Sample records for automatic seat belts

  1. Seat belt misuse among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Daniels, Dawn M; Talty, Judith L; Bull, Marilyn J


    Observe and report seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational survey of children transported in motor vehicles between 2006 and 2007. While drivers completed a survey reporting the child's age, weight and gender, and the driver's age, gender, race, income, education, and relationship to the child; a child passenger safety technician recorded vehicle seating location, restraint type, and use of the car safety seat harness or seat belt as appropriate for the child. Twenty-five fast food restaurants and discount department stores throughout Indiana. A convenience sample of drivers transporting children younger than 16 years. Seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. Seat belt misuse. Overall, 1446 drivers participated, 2287 children were observed with 564 children in belt-positioning booster seats. At least one seat belt misuse was observed for 64.8% of the children transported. Common misuses were the shoulder belt being placed over the booster seat armrest (35.8%); shoulder belt not at mid-shoulder position (28.5%), seat belt was too loose (24.5%), and the shoulder belt was either behind the child's back (9.1%) or under their arm (10.0%). There is a high frequency of seat belt misuses among children transported in booster seats. Advice to parents on appropriate car seat selection, and encouragement to parents to supervise seat belt use may decrease misuse.

  2. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program. (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan


    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  3. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech. (United States)


    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  4. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations. (United States)

    Soule, David


    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  5. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

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    Loftin, Laurel


    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  6. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  7. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers. (United States)


    the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts. Unbelted participants experienced a delay of either a c...

  8. Seat-belt message and the law? (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G


    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  9. International survey of seat belt use exemptions. (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E


    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  10. Research on an Active Seat Belt System (United States)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  11. Documenting How States Recently Upgraded to Primary Seat Belt Laws (United States)


    States with primary seat belt enforcement laws consistently have higher observed daytime belt use rates than : secondary law States. Secondary belt law States, on the other hand, consistently have more occupant fatalities who : were not restrained th...

  12. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers. (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J


    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  13. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  14. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming


    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  15. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE. (United States)

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K


    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.

  16. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.


    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada

  17. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.


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    Kazimierz JAMROZ


    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  19. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries. (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J


    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  20. Environmental and psychosocial factors affecting seat belt use among Turkish front-seat occupants in Ankara: two observation studies. (United States)

    Simşekoğlu, Ozlem; Lajunen, Timo


    Low seat belt use rate among car occupants is one of the main problems contributing to low driver and passenger safety in Turkey, where injury and fatality rates of car occupants are very high in traffic crashes. The present article consists of two observation studies, which were conducted in Ankara. The first study aimed at investigating environmental factors and occupant characteristics affecting seat belt use among front-seat occupants, and the objective of the second study was to investigate the relationship between driver and front-seat passenger seat belt use. In the first study, 4, 227 front-seat occupants (drivers or front seat passengers) were observed on four different road sides and, in the second study 1, 398 front seat occupants were observed in car parks of five different shopping centers in Ankara. In both observations, front-seat occupants' seat bet use (yes, no), sex (male, female), and age ( 50 years) were recorded. The data were analyzed using chi-square statistics and binary logistic regression techniques. Results of the first study showed that seat belt use proportion among observed front seat occupants was very low (25%). Being female and traveling on intercity roads were two main factors positively related to use a seat belt among front-seat occupants. High correlations between seat belt use of the drivers and front-seat passengers were found in the second study. Overall, low seat belt use rate (25%) among the front-seat occupants should be increased urgently for an improved driver and passenger safety in Turkey. Seat belt campaigns especially tailored for male front-seat occupants and for the front-seat occupants traveling on city roads are needed to increase seat belt use rates among them. Also, both drivers and passengers may have an important role in enforcing seat belt use among themselves.

  1. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation. (United States)


    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  2. Determining the relationship of primary seat belt laws to minority ticketing : traffic tech. (United States)


    When a State converts from secondary to primary seat belt : enforcement, studies show increases of 10 percentage points or : more in observed seat belt use. Primary enforcement laws allow : an officer to ticket a motorist whenever they observe a seat...

  3. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, All States (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2012 state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  5. Kinematics of pediatric crash dummies seated on vehicle seats with realistic belt geometry. (United States)

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Rupp, Jonathan D


    A series of sled tests was performed using vehicle seats and Hybrid-III 6-year-old (6YO) and 10YO anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) to explore possibilities for improving occupant protection for children who are not using belt-positioning booster seats. Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of 350 mm. Lap belt geometry was set to rear, mid, and forward anchorage locations that span the range of lap belt angles found in vehicles. Six tests each were performed with the 6YO and 10YO Hybrid III ATDs. One additional test was performed using a booster seat with the 6YO. The ATDs were positioned using an updated version of the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) seating procedure that positions the ATD hips further forward with longer seat cushions to reflect the effect of cushion length on posture that has been measured with child volunteers. ATD kinematics were evaluated using peak head excursion, peak knee excursion, the difference between peak head and peak knee excursion, and the maximum torso angle. Shortening the seat cushion improved kinematic outcomes, particularly for the 10YO. Lap belt geometry had a greater effect on kinematics with the longer cushion length, with mid or forward belt geometries producing better kinematics than the rearward belt geometry. The worst kinematics for both ATDs occurred with the long cushion length and rearward lap belt geometry. The improvements in kinematics from shorter cushion length or more forward belt geometry are smaller than those provided by a booster seat. The results show potential benefits in occupant protection from shortening cushion length and increasing lap belt angles, particularly for children the size of the 10YO ATD.

  6. China belting up or down? Seat belt wearing trends in Nanjing and Zhoushan. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Dan; Yu, Min; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Junhe; Tong, Zhendong; Wu, Ming; Wang, Peihua; Qin, Yu


    National seat belt wearing legislation became effective in China May 2004 and associated provincial and city regulations followed. Despite rapid motorisation seat belt studies in China have been scarce. Patterns and trends in urban seat belt wearing were observed for all driver, front and rear seating positions over the years 2005-2007 in two eastern cities Nanjing (Jiangsu Province) and Zhoushan (Zhejiang Province). There were 35,256 vehicles observed in Nanjing, 20,939 in Zhoushan and 95,933 occupants overall. Males dominated all seating positions, especially drivers. Seat belt wearing overall was significantly higher for drivers (49.9% Nanjing, 47.4% Zhoushan) than for front seat passengers (9.1% Nanjing, 1.0% Zhoushan) and virtually nonexistent for rear passengers (0.5% Nanjing, 0.2% Zhoushan). Generally levels declined significantly from year to year (drivers Nanjing 66.7%, 47.7%, 38.6%; Zhoushan 57.4%, 57.9%, 30.6%; front passengers Nanjing 19.2%, 6.6%, 3.2%). Zhoushan wearing did not initially decline, 2006 observations coinciding with anticipation of provincial regulations (July 2006). Observations revealed an absence of child restraints. Pretend wearing/belt tampering was observed almost exclusively in taxi drivers (14.2% of Nanjing taxi drivers, 11.3% of Zhoushan's). Awareness of and attitudes to urban seat belt laws should be investigated, appropriate countermeasures developed and enforcement reassessed.

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Seat Belt Use in the US (United States)

    ... to Know [PODCAST – 1:20 minutes] Seat Belts- What You Need to Know [PSA – 1:00 minute] On Other Web Sites The Community Guide: Primary Versus Secondary Enforcement Laws MedlinePlus – Motor Vehicle Safety MedlinePlus – Injuries Top of Page Get Email Updates To receive email updates about ...

  8. Analysis of Seat Belt Anchorage Strength for Vehicles (United States)

    Shi, Peicheng; Xu, Zengwei


    In order to improve the efficiency of seat design and enhance the safety of vehicle seats, it is necessary to carry out CAE analysis on seat safety before making physical tests. In this paper, the finite element analysis theory and HyperWorks finite element analysis software are applied in the pretreatment of vehicle seats, seat belts, as well as the upper limbs and buttocks of dummies. The loading time and load of the seat are set according to GB 14167-2013 of the People’s Republic of China, and CAE calculation is carried out based on LSDYNA software, obtaining the stress-strain nephogram of the corresponding vehicle seats. An improved scheme is proposed base on the analysis results, and CAE analysis is carried out on the improved seats again. The results of the analysis fully meet the national standard GB 14167-2013 and material strength requirements, which are of important guiding significance in reducing the development costs, shortening the development cycle and improving the passing rate of physical test.

  9. 75 FR 4509 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... consistent seat belt use estimates. Under the proposed rule, the following roads would be permitted to be...). The outcome of the State's annual Statewide seat belt use survey provides one of the core performance... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...

  10. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers in Sokoto Metropolis

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    A O Abiola


    Conclusion: This study has identified high level of knowledge, positive attitude and reported use of seat belt. It is recommended that public awareness of the safety benefits of seat belts and strong enforcement are necessary to achieve optimal use of seat belt.

  11. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.


    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  12. A social media program to increase adolescent seat belt use. (United States)

    Drake, Stacy A; Zhang, Ni; Applewhite, Courtney; Fowler, Katherine; Holcomb, John B


    In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period. The number of likes posted by high school students was the unit of analysis. The most significant result (p = .01) was the difference between postings most liked (celebrities wearing seat belts) and least liked (postings made at the high school health fair), otherwise, differences among postings liked (humor postings, response requests, pictures of celebrities, factual data) were not significant. Instagram user engagement, measured in number of likes, is indicative that social media provides platforms to promote injury prevention efforts. Further research is needed to identify measurable elements of social media and to follow-up on behavioral changes following participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference (United States)


    ... Participation I. FMVSS No. 210 FMVSS No. 210, ``Seat belt assembly anchorages,'' applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles (MPVs), trucks, and buses. The standard establishes requirements for seat belt.... 210 and Figure 2 in FMVSS No. 222, ``School bus passenger seating and crash protection''). \\1\\ For lap...

  14. Race, belief in destiny, and seat belt usage: a pilot study. (United States)

    Colón, I


    A survey of 1063 individuals found that when belief in destiny was statistically controlled, differences in seat belt use by race disappeared. Thus, racial differences in seat belt use are statistically accounted for and might be explained by belief in destiny. Efforts to increase seat belt use should target minority groups rather than include them in broadbrush programs. Further, these efforts should take into account this important difference in motivation. PMID:1585969





    The car is the second (40%) most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4%) of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective wa...

  16. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use. (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M


    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Children's and Adults' Comfort Experience of Extra Seat Belts When Riding in the Rear Seat of a Passenger Car. (United States)

    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Hansson, Ida; Bohman, Katarina


    The objective of this study was to explore passengers' comfort experience of extra seat belts during on-road driving in the rear seat of a passenger car and to investigate how the use of extra belts affects children's and adults' attitudes to the product. Two different seat belt systems were tested, criss-cross (CC) and backpack (BP), consisting of the standard 3-point belt together with an additional 2-point belt. In total, 32 participants (15 children aged 6-10, 6 youths aged 11-15, and 11 adults aged 20-79, who differed considerably in size, shape, and proportions) traveled for one hour with each system, including city traffic and highway driving. Four video cameras monitored the test subject during the drive. Subjective data regarding emotions and perceived discomfort were collected in questionnaires every 20 min. A semistructured interview was held afterwards. All participant groups accepted the new products and especially the increased feeling of safety (P car. CC was appreciated for its symmetry, comfort, and the perceived feeling of safety. Some participants found CC unpleasant because the belts tended to slip close to the neck, described as a strangling feeling. BP was simpler to use and did not cause annoyance to the neck in the way CC did. Instead, it felt asymmetric and to some extent less safe than CC. Body size and shape affected seat belt fit to a great extent, which in turn affected the experience of comfort, both initially and over time. Perceived safety benefit and experienced comfort were the most determinant factors for the attitude toward the extra seat belts. The extra seat belts were perceived as being better than the participants had expected before the test, and they became more used to them over time. This exploratory study provided valuable knowledge from a user perspective for further development of new seat belt systems in cars. In addition to an increased feeling of safety, seat belt fit and comfort are supplementary influencing

  18. Pattern of seat belt use and its associated factors among taxi drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health concern that demands effective interventions. Use of car seat belts is recommended as an effective intervention to reduce serious and fatal road traffic injuries. The study intended to investigate the pattern of seat belt use and its correlates among taxi drivers in ...

  19. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies. (United States)


    .... Hardware means any metal or rigid plastic part of a seat belt assembly. Load-limiter means a seat belt... usage a person, clothing, or webbing shall be free from burrs and sharp edges. (e) Release. A Type 1 or... seating position(s), e.g., “front right”] in [insert specific vehicle make(s) and model(s)]. (l) Usage and...

  20. Seat belt use among car drivers in Iranian safe communities: An observational study. (United States)

    Torkamannejad Sabzevari, Javad; Khanjani, Narges; Molaei Tajkooh, Ali; Nabipour, Amir Reza; Sullman, Mark J M


    The number of road traffic injuries and fatalities in Iran is high. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of drivers' seat belt use and a number of related factors in Kashmar, Bardaskan, and Khalilabad (Iranian Safe Communities). In 2014, driver observations were made at 48 road sites on intercity roads, main streets, side streets, and rural roads in these 3 cities. A total of 10,255 vehicles were observed, with the overall rate of seat belt use being 51.8%. The rates in Kashmar, Bardaskan, and Khalilabad were 51.4, 56.3, and 47.7%, respectively. In Kashmar, the odds of seat belt use were higher among drivers who were female, older, and taxi drivers. Higher use was also found during the afternoon, and lower use was observed on rural roads. In Khalilabad the odds of seat belt use were higher among females, older drivers, taxis, and private car drivers. Seat belt use was also higher on weekends and during the morning but was significantly lower on rural roads. Similarly, in Bardaskan the odds of using a seat belt were higher among females, older drivers, taxis, and private car drivers. Seat belt use was also higher during the afternoon but was significantly lower on rural roads, in comparison to main streets and intercity roads. The rate of seat belt use in these 3 cities was found to be low, despite these cities being designated as International Safe Communities. Therefore, seat belt promotion programs, tougher regulations, stronger enforcement, public awareness campaigns, and more research are needed to promote seat belt use in these Iranian cities.

  1. The benefit of seat belt legislation in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    McCarthy, M


    Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the quarterly Monitor DH4, and road accident statistics, recorded by the police and published by the Department of Transport. There is a downward trend in deaths over the period, but the data show little impact from the law. One explanation for this lack of effect is the risk compensation hypothesis, which suggests that "safety" improvements are transferred by drivers into increased performance--the amount and speed of travel. Public health policies need to take into account the complex behavioural interactions between travel and safety choices if they are to affect underlying trends.

  2. Compliance with seat belt use in makurdi, Nigeria: an observational study. (United States)

    Popoola, So; Oluwadiya, Ks; Kortor, Jn; Denen-Akaa, P; Onyemaechi, Noc


    Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. This was a 24-h direct observational study of seat belt usage among vehicle occupants in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. By direct surveillance and using a datasheet, we observed 500 vehicles and their occupants for seat belt availability and compliance with its use. Chi-square test was used for test of significance between variables. Twenty-five (5.0%) of the observed 500 vehicles had no seat belt at all. Overall, compliance was 277/486 (57.0%). Use of seat belt was highest in the afternoon with 124/194 (64.4%), followed by 111/188 (59.0%) in the morning and 42/95 (44.2%) at night. Compliance was highest among car occupants [209/308 (67.9%)] and private vehicles, and lowest among commercial vehicle occupants. Compliance among female drivers was 77.1% compared with 51.4% among male drivers. Among drivers, the mean age of seat belt users was 38.4 (7.7) years, which was significantly younger than the 41.3 (8.7) years mean age of non-users. Similar figures were obtained among other vehicle occupants. Compared with previous studies, seat belt usage has improved among Nigerian road users, but there is still room for improvement, especially early in the mornings and at nights. Since these were times when law enforcement agencies were not likely to be on the roads, we advocate for improved coverage by enforcement agents to enforce better compliance.

  3. Evaluation of Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in Colorado and Nevada (United States)


    Colorado and Nevada initiated multiwave Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in October 2007. Four : waves of paid media and law enforcement activity were conducted over the next year. Three of these waves : were conducted independently of statewide...

  4. Expanding the seat belt program strategies toolbox: a starter kit for trying new program ideas. (United States)


    The purpose of this research was to explore alternative strategies for increasing seat belt use. Researchers examined behavior : change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising, and marketing, and they considered how these : ...

  5. Evaluation of the May 2005 Click It or Ticket mobilization to increase seat belt use (United States)


    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) is an intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement program. The CIOT May 2005 Mobilization involved approximately $33 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the Nation reported issuing mo...

  6. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee. (United States)


    Phase I of this project identified two States, Florida and Tennessee, that maintain information on drivers traffic violations and residency status. : Phase II analyzed State databases to examine seat belt nonuse, DWI, and other traffic safety viol...

  7. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders. (United States)

    Lie, Anders


    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  8. Impact of Implementing a Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Law in Florida : A Case Study (United States)


    On June 30, 2009, Florida implemented a primary seat belt law. The State was already engaged in a Rural : Demonstration Program (RDP) to increase belt usage in rural areas in the northern part of the State and participated : regularly in annual Click...

  9. Determining the Relationship of Primary Seat Belt Laws to Minority Ticketing (United States)


    Racial profiling is often raised as an issue when States change their seat belt law from secondary enforcement (i.e., stop only for some other violation) to primary enforcement (i.e., stop for an observed belt law violation alone). Thirteen States ma...

