence of drowsiness was found as there was a significant increase in reaction time and number of lapse following exposure to vibration in both conditions. However the effect is more apparent in medium vibration amplitude. A steady increase of drowsiness level can also be observed in KSS in all volunteers. However no significant differences were found in KSS between low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude. The results of this investigation suggest that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human alertness level and more pronounced at higher vibration amplitude. Taken together these findings suggest a role of vibration in promoting drowsiness especially at higher vibration amplitude.

  8. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles......, the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  9. Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control (United States)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena


    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.

  10. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei


    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  11. Development of belt conveyor driving system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jun-qing(付峻青); WANG Cong(王聪); HUO Wei(霍伟)


    A short review for the existing various driving methods for belt conveyor was given, which include the analysis and comparison about the advantages, disadvantages and suitable application range of these methods. Based on this the variable-frequency-control(VFC) method for belt conveyor drive was fully discussed with focus on its application in medium-high voltage range. The principle of Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Three-Level Inverter using high-voltage IGBTs together with the control strategy of rotor field-oriented vector control for induction motor drive were illustrated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Ibishi


    Full Text Available In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension mechanization, so forces on the rope passing through pulley there has to dominate the friction coefficient. All this process is related to economy of transportationmechanism.

  13. Effect of Head Injury Criterion on Front Row Passenger Seats in Economy Class for Transport Aircraft%浅析运输类飞机经济舱头排旅客座椅头部损伤判据的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper introduces the concept of head injury criterion ( HIC) , airworthiness requirements and the HIC related parameters which effected front row passenger seats in economy class cabin of transport aircraft. Effect of parameters on Seat Setback Distance with Bulkhead panel , bulkhead panel stiffness, safety belt webbing elonga-tion, the friction coefficient between the ATD and surface of the seat is presented. HIC compliant design of the front row passenger seats in economy class and bulkhead panel is suggested.%介绍了头部损伤判据HIC的概念、适航要求及影响运输类飞机客舱头排旅客座椅HIC的相关参数;叙述了旅客座椅头排距、头部撞击壁板的刚度、安全带织带伸长率、乘坐摩擦系数等参数的影响和重要程度;对如何设计符合HIC要求的经济舱头排旅客座椅和壁板提出了建议。

  14. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S


    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt.

  15. Using a pneumatic support to correct sitting posture for prolonged periods: a study using airline seats. (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Fenwick, Chad M J


    Prolonged sitting with spine flexion has been linked to low back disorders. A variety of mechanisms account for this based on biomechanical and neurological variables. Airline seats typically cause pronounced lumbar flexion due to their hollowed seat back design. A pneumatic support, placed between the seat back and the lumbar spine, was tested to see if lumbar flexion was reduced. Results showed that when the seats were positioned in the upright position, 15 of 20 participants experienced reduced lumbar flexion (by 15 degrees on average) with the support. The study was repeated on the five non-responders with the seatback set in the reclined position. This resulted in another four experiencing less lumbar flexion. Since seated flexion is associated with disc stress, reducing flexion with the support reduced lumbar stress. Spine flexion that results from prolonged sitting is associated with disc stress and pain. The pneumatic support tested here reduced spine flexion. While it is not known why airline seats are designed with no lumbar support, which causes excessive lumbar flexion while seated, the pneumatic support corrected this deficit. Reclining the seatback enhanced this effect.

  16. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. (United States)

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J


    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.

  17. Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses. (United States)

    Iyo, Toru; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Omae, Kazuyuki


    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine than their tap water sources. However, the total viable microbial count was below the water-quality standard for tap water. In addition, the heat of the toilet seats' warm-water tanks caused heterotrophic bacteria in the source tap water to proliferate inside the nozzle pipes and the warm-water tanks. Escherichia coli was detected on the spray nozzles of about 5% of the toilet seats, indicating that the self-cleaning mechanism of the spray nozzles was largely functioning properly. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on about 2% of the toilet seats. P. aeruginosa was found to remain for long durations in biofilms that formed inside warm-water tanks. Infection-prevention measures aimed at P. aeruginosa should receive full consideration when managing warm-water bidet toilet seats in hospitals in order to prevent opportunistic infections in intensive care units, hematology wards, and other hospital locations.

  18. Research and implementation of a shaking seat system for flight simulator (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolin; Yu, Youzhi; Shen, Weiqun; Song, Zishan


    To a helicopter the shaking seat system can simulate the vibration caused by the main rotor, tail rotor, engine, weapon firing, landing, etc. This paper focuses on the research and analysis of the shaking system of a helicopter flight simulator. The vibration model of the seat is built and the system is also developed. According to different flight states of the helicopter the vibration states of the seat are classified based on real measurement data, and the spectra of the vibration are interpolated to model the vibration of the seat. An electro-hydraulic servo system is used to drive the seat to shake along the direction that is parallel to the vertical body axis. The seat is shaken under the instructions at reference height with position close-loop control method, and the control law is PID algorithm. Running parameters of the system are configured by the software. The motional states of the shaking seat are displayed to the user through the visualization software. The main parts of the system and some key technologies of the implementation are also presented in the paper. The system can generate the special vibration environment in the helicopter flight process, and is successfully applied to the flight simulator. So the pilots' immersion feelings are increased.

  19. Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat. (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Ploger, James D; Johnson, Peter W


    Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration (A(w)), crest factor, vibration dose values, time-weighted average-peak, raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak and static compression dose (S(ed)) were compared between seats. There were significant differences in z-axis WBV exposures with the air suspension seat, yielding lower WBV exposures. In addition, there were differences between seats in how they attenuated WBV exposures based on the driver's weight. In the mechanical suspension seat, WBV exposures were weight-dependent, with lighter drivers having higher WBV exposures, whereas with the air suspension seat, the same trends were not as prevalent. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how different seat suspensions can influence WBV transmission and how some components of vibration transmission are dependent on the weight of the driver. Additional systematic studies are needed to quantify how various factors can influence WBV exposures.