  10. Effectiveness of primary and secondary enforced seat belt laws. (United States)

    Rivara, F P; Thompson, D C; Cummings, P


    The objective of this study was to determine the relative efficacy of primary and secondary enforced motor vehicle occupant restraint laws on the outcomes of restraint use, crash-related mortality, and crash-related injuries. We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Psyc-INFO, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Transportation Research Information Service (TRIS), and EI Compendex. The reference lists from each potentially eligible study were checked, and knowledgeable people in the field were contacted, for additional leads to published reports. Studies had to include a comparison of primary enforcement law to no law, secondary enforcement law to no law, or a primary to a secondary law. Any study design was acceptable. Acceptable outcome measures included observed restraint use, and counts or rates of deaths or serious injuries. Data were collected using a standard abstract reporting from. Relative differences in outcomes and absolute differences were calculated when possible. We identified 48 studies for the review. When places or time periods with primary enforcement laws were compared to those without such laws, the relative prevalence of seat belt use ranged from 1.5 to 4.5; the prevalence differences ranged from 10 to 50 per 100 observed drivers. Secondary laws had smaller effects. Two studies evaluated a change in law from secondary to primary enforcement; this was associated with an increase in belt use 6 months later of 5.3 per 100 observed drivers in Louisiana and 18 per 100 drivers in California. Primary enforcement laws were associated with a relative risk of death in MV crashes of .54 to .97. The reduction in mortality associated with secondary enforcement laws was much more modest, with relative risks estimates of .81 to 1.025. Primary enforcement laws were associated with a relative risk of severe injuries of .20 to .89; the

  11. Analysing of critical force effects of aircraft seat belt using truss elements (United States)

    Klemenc, Marek; Markopoulos, Alexandros; Maršálek, Pavel


    This paper deals with the mathematical modelling of an aircraft seat belt crash test. The main goal is determination of a time course of the reactions in a lap belt anchoring points and their maximum values. This work was created on the basis of practical requirements from industry. Results are going to be reflected in developing a new type of aircraft seats. We mainly focus on the mathematical modelling of dynamic problems using the finite element method (FEM). Derived procedures are implemented in the Python programming language and are verified by several examples. A final calculation algorithm is applied on the analysis of the safety belt. We consider that a seat belt bending stiffness is very small compared to a tensile stiffness, therefore we used a 2D plane truss element.

  12. Modeling school bus seat belt usage: Nested and mixed logit approaches. (United States)

    Mehta, Gaurav; Lou, Yingyan


    School bus seat belt usage has been of great interest to the school transportation community. Understanding factors that influence students' decisions about wearing seat belts or not is important in determining the most cost-effective ways to improve belt usage rate, and thus the seat belt safety benefits. This paper presents a rigorous empirical analysis on data from Alabama School Bus Pilot Project using discrete choice modeling framework. In order to collect relevant information on individual student-trips, a new data collection protocol is adopted. Three choice alternatives are considered in the study: wearing, not wearing, and improperly wearing seat belts. A student's choice probabilities of these alternatives are modeled as functions of the student's characteristics and trip attributes. The coefficients of the variables in the functions are estimated first using standard multinomial logit model. Moreover, to account for potential correlations among the three choice alternatives and individual-level preference and response heterogeneity among users, nested and mixed logit models are employed in the investigation. Eight significant influence factors are identified by the final models. Their relative impacts are also quantified. The factors include age, gender and the home county of a student, a student's trip length, time of day, seat location, presence and active involvement of bus aide, and two levels of bus driver involvement. The impact of the seat location on students' seat belt usage is revealed for the first time by this study. Both hypotheses that some of the choice alternatives are correlated and that individual-level heterogeneity exists are tested statistically significant. In view of this, the nested and the mixed logit model are recommended over the standard multinomial logit model to describe and predict students' seat belt usage behaviors. The final nested logit model uncovers a correlation between improper wearing and not wearing, indicating

  13. Compliance with Use of Seat Belt among Commercial Drivers in a Nigerian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole C. Omolase


    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at determining compliance with use of seat belt among commercial intercity drivers. METHOD: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Owo, South West Nigeria among commercial intercity drivers between June and September, 2009. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria prior to commencement of this study. The permission of the leadership of Road Transport Workers’ Union was also sought and obtained. Ninety intercity commercial drivers out of the estimated one hundred and sixty intercity commercial drivers in the community were enrolled in this study. Informed consent was obtained from each of the respondents. The data obtained was collated and analyzed with SPSS 15.0.1 statistical soft ware version. RESULTS: Ninety respondents were enrolled in this study. The driving experience of the respondents revealed that most respondents: 53 (58.9% had more than 20 years driving experience. Most respondents;78 (86.7% complied with use of seat belt .The main barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip;28 (50.9%.Most respondents; 67 (74.4%were in support of penalization of defaulters. The major source of awareness about seat belt was Federal Road Safety Corps;59 (65.6%. CONCLUSION: Most respondents complied with use of seat belt. The major barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip within the community. The Federal Road Safety Corps should enforce compliance with the use of seat belt most especially within communities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 281-286

  14. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity. (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R


    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  15. A cost benefit analysis of an enhanced seat belt enforcement program in South Africa. (United States)

    Harris, G T; Olukoga, I A


    To examine whether a program to increase the wearing of seat belts in a South African urban area would be worthwhile in societal terms. A cost benefit analysis of a one year enhanced seat belt enforcement program in eThekwini (Durban) Municipality. Data were drawn from two main sources--a 1998 study of the cost of road crashes in South Africa and, given the absence of other data, a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of various types of interventions to reduce road crash casualties in the United States--and were analyzed using cost benefit analysis. A program designed to enforce greater wearing of seat belts, estimated to cost 2 million rand in one year, could be reasonably expected to increase seat belt usage rates by 16 percentage points and reduce fatalities and injuries by 9.5%. This would result in saved social costs of 13.6 million rand in the following year or a net present value of 11.6 million rand. There would also be favorable consequences for municipal finances. Investment in a program to increase seat belt wearing rates is highly profitable in societal terms.

  16. Need and Possibilities for Seat Belt Use Promotion in Bashkortostan, Russia (United States)

    Akhmadeeva, Leila; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Sussman, Steve; Khusnutdinova, Zolya; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.


    Bashkortostan is a republic in the Russian Federation with a population of 4.1 million. As with other health behaviors, the prevalence of seat belt use is low, which may account in part for the very high rate of motor-vehicle-related mortality in this republic. The authors discuss the need and potential for translating seat belt promotion programming from other Russian regions and other countries to Bashkortostan. The authors conclude that current policies developed in other countries could work well in the republic, if they are enforced. Meanwhile, initiatives such as the Sakhalin Road Safety Partnership offer great potential for translation in Bashkortostan as well as in other regions with similarly low seat belt use prevalence. PMID:18559882

  17. Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Hallman, Jason J


    A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length. An increase in stature of 350 mm (approximately the range from 5th-percentile female to 95th-percentile male in the U.S. population) was associated with the lap belt 14 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, the shoulder belt 37 mm more outboard relative to the body centerline, and 38 mm less shoulder belt webbing length. Among the driver factors considered, body mass index had the greatest effects. An increase of BMI in 20 kg/m^2, which spans approximately the central 90% of U.S. adults, was associated with the lap belt being placed 102 mm further forward and 94 mm higher, relative to the pelvis, and increases in lap and shoulder belt webbing length of 276 and 258 mm, respectively. Gender did not have important effects on the analyzed belt fit measures after taking into account stature and body mass index. These results offer important considerations for future crash safety assessments and suggest that further research is needed to consider belt fit for older and obese occupants.

  18. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use : an analysis of socio-demographic variables. (United States)


    "Despite the extensive evidence about the benefits of seat belt use, there is a great deal of variation in use within the US. For example, the national average for seat belt use in 2009 was 84 percent while the state-level averages ranged from 68 per...

  19. Estimated medical cost savings in Utah by implementation of a primary seat belt law (United States)


    This report examines 2007 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to : a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Utah if a primary seat : belt law is implemented. The savings a...

  20. Estimated medical cost savings in Nevada by implementation of a primary seat belt law (United States)


    This report examines 2007 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Nevada if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savings are...

  1. Estimated medical cost savings in Rhode Island by implementation of a primary seat belt law (United States)


    This report examines 2006 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Rhode Island if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savin...

  2. Estimated medical cost savings in Massachusetts by implementation of a primary seat belt law (United States)


    This report examines 2006 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Massachusetts if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savi...

  3. Estimated medical cost savings in Vermont by implementation of a primary seat belt law (United States)


    This report examines 2005 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to the State of Vermont if a primary seat belt law is implemented. T...

  4. The Role of Seat Belt in the Prevention of Fatalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Road traffic crashes still remain a prominent cause of death worldwide but proper use of safety belts can prevent death in some of these accidents. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the role of seat beltuse I violation in Rivers State, Nigeria and to determine its relationship with fatality of road traffic ...

  5. Effect of realistic vehicle seats, cushion length, and lap belt geometry on child ATD kinematics. (United States)


    This series of sled tests examined the effect of using real vehicle seats on child ATD performance. Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of 350 mm. Lap belt geometry was set to rear, mid, and forward anchorag...

  6. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies (United States)


    ... insertion of a cylinder 10 mm in diameter and 38 mm in length to at least the midpoint of the cylinder along the cylinder's entire length in the actuation portion of the buckle release. A buckle having other... a child almost got strangled by a seat belt. The petitioner further suggested there is a demand for...

  7. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use while Driving (United States)

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy


    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads…

  8. Seat belt syndrome: Delayed or missed intestinal injuries, a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib Al-Ozaibi


    Conclusion: Clinical signs of intestinal injuries might not be obvious on presentation. In the presence of seat belt sign the possibility of bowl injury must be suspected. Admit the patient for observation even if no clinical or radiological findings are present at presentation.

  9. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use of service vehicle drivers. (United States)


    This study pilot-tested a new application of a technology-based intervention to increase seat belt use. The technology was based on a : contingency in which unbelted drivers experienced sustained haptic feedback to the gas pedal when they exceeded 25...

  10. Evaluation of a rural demonstration program to increase seat belt use in the Great Lakes Region. (United States)


    Six States in the Great Lakes Region (Region 5) participated in a Rural Demonstration Program to increase seat belt : use in rural areas and among high-risk occupants, such as young males and occupants of pickup trucks. These : efforts, which include...

  11. The Role of Seat Belt in the Prevention of Fatalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    speed and less drunk driving amongst others[36-38].Also, there was no significant relationship between number of seat belt violations and other four outcomes (no. of total accidents, injured, death, total casualties) in this study between 2009 and 2012. Recent reviews of the relative efficacy of primary versus secondary ...

  12. Pattern of Seat Belt and Mobile Phone use while driving in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human error contributes significantly to the occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTAs) and their attendant morbidity and mortality. While driving, distractions such as the use of mobile phones and poor compliance with the use of seat belts play different roles in the occurrence of RTAs and possible injuries arising ...

  13. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan


    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  14. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General... (United States)


    ... approved seat or berth and no restraining device for the child is used. In contrast, for commercial... proposed clarification also emphasizes that the proper restraint method for children during operations... Interpretations You can get an electronic copy using the Internet by-- (1) Searching the Federal eRulemaking...

  15. Roll seat belt induced injury of the duodenum. (United States)

    Bergqvist, D; Hedelin, H


    A case of duodenal rupture with a roll three-point seatbelt is described. It is apparently the seventh reported case of duodenal rupture in safety belt users. A female driver fell asleep, and her car went off the road, rolling forward in a ditch, slowing slightly, and then came to a sudden stop. The rupture was unusual: on the first part of duodenum, intraperitoneal, and longitudinal. The rupture mechanism is discussed, and the deficiencies of the roll seatbelt pointed out in accidents like the one described.

  16. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits. (United States)

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D


    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  17. Optimizing protection for rear seat occupants : assessing booster performance with realistic belt geometry using the hybrid III 6YO ATD. (United States)


    A series of sled tests was conducted to examine the performance of booster seats under belt geometries representing the range found in the rear seats of current vehicles. Twelve tests were performed with the standard 6YO Hybrid III ATD and 29 tests w...

  18. Mathematical models assuming selective recruitment fitted to data for driver mortality and seat belt use in Japan. (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Kawamura, Takashi; Ichikawa, Masao; Wakai, Susumu


    Previous research has indicated that unbelted drivers are at higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes than belted drivers, suggesting selective recruitment that high-risk drivers are unlikely to become belt users. However, how the risk of involvement in fatal crashes among unbelted drivers varies according to the level of seat belt use among general drivers has yet to be clearly quantified. We, therefore, developed mathematical models describing the risk of fatal crashes in relation to seat belt use among the general public, and explored how these models fitted to changes in driver mortality and changes in observed seat belt use using Japanese data. Mortality data between 1979 and 1994 were obtained from vital statistics, and mortality data in the daytime and nighttime between 1980 and 2001 and belt use data between 1979 and 2001 were obtained from the National Police Agency. Regardless of the data set analyzed, exponential models, assuming that high-risk drivers would gradually become belt users in order of increasing risk as seat belt use among general motorists reached high levels, showed the best fit. Our models provide an insight into behavioral changes among high-risk drivers and support the selective recruitment hypothesis.

  19. Rural and Urban Differences in Passenger-Vehicle-Occupant Deaths and Seat Belt Use Among Adults - United States, 2014. (United States)

    Beck, Laurie F; Downs, Jonathan; Stevens, Mark R; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K


    Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. 2014. Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use. FARS, a census of U.S. motor-vehicle crashes involving one or more deaths, was used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths among adults aged ≥18 years. Passenger-vehicle occupants were defined as persons driving or riding in passenger cars, light trucks, vans, or sport utility vehicles. Death rates per 100,000 population, age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population and the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash, were calculated. BRFSS, an annual, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years, was used to estimate prevalence of seat belt use. FARS and BRFSS data were analyzed by a six-level rural-urban designation, based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2013 rural-urban continuum codes, and stratified by census region and type of state seat belt enforcement law (primary or secondary). Within each census region, age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates per 100,000 population increased with increasing rurality, from the most urban to the most rural counties: South, 6.8 to 29.2; Midwest, 5.3 to 25.8; West, 3.9 to 40.0; and Northeast, 3.5 to 10.8. (For the Northeast, data for the most rural counties were not reported because of suppression criteria; comparison is for the most urban to the second-most rural counties.) Similarly, the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash

  20. Development of an Emergency Locking Unit for a Belt-In-Seat (BIS System Using a MEMS Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Baek


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emergency locking unit (ELU for a seat belt retractor which is mounted on the back frame of a vehicle seat. The proposed unit uses a recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor and solenoid mechanism. The seat has an upper frame supported to tilt on a lower frame. The retractor in belt in seat (BIS system is supported by the upper frame. The proposed recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor comprises orientation means for maintaining a predetermined orientation of emergency relative to the lower frame independently of the force of gravity when the upper frame tilts on the lower frame. Experimental results show that the developed recliner sensor unit operates effectively with respect to rollover angles. Thus, the developed unit will have a considerable potential to offer a new design concept in BIS system.

  1. Multiple noncontiguous injuries of the spine in a child: atlantooccipital dislocation and seat-belt injury of the lumbar spine. (United States)

    Vedantam, R; Crawford, A H


    Multiple noncontiguous injuries of nonadjoining regions of the spine in children are rare. Such injuries can be overlooked as the neurological deficit caused by one injury can be masked by the other. The combination of atlantooccipital dislocation and a seat-belt injury of the spine in children is rare. We describe an unusual case of atlantooccipital dislocation in combination with a seat-belt injury of the lumbar spine in a surviving child. Early halo-vest immobilization was an effective treatment in this patient. Although survival with atlantooccipital injuries is becoming common, severe and persistent neurological deficits can result in high morbidity. A brief description of the pathomechanics, diagnosis and treatment of the atlantooccipital dislocation and lumbar seat-belt injury is given.

  2. Influence of an Enforcement Campaign on Seat-Belt and Helmet Wearing, Karachi-Hala Highway, Pakistan (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid A.; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A.; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad


    This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants’ age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8–6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2–8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6–16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan. PMID:22105384

  3. Seat-belt wearing and driving behavior: an instrumented-vehicle study. (United States)

    Janssen, W


    Less-than-expected fatality reductions after seat-belt legislation has been introduced in a jurisdiction may be explained in terms of selective recruitment of parts of the driving population and/or behavioral adaptation by beginning belt users. The present investigation has compared the relative merits of these two hypotheses at the level of individual driver behavior. In the initial study the driving behavior of groups of habitual wearers and nonwearers of the belt was compared. Nonwearers made two trips, one with the belt on and one without the belt. Habitual wearers drove belted only. The main part of the experiment was a 105 km freeway route. Two additional tasks of a somewhat more critical nature, a double lane-change manoeuvre and the performance of a braking manoeuvre in front of a fixed obstacle, were performed after the freeway trips. Factor analysis on 39 variables describing driving behavior on the road and during the additional tasks resulted in five factors. One of these, the factor describing the distribution of driving speed on the freeway, differentiated between nonwearers and wearers (thus yielding support for the selective recruitment hypothesis) as well as between wearing and not wearing the belt by the same drivers (thus yielding support for the behavioral adaptation hypothesis). In the follow-up study the original wearers and nonwearers were assigned to one of four experimental treatments: (i) the promise by the experimenter of a considerable incentive for not having a culpable motor vehicle accident over a period of a year. Half the habitual wearer subjects were assigned to this condition. The expectation was that this group would become more careful in their driving; (ii) a control group, consisting of the remaining habitual wearers; (iii) the agreement between the experimenter and the subject that the latter would buckle up in everyday driving for the year to come--half the habitual nonwearer subjects were assigned to this condition; (iv) a

  4. Seat belt and mobile phone use among vehicle drivers in the city of Doha, Qatar: an observational study. (United States)

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Cheema, Sohaila; Alrouh, Hekmat; Al-Thani, Mohammed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Mamtani, Ravinder


    In Qatar traffic injuries and fatalities are of serious concern. Mobile phone use whilst driving has been associated with increased risk of vehicular collisions and injuries. Seat belt use has been demonstrated to save lives and reduce the severity of road traffic injuries. Whereas previously published studies may have looked at all front passengers, this study aims to obtain reliable estimates of the prevalence of seat belt and mobile phone use among vehicle drivers in the city of Doha, Qatar. Additionally, we aim to investigate the association of these behaviors with other variables namely gender, time of the day and type of vehicle. An observational study on 2,011 vehicles was conducted in 2013. Data were collected at ten sites within Doha city over a two-week period. Two trained observers surveyed each car and recorded observations on a data collection form adapted from a form used in a 2012 Oklahoma observational study. Associations were assessed using the Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. A p-value of .05 or less was considered statistically significant. Overall, 1,463 (72.7 %) drivers were found using a seat belt (95 % CI: 70.8-74.7 %) and 150 (7.5 %) their mobile phones (95 % CI: 6.3-8.6 %) during the observation period. Mobile phone use was significantly associated with not using a seat belt and driving a sport utility vehicle. Significantly lower rates of seat belt use were observed in the early morning and late afternoon. No gender differences were observed. Seatbelt use in Doha was found to be similar to countries in the region but lower than those in western countries. Also, studies from other high-income locations, reported lower rates of mobile phone use while driving than in Doha. Despite road traffic crashes being one of the leading causes of death in Qatar, three out of 10 drivers in Doha, Qatar, do not use a seat belt and about one in 12 use a mobile phone while driving. More efforts, in the form of awareness campaigns and increased law

  5. Association between the seat belt sign and intra-abdominal injuries in children with blunt torso trauma in motor vehicle collisions. (United States)

    Borgialli, Dominic A; Ellison, Angela M; Ehrlich, Peter; Bonsu, Bema; Menaker, Jay; Wisner, David H; Atabaki, Shireen; Olsen, Cody S; Sokolove, Peter E; Lillis, Kathy; Kuppermann, Nathan; Holmes, James F


    The objective was to determine the association between the abdominal seat belt sign and intra-abdominal injuries (IAIs) in children presenting to emergency departments with blunt torso trauma after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). This was a planned subgroup analysis of prospective data from a multicenter cohort study of children with blunt torso trauma after MVCs. Patient history and physical examination findings were documented before abdominal computed tomography (CT) or laparotomy. Seat belt sign was defined as a continuous area of erythema, ecchymosis, or abrasion across the abdomen secondary to a seat belt restraint. The relative risk (RR) of IAI with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated for children with seat belt signs compared to those without. The risk of IAI in those patients with seat belt sign who were without abdominal pain or tenderness, and with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15, was also calculated. A total of 3,740 children with seat belt sign documentation after blunt torso trauma in MVCs were enrolled; 585 (16%) had seat belt signs. Among the 1,864 children undergoing definitive abdominal testing (CT, laparotomy/laparoscopy, or autopsy), IAIs were more common in patients with seat belt signs than those without (19% vs. 12%; RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.1). This difference was primarily due to a greater risk of gastrointestinal injuries (hollow viscous or associated mesentery) in those with seat belt signs (11% vs. 1%; RR = 9.4, 95% CI = 5.4 to 16.4). IAI was diagnosed in 11 of 194 patients (5.7%; 95% CI = 2.9% to 9.9%) with seat belt signs who did not have initial complaints of abdominal pain or tenderness and had GCS scores of 14 or 15. Patients with seat belt signs after MVCs are at greater risk of IAI than those without seat belt signs, predominately due to gastrointestinal injuries. Although IAIs are less common in alert patients with seat belt signs who do not have initial complaints of abdominal pain or tenderness, the

  6. Factors influencing students' usage of school bus seat belts: an empirical analysis of the Alabama pilot project. (United States)

    Lou, Yingyan; Mehta, Gaurav; Turner, Daniel S


    The Alabama State Department of Education and the Governor's Study Group on School Bus Seat Belts authorized and funded a research project to investigate the effects of lap-shoulder seat belts on Alabama school buses. This article performs an empirical analysis to address an important component of the study - factors that impact students' decisions about wearing seat belts or not on school buses. Discrete choice modeling framework is applied to quantify relative influences of various factors. To obtain the disaggregate level information on individual student's characteristics and trip properties, a new data collection protocol is developed. Eleven variables are investigated and eight of them are found to have significant impacts. They are age, gender, the home county of a student, a student's trip length, time of day, presence and active involvement of bus aide, and two levels of bus driver involvement. The resulting model fits the data well and reveals several trends that have been overlooked or underestimated in the literature. The model can also be used to predict the change of seat belt usage rate caused by the change of impact factors. This is helpful in identifying the most cost-effective ways to improve compliance rate, which is critical to bring the added safety benefit of seat belts into effect. This article is the first to quantify relative impacts of a range of variables using rigorous statistical modeling techniques. This study will contribute to the literature and provide valuable insights to the practice of school transportation management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of seat belt use among drivers in Sabzevar, Iran: a comparison of theory of planned behavior and health belief model. (United States)

    Ali, Mehri; Haidar, Nadrian; Ali, Morowatisharifabad Mohammad; Maryam, Akolechy


    Although seat belt use can significantly decrease the risk of injury, few car drivers make use of seat belts in Iran. The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiencyof the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the health beliefmodel (HBM) in predicting intention to use a seat belt among car drivers in Sabzevar, Iran. A cross-sectional, correlational design was employed. Cluster sampling was used to recruit 340 drivers to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to investigate variables of interest. Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined. The statistical analyses of the data included t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), bivariate correlation, and stepwise regression. All TPB and HBM variables were related to intention to use a seat belt in car drivers. All TPB (perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and attitude) and HBM (perceived susceptibility and severity, benefits and barriers, and cues to action) variables were statistically significant predictors of seat belt use intention and accounted for 37.9 and 15.4 percent of the variation, respectively. Our results showed that the rate of seat belt use in Iran as a developing country is very low. Thus, developing and implementing effective interventional programs in order to promote seat belt use among car drivers is recommended. The findings of this study provide preliminary support for the TPB model as a more effective framework than HBM for examining seat belt use in car drivers. Our results demonstrated that TPB has greater predictive utility than HBM in seat belt use intention.

  8. Seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on child-sized dummies during run-off-road events. (United States)

    Stockman, Isabelle; Bohman, Katarina; Jakobsson, Lotta


    Run-off-road events occur frequently and can result in severe consequences. Several potential injury-causing mechanisms can be observed in the diverse types of run-off-road events. Real-world data show that different types of environments, such as rough terrain, ditch types, and whether multiple events occur, may be important contributing factors to occupant injury. Though countermeasures addressing front seat occupants have been presented, studies on rear seat occupant retention in situations such as run-off-road events are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on rear-seated child-sized anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) during 2 different types of run-off-road events. The study was carried out using 2 test setups: a rig test with a vehicle rear seat mounted on a multi-axial robot simulating a road departure event into a side ditch and an in-vehicle test setup with a Volvo XC60 entering a side ditch with a grass slope, driving inside the ditch, and returning back to the road from the ditch. Potential subsequent rollovers or impacts were not included in the test setups. Three different ATDs were used. The Q6 and Q10 were seated on an integrated booster cushion and the Hybrid III (HIII) 5th percentile female was positioned directly on the seat. The seat belt retractor was equipped with a pre-pretensioner (electrical reversible retractor) with 3 force level settings. In addition, reference tests with the pre-pretensioner inactivated were run. Kinematics and the shoulder belt position were analyzed. In rig tests, the left-seated ATD was exposed to rapid inboard lateral loads relative to the vehicle. The displacement for each ATD was reduced when the pre-pretensioner was activated compared to tests when it was inactivated. Maximum inboard displacement occurred earlier in the event for all ATDs when the pre-pretensioner was activated. Shoulder belt slip-off occurred for the Q6 and Q10 in tests where the pre

  9. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... bolt holes or the centroid of any other means of attachment to the structure specified in are either: (a) For designated seating positions that are common to the same occupant seat and that... common to the same occupant seat, but that face in the same direction, if the vertical centerline of the...

  10. Primary Enforcement of Mandatory Seat Belt Laws and Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths. (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Strumpf, Erin C


    Policies that allow directly citing motorists for seat belt non-use (primary enforcement) have been shown to reduce motor vehicle crash deaths relative to secondary enforcement, but the evidence base is dated and does not account for recent improvements in vehicle designs and road safety. The purpose of this study was to test whether recent upgrades to primary enforcement still reduce motor vehicle crash deaths. In 2016, researchers used motor vehicle crash death data from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System for 2000-2014 and calculated rates using both person- and exposure-based denominators. Researchers used a difference-in-differences design to estimate the effect of primary enforcement on death rates, and estimated negative binomial regression models, controlling for age, substance use involvement, fixed state characteristics, secular trends, state median household income, and other state-level traffic safety policies. Models adjusted only for crash characteristics and state-level covariates models showed a protective effect of primary enforcement (rate ratio, 0.88, 95% CI=0.77, 0.98; rate difference, -1.47 deaths per 100,000 population, 95% CI= -2.75, -0.19). After adjustment for fixed state characteristics and secular trends, there was no evidence of an effect of upgrading from secondary to primary enforcement in the whole population (rate ratio, 0.98, 95% CI=0.92, 1.04; rate difference, -0.22, 95% CI= -0.90, 0.46) or for any age group. Upgrading to primary enforcement no longer appears protective for motor vehicle crash death rates. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue. (United States)

    Campbell, H; Macdonald, S; Richardson, P


    To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road traffic casualties. Areas of intervention that could be

  12. 78 FR 79074 - Technical Report Evaluating Seat Belt Pretensioners and Load Limiters (United States)


    ... slack almost instantly upon sensing the vehicle has crashed. Load limiters allow the belt to ``give'' or... number for this docket (NHTSA-2013-0130) to see if your comments are on line. How do I submit...

  13. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger... (United States)


    ... Anchorages, School Bus Passenger Seating and Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... published on October 21, 2008, which upgraded NHTSA's school bus passenger crash protection requirements.... We make clearer the procedure specifying how we will measure the height of school bus passenger torso...

  14. The effects of video-based and activity-based instruction on high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to seat belt use (United States)

    Jones, Tudor Griffith, III

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of video-based science instruction and accompanying activity-based instruction on the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school students' use of seat belts. Secondarily, the purpose was to determine order effects and interactions between the two treatments used in the study: video-based instruction and hands-on activity-based instruction. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to investigate the factors influencing high school students' behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. This study used a pretest-posttest-posttest treatment design. Data were collected on 194 students in high school introductory biology and chemistry classes in Gainesville, Florida. Ten intact high school science classes (eight treatment and two control) took pretests and posttests measuring physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to and after participating in the two treatments. The treatment group students participated in at least 500 minutes of instructional time divided among five lessons over 10 instructional days. All participants were pretested on physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to two treatments. Treatment A was defined as participating in one 50-minute video-based instructional lesson. Treatment B was defined as participating in four hands-on science activities regarding crash-related physics concepts. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p young adults.

  15. Occupant dynamics in rollover crashes: influence of roof deformation and seat belt performance on probable spinal column injury. (United States)

    Bidez, Martha W; Cochran, John E; King, Dottie; Burke, Donald S


    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the United States for people ages 3-33, and rollover crashes have a higher fatality rate than any other crash mode. At the request and under the sponsorship of Ford Motor Company, Autoliv conducted a series of dynamic rollover tests on Ford Explorer sport utility vehicles (SUV) during 1998 and 1999. Data from those tests were made available to the public and were analyzed in this study to investigate the magnitude of and the temporal relationship between roof deformation, lap-shoulder seat belt loads, and restrained anthropometric test dummy (ATD) neck loads. During each of the three FMVSS 208 dolly rollover tests of Ford Explorer SUVs, the far-side, passenger ATDs exhibited peak neck compression and flexion loads, which indicated a probable spinal column injury in all three tests. In those same tests, the near-side, driver ATD neck loads never predicted a potential injury. In all three tests, objective roof/pillar deformation occurred prior to the occurrence of peak neck loads (F ( z ), M ( y )) for far-side, passenger ATDs, and peak neck loads were predictive of probable spinal column injury. The production lap and shoulder seat belts in the SUVs, which restrained both driver and passenger ATDs, consistently allowed ATD head contact with the roof while the roof was contacting the ground during this 1000 ms test series. Local peak neck forces and moments were noted each time the far-side, passenger ATD head contacted ("dived into") the roof while the roof was in contact with the ground; however, the magnitude of these local peaks was only 2-13% of peak neck loads in all three tests. "Diving-type" neck loads were not predictive of injury for either driver or passenger ATD in any of the three tests.

  16. The influence of age, seat belt, time of day, and type of vehicles on road accidents in Kerman, Iran. (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali


    Traffic accidents are one of the main external causes of morbidity and mortality in various parts of the world, including Kerman, a city that has experienced rapid growth in the number of cars in the last 5 years. The objective of this article was to identify the influence of age, belt use, time of day, and type of vehicle road accidents of southeastern Iran. This study used data obtained from Kerman police force reports on incidents of road traffic accidents (RTAs). We analyzed the police reports of total road accidents that occurred from 2005 to 2007. The involvement in fatal and non-fatal accidents was determined for females than among males. The analysis of the data indicated that the female drivers have a much better road safety record than male drivers, especially with regards to their involvement in severe traffic accidents. Forty-nine percent of accidents involve passenger cars, which is higher than other type of vehicles. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers who did not use seat belts had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. Time of day analyses suggested that the problems of accidents in darkness are not a matter of visibility but a consequence of the way drivers use the roads at night. A number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety in southeastern Iran are suggested.

  17. Seat belt associated central line fracture--a previously unreported complication in cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Ghayyda, Salim N S; Roland, Damian; Cade, Alan


    Totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) are used widely in the management of cystic fibrosis (CF) [Standards of Care: Standards for the clinical care of children and adults with cystic fibrosis in the UK. The Cystic Fibrosis Trust's Clinical Standards and Accreditation Group. Cystic Fibrosis Trust, London, UK, 2001]. They have been shown to be safe and advantageous in the long term administration of intravenous antibiotics [A-Rahman A, Spencer D. Totally implantable vascular access devices for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003(3)]. However, TIVADs are not without short and long term complications including infections, thrombosis and mechanical failure [Munck A, Malbezin S, Bloch J. Follow up of 452 totally implantable vascular devices in cystic fibrosis patients. Eur Respir J 2004;23:430-4; Aitkin ML, Tonelli ML. Complications of indwelling catheters in cystic fibrosis: a 10-year review. Chest 2000;118:1598-602; Deerojanawong J, Sawyer SM, Fink AM, Stokes KB, Robertson CF. Totally implantable venous access devices in children with cystic fibrosis. Thorax 1998;53:285-89; Rodgers HC, Liddle K, Nixon SJ, Innes JA, Greening AP. Totally implantable venous access devices in cystic fibrosis: complications and patients' opinions. Eur Respir J 1998;12:217-20; Yung B, Campbell IA, Elborn JS, Harvey JS, Shale DJ. Totally implantable venous access devices in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Respir Med 1996;90:353-56; Kariyawasam HH, Pepper JR, Hodson ME, Geddes DM. Experience of totally implantable venous access devices (TIV Ads) in adults with cystic fibrosis over a 13-year period. Respir Med 2000;94:1161-5]. Patients should be counselled prior to TIVAD insertion regarding the risks and instructed on post-operative care of the device to minimise the risks. However it is not routine practice to advise on seating position within the car in relationship to the seatbelt placement over the anterior chest wall. Line failure due to direct pressure from a

  18. Noise in Load Cell Signal in an Automatic Weighing System Based on a Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi


    Full Text Available Noise in load cell signal in an automatic weighing system based on a belt conveyor has been examined experimentally in time and frequency domains to enhance signal quality. The noise frequency spectrum showed nonlinearly increasing multiple resonance peaks as speed increased. The noise reduction process using noise reduction algorithm, by sharply rejecting peak noise frequency component and afterward forming optimum pulse width ratio through filter slope control using selective switching of 6 LPF stages, was used for enhanced accuracy. The effectiveness of proposed method, controlling both cutoff frequency and slope of LPF, was evaluated by feeding 50 g test mass, and this noise reduction process showed better noise filtering with enhanced accuracy than fixed cutoff frequency control method. The ratio of top to bottom pulse width showed that LPF cutoff frequency above 5 Hz had the ratio above 50% up to 80 m/min speed range.