  20. Effects of heated seat and foot heater on thermal comfort and heater energy consumption in vehicle. (United States)

    Oi, Hajime; Yanagi, Kotaro; Tabata, Koji; Tochihara, Yutaka


    Subjective experiments involving 12 different conditions were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The experimental conditions involved various combinations of the operative temperature in the test room (10 or 20°C), a heated seat (on/off) and a foot heater (room operative temperature +10 or +20°C). The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. The room operative temperature at which the occupants felt a 'neutral' overall thermal sensation was decreased by about 3°C by using the heated seat or foot heater and by about 6°C when both devices were used. Moreover, the effects of these devices on vehicle heater energy consumption were investigated using simulations. As a result, it was revealed that heated seats and foot heaters can reduce the total heater energy consumption of vehicles. Statement of Relevance: Subjective experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal comfort. The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. These devices can reduce the total heater energy consumption in vehicles.

  1. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Spinal Elongation in Microgravity on Seated Height (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station and to the Moon and beyond. One major accommodation and design issue that needs to be addressed with the current seat layout design is spinal elongation. Spinal elongation is the spinal growth that occurs due to straightening of the spinal curve and expansion of the inter-verbal discs in microgravity. Spinal elongation is critical to the design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation because of the implications it can have on the a safe return of the crewmembers or during the mission. Inadequate clearance between crewmembers and/or between crewmember hardware interfaces may potentially result in injury during the mission or upon returning to earth. Therefore, design requirements need to be determined that will allow for the elongation of the spine. The current requirement as specified in the Human Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document states that a 3% increase in standing height must be accommodated. However, it cannot be assumed that the amount of standing height growth is equivalent to the amount of spinal elongation because of the variation in body proportions between the lower body and torso. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the amount of spinal elongation for a seated posture for 6 Shuttle and 7 ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to determine the change in seated height and the amount of spinal growth that occurs due to microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement that will allow for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that increase in seated height is greater than the 3% increase currently stated in the requirement.

  2. Automaticity or active control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    aspects of the construct, such as routine, inertia, automaticity, or very little conscious deliberation. The data consist of 2962 consumers participating in a large European survey. The results show that habit strength significantly moderates the association between satisfaction and action loyalty, and......This study addresses the quasi-moderating role of habit strength in explaining action loyalty. A model of loyalty behaviour is proposed that extends the traditional satisfaction–intention–action loyalty network. Habit strength is conceptualised as a cognitive construct to refer to the psychological......, respectively, between intended loyalty and action loyalty. At high levels of habit strength, consumers are more likely to free up cognitive resources and incline the balance from controlled to routine and automatic-like responses....

  3. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    Medical ultrasound has been a widely used imaging modality in healthcare platforms for examination, diagnostic purposes, and for real-time guidance during surgery. However, despite the recent advances, medical ultrasound remains the most operator-dependent imaging modality, as it heavily relies...... on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  4. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin


    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  5. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  6. A QR Code Based Processing For Dynamic and Transparent Seat Allocation in Indian Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Mohan Swarup


    Full Text Available Indian Railway is worlds largest human transport system, is currently dealing with a lot of problems, such as availability of confirming seat to waiting list passengers after its departure. However there is no such system that presently in Indian railway gives accommodation to waiting list passengers during their journey. This paper proposes the Dynamic Seat Allocation (DSA system considering the advantage of QR code processing along with one of the standards of wireless communication. Moreover, dynamic authentication to the wireless device is incorporate which is passenger specific. Through this research paper our approach is to make fair processing in seat reservation or allocation in Indian Railway.

  7. Airline seat inventory control benefiting from currency differentials to enhance revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Love


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop an airline seat inventory control model which will capitalise on currency differentials that exist between city pairs. The approach taken here is to maximise Expected Marginal Seat Revenues as proposed by Belobaba for non-nested fare classes. the basic Expected Marginal Seat Revenue model is extended to explicitly include the effects of overbooking. Data from the South African Airways return flight between Cape Town and London is utilised to demonstrate the model.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德明; 王省身


    Because of the difficulties of describing the process of combustion of underground mine fires, usually the fire seat is considered as a fixed point in the methods of mine fire computer simulation, however this is not in keeping with the feature of the distribution of the combustibles and the process of combustion in mine fires. A conception about movable linear fire seat is put forward first by the authors, together with the calculated models of the thermal decomposition rate, flame spreading velocity and the steady burning length of a linear fire seat etc. The paper also introduces the results of the application of these models.

  9. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings. (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan


    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p optimal reference for bicycle seat designs.

  10. Automatization of lexicographic work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Kosem


    Full Text Available A new approach to lexicographic work, in which the lexicographer is seen more as a validator of the choices made by computer, was recently envisaged by Rundell and Kilgarriff (2011. In this paper, we describe an experiment using such an approach during the creation of Slovene Lexical Database (Gantar, Krek, 2011. The corpus data, i.e. grammatical relations, collocations, examples, and grammatical labels, were automatically extracted from 1,18-billion-word Gigafida corpus of Slovene. The evaluation of the extracted data consisted of making a comparison between the time spent writing a manual entry and a (semi-automatic entry, and identifying potential improvements in the extraction algorithm and in the presentation of data. An important finding was that the automatic approach was far more effective than the manual approach, without any significant loss of information. Based on our experience, we would propose a slightly revised version of the approach envisaged by Rundell and Kilgarriff in which the validation of data is left to lower-level linguists or crowd-sourcing, whereas high-level tasks such as meaning description remain the domain of lexicographers. Such an approach indeed reduces the scope of lexicographer’s work, however it also results in the ability of bringing the content to the users more quickly.

  11. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.