  19. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 9: Good practice in the selected key areas : speeding, drink driving and seat belt wearing : results from meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erke, A. Goldenbeld, C. & Vaa, T.


    The main objective of task 4.2 in the EU-project PEPPER on traffic law enforcement measures has been to give a systematic review of evaluation studies on speed, drink driving and seat-belt enforcement by applying meta-analyses to assess the best estimates of the effects of enforcement measures on

  20. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 9: Good practice in the selected key areas : speeding, drink driving and seat belt wearing : results from meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erke, A. Goldenbeld, C. & Vaa, T.


    The main objective of task 4.2 in the EU-project PEPPER on traffic law enforcement measures has been to give a systematic review of evaluation studies on speed, drink driving and seat-belt enforcement by applying meta-analyses to assess the best estimates of the effects of enforcement measures on

  1. 2010 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to establish 2010 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2010 survey continues to document the results after enactment of the original "second enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in...

  2. 2009 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to establish 2009 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2009 survey continues to document the results after enactment of original "secondary enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  3. 2008 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to establish 2008 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2008 survey continues to document the results after enactment of the initial "second enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  4. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and... requirements for school bus passenger seating and restraining barriers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this... that the minimum number of occupants can be belted. School bus passenger seat means a seat in a school...

  5. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  6. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  7. Car Seat Safety (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  8. Differences in the kinematics of booster-seated pediatric occupants using two different car seats. (United States)

    Juste-Lorente, O; Maza, M; Lorente, A I; Lopez-Valdes, F J


    The objective of this article is to compare the performance of forward-facing child restraint systems (CRS) mounted on 2 different seats. Two different anthropomorphic test device (ATD) sizes (P3 and P6), using the same child restraint system (a non-ISOFIX high-back booster seat), were exposed to the ECE R44 regulatory deceleration pulse in a deceleration sled. Two different seats (seat A, seat B) were used. Three repetitions per ATD and mounting seat were done, resulting in a total of 12 sled crashes. Dummy sensors measured the head tri-axial acceleration and angular rate and the thorax tri-axial acceleration, all acquired at 10,000 Hz. A high-speed video camera recorded the impact at 1,000 frames per second. The 3D kinematics of the head and torso of the ATDs were captured using a high-speed motion capture system (1,000 Hz). A pair-matched statistical analysis compared the outcomes of the tests using the 2 different seats. Statistically significant differences in the kinematic response of the ATDs associated with the type of seat were observed. The maximum 3 ms peak of the resultant head acceleration was higher on seat A for the P3 dummy (54.5 ± 1.9 g vs. 44.2 ± 0.5 g; P =.012) and for the P6 dummy (56.0 ± 0.8 g vs. 51.7 ± 1.2 g; P =.015). The peak belt force was higher on seat A than on seat B for the P3 dummy (5,488.0 ± 198.0 N vs. 4,160.6 ± 63.6 N; P =.008) and for the P6 dummy (7,014.0 ± 271.0 N vs. 5,719.3 ± 37.4 N; P =.015). The trajectory of the ATD head was different between the 2 seats in the sagittal, transverse, and frontal planes. The results suggest that the overall response of the booster-seated occupant exposed to the same impact conditions was different depending on the seat used regardless of the size of the ATD. The differences observed in the response of the occupants between the 2 seats can be attributed to the differences in cushion stiffness, seat pan geometry, and belt geometry. However, these results were obtained for 2

  9. Car safety belts: a study of two models adapted for people with arthritis. (United States)

    Arie, E


    People with arthritis find car seat belts difficult to use. Sixteen arthritic patients and 19 healthy volunteers completed a comparative study of one standard inertia-reel belt and two adapted inertia-reel belts with reduced retraction forces. Those with arthritis were strong enough to use the standard belt but both adapted belts had features making them easier to use.

  10. 2015 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky. (United States)


    The use of safety belts and child safety seats has been shown to be an effective means of : reducing injuries to motor-vehicle occupants involved in traffic crashes. There have been various : methods used in efforts to increase safety belt and safety...

  11. Child Safety Seats (United States)

    ... htm Child safety seats To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Child safety seats are proven to save children's lives in accidents. In the United States, all states require children to be secured in a car seat or booster seat until they reach certain ...

  12. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.


    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  13. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...

  14. Factors associated with rear seating of children in motor vehicles: a study in two low-income, predominantly Hispanic communities. (United States)

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B


    This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P safety behavior (e.g. seat belt use). Messages should be culturally appropriate and should emphasize driver seat belt use in conjunction with rear seating and the importance of rear seating regardless of the presence of a passenger-side airbag.

  15. Optimizing the rear seat environment for older children, adults, and infants. (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Wu, Jun; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Cao, Libo


    Our recent rear seat safety research found that more-forward and higher lap belt anchorage locations and much shorter and stiffer seat cushions can improve the protection of older children from 6 to 12 years old who are using the vehicle belt without a booster. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the optimal rear seat restraint systems for adults and infants are consistent with those for older children. We conducted sensitivity analyses and design optimizations for adults and for infants in a rear-facing child restraint system (CRS) using a set of MADYMO models, an automated simulation framework, and occupant belt-fit and posture prediction models from our previous studies. A series of 12 sled tests was also used to validate the computational models. The optimal belt anchorage locations and the seat cushion length for older children, adults, and rear-facing CRS-seated infants conflict with each other. In particular, more-forward lap belt anchorage locations that prevent submarining for older children would reduce the protection to both adults and CRS-seated infants, although the protection is still acceptable based on regulated injury criteria. A shorter seat cushion could provide optimal protection to older children and adults but would significantly increase the CRS rotation. The findings of this study suggested that adaptive/adjustable restraint systems are necessary to simultaneously improve the rear seat occupant protection for all age groups. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file.

  16. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.


    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  17. Misuse of car safety seats. (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S


    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  18. Naturalistic driving study of rear seat child occupants: Quantification of head position using a Kinect™ sensor. (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kim, Jinyong; Loeb, Helen; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Bohman, Katarina; Charlton, Judith L


    Restraint performance is evaluated using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in prescribed, optimal seating positions. Anecdotally, humans-children in particular-assume a variety of positions that may affect restraint performance. Naturalistic driving studies (NDSs), where cameras and other data acquisition systems are placed in a vehicle used by participants during their regular transportation, offer means to collect these data. To date, these studies have used conventional video and analysis methods and, thus, analyses have largely been qualitative. This article describes a recently completed NDS of child occupants in which their position was monitored using a Kinect sensor to quantify their head position throughout normal, everyday driving trips. A study vehicle was instrumented with a data acquisition system to measure vehicle dynamics, a set of video cameras, and a Kinect sensor providing 3D motion capture at 1 Hz of the rear seat occupants. Participant families used the vehicle for all driving trips over 2 weeks. The child occupants' head position was manually identified via custom software from each Kinect color image. The 3D head position was then extracted and its distribution summarized by seat position (left, rear, center) and restraint type (forward-facing child restraint system [FFCRS], booster seat, seat belt). Data from 18 families (37 child occupants) resulted in 582 trips (with children) for analysis. The average age of the child occupants was 45.6 months and 51% were male. Twenty-five child occupants were restrained in FFCRS, 9 in booster seats, and 3 in seat belts. As restraint type moved from more to less restraint (FFCRS to booster seat to seat belt), the range of fore-aft head position increased: 218, 244, and 340 mm on average, respectively. This observation was also true for left-right movement for every seat position. In general, those in the center seat position demonstrated a smaller range of head positions. For the first

  19. Seat belt Use Intention among Brazilian Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Torquato


    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron explorar el uso del cinturón de seguridad y su diferencia entre varios escenarios (e. g. conductor, pasajero de taxi, etc., e investigar las variables relacionadas con dicho uso. Para tal fin, 120 estudiantes universitarios, procedentes de Brasil, respondieron un cuestionario que evaluó las variables propuestas por la teoría del comportamiento planeado sobre la intención de uso del cinturón. Los resultados indicaron que las variables actitud eintención contribuyeron en gran medida a la explicación del uso del cinturón de seguridad. La intención estuvo altamente correlacionada con el uso del cinturón de seguridad, y la actitud con la intención. El uso del cinturón de seguridad fue más frecuente en conductores y pasajeros de taxi, que en pasajeros en la silla delantera y trasera. Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados en intervenciones orientadas a fomentar su uso entre conductores y pasajeros.

  20. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 24, 2011 ... during the night shift. On account of this, 200 vehicles and their occupants were observed each in the morning and in the afternoon shifts, while 100 vehicles were observed during the night shifts. In addition, we also observed that commercial bus drivers, who usually had 14-22 passengers in their vehicles,.

  1. Seat belt-related injuries: A surgical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Masudi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Legislation making seatbelt use mandatory is considered to have reduced fatal and serious injuries by 25%, with UK government estimates predicting more than 50,000 lives saved since its introduction. However, whilst the widespread use of seatbelts has reduced the incidence of major traumatic injury and death from road-traffic collisions (RTCs, their use has also heralded a range of different injuries. The first ever seatbelt related injury was described in 1956, and since then clear patterns of seatbelt-related injuries have been recognised. Methodology and Findings: This review of the published literature demonstrates that the combination of airbags and three-point seatbelts renders no part of the body free from injury. Serious injuries can, and do, occur even when passengers are properly restrained and attending clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for overt or covert intra-abdominal injuries when patients involved in RTCs attend the Emergency Department. Bruising to the trunk and abdomen in a seatbelt distribution is an obvious sign that suggests an increased risk of abdominal and thoracic injury, but bruising may not be apparent and its absence should not be falsely reassuring. A high index of suspicion should be retained for other subtler signs of injury. Children and pregnant women represent high-risk groups who are particularly vulnerable to injuries. Conclusion: In this review we highlight the common patterns of seatbelt-related injuries. A greater awareness of the type of injuries caused by seatbelt use will help clinicians to identify and treat overt and covert injuries earlier, and help reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality following RTCs.

  2. Gould Belt Origin (United States)

    Rivera, Leticia; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio


    Using archive VLA data and recent observations on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array it is worked on a semi-automatic python/CASA code to select, reduce and plot several young stars belonging to the Ophiuchus core. This code mean to help to select observations made along the 30 years of the VLA done in the selected area with the wide configurations A and B, and in the X and C band, to determine their position and compare it with the most recent ones. In this way it is possible to determinate their proper motion with very high precision. It is presented the phases of the process and our first results worked on three well know stars: S1, DoAr 21 and VLA1623. This is the tip of a bigger work that includes Taurus molecular cloud and other important recent star formation regions belonging to the Gould Belt. Our goal is to support the most suitable among several theories about Gould Belt origin or provide a new one taking in count the dynamics of those regions.

  3. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS),...

  4. Seatbelt paths of the pregnant women sitting in the rear seat of a motor vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Hitosugi


    Conclusion: Our findings show that because of short height and late term of pregnancy with protrusion of the abdomen, the shoulder belt deviates to the right or left, avoiding the protruded uterus, and subsequently makes contact with the neck. Seatbelt systems for rear seats need to be developed to improve passenger safety, especially for pregnant women.

  5. Validation of seat-off and seat-on in repeated sit-to-stand movements using a single-body-fixed sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Lummel, R C; Ainsworth, E; Hausdorff, J M; Lindemann, U; Beek, P J; Van Dieën, J H


    The identification of chair rise phases is a prerequisite for quantifying sit-to-stand movements. The aim of this study is to validate seat-off and seat-on detection using a single-body-fixed sensor against detection based on chair switches. A single sensor system with three accelerometers and three gyroscopes was fixed around the waist. Synchronized on–off switches were placed under the chair. Thirteen older adults were recruited from a residential care home and fifteen young adults were recruited among college students. Subjects were asked to complete two sets of five trials each. Six features of the trunk movement during seat-off and seat-on were calculated automatically, and a model was developed to predict the moment of seat-off and seat-on transitions. The predictions were validated with leave-one-out cross-validation. Feature extraction failed in two trials (0.7%). For the optimal combination of seat-off predictors, cross-validation yielded a mean error of 0 ms and a mean absolute error of 51 ms. For the best seat-on predictor, cross-validation yielded a mean error of –3 ms and a mean absolute error of 127 ms. The results of this study demonstrate that seat-off and seat-on in repeated sit-to-stand movements can be detected semi-automatically in young and older adults using a one-body-fixed sensor system with an accuracy of 51 and 127 ms, respectively. The use of the ambulatory instrumentation is feasible for non-technically trained personnel. This is an important step in the development of an automated method for the quantification of sit-to-stand movements in clinical practice. (paper)

  6. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley. A person shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  7. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  8. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  9. Belt attachment and system (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  10. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms


    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  11. Douglas Aircraft Company Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES II). Revision C (United States)


    single place aircraft, ) OGM "PLOYS "A 01, 0t7 0.7 the inertia reel may be initiated by the seat-mounted initiator. Q SoAAc ,INTs o., o., 0, ole Pressure...the switch is selected to -46-DEC PITCH. I160-DEC ROLLI 250 G00 467 "automatic," transmission will commence following seat-man ’FOR THIS CASE, IMPACT

  12. Variable temperature seat climate control system (United States)

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.


    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  13. Comfort model for automobile seat. (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz


    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  14. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar


    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  15. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats (United States)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  16. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  17. The effect of a 3-point harness restraint and car seat in whiplash-type lateral impacts. (United States)

    Kumar, Shrawan; Ferrari, Robert; Narayan, Yogesh; Jones, Troy


    Seventeen healthy volunteers were subjected to right and left lateral impacts 5.0, 6.8, 9.2, and 16.8 m/s acceleration while positioned in a Volvo car seat with lap and shoulder seat belt restraint in laboratory setting. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using a standard 3-point lap and shoulder seat belt and Volvo car seat on the response of the cervical muscles to increasing low-velocity lateral impacts. A previous study of lateral impacts in a 5-point harness restraint with head and trunk in neutral posture suggests that the burden of impact is borne primarily by the splenius capitis muscle contralateral to the direction of impact. That study, however, used a nonstandard harness for automobiles, and other studies suggest that a lap-and-shoulder seat belt may increase the risk of whiplash injury. Triaxial accelerometers recorded the acceleration of the 1) sled, 2) torso at the shoulder level, and 3) head of the participant, while bilateral electromyograms of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis were also recorded. For participants experiencing a right or left lateral impact, the muscle responses increased with increasing levels of acceleration (P trend to progressively decrease with increasing levels of acceleration. The peak head accelerations relative to the sled ranged from 2.5 to 10.6 m/s. When the impact was a right lateral impact, at the highest sled acceleration, the left splenius capitis generated 47% of its maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and the left trapezius also 46% of its MVC; the left and right sternocleidomastoid, right splenius capitis, and right trapezius generated 29% or less of their MVC. For the highest level of acceleration in a left lateral impact, the right splenius capitis generated 48% of its MVC and the right trapezius 57% of the MVC, the left and right sternocleidomastoid, left splenius capitis, and left trapezius generated 29% or less of their MVC. In both directions of impact, the

  18. Occupant Kinematics in Simulated Autonomous Driving Vehicle Collisions: Influence of Seating Position, Direction and Angle. (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Hayashi, Shigeki; Yamada, Katsunori; Gotoh, Mitsuaki


    This two-part study analyzed occupant kinematics in simulated collisions of future automated driving vehicles in terms of seating configuration. In part one, a frontal collision was simulated with four occupants with the front seats reversed. The left front seat occupant was unbelted while the others were belted. In part two of the study, occupant restraint was examined in various seating configurations using a single seat model with a three-point seatbelt. The seat direction with respect to impact was considered as forward, rearward, and lateral facing in 45 degree increments. The effect of seat recline was also studied in the forward-facing and rear-facing cases by assuming three positions: driving position, resting position and relaxed position. Occupants were represented by human body finite element models. The results of part one showed that the front seat (rear-facing) occupants were restrained by the seatback, resulting in T1 forward displacement less than 100 mm; the rear seat occupants were restrained by the seatbelt resulting larger T1 forward displacement more than 500 mm. The results of the part two showed the directional dependence of occupant restraint. Greater T1 displacements were observed when the occupant faced lateral or front oblique. However, the seatbelt provided some restraint in all directions considered. The seatback generated contact force to the occupant when it was in the impact direction, including the lateral directions. The relaxed position allowed increased excursion compared to the driving position when the occupant faced rearward, but the magnitude of this increase was lower with lower impact speed.

  19. Physicist Wins Open Illinois Seat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science


    Apr 9, 2008 ... Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermi- lab) in Batavia, Illinois, won a special election to fill the seat held by former House Majority. Leader Dennis Hastert in a race that attracted national attention. And hundreds of scientists around the country gave their time and money to help put Foster over the top.

  20. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats (United States)


    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  1. Stadium seating--a market analysis. (United States)

    Jerry A. Sesco; Edwin Kallio


    This report describes the characteristics of stadiums and seating in six North Central States; summarizes the purchasing methods for stadium seats; presents estimates of the present and future market; and points out the increasing competition to wood stadium seating form substitute materials.

  2. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko


    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  3. 76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection (United States)


    ... and any right- front DSP equipped with an automatic belt.\\1\\ The means provided to lock the lap belt... assembly as compared to an automatic locking retractor (ALR). An ALR is a seat belt retractor that locks... requirements, vehicle manufacturers commonly use a switchable seat belt retractor (ELR/ automatic locking...

  4. Car seat inspection among children older than 3 years: Using data to drive practice in child passenger safety. (United States)

    Kroeker, Amber M; Teddy, Amy J; Macy, Michelle L


    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children 4 years to 12 years of age in the United States. Despite the high risk of injury from motor vehicle crashes in this age group, parental awareness and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables were included if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. χ statistics were used to compare change in restraint use on arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of the total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected (rear-facing carrier [40.3%], rear-facing convertible [10.2%], and forward-facing [19.3%] car seats). Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children 4 years and older were found to be in a suboptimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Booster Age Child. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  5. Applications of Mechatronics in Seating Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Maňák


    Full Text Available Mechatronics is gradually being used in different fields of the production process and final products. In the field of home seating furniture, it has not been formally declared as such yet. The purpose of further development of seating furniture is to improve its ergonomic parameters, to improve user comfort in controlling and using seating furniture or to provide new additional functions of seating furniture. Application of mechatronic principles can be presumed within the framework of this development. An analysis of the current state of reclining seating furniture, which uses mechanical and electromechanical positioning mechanisms, is conducted in order to formulate possible fields of applying mechatronics. The analysis defines individual ergonomic parameters which are influenced in reclining of seating furniture. This analysis is used as a basis for formulating a hypothesis describing potential development fields of applying mechatronics in home seating furniture.

  6. Comparison of two pelvic positioning belt configurations in a pediatric wheelchair. (United States)

    Cimolin, Veronica; Avellis, Martino; Piccinini, Luigi; Corbetta, Claudio; Cazzaniga, Andrea; Turconi, Anna Carla; Galli, Manuela


    Maintenance of stability for children in a wheelchair, particularly for those with spasticity, can be achieved through external stabilization components, such as pelvic positioning belts. Different kinds of pelvic belts exist on the market and one of the main characteristics is the different number of attachment points between the seat and the belt. As literature on this topic is limited to qualitative assessments, this study compared quantitatively 4-point versus 2-point pelvic positioning belts for the trunk fixation in 20 young patients with spasticity. Our data showed that 70% of the children required the use of pelvic belts on wheelchairs for stability and a better stability was observed with the 4-point belts than compared to the 2-point. Data generally showed in fact a higher percent of variation in terms of trunk flexion angleand knee joint angle with the 2-point belt than the 4-point belt, indicating increased submarining with the 2-point belt during sitting maintenance if compared to the 4-point belt (p stabilization, suggesting that its use prevents the thigh from submarining.

  7. Compatibility of booster seats and vehicles in the U.S. market. (United States)

    Bing, Julie A; Agnew, Amanda M; Bolte, John H


    The objective of this study was to analyze booster and rear vehicle seat dimensions to identify the most frequent compatibility problems. Measurements were collected from 40 high-back and backless boosters and 95 left rear and center rear row seating positions in 50 modern vehicles. Dimensions were compared for 3,800 booster/vehicle seat combinations. For validation and estimation of tolerance and correction factors, 72 booster installations were physically completed and compared with measurement-based compatibility predictions. Dimensions were also compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) volumetric envelopes of forward-facing child restraints and boosters. Seat belt buckles in outboard positions accommodated the width of boosters better than center positions (success rates of 85.4 and 34.7%, respectively). Adequate head restraint clearance occurred in 71.9 to 77.2% of combinations, depending on the booster's head support setting. Booster recline angles aligned properly with vehicle seat cushion angles in 71.5% of combinations. In cases of poor angle alignment, booster angles were more obtuse than the vehicle seat angles 97.7% of the time. Head restraint interference exacerbated angle alignment issues. Data indicate success rates above 90% for boosters being fully supported by the length of the seat cushion and for adequate height clearance with the vehicle roofline. Comparison to ISO envelopes indicates that most boosters on the U.S. market are taller and angled more obtusely than ISO target envelopes. This study quantifies some of the common interferences between boosters and vehicles that may complicate booster usage. Data are useful for design and to prioritize specific problem areas.

  8. Energy-Absorbing Passenger Seat for Aircraft (United States)

    Eichelberger, C. P.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.


    Development of energy-absorbing passenger seat, designed to minimize injury in commercial-aircraft crash, part of joint FAA/NASA controlledimpact flight test of transport-category commercial aircraft. Modified seat mechanism collapses under heavy load to absorb impact energy and thereby protect passenger. Results of simulation tests indicate probability of passenger survival high. Proposed seat mechanism mitigates passenger injuries by reducing impact forces in crash.

  9. Simulation of human seated postures and dynamic seat interaction in impact conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de


    Prediction and assessment of seated postures are essential for ergonomic vehicle design whereas dynamic seat interactions are essential for impact conditions. This paper presents seat models and human models for both applications. An interface has been developed to convert RAMSIS human models and

  10. Local police enforcement, public information and education strategies to foster more and proper use of child safety seats by toddlers : evaluation of a demonstration project (United States)


    This project evaluated the effects of enforcing safety belt (SB)/child safety seat (CSS) laws and providing public information and education (PI&E) about the laws and use and proper use of CSSs--without external funding. Project goals focused on incr...

  11. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor (United States)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert


    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  12. The dynamic response of human subjects while seated in car seats. (United States)

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Broman, N H; Hasson, T


    A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower extremity is quite common in many occupations. The importance of posture and seat design in attenuation of impulses has been established.

  13. Rear-facing car seat (image) (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  14. Developing the tissue viability seating guidelines. (United States)

    Stephens, Melanie; Bartley, Carol; Betteridge, Ria; Samuriwo, Ray


    Costs for the prevention and management of pressure ulcers have increased significantly with limited published advice from health and social care organisations on seating and preventing pressure ulcers. At the request of the UK Tissue Viability Society the aim of the publication was to develop a practical guide for people, carers and health and social care professionals on how the research and evidence base on pressure ulcer prevention and management can be applied to those who remain seated for extended periods of time. The evidence base informing the guidelines was obtained by applying a triangulation of methods: a literature review, listening event and stakeholder group consultation. The purpose was to engage users and carers, academics, clinicians, inspectorate and charities, with an interest in seating, positioning and pressure management to: gather views, feedback, stories, and evidence of the current practices in the field to create a greater awareness of the issue. The new guidelines are inclusive of all people with short and long-term mobility issues to include all population groups. The document includes evidence on where pressure ulcers develop when seated, risk factors, best possible seated position and what seat adjustments are required, the ideal seating assessment, interventions, self-help suggestions and key seating outcomes. The updated TVS CPGs have been informed by the best available evidence, the insights and wisdom of experts, stakeholders and people who spend extended periods of time sitting. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.


    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load

  16. Effects of a booster seat education and distribution program in child care centers on child restraint use among children aged 4 to 8 years. (United States)

    Thoreson, Sallie; Myers, Lindsey; Goss, Cynthia; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn


    To compare child care center-based booster seat education and distribution with no intervention when implemented immediately after booster seat legislation. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Thirty-nine urban child care centers. Eight hundred fifty-four parents and 1010 children aged 4 to 8 years in vehicles leaving centers. Intervention We trained 168 staff members at 20 centers to give parents and children messages promoting booster seats and supplied lesson plans, children's activities, and free booster seats. Observed booster seat use, "good practice" restraint use, and legal restraint use. Parents at intervention centers were more likely to report receiving restraint information from the center (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.48-6.67), speaking with staff about booster seats (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.26-6.88), and using fit to decide when to move children into seat belts (AOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.91-5.99). Groups did not differ in proportions using booster seats (44% vs 43%; AOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.62-1.73), good practice (42% vs 41%; AOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70-1.74), or legal restraints (65% vs 65%; AOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.48-1.31). Results were similar for children aged 4 to 5 and 6 to 8 years. All outcomes were significantly less likely among children riding in pickup trucks or with Hispanic or black drivers. The intervention increased parents' receipt of information from center staff and knowledge about booster seats but not booster seat use. Research is needed to identify methods and messages that will empower center providers to promote booster seats effectively and reach high-risk populations.

  17. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich


    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  18. The Idaho cobalt belt (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.


    The Idaho cobalt belt (ICB) is a northwest-trending belt of cobalt (Co) +/- copper (Cu)-bearing deposits and prospects in the Salmon River Mountains of east-central Idaho, U.S.A. The ICB is about 55 km long and 10 km long in its central part, which contains multiple strata-bound ore zones in the Blackbird mine area. The Black Pine and Iron Creek Co-Cu prospects are southeast of Blackbird, and the Tinkers Pride, Bonanza Copper, Elk Creek, and Salmon Canyon Copper prospects are northwest of Blackbird.

  19. Does unbelted safety requirement affect protection for belted occupants? (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Narayanaswamy, Prabha; Reed, Matthew P; Andreen, Margaret; Neal, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsu


    Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seat belt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted-only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses. In this study, 2 validated finite element (FE) vehicle/occupant models (a midsize sedan and a midsize SUV) were selected. Restraint design optimizations under standardized crash conditions (U.S.-NCAP and FMVSS 208) with and without unbelted requirements were conducted using Hybrid III (HIII) small female and midsize male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in both vehicles on both driver and right front passenger positions. A total of 10 to 12 design parameters were varied in each optimization using a combination of response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm. To evaluate the field performance of restraints optimized with and without unbelted requirements, 55 frontal crash conditions covering a greater variety of crash types than those in the standardized crashes were selected. A total of 1,760 FE simulations were conducted for the field performance evaluation. Frontal crashes in the NASS-CDS database from 2002 to 2012 were used to develop injury risk curves and to provide the baseline performance of current restraint system and estimate the injury risk change by removing the unbelted requirement. Unbelted requirements do not affect the optimal seat belt and airbag design parameters in 3 out of 4 vehicle/occupant position conditions, except for the SUV passenger side. Overall, compared to the optimal designs with unbelted requirements, optimal designs without unbelted requirements generated the same or lower total injury risks for

  20. Structure and dynamics of deep-seated slope failures in the Magura Flysch Nappe, outer Western Carpathians (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baron


    Full Text Available Deep-seated mass movements currently comprise one of the main morphogenetic processes in the Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians of Central Europe. These mass movements result in a large spectrum of slope failures, depending on the type of movement and the nature of the bedrock. This paper presents the results of a detailed survey and reconstruction of three distinct deep-seated slope failures in the Raca Unit of the Magura Nappe, Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians in the Czech Republic. An interdisciplinary approach has enabled a global view of the dynamics and development of these deep-seated slope failures. The three cases considered here have revealed a complex, poly-phase development of slope failure. They are deep-seated ones with depths to the failure surface ranging from 50 to 110m. They differ in mechanism of movement, failure structure, current activity, and total displacement. The main factors influencing their development have been flysch-bedrock structure, lithology, faulting by bedrock separation (which enabled further weakening through deep weathering, geomorphic setting, swelling of smectite-rich clays, and finally heavy rainfall. All of the slope failures considered here seem to have originated during humid phases of the Holocene or during the Late Glacial.

  1. Replacement charging belts - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahner, Klaus [AMS 14C Dating Centre, University of Aarhus (Denmark)


    Manufacturing of the original High Voltage Engineering Corp. charging belts has been ceased many years ago, thus leaving users of these accelerators without access to a critical spare part. During the past 6 years we experimented with industrial conveyor belts, supplied by the Forbo Siegling GmbH as replacement charging belts. Our EN accelerator runs routinely on these belts over the past years and performs very well. Furthermore this so called 'Siegling belt' has been adopted by other laboratories, indicating that a viable solution for the charging belt problem in general has been found. This review addresses both the technical aspects of finding a replacement charging belt and our specific experiences with the Siegling belt.

  2. Automated recognition of rear seat occupants' head position using Kinect™ 3D point cloud. (United States)

    Loeb, Helen; Kim, Jinyong; Arbogast, Kristy; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Cross, Suzanne; Charlton, Judith


    Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection. Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) will improve understanding of out-of-position (OOP) trends. To quantify OOP positions, an NDS was conducted. Families used a study vehicle for two weeks during their everyday driving trips. The positions of rear-seated child occupants, representing 22 families, were evaluated. The study vehicle - instrumented with data acquisition systems, including Microsoft Kinect™ V1 - recorded rear seat occupants in 1120 driving 26 trips. Three novel analytical methods were used to analyze data. To assess skeletal tracking accuracy, analysts recorded occurrences where Kinect™ exhibited invalid head recognition among a randomly-selected subset (81 trips). Errors included incorrect target detection (e.g., vehicle headrest) or environmental interference (e.g., sunlight). When head data was present, Kinect™ was correct 41% of the time; two other algorithms - filtering for extreme motion, and background subtraction/head-based depth detection are described in this paper and preliminary results are presented. Accuracy estimates were not possible because of their experimental nature and the difficulty to use a ground truth for this large database. This NDS tested methods to quantify the frequency and magnitude of head positions for rear-seated child occupants utilizing Kinect™ motion-tracking. This study's results informed recent ATD sled tests that replicated observed positions (most common and most extreme), and assessed the validity of child

  3. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats (United States)


    vehicle interior layout Current design guidance is based on outdated anthropometry Previous studies of seated anthropometry have not included the...personal protective equipment (PPE) for seat and vehicle interior layout • Current design guidance is based on outdated anthropometry • Previous...studies of seated anthropometry have not included the effects of PPE on posture and body shape • Detailed anthropometric data needed for the design

  4. Digital Recovery Sequencer - Advanced Concept Ejection Seats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, David A; Cotter, Lee; Culhane, David; Press, Matthew J


    The Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES) currently uses the Analog Sequencer, designed in the 1960's and 1970's with analog technology, to control ejection event timing and ejection mode selection...

  5. The dynamic response of human subjects while seated in car seats.


    Pope, M. H.; Magnusson, M.; Broman, N. H.; Hasson, T.


    A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower ext...

  6. 76 FR 31803 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under... (United States)


    ... 16g, the test results indicate a level of safety higher than that of 9g-only seats. Cathay Pacific Airways and V Australia requested that the 2-year compliance time be extended to 4 years. Cathay Pacific... scheduled heavy maintenance checks. Cathay Pacific also noted it takes 18 to 24 months for a typical seat...

  7. 75 FR 34172 - Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment... (United States)


    ... certification for workers of the subject firm. The workers produce seating for automobiles. New information shows that some workers separated from employment at the subject firm had their wages reported under a... secondarily affected as a supplier of seating for automobiles to a TAA certified firm. The amended notice...

  8. Europa Propulsion Valve Seat Material Testing (United States)

    Addona, Brad M.


    The Europa mission and spacecraft design presented unique challenges for selection of valve seat materials that met the fluid compatibility requirements, and combined fluid compatibility and high radiation exposure level requirements. The Europa spacecraft pressurization system valves will be exposed to fully saturated propellant vapor for the duration of the mission. The effects of Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) and Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) propellant vapors on heritage valve seat materials, such as Vespel SP-1 and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), were evaluated to determine if an alternate material is required. In liquid system applications, Teflon is the only available compatible valve seat material. Radiation exposure data for Teflon in an air or vacuum environment has been previously documented. Radiation exposure data for Teflon in an oxidizer environment such as NTO, was not available, and it was unknown whether the effects would be similar to those on air-exposed samples. Material testing was conducted by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to determine the effects of propellant vapor on heritage seat materials for pressurization valve applications, and the effects of combined radiation and NTO propellant exposure on Teflon. The results indicated that changes in heritage pressurization valve seat materials' properties rendered them unsuitable for the Europa application. The combined radiation and NTO exposure testing of Teflon produced results equivalent to combined radiation and air exposure results.

  9. An ecological model to factors associated with booster seat use: A population based study. (United States)

    Shimony Kanat, Sarit; Gofin, Rosa


    Belt-positioning booster seat use (BPB) is an effective technology to prevent severe child injury in cases of car crash. However, in many countries, age-appropriate car restraint use for children aged 4-7 years old remains the lowest among all age groups. The aim of this study was to identify the main determinants of BPB use through a comprehensive approach. An ecological model was used to analyze individual, parent-child relationships, and neighborhood characteristics. Parents of children enrolled in the first and second grades completed a self-reported questionnaire (n=745). The data were subjected to multilevel modeling. The first level examined individual and parent-child relationship variables; in addition the second level tested between neighborhood variance. According to parental self- reports, 56.6% of their children had used a BPB on each car trip during the previous month. The results indicated that the determinants positively related to BPB use were individual and parental; namely, the number of children in the family, the parents' car seat belt use, parental knowledge of children's car safety principles, and a highly authoritative parenting style. Children's temperaments and parental supervision were not associated with BPB use. At the neighborhood level, a small difference was found between neighborhoods for BPB users compared to non-users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinematics and shoulder belt position of child anthropomorphic test devices during steering maneuvers. (United States)

    Stockman, Isabelle; Bohman, Katarina; Jakobsson, Lotta


    The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the kinematics and shoulder belt position of child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) during emergency steering maneuvers. Furthermore, the ATDs were compared to the results from child volunteers aged 4 to 12 in the same test setup (Bohman, Stockman, et al. 2011). A driving study was conducted on a test track comprising 4 ATDs: the Q6, Q10, and Hybrid III (HIII) 6- and 10-year-old ATDs restrained in the rear seat of a passenger vehicle. The ATDs were exposed to 2 repeated steering maneuvers in each restraint system. The Q6 and HIII 6-year-old were restrained on booster cushions as well as high-back booster seats. The Q10 and HIII 10-year-old were restrained on booster cushions or restrained by 3-point seat belts directly on the seat. Lateral motion of the forehead and upper sternum was determined, as well as shoulder belt movement on shoulder and torso tilting angle. All ATDs began to move approximately at the same point in time corresponding to a vehicle lateral acceleration of just below 0.2 g. In the later phase of the maneuver, Q10 had moved 26 percent less than the children when restrained by seat belt only and 35 percent less when on a booster cushion. Corresponding numbers for the HIII 10-year-old were 43 and 44 percent higher than for children. Compared to children, the Q6 had moved 34 percent less when restrained on a high-back booster seat and 31 percent less when on a booster cushion. Corresponding numbers for HIII 6-year-old were 7 and 28 percent higher than for children. Due to extensive variety of lateral displacements observed in the children, child performance range covers both ATD families for the evaluated sizes of 6- and 10-year-old ATDs. Compared to children, the HIII ATDs were closer with regards to mean values in the initial phase of the maneuver and the Q ATDs were closer in the end of the ramping phase of the lateral acceleration. The question regarding which ATD replicates better the

  11. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  12. SEAT: A strategic engagement analysis tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, J.; Michelsen, C.; Morgeson, D.