    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  12. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the r

  13. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  14. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies (United States)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar


    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  15. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics and Petrogenesis of the Anqing—Lujiang Quartz Syenite Rock Belt,East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章邦桐; 张富生; 等


    The Anqing-Lujiang quartz syenite rock belt consists of the Huangmeijian,Chengshan and Dalongshan composite batholiths which intruded into the Mesozoic strata.The country rocks were subjected to thermal contact metamorphism with little sign of folding and regional metamorphism.The rock belt is Late Yenshanian in age with a Rb-Sr isochron age of 135Ma.Major rock types are quartz syenited and ,to a lesser extent,syenite porphyry and alkali feldspar granited.Rock-forming minerals are dominantly potash feldspar(more than 50%)and lesser amounts of plagioclase and quartz.Mafic minerals,mostly Mg-biotite with lesser amounts of amphibole and pyroxene,are rare.Occasionally,alkalic mafic mineral(aegirine,riebeckite)are found.Characteristic accessory minerals of the earlier intrusives are magnetite,sphene and apatite and those of the later intrusives are ilmenite and zircon.Typologic distribution and evolutionary trend of zircon population are very similar to those of granites of mantle origin as suggested by Pupin,J.P.Petrochemically,the rock belt is poor in Ca but rich in alkali and Al with Na2O+K2O>10%.It belongs to the K-Na transitional series,with a high alkalinity rato(A.R.=3-7)and a K/Na(atom)ratio close to unity.Rocks in the belt are rich in REE which tends to decrease from the early to the late stage,belonging to LREE type.The initial Sr ratio is 0.7078-0.7064.The rock belt is the Mesozoic anorogenic product of alkalic magmatic activity from a deep-seated source.According to a mantle-crust mixing model for Sr and Pb isotoped,it is estimated that 60.2-53.8% of the materials has been derived from the mantle.Additionally,its rich alkali,poor water content and anorogenic characteristics suggest that the belt is similar to the A-type granites.

  16. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  17. The Gould Belt, the de Vaucouleurs-Dolidze Belt, and the Orion Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V


    Based on masers with measured trigonometric parallaxes, we have redetermined the spatial orientation parameters of the Local (Orion) arm. Using 23 sources (the Gould Belt objects were excluded), we have found that their spatial distribution can be approximated by a very narrow ellipsoid elongated in the direction L_1=77.1+/-2.9^o whose symmetry plane is inclined to the Galactic plane at an angle of 5.6+/-0.2^o. The longitude of the ascending node of the symmetry plane is l_\\Omega=70+/-3^o. A new estimate for the pitch angle of the Local spiral arm has been obtained by an independent method: i=12.9+/-2.9^o. Previously, a belt of young B stars, the de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt, was pointed out on the celestial sphere with parameters close to such an orientation. We have refined the spatial orientation parameters of this belt based on a homogeneous sample of protostars. The de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt can be identified with the Local arm, with the belt proper as a continuous band on the celestial sphere like the ...

  18. Pilot study of strap-based custom wheelchair seating system in persons with spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Ferguson, John E; Wittig, Becky L; Payette, Mark; Goldish, Gary D; Hansen, Andrew H


    Custom wheelchair seats can be used to help prevent pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury. In this study, a strap-based system was evaluated in three Veterans with spinal cord injury. Interface pressure distributions were measured after transfers, wheeling, and pressure relief maneuvers and after fittings by three different therapists. We found that pressure distribution measures were not generally affected after transfers and wheeling using the strap-based wheelchair and that pressure relief maneuvers were able to be performed. Additionally, all therapists were able to customize the wheelchair seat to clinically acceptable levels in 4 to 40 min for the three subjects. Future studies can test the long-term effects of using the strap-based wheelchair seat and identifying individuals that would most benefit from a rapidly customizable wheelchair seat.

  19. 77 FR 27185 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory... (United States)


    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  20. Using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to design a comfortable automotive driver seat. (United States)

    Kolich, Mike


    Given enough time and use, all designs will fail. There are no fail-free designs. This is especially true when it comes to automotive seating comfort where the characteristics and preferences of individual customers are many and varied. To address this problem, individuals charged with automotive seating comfort development have, traditionally, relied on iterative and, as a result, expensive build-test cycles. Cost pressures being placed on today's vehicle manufacturers have necessitated the search for more efficient alternatives. This contribution aims to fill this need by proposing the application of an analytical technique common to engineering circles (but new to seating comfort development), namely Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA). An example is offered to describe how development teams can use this systematic and disciplined approach to highlight potential seating comfort failure modes, reduce their risk, and bring capable designs to life.

  1. Sediment Transportation Induced by Deep-Seated Landslides in a Debris Flow Basin in Taiwan (United States)

    Lin, Meei Ling; Chen, Te Wei; Chen, Yong Sheng; Sin Jhuang, Han


    Typhoon Morakot brought huge amount of rainfall to the southern Taiwan in 2009 and caused severe landslides and debris flow hazard. After Typhoon Morakot, it was found that the volume of sediment transported by the debris flow and its effects on the affected area were much more significant compared to previous case history, which may due to the huge amount of rainfall causing significant deep-seated landslides in the basin. In this study, the effects and tendency of the sediment transportation in a river basin following deep-seated landslides caused by typhoon Morakot were evaluated. We used LiDAR, DEM, and aerial photo to identify characteristics of deep-seated landslides in a debris flow river basin, KSDF079 in Liuoguey District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Eight deep-seated landslides were identified in the basin. To estimate the potential landslide volume associated with the deep-seated landslides, the stability analysis was conducted to locate the critical sliding surface, and the potential landside volume was estimated based on the estimation equation proposed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI, 1990). The total potential landslide volume of the eight deep-seated landslides in KSDF079 basin was about 28,906,856 m3. Topographic analysis was performed by using DEM before and LiDAR derived DEM after typhoon Morakot to calculate the landslide volume transported. The result of erosion volume and deposition volume lead to a run out volume of 5,832,433 m3. The results appeared to consist well with the field condition and aerial photo. Comparing the potential landslide volume and run out volume of eight deep-seated landslides, it was found that the remaining potential landslide volume was about 80%. Field investigation and topographic analysis of the KSDF079 debris flow revealed that a significant amount of sediment deposition remained in the river channel ranging from the middle to the downstream

  2. Musculoskeletal model of trunk and hips for development of seated-posture-control neuroprosthesis


    Lambrecht, Joris M.; Audu, Musa L.; Triolo, Ronald J.; Kirsch, Robert F.


    The paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury severely limits voluntary seated-posture control and increases predisposition to a number of health risks. We developed and verified a musculoskeletal model of the hips and lumbar spine using published data. We then used the model to select the optimal muscles for—and evaluate the likely functional recovery benefit of—an 8-channel seated-posture-control neuroprosthesis based on functional electrical stimulation (FES). We found that the model-pre...