    The Strategic Engagement Analysis Tool (SEAT) is a prototype of an expert system knowledge-based discrete event simulation. SEAT realistically represents the interrelationships between the eight major subsystems in the strategic targeting and assault domain. Some of the subsystems employ run-time cognitive decision making and reasoning capabilities to represent human tactical and operational strategy decisions. SEAT's goal is to allow analysts to conduct sensitivity analysis and to determine cause-effect relationships. An intelligent interface mechanism is provided to aid the analyst in scenario creation. The interface was designed to provide on-line documentation, support for model input, logic control, and data validation prior to simulation execution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.


    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  14. A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. (United States)

    Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M


    The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population.

  15. Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary. (United States)


    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...

  16. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas


    Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because of...

  17. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions. (United States)


    ...) Number of designated seating positions. The formula for calculating the number of designated seating... located using the SAE three-dimensional H-point machine per Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Surface...

  18. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  19. Burn from car seat heater in a man with paraplegia: case report (United States)

    Benjamin, Cheryl; Gittler, Michelle; Lee, Ray


    Objective/background Heated car seats are a common feature in newer automobiles. They are increasingly being recognized as potential hazards as there have been multiple reports of significant burns to its users. The potential for harm is considerably increased in those with impaired sensation with the possibility of a devastating injury. Methods Case report and literature review. Results A 26-year-old male with a T8 ASIA A paraplegia presented to the outpatient clinic for management of a hip burn. Two weeks prior to his visit he was driving a 2004 Jeep Cherokee for approximately 30 minutes. He was unaware that the driver's side seat warmer was set on high. He denied that his seat belt was in direct contact with the skin of his right hip. He presented to an acute care hospital that evening with a hip burn where he was prescribed silver sulfadiazine cream and instructed to apply it until his scheduled follow-up clinic visit. In clinic, the hip wound was unstageable with approximately 95% eschar. A dressing of bismuth tribromophenate in petrolatum was applied to the wound and he was instructed to change the dressing daily. This was later changed to an antimicrobial alginate dressing. The ulcer eventually healed. Conclusions This case illustrates the significant risk of car seat heaters in individuals with spinal cord injuries or neurological impairment who have decreased sensation. Additionally, it highlights an atypical area of potential for burn. Furthermore, it emphasizes the need for a heightened awareness for this unique and dangerous situation. PMID:21756574

  20. 75 FR 58340 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under... (United States)


    ... assessment is valid, the seats in question must be shown to incorporate any specific design features or..., a lumbar load test is required. 3. Predicated on design philosophy being maintained for safety...

  1. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems. (United States)


    ... standard establishes requirements for seats, their attachment assemblies, and their installation to....2. General performance requirements. When tested in accordance with S5, each occupant seat shall... than a school bus; a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000...

  2. Classroom Seating Considerations for 21st Century Students and Faculty (United States)

    Harvey, Eugene J.; Kenyon, Melaine C.


    This quantitative, cross-sectional research study explored students' perceptions of five different seating styles within typical classrooms in an urban public higher education institution. The five seating styles included: modern mobile chairs, tablet arm chairs, fixed tiered seating with tablet arms, rectangle tables with standard chairs, and…

  3. 76 FR 18042 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... collecting additional data to reduce the nonresponse rates, explanation of any imputation methods, procedures... include multiple counties and county-equivalents with at least one urbanized area that has a population of...

  4. A brief tailored family-centered seat belt intervention for hospitalized trauma patients. (United States)


    "Among children 5-19 years, the commonest cause of unintentional injury-related death is : being an occupant/driver in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). In 2006 in the United States, there : were 568,188 injuries among children (0-18) due to MVC. Of these...

  5. Evaluation of teen seat belt demonstration projects in Colorado and Nevada : traffic tech. (United States)


    Teens have higher fatality and injury rates in motor vehicle : crashes than any other age group. The combination of immaturity, : inexperience, and underdeveloped decision-making skills : (including hazard recognition) contributes to the high crash r...

  6. Health risk behaviors of black male college students: seat belt use, smoking, and obesity status. (United States)

    Ajibade, Phoebe Butler


    This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.

  7. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee : traffic tech. (United States)


    The rapidly changing racial and ethnic composition of the : U.S. population is important to traffic safety specialists : because involvement in fatal traffic crashes varies across : racial and ethnic groups. Some research suggests that certain : mino...

  8. 77 FR 20550 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... submitting the comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on..., Intergovernmental relations, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. For the reasons discussed in the preamble...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation (United States)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  11. Evaluation of the seating of Qantas flight deck crew. (United States)

    Lusted, M; Healey, S; Mandryk, J A


    In 1985 Qantas Airways (Australia) requested an ergonomics assessment of three pilots' seats so that one could be selected for fitting in all new aircraft as well replacement in existing aircraft. The Ipeco seat was chosen. In 1991, after all aircraft were fitted with the Ipeco seats, the company then requested a further evaluation of the seat to see if it was acceptable to the pilots and if there were any outstanding problems. A seat feature checklist plus a body chart discomfort rating scale was given to the total crew of 1030 pilots. The results from the 202 respondents indicated that although the pilots found the Ipeco seat an improvement on the Weber seat there were some modifications required. The main problems included insufficient adjustment range of the lumbar support area and the thigh supports, and infrequent replacement of the seat cushion. The body charts supported the checklist results in that the main areas of discomfort indicated were the buttocks and low back. Recommendations for improvements in design of the Ipeco seat, training in use and maintenance are presented. The method used in this study has application for field assessment of seating in a wide range of occupations, particularly bus drivers, truck drivers and train drivers, who spend long hours seated without being able to take breaks.

  12. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.


    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  13. Analysis of stitched arrangements in belt machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasimova M. M.


    Full Text Available the article describes the main parameters that determine both the traction ability of the transmission and the life of the belt, which is the magnitude of the belt tension and its correspondence to the actual transfer load. The appendix shows the characteristics of the belts and their elasticity: shortening the belt when stitching or cross stitching for pulling; periodic movement.

  14. La nuova sfida di SEAT Pagine Gialle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Landini


    Full Text Available SEAT Pagine Gialle’s new challengeSEAT Pagine Gialle is a company that for over 80 years has provided information services, search and communication tools.The companies success and notoriety is built on a customer base of about 20 million families and 3 million professional operators with a continually updated technology with which it integrates with detailed geographical information that allows it to reach millions of users every day. The services the company offers include an advanced cartographic web-based search, satellite and aerial photos, the calculation of driving instructions, weather forecasts and traffic information, 360 degree views and the modelling of whole cities in 3D.

  15. Chaos on the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  16. A field-based approach for examining bicycle seat design effects on seat pressure and perceived stability. (United States)

    Bressel, Eadric; Bliss, Shantelle; Cronin, John


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various bicycle seat designs on seat pressure and perceived stability in male and female cyclists using a unique field-based methodology. Thirty participants, comprising male and female cyclists, pedaled a bicycle at 118W over a 350m flat course under three different seat conditions: standard seat, a seat with a partial anterior cutout, and a seat with a complete anterior cutout. The pressure between the bicycle seat and perineum of the cyclist was collected with a remote pressure-sensing mat, and perceived stability was assessed using a continuous visual analogue scale. Anterior seat pressure and stability values for the complete cutout seat were significantly lower (p<0.05; 62-101%) than values for the standard and partial cutout designs. These findings were consistent between males and females. Our results would support the contention that the choice of saddle design should not be dictated by interface pressure alone since optimal anterior seat pressure and perceived seat stability appear to be inversely related.

  17. The seated bus passenger--a review. (United States)

    Levis, J A


    The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.

  18. Efficient method for storage of long conveyor belts passages inside the bulk containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper introduces the family of the algorithms designed to improve the process of winding up the long conveyor belt passages on reels located inside the bulk containers, used for i.e. rail transport. The proposed method provides the convenient storage technique of the long belt passages , enabling their transport on the standardized rail wagons. Presented solution also addresses the problems related with binding the smaller belt passages, such as shorter life span in comparison to the single-part belt. Moreover, the presented work contains not only the details of the two algorithms representative for the proposed method, but also the outlook of the system of the automatic control required for the successful application of the proposed technique.

  19. NASA experiments on the B-720 structure and seats (United States)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.


    Two experiments onboard a remotely piloted transport aircraft that was crashed on landing are discussed. The structural experiment deals with the location and distribution of the instrumentation throughout the airplane structure. In the seat experiment, the development and testing of an energy absorbing seat are discussed. The objective of the structural experiment was to obtain a data base of structural crash loads for use in the advancement of crashworthy technology of materials (such as composites) in structural design and for use in the comparison between computer and experimental results. The objective of the seat experiment was to compare the performance of an energy absorbing transport seat and a standard seat when subjected to similar crash pulses. Details are given on the location of instrumentation, on the dynamic seat test pulse and headward acceleration limits.


    Neto, Olavo Avalone; Munakata, Jun


    This research assessed whether public space users will adopt a least-effort approach and choose a less suitable seat nearby or seek the most suitable seat, even if it is farther away from them when the decision is made. How distance assessment affects seat choice was investigated through an observational survey, which allowed the identification of behavioral patterns. Those behavioral patterns were then tested in a paired comparison experiment with 40 participants. The results showed that the effect of distance on seat choice is related to the difference in distance between the options and that a sufficient difference can cause trade-offs between distance and seat properties. The necessary difference in distance is conditioned by the activity and the seat properties.

  1. Recognizing and treating toilet-seat contact dermatitis in children. (United States)

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Sugathan, Paramoo; Cohen, Bernard A


    Toilet-seat contact dermatitis is a common condition around the world and is reemerging in the United States. It can be easily recognized and treated. However, few practitioners consider this diagnosis, which results in a delay in treatment and often exacerbation of the skin eruption. In the past, exposure to wooden toilet seats and associated varnish, lacquers, and paints led to the development of an allergic contact dermatitis on the buttocks and posterior thighs. In recent years, most public facilities have changed to plastic seats, resulting in a change in the clinical presentation of toilet-seat dermatitis. We present 5 cases of toilet-seat dermatitis in children from the United States and India and review the history, presentation, and clinical course of the disease. Our findings suggest that toilet-seat dermatitis is more common than previously recognized and should be considered in any child with a dermatitis that involves the buttocks and posterior thighs.

  2. Optimization of Aircraft Seat Cushion Fire Blocking Layers. (United States)


    function of cost and weight, and the costs of labor involved in assembling a ccmposite seat cushion. The same classes of high char yield polymers that are...SEAT LATER DESIGN REPORT NRBBNBsg$$$$$$NN$$R$$$$$ SEAT DESIGN NUMBER: 009 LAYER NAME CODE NO. S MANUFACTURER 5 COST FACTORS . LABOR ...72621, 9096.. 7SS43. 73757. 77147. DELTA COSTS 0. 8340. 2922. 1136. 4327. ACOSOS in Iho..aS Of dollars. COST SUIRNY REPORT Re ....... VONR3 MORFA

  3. A target fibre study on seats in public houses. (United States)

    Kelly, E; Griffin, R M


    A target fibre survey was conducted to assess the random occurrence of a blue wool fibre on seats in public houses throughout the United Kingdom. Fibre tape lifts were taken from 80 seats. Four seats yielded matching fibres and five of these were found on one seat. A total of 292 fibres were identified; nine fibres proved indistinguishable from the target after comparison microscopy, microspectro-photometry and attempts at thin layer chromatography, and two of these fibres were still apparently indistinguishable after TLC analysis although only one dye component was visible.

  4. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ..., Recreational Diving seat, Education seat, Archaeological Research seat, Maritime Museum seat, Youth seat, and... of the famed Civil War ironclad, USS Monitor, best known for its battle with the Confederate ironclad... stakeholders, including: Citizen-at-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education, Heritage Tourism...

  5. Practical use of valve seating machine with remote control system for main steam isolation valve at N.P.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Sadao; Noda, Hiroshi; Sadamura, Morito; Utsunomiya, Yasushi.


    The main steam isolation valves in BWR power stations are installed at the boundary of reactor containment vessels, and 2 valves in each main steam system total 8 valves in a plant. They are pneumatically operated Y type globe valves for preventing the release of radioactive substances in the atmosphere in case of the breaking of main steam pipes and also preventing the loss of coolant in case of the breaking of recirculating equipments. Therefore careful leak test, inspection, and seat-fitting are carried out to the valves at each regular maintenance. The manual maintenance work is difficult because of narrow space and the reduction of exposure, and the seat-fitting work requires the skill of high degree, therefore Okano Valve Manufacturing Co. and Tokyo Electric Power Co. jointly started the research and development of an automatic valve seating machine, and successfully put it to practical use in Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Station in Nov. 1974. First, the problems in the manual seat-fitting work were investigated, and the means to mechanically solve them were materialized with a prototype machine. After its mock-up test, an actual machine was designed and manufactured. The test result showed remarkable reduction of exposure and labor-saving, and the leak evaluation was sufficiently below the allowable value. (Kako, I.)

  6. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control


    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack of experience of maintenance personnel, the monitoring and operational control of belt conveyors can be automated. This research presents the possibilities to improve belt conveyor performance by me...

  7. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  9. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  10. Identifying strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws (United States)


    The objective of this project was to identify strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws. The project explored the possible factors that relate to the use and nonuse of booster seats, and examined the attitudes of law enforcement of...

  11. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from simulations are provided to support the two main theorems describing the effect of ..... A second simulation was implemented to determine the average number of vote-seats, as well as the maximum number of vote-seats ... as in the case of solving classical matrix games in game theory. The linear programming ...

  12. Musculoskeletal analysis of driving fatigue: The influence of seat adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majid, Noor Aliah binti Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Fareez Edzuan; Jamaludin, Mohd Syahmi


    Main causes for discomfort experienced by vehicle drivers during driving were investigated using a rigid-body model originally developed in the AnyBody Modeling System [1]. The interactions between the human body and the car-seat in various combinations of seat-pan/backrest inclinations and the e...

  13. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation. L van Eck, S E Visagie, H C de Kock. Abstract. In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR) voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary ...

  14. Assessment of Rail Seat Abrasion Patterns and Environment (United States)


    Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...

  15. An Investigation of University Students' Classroom Seating Choices (United States)

    Xi, Li; Yuan, Zhang; YunQui, Bai; Chiang, Feng-Kuang


    The classroom is crucial for students, and seating position within the classroom can affect students' performance. This study conducted a survey to investigate the relationship between seating zones and academic performance among 174 university students in Beijing. The results revealed differences in student performance in terms of seating…

  16. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.75 Section 38.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.75 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  17. Detecting destabilizing wheelchair conditions for maintaining seated posture. (United States)

    Crawford, Anna; Armstrong, Kiley; Loparo, Kenneth; Audu, Musa; Triolo, Ronald


    The purpose of this study was to detect and classify potentially destabilizing conditions encountered by manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCI) to dynamically increase stability and prevent falls. A volunteer with motor complete T11 paraplegia repeatedly propelled his manual wheelchair over level ground and simulated destabilizing conditions including sudden stops, bumps and rough terrain. Wireless inertial measurement units attached to the wheelchair frame and his sternum recorded associated accelerations and angular velocities. Algorithms based on mean, standard deviation and minimum Mahalanobis distance between conditions were constructed and applied to the data off-line to discriminate between events. Classification accuracy was computed to assess effects of sensor position and potential for automatically selecting a dynamic intervention to best stabilize the wheelchair user. The decision algorithm based on acceleration signals successfully differentiated destabilizing conditions and level over-ground propulsion with classification accuracies of 95.8, 58.3 and 91.7% for the chest, wheelchair and both sensors, respectively. Mahalanobis distance classification based on trunk accelerations is a feasible method for detecting destabilizing events encountered by wheelchair users and may serve as an effective trigger for protective interventions. Incorporating data from wheelchair-mounted sensors decreases the false negative rate. Implications for Rehabilitation SCI has a significant impact on quality of life, compromising the ability to participate in social or leisure activities, and complete other activities of daily living for an independent lifestyle. Using inertial measurement units to build an event classifier for control the actions of a neuroprosthetic device for maintaining seated posture in wheelchair users. Varying muscle activation increases user stability reducing the risk of injury.