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Seat Comfort in Aircrafts (United States)

    Ciloglu, Hakan

    This research focuses on the dynamic seat comfort in aircrafts specifically during takeoff, landing and cruise through turbulence flight conditions. The experiments are performed using a multi axis shaker table in the Automotive Centre of Excellence (ACE) at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology subjected to sample takeoff, landing and cruise vibration recordings obtained onboard of an actual flight. The input vibrations introduced to the aircraft seats during actual flight conditions and during the experiments in the ACE are compared and it is concluded that the given flight conditions were successfully replicated for the interest of this thesis. The experiments are conducted with two different aircraft seats, economy class and business class. Furthermore, to investigate the importance of seat cushion characteristics in addition to economy and business class seat cushions, three laboratory made cushions were included in the investigation as well. Moreover, the effect of passenger weight is also discussed by conducting the experiments with 1 and 2 identical dummies. It is concluded that static seat properties play a significant role in the comfort perception level as well as flight conditions. Among the three flight condition, landing appeared to be the most uncomfortable case comparing to takeoff and cruise. In addition to experimental work, a numerical study to simulate the flight conditions is undertaken with the initial work of CAD modelling. The simulated responses of the seat is partially matching with experimental results due to unknown parameters of the cushion and the connections of the aircraft seat that cannot be created in the CAD model due to unknown manufacturing processes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛河; 苏清祖; 马胜利


    The double drum drive is widely used on the mine belt conveyor, which are divided the rigid connected double drums and separately driving double drums according to connected method of two drums. Because of the change of real work condition, the load distribution is changed on the two drive drums, which may produce a slippage between a drum and belt. Slippage may intensify the wear of the drum, and sometimes causing the fire of the belt. This restricts the development toward narrow belt, high velocity and large power of belt conveyor. In this paper, the factors affecting the load distribution of two drums of double drum belt conveyor are'systematically analyzed and some computing formulas derived, by these formulas, the actual load distribution onthe two drums of rigid connected or separately driving belt conveyor can be separately calculated. These formulas also can be as the theory base for adjusting the driving force of two drums.

  5. Combustion velocity of coal in seat of an underground fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanchenko, G.A.; Kuzyaev, L.S.; Serra-Suares, L.Kh.


    Using the example of an underground fire in a very long coal channel, analyzes the processes of energy interchange between the gas phase and the coal surface in the channel and explains that calculations to assess the duration of burning (and hence assist in extinguishing or containing the fire) need to be able to account for the speed of transition of the coal from the solid phase (burning mass) to the gaseous phase in conditions of oxygen (in the form of products of complete combustion), reduction and dry distillation (in the form of products of incomplete combustion). Demonstrates in formulaic form the correlation between the mass velocity of the coal burning, the volume velocity of the arrival of air at the seat of the fire, the excess oxidant coefficient and the volume of air which is theoretically required to completely burn 1 kg of coal and presents the coefficients of excess oxygen and a generalized, statistical coefficient averaged for eight basic coal groups in tabular form. 1 ref.

  6. Investigating a persistent odor at an aircraft seat manufacturer. (United States)

    Broadwater, Kendra; de Perio, Marie A; Roberts, Jennifer; Burton, Nancy C; Lemons, Angela R; Green, Brett J; Brueck, Scott E


    An aircraft seat manufacturing company requested a NIOSH health hazard evaluation to help identify a strong odor that had persisted throughout the facility for over a year. Employees reported experiencing health effects thought to be related to the odor. We collected and analyzed area air samples for volatile organic compounds, endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and metalworking fluid aerosol. Bulk metalworking fluid samples were analyzed for endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and viable bacteria and fungus. We also evaluated the building ventilation systems and water diversion systems. Employees underwent confidential medical interviews about work practices, medical history, and health concerns. Based on our analyses, the odor was likely 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. This pyrazine was found in air samples across the facility and originated from bacteria in the metalworking fluid. We did not identify bacteria known to produce the compound but bacteria from the same Proteobacteria order were found as well as bacteria from orders known to produce other pyrazines. Chemical and biological contaminants and odors could have contributed to health symptoms reported by employees, but it is likely that the symptoms were caused by several factors. We provided several recommendations to eliminate the odor including washing and disinfecting the metalworking machines and metalworking fluid recycling equipment, discarding all used metalworking fluid, instituting a metalworking fluid maintenance program at the site, and physically isolating the metalworking department from other departments.

  7. Patient satisfaction with telerehabilitation assessments for wheeled mobility and seating. (United States)

    Schein, Richard M; Schmeler, Mark R; Saptono, Andi; Brienza, David


    Wheeled mobility and seating assessments for individuals with mobility impairments living in rural or distant locations are problematic due to the lack of expertise and available resources. The objective of this study was to measure satisfaction based on one's evaluation and prescription as well as comfort level when being evaluated by telerehabilitation (TR). Patient satisfaction data from real-time interactive TR clinical consultations between an expert practitioner located at least 125 miles away and four remote wheelchair clinics set up by the research team were collected and evaluated. The results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between participants' pre- and postevaluation scores, t(39) = -13.92, p < .05, as well as pre- and postprescription scores, t(39) = -13.15, p < .05. In addition, all mean scores were significantly higher than the scale midpoint of3.5 on a TR survey. The study's findings are consistent with those of previous telemedicine satisfaction studies. Overall, the results indicate a high level of patient satisfaction using TR.

  8. Managing moose harvests by the seat of your pants. (United States)

    Boyce, Mark S; Baxter, Peter W J; Possingham, Hugh P


    Moose populations are managed for sustainable yield balanced against costs caused by damage to forestry or agriculture and collisions with vehicles. Optimal harvests can be calculated based on a structured population model driven by data on abundance and the composition of bulls, cows, and calves obtained by aerial-survey monitoring during winter. Quotas are established by the respective government agency and licenses are issued to hunters to harvest an animal of specified age or sex during the following autumn. Because the cost of aerial monitoring is high, we use a Management Strategy Evaluation to evaluate the costs and benefits of periodic aerial surveys in the context of moose management. Our on-the-fly "seat of your pants" alternative to independent monitoring is management based solely on the kill of moose by hunters, which is usually sufficient to alert the manager to declines in moose abundance that warrant adjustments to harvest strategies. Harvests are relatively cheap to monitor; therefore, data can be obtained each year facilitating annual adjustments to quotas. Other sources of "cheap" monitoring data such as records of the number of moose seen by hunters while hunting also might be obtained, and may provide further useful insight into population abundance, structure and health. Because conservation dollars are usually limited, the high cost of aerial surveys is difficult to justify when alternative methods exist.