  18. Support force measures of midsized men in seated positions. (United States)

    Bush, Tamara Reid; Hubbard, Robert P


    Two areas not well researched in the field of seating mechanics are the distribution of normal and shear forces, and how those forces change with seat position. The availability of these data would be beneficial for the design and development of office, automotive and medical seats. To increase our knowledge in the area of seating mechanics, this study sought to measure the normal and shear loads applied to segmental supports in 12 seated positions, utilizing three inclination angles and four levels of seat back articulation that were associated with automotive driving positions. Force data from six regions, including the thorax, sacral region, buttocks, thighs, feet, and hand support were gathered using multi-axis load cells. The sample contained 23 midsized subjects with an average weight of 76.7 kg and a standard deviation of 4.2 kg, and an average height of 1745 mm with a standard deviation of 19 mm. Results were examined in terms of seat back inclination and in terms of torso articulation for relationships between seat positions and support forces. Using a repeated measures analysis, significant differences (p<0.05) were identified for normal forces relative to all inclination angles except for forces occurring at the hand support. Other significant differences were observed between normal forces behind the buttocks, pelvis, and feet for torso articulations. Significant differences in the shear forces occurred under the buttocks and posterior pelvis during changes in seat back inclination. Significant differences in shear forces were also identified for torso articulations. These data suggest that as seat back inclination or torso articulation change, significant shifts in force distribution occur.

  19. 75 FR 36062 - Availability of Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National... (United States)


    ... Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Conservation and Diving Operations... Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700 Avenue U, Bldg. 216, Galveston...

  20. Finding an optimal seating arrangement for employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoslav Čerkez


    Full Text Available The paper deals with modelling a specifc problem called the Optimal Seating Arrangement (OSA as an Integer Linear Program and demonstrated that the problem can be efficiently solved by combining branch-and-bound and cutting plane methods. OSA refers to a specific scenario that could possibly happen in a corporative environment, i.e. when a company endeavors to minimize travel costs when employees travel to an organized event. Each employee is free to choose the time to travel to and from an event and it depends on personal reasons. The paper differentiates between using different travel possibilities in the OSA problem, such as using company assigned or a company owned vehicles, private vehicles or using public transport, if needed. Also, a user-friendly web application was made and is available to the public for testing purposes.

  1. Digital three-dimensional modelling of the male pelvis and bicycle seats: impact of rider position and seat design on potential penile hypoxia and erectile dysfunction. (United States)

    Gemery, John M; Nangia, Ajay K; Mamourian, Alexander C; Reid, Scott K


    To digitally model (three-dimensional, 3D) the course of the pudendal arteries relative to the bony pelvis in the adult male, and to identify sites of compression with different bicycle riding positions as a potential cause of penile hypoxia and erectile dysfunction. 3D models were made from computed tomography scans of one adult male pelvis (a healthy volunteer) and three bicycle seats. Models were correlated with lateral radiographs of a seated rider to determine potential vascular compression between the bony pelvis and seats at different angles of rider positioning. Pelvis/seat models suggest that the most likely site of compression of the internal pudendal artery is immediately below the pubic symphysis, especially with the rider leaning forward. For an upright rider, the internal pudendal arteries do not appear to be compressed between the seat and the bony pelvis. Leaning partly forward with arms extended, the seat/symphysis areas were reduced to 73 mm(2) with standard seat and 259 mm(2) with a grooved seat. Leaning fully forward, the seat/symphysis areas decreased (no space with standard seat; 51 mm(2) with a grooved seat) and both the ischial tuberosities and the pubic symphysis might be in contact with the seat. A grooved seat allows better preservation of the seat/symphysis space than a standard seat, but the rider's position is more important for preserving the seat-symphysis space (and reducing compression) than is seat design alone. Any factors which influence the seat-symphysis space (including an individual's anatomy, seat design and rider position) can increase the potential for penile hypoxia and erectile dysfunction/perineal numbness.

  2. Circular seating arrangements: Approaching the social crux in language classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Falout


    Full Text Available Circular seating arrangements can help instill a sense of belonging within classroom communities with overall positive effects on learning, emotions, and wellbeing. Yet students and their teachers within certain language classroom contexts, due to sociocultural limitations, may be relegated to learning in antisocial environments instilled partly by rank-and-file seating. Attributions for teacher demotivation can often lie in student misbehaviors, while student demotivation, silence, and resistance relate strongly to lack of bodily displays and physical affordances of interpersonal care, understanding, and trust that, if present, would contribute positively to many social aspects of their learning and identity formation. Specifically, rank-and-file seating constricts the area in the classroom most likely to dispose attention and interest to the learning and to others, whereas circular seating potentially expands this area, known as the action zone, to the whole classroom. Seating arrangements therefore can play an important role in the formation of interpersonal dynamics and identity formation among students and their teachers. In this paper, the purposes and ways of using circular seating in language classrooms will be explored from a social psychological perspective. Language teachers are invited to imagine and experiment with possibilities for uses of different seating arrangements in their own classrooms.

  3. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)


    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  4. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  5. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E


    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  6. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus (United States)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua


    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  7. Comparison of Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes for Occupant Restrained without Belt Load Limiters and Those Restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN Belt Load Limiters. (United States)

    Foret-Bruno, J Y; Trosseille, X; Page, Y; Huère, J F; Le Coz, J Y; Bendjellal, F; Diboine, A; Phalempin, T; Villeforceix, D; Baudrit, P; Guillemot, H; Coltat, J C


    In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties. In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have been equipped with the Programmed Restraint System (PRS) since 1995. The PRS is a restraint system that combines belt load limitation and pyrotechnic belt pretension. In an initial design of the Programmed Restraint System (PRS1), the belt load limiter was a steel component designed to shear at a given shoulder force, namely 6 kN. It was mounted between the retractor and the lower anchorage point of the belt. The design of the PRS was modified in 1998 (PRS2), but the principle of load limitation was maintained. The threshold was decreased to 4 kN and this lower belt belt-force limiter has been combined with a specially designed airbag. This paper reports on 347 real-world frontal accidents where the EES (Equivalent Energy Speed) ranged from 35 to 75 km/h. One hundred and ninety-eight (198) of these accidents involved cars equipped with the 6 kN load limiter

  8. Effect of Seating on Exposures to Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles (United States)



    The vibration isolation efficiency of seating has been evaluated in 100 work vehicles in 14 categories (cars, vans, lift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, dumpers, excavators, helicopters, armoured vehicles, mobile cranes, grass rollers, mowers and milk floats). Seat isolation efficiency, expressed by the SEAT value, was determined for all seats (67 conventional seats and 33 suspension seats) from the vertical acceleration measured on the floors and on the seats of the vehicles.For most categories of vehicle, the average SEAT value was less than 100%, indicating that the average seat provided some attenuation of vibration. However, there were large variations in SEAT values between vehicles within categories. Two alternative vibration frequency weightings (Wb from BS 6841, 1987; Wk from ISO 2631, 1997) yielded SEAT values that differed by less than 6%. Overall, the SEAT values determined by two alternative methods (the ratio of r.m.s. values and the ratio of vibration dose values) differed by less than 4·5% when using weighting Wb, although larger differences may be expected in some situations. The median SEAT value for the suspension seats was 84·6%; the median SEAT value for the conventional seats was 86·9% (based on weighting Wb and the ratio of r.m.s. values).Predicted SEAT values were obtained assuming that each seat could be interchanged between vehicles without altering its transmissibility. The calculations suggest that 94% of the vehicles investigated might benefit from changing the current seat to a seat from one of the other vehicles investigated. Although the predictions are based on assumptions that will not always apply, it is concluded that the severity of whole-body vibration exposures in many work environments can be lessened by improvements to seating dynamics.

  9. Controversial Swedish science minister loses seat in reshuffle

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylawan, P


    Carl Tham, who introduced sweeping changes to higher education and research, has lost his seat in a cabinet reshuffle. As science minister for 4 years he redirected funding to applied science and established new regional universities (1 page).

  10. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  11. The abutment seating jig: a prosthodontic implant adjunct. (United States)

    Judy, K W


    Rapid, accurate seating of screw-retained implant abutment heads, where timing is controlled by internal or external hex designs, can be readily accomplished with individual, custom-cast abutment head location devices. The devices are especially useful when the abutment head-implant body complex is to be permanently cemented. The use and design of abutment seating jigs for single tooth implants and completely implant or implant and natural tooth-supported prostheses are described.

  12. Infant bath seats, drowning and near-drowning. (United States)

    Byard, R W; Donald, T


    To investigate the possible role of infant bathtub seats in drowning and near-drowning episodes in infants. A review was conducted of the files of the Forensic Science Centre and Child Protection Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, for significant immersion incidents in infants involving bathtub seats from January 1998 to December 2003. A total of six cases of drowning occurred over the 6-year period of the study in children under 2 years of age, including two infants. One of these cases, a 7-month-old boy, had been left unattended for some time in an adult bath in a bathtub seat. He was found drowned, having submerged after slipping down and becoming trapped in the seat. Three near-drowning episodes occurred in children under the age of 2 years, including two boys aged 7 and 8 months, both of whom had been left for some time in adult baths in bath seats. Both were successfully resuscitated and treated in hospital. These cases demonstrate the vulnerability of infants to immersion incidents when left unattended in bathtubs. Bathtubs are particularly dangerous for infants as the slippery and smooth surfaces predispose to loss of balance and make escape from water difficult. Infant bathtub seats may give parents and child carers a false sense of security leading to infants being left unattended. Unfortunately, however, infants may fall out of, or slip and become trapped in, such seats. Infants and young children cannot be left unsupervised in water, and devices used as bathing aids such as bathtub seats may contribute to immersion incidents.

  13. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.


    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  14. Automatic gear sorting system based on monocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wu


    Full Text Available An automatic gear sorting system based on monocular vision is proposed in this paper. A CCD camera fixed on the top of the sorting system is used to obtain the images of the gears on the conveyor belt. The gears׳ features including number of holes, number of teeth and color are extracted, which is used to categorize the gears. Photoelectric sensors are used to locate the gears׳ position and produce the trigger signals for pneumatic cylinders. The automatic gear sorting is achieved by using pneumatic actuators to push different gears into their corresponding storage boxes. The experimental results verify the validity and reliability of the proposed method and system.

  15. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.


    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  16. Using posturography to measure balance control during seated tai chi. (United States)

    Geib, Roy W; Li, Hongtao; Waite, Gabi N; Pagnacco, Guido; Oggero, Elena; Roberts, Beverly L


    Tai Chi for Arthritis (TCA) is recognized by the CDC as an evidenced-based program to prevent falls in older adults. Although seated Tai Chi is recommended for those unable to stand, little is known about balance control during seated TCA. To explore the use of posturography to assess differences between experts and non-expert practitioners of seated TCA. Twenty-three participants were recruited from those attending a Tai cChi workshop. While seated in a hard back chair centered on a force platform, participants performed selected forms from TCA and then did them in a continuous sequence. Center of pressure (CoP) indices to assess balance were normalized by height and then compared between expert and non-expert participants. Experts had significantly greater average velocity and path length (p = 0.02) for the entire sequence and open/close, but not for CoP 95% Confidence ellipse area. No significant differences in the CoP were found for commencement, wave hands, or single whip. A few differences in balance control while performing seated TCA movements were found. Future studies are needed to determine whether these can be accounted for by quality of the Tai Chi movements or factors associated with the seated position.

  17. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.


    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  18. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek


    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  19. Automatic fluid dispenser (United States)

    Sakellaris, P. C. (Inventor)


    Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

  20. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.


    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  1. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.


    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  2. Development of a method for rating climate seat comfort (United States)

    Scheffelmeier, M.; Classen, E.


    The comfort aspect in the vehicle interior is becoming increasingly important. A high comfort level offers the driver a good and secure feeling and has a strong influence on passive traffic safety. One important part of comfort is the climate aspect, especially the microclimate that emerges between passenger and seat. In this research, different combinations of typical seat materials are used. Fourteen woven and knitted fabrics and eight leathers and its substitutes for the face fabric layer, one foam, one non-woven and one 3D spacer for the plus pad layer and for the support layer three foam types with variations in structure and raw material as well as one rubber hair structure were investigated. To characterise this sample set by thermo-physiological aspects (e.g. water vapour resistance Ret, thermal resistance Rct, buffering capacity of water vapour Fd) regular and modified sweating guarded hotplates were used according to DIN EN ISO 11092. The results of the material characterisation confirm the common knowledge that seat covers out of textiles have better water vapour resistance values than leathers and its substitutes. Subject trials in a driving simulator were executed to rate the subjective sensation while driving in a vehicle seat. With a thermal, sweating Manikin (Newton Type, Thermetrics) objective product measurements were carried out on the same seat. Indeed the subject trials show that every test subject has his or her own subjective perception concerning the climate comfort. The results of the subject trials offered the parameters for the Newton measuring method. Respectively the sweating rate, sit-in procedure, ambient conditions and sensor positions on and between the seat layers must be comparable with the subject trials. By taking care of all these parameters it is possible to get repeatable and reliable results with the Newton Manikin. The subjective feelings of the test subjects, concerning the microclimate between seat and passenger, provide

  3. The Study of Fabric Performance for Car Seats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Havelka


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of the performance of car seat fabrics in terms of physiological comfort of sitting, specifi cally their water vapour resistance and air permeability. The current work presents an alternative approach to increasing the effectiveness of car seat fabrics through a combination of newly designed middle layer with forced convection achieved by a supplementary suction ventilation device. The supplementary device was designed to measure water vapour permeability by means of the sweating guarded hot plate (SGHP system. It consists of two parts: a frame to grip a tested sample for measurements within the SGHP system and two suction ventilators which are arranged at one end of the mentioned frame in order to provide suction into the tested fabric plane during the SGHP test. The results of this investigation show that water vapour transport is increased by approximately 20% compared to the standard way of measurement by means of SGHP because of forced air flow in the plane of ribbed – channelled structure of the car seat middle layer. The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice. The combination of a car seat cover with channelled structure and forced air fl ow improves physiological comfort of sitting which is a key issue for both drivers and manufacturers. The suggested device for forced air flow convection in the plane of a car seat fabric has not yet been part of an actual car seat, however it is possible to use its principles in a smart car seat prototype.

  4. The Surprising Impact of Seat Location on Student Performance (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Wieman, Carl E.


    Every physics instructor knows that the most engaged and successful students tend to sit at the front of the class and the weakest students tend to sit at the back. However, it is normally assumed that this is merely an indication of the respective seat location preferences of weaker and stronger students. Here we present evidence suggesting that in fact this may be mixing up the cause and effect. It may be that the seat selection itself contributes to whether the student does well or poorly, rather than the other way around. While a number of studies have looked at the effect of seat location on students, the results are often inconclusive, and few, if any, have studied the effects in college classrooms with randomly assigned seats. In this paper, we report on our observations of a large introductory physics course in which we randomly assigned students to particular seat locations at the beginning of the semester. Seat location during the first half of the semester had a noticeable impact on student success in the course, particularly in the top and bottom parts of the grade distribution. Students sitting in the back of the room for the first half of the term were nearly six times as likely to receive an F as students who started in the front of the room. A corresponding but less dramatic reversal was evident in the fractions of students receiving As. These effects were in spite of many unusual efforts to engage students at the back of the class and a front-to-back reversal of seat location halfway through the term. These results suggest there may be inherent detrimental effects of large physics lecture halls that need to be further explored.

  5. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  6. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  7. Combined Radiation Belt - Plasma Sheet System Modeling (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Zhu, Hui


    Recent years have given rise to numerous mathematical models of the Earth's radiation belt dynamics. Driven by observations at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) where satellites (e.g. GOES and LANL) provide extensive in-situ measurements, radiation belt models usually take into account only diffusion processes in the energetic electron belts (100 keV and greater), leaving aside the dynamics of colder source population (tens of keV). Such models are able to reconstruct the radiation belt state, but they are not capable of predicting the electron dynamics at GEO, where many communication and navigation satellites currently operate. In this work we present combined four-dimensional electron radiation belt - plasma sheet model accounting for adiabatic advective transport, radial diffusion due to interaction with ULF waves, local acceleration of electrons, scattering into the atmosphere, magnetopause shadowing, and adiabatic effects due to contraction and expansion of the magnetic field. The developed model is applicable to energetic, relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons as well as to source electron population. The model provides spatial particle distribution allowing us to compare and validate the model with multiple satellite measurements at different MLT sectors (e.g. Van Allen Probes, GOES, LANL, THEMIS). The model can be helpful for the prediction of crucial for satellite operators geosynchronous electron fluxes and electron radiation belt dynamics including the heart of the outer belt, slot region and inner belt.