  9. Prevalence of Sensor Saturation in Wheelchair Seat Interface Pressure Mapping. (United States)

    Wininger, Michael; Crane, Barbara A


    Pressure mapping is a frequently used tool with great power to provide information about the forces between a patient and a wheelchair seat. One widely recognized limitation to this paradigm is the possibility of data loss due to sensor saturation. In this study, we seek to quantify and describe the saturation observed in the measurement of interface pressures of wheelchair users. We recorded approximately two minutes of interface pressure data from 22 elderly wheelchair users (11M/11F, 80 ± 10 years) and found that 4.7% of data frames had 1 saturated sensor, and 9.0% had more than one saturated sensor, for a total of 13.7% of all frames of data. Data from three of the 22 subjects (13.6%) were substantially affected by the persistent presence of saturated sensors. We conclude that for this population of elderly wheelchair users, sensor saturation may be a concern and should be factored properly into study design a priori.

  10. Comparison of Biodynamic Responses in Standing and Seated Human Bodies (United States)



    The dynamic responses of the human body in a standing position and in a sitting position have been compared. The apparent mass and transmissibilities to the head, six locations along the spine, and the pelvis were measured with eight male subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration. In both postures, the principal resonance in the apparent mass occurred in the range 5-6 Hz, with slightly higher frequencies and lower apparent mass in the standing posture. There was greater transmission of vertical vibration to the pelvis and the lower spine and greater relative motion within the lower spine in the standing posture than in the sitting posture at the principal resonance and at higher frequencies. Transmissibilities from the supporting surface (floor or seat) to the thoracic region had similar magnitudes for both standing and sitting subjects. The lumbar spine has less lordosis and may be more compressed and less flexible in the sitting posture than in the standing posture. This may have reduced the relative motions between lumbar vertebrae and both the supporting vibrating surface and the other vertebrae in the sitting posture. The characteristics of the vibration transmitted to the pelvis may have differed in the two postures due to different transmission paths. Increased forward rotation of the pelvis in the standing posture may have caused the differences in responses of the pelvis and the lower spine that were observed between the two postures.

  11. Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad. (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Jarahi, Lida


    Despite the strong evidence of child safety seats (CSSs) effectiveness in reducing injuries, it is still rarely used in some societies. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of CSS use in Mashad, Iran. Five hundred ninety kindergarten children whose parents owned a car were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked about using CSS for their children, reasons for CSS use/non-use, demographics, history of road traffic injuries and receiving any advice on CSS. Of families, 25.5% expressed that they used CSS for their child at present or any time in the past, but only 6.3% of children travelled restrained in CSS at the time of study. Age-appropriate CSS use was reported in 14.5% of infants and 2.3% of 1-5-year-old children. A significant relationship was observed between lower child age, higher maternal education and high family income with CSS use. The main reasons for CSS none-use were reported as not feeling the need (42%), followed by its high price (22%). Use of CSS was uncommon. The financial concerns and information gap about the essential need for CSS should be considered as priorities for action especially among lower socio-economic groups of society.

  12. Automatic Configuration in NTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zongli(蒋宗礼); Xu Binbin


    NTP is nowadays the most widely used distributed network time protocol, which aims at synchronizing the clocks of computers in a network and keeping the accuracy and validation of the time information which is transmitted in the network. Without automatic configuration mechanism, the stability and flexibility of the synchronization network built upon NTP protocol are not satisfying. P2P's resource discovery mechanism is used to look for time sources in a synchronization network, and according to the network environment and node's quality, the synchronization network is constructed dynamically.

  13. The influence of tractor-seat height above the ground on lateral vibrations. (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martin-de-Leon, Rebeca


    Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i) lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii) lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii) in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv) vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  14. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gomez-Gil


    Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  15. Full-scale crash test and FEM simulation of a crashworthy helicopter seat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Da-yong; ZHANG Xiang


    Crashworthy seat structure with considerable energy absorption capacity is a key component for aircraft to improve its crashworthiness and occupant survivability in emergencies. According to Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) regulations, seat performance must be certified by dynamic crash test which is quite expensive and time-consuming. For this reason, numerical simulation is a more efficient and economical approach to provide the possibility to assess seat performances and predict occupant responses. A numerical simulation of the crashworthy seat structure was presented and the results were also compared with the full-scale crash test data. In the numerical simulation, a full-scale three-dimensional finite element model of the seat/occupant structure was developed using a nonlinear and explicit dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA3D. Emphasis of the numerical simulation was on predicting the dynamic response of seat/occupant system,including the occupant motion which may lead to injuries,the occupant acceleration-time histories, and the energy absorbing behavior of the energy absorbers. The agreement between the simulation and the physical test suggestes that the developed numerical simulation can be a feasible substitute for the dynamic crash test.

  16. The use of child safety seats: A survey on levels of knowledge and attitudes of university employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Palancı


    Full Text Available Child safety seats are the best practice for protecting child occupants. In western world, a significant reduction of child deaths in motor vehicle crashes has occurred over the past years. However, the use of child safety seats will be obligatory in Turkey from 2010 onwards. We aimed to determine the prevalence of safety seat use and survey the opinions of parents about children safety seat use in traffic.Materials and methods: A survey was conducted in Kars province of Turkey. A questionnaire was handed out to parents who were employees in a university. The first part of questionnaire was concerned with the personal properties of participants. The second part was designed to evaluate the level of parents’ knowledge on child safety seat.Results: Of the 600 questionnaires distributed, 516 (86% were returned and included in the final analysis. This study showed that 266 participants were having children and automobile. The ownership of child safety seat was only 13.5% among them. The parents reported that the lack of knowledge about child safety seats was the main reason for not having safety seats. Majority of parents stated that they would be more careful in the future about child safety in traffic.Conclusion: This study showed that most parents were uninformed about the necessity of child safety seats. The authorities have to develop new strategies to increase the rate of child safety seat use. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:157-60

  17. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype. (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P


    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  18. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  19. HP metamorphic belt of the western Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The understanding of the subduction-related processes benefited by the studies of the high-pressure (HP) meta-morphic rocks from the western Alps. The most stimu-lating information was obtained from the inner part of the western Alpine belt, where most tectonic units show an early Alpine eclogite-facies recrystallisation. This is especially true for the Austroalpine Sesia Zone and the Penninic Dora-Maira massif. From the Sesia zone,which consists of a wide spectrum of continental crust lithologies recrystallised to quartz-eclogite-facies min-eral assemblages, the first finding of a jadeite-bearingmeta-granitoid has been described, supporting evidencethat even continental crust may subduct into the mantle.From the Dora-Maira massif the first occurrence of regional metamorphic coesite has been reported, open-ing the new fertile field of the ultrahigh-pressure meta-morphism (UHPM), which is now becoming the rule in the collisional orogenic belts.

  20. The rear seat against the latent slide size design%后排座椅防潜滑尺寸设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃贞; 王翠艳; 王莹; 杨丽


    Anti submarine slide, also known as ASPC, namely Anti-Submarining protection system anti latent slip protection system, cushion metal part designed for the back-end sunken, prevent the vehicle at the time of the emergency brake, the occupant from forward slip danger, cervical spine injury, the spine of the phenomenon. When a vehicle to withstand crash in front, rear with safety belt use, to limit on the seat and sink strength and not to slide forward and reduce damage caused due to human body from slipping forward caused by the head, legs and feet hit the front seat. In this paper, mainly analysis the size of the anti submarine sliding system.%防潜滑又称ASPC,即Anti-Submarining Protection System防潜滑保护系统,坐盆钣件设计为后端下陷式,防止车辆在紧急刹车时,乘员向前滑动发生危险,伤害颈椎、脊椎的现象。当车辆承受前面撞击时,后排座椅配合安全带的使用,把人限制在座椅上并且产生下沉的力量而不会向前滑动,降低由于人体向前滑动所造成头部、腿部及脚部撞击前排座椅而产生伤害。本文针对后排防潜滑系统在尺寸方面做一些分析。

  1. Comparison of automatic control systems (United States)

    Oppelt, W


    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  2. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  3. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  4. Study of Matching Method for a Child Seat Based on Multi-objective Optimization%基于多目标优化的儿童座椅匹配方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白中浩; 卢静


    According to the adjustable restraint parameters of an integrated child safety seat,the seat height,seatback angle and force limiter value of the seat belt were chosen as optimization variables.This integrated child safety seat has obtained a national patent.The values of injury criteria of the head,the chest and the neck were chosen as optimization goals.Approximate model of polynomial regression and multi-objective evolutionary algorithm were adopted to optimize the restraint parameters of the integrated child safety for the protection of 3-year-old,6-year-old and 10-year-old child occupants.The results demonstrated that the effect of optimization was significant.Finally,an adaptive matching method for seats for 3~10-year-old children passengers was proposed on the basis of three optimal restraint parameters.%基于一款已获得国家专利的集成式儿童安全座椅约束系统参数可调的特征,选择座椅高度、靠背角度、安全带限力器限力值为优化变量,以儿童乘员头部损伤、胸部损伤、颈部损伤为优化目标,采用多项式回归近似模型和多目标进化算法相结合的方法对该集成式儿童座椅在保护3岁、6岁、10岁儿童乘员时的可调约束参数进行了多目标优化.结果表明:优化后的约束参数能对上述儿童乘员提供更好的保护作用,优化效果显著.最后在得到的3组优化约束参数的基础上,提出了一种针对3~10岁不同身材儿童的自适应匹配方法.

  5. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Liu


    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the

  6. Effect of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu


    [Purpose] We assessed the effects of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. [Subjects] Ten males were recruited. [Methods] The suspension seat support was developed to prevent abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture during computer work. The gluteal pressure was measured with a TekScan system and the trunk flexion angle was measured with a video camera, to compare the differences between a general chair and the suspension seat support. [Results] The gluteal peak pressures were decreased significantly in the suspension seat support versus the general chair. The trunk flexion angle was also decreased significantly in the suspension seat support compared with the general chair. [Conclusions] This study suggests that the suspension seat support chair contributes to preventing abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture.

  7. Automatic Fixture Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Fixture planning is a crucial problem in the field of fixture design. In this paper, the research scope and research methods of the computer-aided fixture planning are presented. Based on positioning principles of typical workparts, an ANN algorithm, namely Hopfield algorithm, is adopted for the automatic fixture planning. Also, this paper leads a deep research into the selection of positioning and clamping surfaces (or points) on workparts using positioning-clamping-surface-selecting rules and matrix evaluation of deterministic workpart positioning. In the end of this paper, the methods to select positioning and clamping elements from database and the layout algorithm to assemble the selected fixture elements into a tangible fixture are developed.

  8. Wrap-type safety belt for protecting pregnant occupants from vehicle collision%保护汽车碰撞中孕妇乘员安全的包裹式安全带

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立波; 肖慧青; 江岸


    为保护汽车碰撞事故中的前排乘员侧孕妇乘员及胎儿,设计了一种结合普通三点式安全带使用的、具有腿带的包裹式孕妇安全带。基于子宫结构和孕妇乘员的损伤机理的研究,建立了孕期为30周的子宫有限元模型,并验证了包含该子宫模型的孕妇模型的有效性。对孕妇有、无佩戴该安全带的状态,进行了不同碰撞车速条件下的正面碰撞仿真对比。结果表明:在正面碰撞中,包裹式孕妇安全带能减小子宫壁和胎盘的接触面(UPI)处子宫壁的应变值,降低胎盘早剥可能性;包裹式孕妇安全带不应佩戴太紧,应与孕妇腹部贴合并留有微小间隙。%A wrap-type safety belt for pregnant occupants was developed to protect the pregnant occupant and the fetus seated in the frontal passenger seat in a vehicle crash. This belt includes the femur belts and can be used with traditional three-point belt. The finite element model for 30-week-pregnant uterus was established and contrasted based on the uterus structure and injury mechanism of fetus.The validity of the model for the pregnant occupant was also verified which includes this uterus model. The situations that the pregnant occupant wears the belt or not were simulated under the frontal impact conditions at different impact speeds.The results show that the wrap-type safety belt can reduce the uterine strain at the uterus placental interface (UPI) and the possibility of placental abruption in a frontal impact event, but that the belt should be worn to fit the abdomen of pregnant occupant with a slight clearance rather than very tightly.

  9. Modal analysis of coupled vibration of belt drive systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun; CHEN Li-qun


    The modal method is applied to analyze coupled vibration of belt drive systems. A belt drive system is a hybrid system consisting of continuous belts modeled as strings as well as discrete pulleys and a tensioner arm. The characteristic equation of the system is derived from the governing equation. Numerical results demenstrate the effects of the transport speed and the initial tension on natural frequencies.

  10. Application of variable-angle belt scale on bucket wheel machine%变角度电子皮带秤在斗轮机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红义; 毛志平; 鲁朝阳; 余松青; 许峰; 薛丁富


    This paper introduces the mathematical model of variable-angle electronic belt scale on Bucket wheel machine. Develop an belt scale that can automatically correct Span and Zero of Accumulator with the angle changing of belt conveyer. Improve Metrology accuracy of belt scale on Bucket wheel machine. Improve electrical belt scale accuracy installed on Bucket wheel machine. Ensure accuracy of coal blending, increase coal catch efficiency, energy conservation and environmental protection and decrees mechanical abrasion, increase durable years of Bucket wheel machine.%本文针对斗轮机输送机工况,深入研究电子皮带秤受力变化的数学模型,研制一套在斗轮机的悬臂角度改变后能够及时自动修正仪表的量程系数和零点的变角度电子皮带秤,提高安装在斗轮机上的电子皮带秤的计量准确度,保证了准确配煤,有效提高取料效率,节能环保,同时减少了与取料系统有关的传输机械设备的磨损,延长了斗轮机的使用年限。

  11. Identification of new NE-trending deep-seated faults and tectonic pattern updating in northern Tunisia (Mogodos-Bizerte region), insights from field and seismic reflection data (United States)

    Essid, El Mabrouk; Kadri, Ali; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi; Zargouni, Fouad


    The northern Tunisia is occupied by the Tellian domain constituent the eastern end of the Maghrebides, Alpine fold-thrust belt. Study area includes partially the Tellian domain (Mogodos belt) and its foreland (Bizerte region). Most of this region outcrops consist of Numidian thrust sheet flysch attributed to the lower Oligocene-Burdigalian. In the study area, the major fault systems are still subject of discussion. The Numidian nappe structure, the distribution of basalt and Triassic outcrops within and at the front of this Tellian domain deserve more explanation. In this work we intend to update the structural scheme and the tectonic evolution of the northern Tunisia, taking into account salt tectonics and magmatism. The updated tectonic evolution will be integrated in the geodynamic framework of the Central Mediterranean. For this purpose, we have analyzed morphologic, seismic and structural data. The compilation of the results has allowed the identification of new regional NE-trending faults dipping towards the NW: the Bled el Aouana-Bizerte, the Sejnane-Ras Enjla and the Oued el Harka faults. They correspond to the reactivation of deep-seated normal faults splaying on the Triassic evaporites. This fault system constitutes the main component of the northern Tunisia structural scheme and has influenced its tectonic evolution marked by the main following stages. The Tellian thrust-sheets were immobilized at the uppermost Langhian. During the major Tortonian NW-trending compressive phase, these faults were reactivated with reverse kinematics and controlled the distribution of the post-nappes Neogene continental deposits. At the early Pleistocene, a compressive NNW-trending event has reactivated again these faults with sinistral-reverse movements and deformed the post-nappes Neogene series. Late Quaternary to Actual, the tectonic regime continues to be compressive with a NNW-trending maximum horizontal stress.

  12. Role of telehealth in seating clinics: a case study of learners' perspectives. (United States)

    Khoja, Shariq; Casebeer, Ann; Young, Sybil


    We conducted a qualitative case study of the introduction of telehealth in a seating clinic, which was an existing outreach service between two hospitals in Alberta, approximately 300 km apart. Interviews were conducted with the staff who were involved in planning and implementing the telehealth initiative. The study showed that, from the perspective of the staff (who were learners), implementation of telehealth in seating clinics differs from other less tactile telehealth applications in certain ways: (1) the importance of multidisciplinary teams in the procedures, (2) the importance of proper visualization and communication among the staff to convey the pressure changes and measurements to the technicians at the major centre to help them build or adjust the seating devices and (3) the reluctance of staff to trust others' judgements. Planning of service provision and telelearning for seating clinics requires the involvement of staff at all stages. Thus, the implementation of telehealth should be a stepwise process, allowing a highly interactive approach, without affecting the multidisciplinary nature of seating clinics.

  13. Experimental Investigation of a Temperature-Controlled Car Seat Powered by an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator (United States)

    Du, H.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.


    To improve the riding comfort and rational utilization of the electrical energy captured by an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG), a temperature-controlled car seat was constructed to adjust the temperature of the car seat surface. Powered by the ATEG and the battery, the seat-embedded air conditioner can improve the riding comfort using a thermoelectric device to adjust the surface temperature of the seat, with an air duct to regulate the cold side and hot side of the thermoelectric device. The performance of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and theoretical analysis on the optimum state of the TEC device are put forward. To verify the rationality of the air duct design and to ensure sufficient air supply, the velocity field of the air duct system was obtained by means of the finite element method. To validate the reliability of the numerical simulation, the air velocity around the thermoelectric device was measured by a wind speed transmitter. The performance of the temperature-controlled car seat has been validated and is in good agreement with bench tests and real vehicle tests.

  14. Validation of the Swedish translation of eating assessment tool (S-EAT-10). (United States)

    Möller, Riitta; Safa, Stephanie; Östberg, Per


    Conclusion The Swedish Eating Assessment Tool (S-EAT-10) is a reliable and valid self-administered tool in assessment of dysphagia in adult Swedish patients with high internal consistency, reliability, and discriminative validity. The normative data show that a score of 3 or more is abnormal. S-EAT-10 is recommended to be used in preliminary diagnostics of dysphagia. Objective To translate and adapt the EAT-10 for use in the Swedish patient population, and to present norms and measures of discriminative validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (S-EAT-10). Methods Prospective consecutive clinical study. In total, 134 community-dwelling adult respondents/controls without dysphagia completed the S-EAT-10, as did 119 patients referred for fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Patient vs control status was used as the criterion for discriminative validity assessment by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean S-EAT-10 score was 0.2 (range = 0-3) for controls and 18 (range = 0-38) for patients. Based on a cut-off score of ≥ 3 which was considered to be reflective of abnormalities, sensitivity was 98.5% and specificity 94.1%. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88), as was test-re-test reliability (ICC = 0.90).

  15. The effect of visual and auditory cues on seat preference in an opera theater. (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Kim, Yong Hee; Cabrera, Densil; Bassett, John


    Opera performance conveys both visual and auditory information to an audience, and so opera theaters should be evaluated in both domains. This study investigates the effect of static visual and auditory cues on seat preference in an opera theater. Acoustical parameters were measured and visibility was analyzed for nine seats. Subjective assessments for visual-only, auditory-only, and auditory-visual preferences for these seat positions were made through paired-comparison tests. In the cases of visual-only and auditory-only subjective evaluations, preference judgment tests on a rating scale were also employed. Visual stimuli were based on still photographs, and auditory stimuli were based on binaural impulse responses convolved with a solo tenor recording. For the visual-only experiment, preference is predicted well by measurements taken related to the angle of seats from the theater midline at the center of the stage, the size of the photographed stage view, the visual obstruction, and the distance from the stage. Sound pressure level was the dominant predictor of auditory preference in the auditory-only experiment. In the cross-modal experiments, both auditory and visual preferences were shown to contribute to overall impression, but auditory cues were more influential than the static visual cues. The results show that both a positive visual-only or a positive auditory-only evaluations positively contribute to the assessments of seat quality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Seat vibration is one of the major causes of discomfort in moving vehicle. Tyre, engine, drivetrain and aerodynamic forces excite the cabin and interior through various pathways. In this paper, the contributions of tyre and engine vibration to seat excitations are studied. Virtual Source Analysis (VSA is implemented to decompose the source signals into incoherent phenomena. Studying these phenomena (virtual sources shows the amount and frequency bands that physical sources affect the seat vibration as the response channel. Experiment is conducted while riding on smooth and bumpy roads. Road roughness is characterized using International Roughness Index (IRI. VSA technique approve that tyre is the main source of seat vibration for the moving vehicle. Seat vibration has significant values below 400 Hz and tyre is found to be the dominant source of excitations for both smooth and bumpy roads. For smooth road, strong engine harmonics below 200 Hz also has some involvements. But in bumpy road, tyre vibration rise up and become the dominant broadband source of excitations. Tyre damper and engine mount Frequency Response Function (FRF analysis show that these parts are designed to be highly efficient below 1400 Hz and 200 Hz, respectively. These ranges are identical with those that were found as the critical operational frequency spans in VSA.

  17. Modeling of a seated human body exposed to vertical vibrations in various automotive postures. (United States)

    Liang, Cho-Chung; Chiang, Chi-Feng


    Although much research has been devoted to constructing specific models or to measuring the response characteristics of seated subjects, investigations on a mathematical human model on a seat with a backrest to evaluate vehicular riding comfort have not yet attracted the same level of attention. For the responses of a seated body to vertical vibrations, mathematical models of the mechanisms must be at least two-dimensional in the sagittal plane. In describing the motions of a seated body, two multibody models representative of the automotive postures found in the literature were investigated, one with and the other without a backrest support. Both models were modified to suitably represent the different automotive postures with and without backrest supports, and validated by various experimental data from the published literature pertaining to the same postural conditions. On the basis of the analytical study and the experimental validation, the fourteen-degrees-of-freedom model proposed in this research was found to be best fitted to the test results; therefore, this model is recommended for studying the biodynamic responses of a seated human body exposed to vertical vibrations in various automotive postures.

  18. Biomechanical response of the pediatric abdomen, part 1: development of an experimental model and quantification of structural response to dynamic belt loading. (United States)

    Kent, Richard; Stacey, Stephen; Kindig, Matthew; Forman, Jason; Woods, William; Rouhana, Stephen W; Higuchi, Kazuo; Tanji, Hiromasa; Lawrence, Schuyler St; Arbogast, Kristy B


    The abdomen is the second most commonly injured region in children using adult seat belts, but engineers are limited in their efforts to design systems that mitigate these injuries since no current pediatric dummy has the capability to quantify injury risk from loading to the abdomen. This paper develops a porcine (sus scrofa domestica) model of the 6-year-old human's abdomen, and then defines the biomechanical response of this abdominal model. First, a detailed abdominal necropsy study was undertaken, which involved collecting a series of anthropometric measurements and organ masses on 25 swine, ranging in age from 14 to 429 days (4-101 kg mass). These were then compared to the corresponding human quantities to identify the best porcine representation of a 6-year-old human's abdomen. This was determined to be a pig of age 77 days, and whole-body mass of 21.4 kg. The sub-injury, quasistatic response to belt loading of this porcine model compared well with pediatric human volunteer tests performed with a lap belt on the lower abdomen. A test fixture was designed to produce transverse, dynamic belt loading on the porcine abdomen. A detailed review of field cases identified the following test variables: loading location (upper/lower), penetration magnitude (23%-68% of initial abdominal depth), muscle tensing (yes/no), and belt penetration rate (quasistatic, dynamic 2.9 m/s - 7.8 m/s). Dynamic tests were performed on 47 post-mortem subjects. Belt tension and dorsal reaction force were cross-plotted with abdominal penetration to generate structural response corridors. Subcutaneous stimulation of the anterior abdominal muscle wall stiffened the quasistatic response significantly, but was of negligible importance in the dynamic tests. The upper abdomen exhibited stiffer response quasistatically, and also was more sensitive to penetration rate, with stiffness increasing significantly over the range of dynamic rates tested here. In contrast, the lower abdomen was relatively

  19. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry


    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张年梅; 杨桂通


    The chaotic motions of axial compressed nonlinear elastic beam subjected totransverse load were studied. The damping force in the system is nonlinear. Consideringmaterial and geometric nonlinearity, nonlinear governing equation of the system wasderived. By use of nonlinear Galerkin method, differential dynamic system was set up.Melnikov method was used to analyze the characters of the system. The results showed thatchaos may occur in the system when the load parameters P0 and f satisfy some conditions.The zone of chaotic motion was belted. The route from subharmonic bifurcation to chaoswas analyzed. The critical conditions that chaos occurs were determined.