  8. Belt separation system under slat in fattening pig housing: effect of belt type and extraction frequency. (United States)

    Alonso, F; Vázquez, J; Ovejero, I; Garcimartín, M A; Mateos, A; Sánchez, E


    The efficiency of manure separation by a conveyor belt under a partially slatted floor for fattening pigs was determined for two types of belts, a flat belt with an incline of up to 6 degrees transversely and a concave belt with an incline of up to 1 degrees longitudinally. A 31.20% and 23.75% dry matter content of the solid fraction was obtained for the flat and concave belt, respectively. The flat belt was more efficient at 6 degrees than other slope angles. The residence time of the manure on the two belt types influenced the separation efficiency from a live weight of 63.00 kg upwards. The quantity of residue produced with this system was reduced to 25-40% with respect to a pit system under slat. This could mean a remarkable reduction in costs of storage, transport and application of manure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal comfort of seats as visualized by infrared thermography. (United States)

    Sales, Rosemary Bom Conselho; Pereira, Romeu Rodrigues; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino; Cardoso, Antônio Valadão


    Published studies that deal with the question of how the temperature of chair seats influences human activities are few, but the studies considering such a factor, a function of the type of material, could contribute to improvements in the design of chairs. This study evaluates seat temperatures of 8 types of chairs made of different materials. The parts of the furniture that people come into contact with, and the thermal response of the material to heating and cooling have been evaluated. Infrared thermography was used for this, as it is a non-contact technique that does not present any type of risk in the measurement of temperatures. Seats made of synthetic leather (leatherette), wood and polyester fabric were found to have the highest temperatures, and the plywood seat showed the lowest. The study has also revealed that thermography can contribute to studies of thermal comfort of chair seats in addition to determining the most suitable material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of astigmatic axis in the seated and supine positions. (United States)

    Smith, E M; Talamo, J H; Assil, K K; Petashnick, D E


    Refractive error is assessed in the seated position while keratorefractive procedures are performed in the supine position. Since position-induced ocular torsion could yield suboptimal results from improper axis alignment, this study was undertaken to ascertain whether ocular cyclotorsion occurs when a subject moves from a seated to supine position. Fifty eyes of 29 subjects with refractive cylinder greater than 0.50 diopters were enrolled. Refraction was done with a phoropter and the correction was placed in a trial frame using plus cylinder. Astigmatic axis was determined in the seated and supine positions for 32 eyes by utilizing the "rocking the cylinder" technique and for 32 eyes using the Jackson cross cylinder. Both techniques were used for 14 eyes. No statistically-significant difference for cylinder axis measured in the seated versus supine position was observed using the rocking the cylinder (4.3 degrees standard deviation [SD], 3.5 degrees, range 0 degrees to 13 degrees, p = NS) or the Jackson cross cylinder methods (2.3 degrees, SD, 1.9 degrees, range 0 degrees to 7 degrees, p = NS). Approximately 25% of eyes had a change in axis of 7 degrees to 16 degrees. These data suggest that the cylinder axis does not change significantly or predictably when most subjects move from the seated to supine position. The Jackson cross cylinder method seems more accurate and reproducible than the rocking the cylinder technique in determination of astigmatic axis under these circumstances.

  11. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu


    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  12. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat. (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I


    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  13. School bus transportation for students seated in wheelchairs. (United States)

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Karg, Patricia E


    For children with Individualized Education Plans (IEPs), transportation is considered a related service and a part of their education. This paper presents an overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation for students on school buses within the United States. The review includes the school transportation environment for wheelchair-seated students, applicable regulations and voluntary standards, primary safety issues for wheelchair-seated students, and key stakeholders roles in improving wheelchair transportation safety. Future actions to improve wheelchair transportation safety in school transportation are discussed, including the need to improve data collection, mandate payment for and use of RESNA WC19-compliant wheelchairs, improve training for bus operators and attendants, and require specialty certification for school bus operators who transport wheelchair-seated students.

  14. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)


    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  15. Sitting biomechanics, part II: optimal car driver's seat and optimal driver's spinal model. (United States)

    Harrison, D D; Harrison, S O; Croft, A C; Harrison, D E; Troyanovich, S J


    Driving has been associated with signs and symptoms caused by vibrations. Sitting causes the pelvis to rotate backwards and the lumbar lordosis to reduce. Lumbar support and armrests reduce disc pressure and electromyographically recorded values. However, the ideal driver's seat and an optimal seated spinal model have not been described. To determine an optimal automobile seat and an ideal spinal model of a driver. Information was obtained from peer-reviewed scientific journals and texts, automotive engineering reports, and the National Library of Medicine. Driving predisposes vehicle operators to low-back pain and degeneration. The optimal seat would have an adjustable seat back incline of 100 degrees from horizontal, a changeable depth of seat back to front edge of seat bottom, adjustable height, an adjustable seat bottom incline, firm (dense) foam in the seat bottom cushion, horizontally and vertically adjustable lumbar support, adjustable bilateral arm rests, adjustable head restraint with lordosis pad, seat shock absorbers to dampen frequencies in the 1 to 20 Hz range, and linear front-back travel of the seat enabling drivers of all sizes to reach the pedals. The lumbar support should be pulsating in depth to reduce static load. The seat back should be damped to reduce rebounding of the torso in rear-end impacts. The optimal driver's spinal model would be the average Harrison model in a 10 degrees posterior inclining seat back angle.

  16. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety (United States)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan


    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  17. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use. (United States)

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  18. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The Bhandara-Balaghat granulite (BBG) belt occurs as a 190km long, detached narrow, linear,. NE–SW to ENE–WSW trending belt that is in tectonic contact on its northern margin with the. Sausar Group of rocks and is bordered by the Sakoli fold belt in the south. The Bhandara part of the BBG belt is quite restricted, ...

  19. Booster seat law enforcement : examples from Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Washington. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of State booster seat laws : (enhanced child restraint laws) and examine the most effective strategies that law enforcement agencies can : use to enforce booster seat laws. The research i...

  20. 75 FR 12726 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Tourism alternate... are chosen based upon their particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they...

  1. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke


    Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  2. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi


    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  3. Neural Bases of Automaticity (United States)

    Servant, Mathieu; Cassey, Peter; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Logan, Gordon D.


    Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this…

  4. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.


    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  5. Automatic differentiation of functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.


    Automatic differentiation is a method of computing derivatives of functions to any order in any number of variables. The functions must be expressible as combinations of elementary functions. When evaluated at specific numerical points, the derivatives have no truncation error and are automatically found. The method is illustrated by simple examples. Source code in FORTRAN is provided


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the nursing staff shortage and the need for precise control in the administration of dangerous drugs intra- venously have led to the development of various devices to achieve an automatic system. The continuous automatic control of the drip rate eliminates errors due to any physical effect such as movement of the ...

  7. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike


    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  8. Improved Seat, Console, and Workplace Design: Annotated Bibliography, Integration of the Literature, Accommodation Model, and Seated Operator Reach Profiles (United States)


    transmitted through che small areas to the seat, causing high pressure points. This results in reduced blood flow leading to numbness and pain . Soft...some operators to re- current symptoms of incoordination and muscle pain . 5 A-4 3 A 44 ’’I 2,g CATEGORY: WORKPLACE DESIGN AUTHOR: Ellis, D.S. TITLE...the knee, and not so far backward as to exert pressure upon the coccyx . (c) The seat should slope from before backward, a drop of approximately 1 inch

  9. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  10. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  11. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.


    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  12. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors


    Gao Yang


    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  13. Greek Electoral System: Optimal Distribution of the Seats (United States)

    Tsitouras, Ch.


    The Greek parliamentary elections of 2008 and 2012 will take place according to the electoral low which had been voted by the previous house back in 2004. The parties receive a nation-wide number of seats that have to be distributed in the prefectures. It is a transportation problem where the legislator neglected its complete solution after finding a first random feasible solution.

  14. Restraint use and seating position among children in motor vehicles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive study was used to assess use of child restraints, seating positions of children, driver restraint and vehicle overloading in Bloemfontein in 2007. Two pairs of observers stood at selected sites recording these findings. The study was done over a period of 1 month. Results. A total of 512 children in 374 vehicles ...

  15. Development and initial validation of the Seated Posture Scale. (United States)

    Barks, Lelia; Luther, Stephen L; Brown, Lisa M; Schulz, Brian; Bowen, Mary Elizabeth; Powell-Cope, Gail


    Literature shows that some health outcomes (e.g., eating, breathing, and speaking) are directly related to posture. Evidence of outcomes mediated by wheelchair seated posture is limited to interface pressure, physical function, and wheelchair skills and safety. This study's purpose was to develop and validate a rapid, low-burden, paper-pencil assessment of wheelchair seated posture for research use and to test feasibility of its use with a sample of older adults. We used a prospective design and a convenience sample of older adults who were receiving rehabilitation services in a community living center. Forty-nine older wheelchair users participated. Main measures were the Seated Posture Scale (SPS), Modified Ashworth Scale, Barthel Index, Visual Descriptor Scale, scale-content validity index (S-CVI), Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability. Rating by six experts yielded the overall content validity score (S-CVI) of 0.744. Total SPS score correlated positively with physical function (Barthel Index, r = 0.46, p Scale, r = -0.44, p = 0.001), supporting SPS construct validity. Internal consistency was 0.66 (Cronbach alpha). Test-retest reliability yielded Pearson product-moment correlations of 0.89 to 0.99. We conclude that the SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support its use as an evaluation of wheelchair seated posture in outcomes research.

  16. Designing Train Passenger Seat by Kansei Engineering in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsari Sakya Nabila


    Full Text Available Public transport adoption is still major problem in Indonesia. Integrating impression and emotion to service may change the image of public transport, leading to fast adoption rate. As product development technique, Kansei Engineering is well known to facilitate that integration. This paper communicates the implementation of Kansei Engineering (KE in designing train passenger seat in Indonesia. The train between Bandung-Solo (8 hours journey was chosen to be the investigated object. The train was selected to be refurbished by introducing a new passenger seat design, emphasizing on the improvement of passenger experience. As the first step of KE type I technique, travel experience of the existing passengers were taken into the consideration for selecting Kansei words. It was found that the relevant Kansei words to design passenger train seat in Indonesia were: comfort, people-friendly, multifunction, safe, soft, spacious, relaxing, superior, maintainable, strong, producible, minimalist, attractive, modern, unique, and durable. Upon understanding the semantic meaning of those words, physical properties and technical specification were produced by consulting to the related members. Finally, a passenger seat with synthetic leather cover, modular design, foldable table, individual power point, bluesilver color, and adjusted to Indonesian’s anthropometry data was proposed as the final design

  17. Three-dimensional musculoskeletal modelling of the seated row ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adjustments had to be made to the model to solve the forward dynamics simulations; as a result, no muscle forces or contraction values were obtained. This negatively influenced the value of the results as these parameters are important when analysing an exercise. The seated row resistance-training machine's engineered ...

  18. Restraint use and seating position among children in motor vehicles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minibuses, buses and trucks, as well as motor vehicles with tinted or covered windows, were excluded from the study. The following observations were recorded by the researchers for each child in a motor vehicle: seating position of the child, whether child restraint was used and type of restraint, whether restraint was.

  19. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt (United States)

    DeMeo, F. E.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Walsh, K. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Binzel, R. P.

    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization, with over half a million known asteroids, more than 100,000 of which have some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the main asteroid belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of solar system evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the asteroid belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire solar system?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after solar system formation. This chapter reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of asteroid compositions seen in the main belt today. This chapter also reviews the major outstanding questions relating to asteroid compositions and distributions and summarizes the progress and current state of understanding of these questions to form the big picture of the formation and evolution of asteroids in the main belt. Finally, we briefly review the relevance of asteroids and their compositions in their greater context within our solar system and beyond.

  20. Decay rate of the second radiation belt. (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  1. The Mutual Impact of Personality Traits on Seating Preference and Educational Achievement (United States)

    Hemyari, Camellia; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Parva, Mohammad; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali


    Several studies have investigated the association between students' seating positions and their classroom performance. However, the role of personality traits on seating preference in the classroom has not been well investigated. The aim of the study was to understand how students choose their seats according to their personality traits in a…

  2. Walk Right In, Sit Right Down: Seating in the College English Literature Classroom (United States)

    Eiland, Thomas T.


    Seating arrangements in college English Literature courses can have an impact on the learning experience for the student. Students who had completed at least one college-level English literature course at a community college were asked about their experiences in four seating arrangements: traditional rows of seats, Socratic circle/seminar style,…

  3. Considerations for classroom seating arrangements and the role of teacher characteristics and beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Mariola; van den Berg, Y.H.M.; Segers, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    As a part of classroom management, teachers face the question of how and where to seat their students. However, it is far from clear what considerations teachers have when making seating arrangements. Therefore, in this study seating arrangement considerations from 50 teachers in grades 4–6 of

  4. Parental Views Regarding Seating and Participation for Young Children with Cerebral Palsy (United States)

    Bolas, Jennifer; Boyle, Paul


    The aim of this article was to explore the views of parents regarding seating for children with cerebral palsy. Two interviews with parents were conducted. These were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. This small study outlines three themes: the importance of seating, seating and participation, and the parental role in…

  5. Detrital Zircon Geochronology and Petrology of Sediments from the Barberton greenstone belt: Implications for Provenance and Tectonic Reconstructions (United States)

    Drabon, N.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.


    derived from local uplifts of different parts of the greenstone sequence, as well as, penecontemporaneous volcanism. Different provenance signatures towards the stratigraphic middle and top in the MS and BV belts indicate distinct evolution in the source areas of these structural belts. Erosion did not reach deper-seated plutonic or metamorphic rocks.

  6. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt. (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap


    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  7. Dynamic forces over the interface between a seated human body and a rigid seat during vertical whole-body vibration. (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Qiu, Yi; Griffin, Michael J


    Biodynamic responses of the seated human body are usually measured and modelled assuming a single point of vibration excitation. With vertical vibration excitation, this study investigated how forces are distributed over the body-seat interface. Vertical and fore-and-aft forces were measured beneath the ischial tuberosities, middle thighs, and front thighs of 14 subjects sitting on a rigid flat seat in three postures with different thigh contact while exposed to random vertical vibration at three magnitudes. Measures of apparent mass were calculated from transfer functions between the vertical acceleration of the seat and the vertical or fore-and-aft forces measured at the three locations, and the sum of these forces. When sitting normally or sitting with a high footrest, vertical forces at the ischial tuberosities dominated the vertical apparent mass. With feet unsupported to give increased thigh contact, vertical forces at the front thighs were dominant around 8Hz. Around 3-7Hz, fore-and-aft forces at the middle thighs dominated the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass. Around 8-10Hz, fore-and-aft forces were dominant at the ischial tuberosities with feet supported but at the front thighs with feet unsupported. All apparent masses were nonlinear: as the vibration magnitude increased the resonance frequencies decreased. With feet unsupported, the nonlinearity in the apparent mass was greater at the front thighs than at the ischial tuberosities. It is concluded that when the thighs are supported on a seat it is not appropriate to assume the body has a single point of vibration excitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y.; Tomono, K.; Takahashi, H.; Uchida, T. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Automatic Test Systems Aquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    We are providing this final memorandum report for your information and use. This report discusses the efforts to achieve commonality in standards among the Military Departments as part of the DoD policy for automatic test systems (ATS...

  10. Automatic requirements traceability


    Andžiulytė, Justė


    This paper focuses on automatic requirements traceability and algorithms that automatically find recommendation links for requirements. The main objective of this paper is the evaluation of these algorithms and preparation of the method defining algorithms to be used in different cases. This paper presents and examines probabilistic, vector space and latent semantic indexing models of information retrieval and association rule mining using authors own implementations of these algorithms and o...

  11. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  12. Determination of crash test pulses and their application to aircraft seat analysis (United States)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Williams, M. S.; Fasanella, E. L.


    Deceleration time histories (crash pulses) from a series of twelve light aircraft crash tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) were analyzed to provide data for seat and airframe design for crashworthiness. Two vertical drop tests at 12.8 m/s (42 ft/s) and 36 G peak deceleration (simulating one of the vertical light aircraft crash pulses) were made using an energy absorbing light aircraft seat prototype. Vertical pelvis acceleration measured in a 50 percentile dummy in the energy absorbing seat were found to be 45% lower than those obtained from the same dummy in a typical light aircraft seat. A hybrid mathematical seat-occupant model was developed using the DYCAST nonlinear finite element computer code and was used to analyze a vertical drop test of the energy absorbing seat. Seat and occupant accelerations predicted by the DYCAST model compared quite favorably with experimental values.

  13. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.


    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.


    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  15. A seat at the table: redesigning cancer care. (United States)

    Nevidjon, Brenda


    The Institute of Medicine's ([IOM's], 2011) report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, included the key message, "Nurses should be full partners, with physicians and other health professionals, in redesigning health care in the United States" (p. 221). That is a call for nurses to lead at every level-to have a seat at the table when critical decisions are being made. Those decisions extend from clinical care to national policy, and all require the voice of nurses. The annual Gallup (2013) Honesty/Ethics in Professions survey again listed nursing as the most ethical profession. With that trust and the IOM report, among other things, nursing is well positioned to be at many tables. Having a seat is not enough, though. Nurses must contribute to the action at the table.

  16. Theoretical study of influence of belt tension of intermediate belt conveyor drive on value of zone of relative slip of traction and carrying belts (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Grishin, A. V.


    The issue of the influence of tension of the traction belt of intermediate drive of the multi-drive belt conveyor on the value of zones of relative rest and sliding of the traction and carrying belts is considered. A variety of values of proportional band of tractive effort regulation of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor while it is being controlled by the tensioning device was obtained in percentage terms. Recommendations on the control of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor by means of the tensioning device when starting and productivity changes are provided.

  17. Design Optimisation and Conrol of a Pilot Operated Seat Valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard


    The paper gives an approach for optimisation of the bandwidth of a pilot operated seat valve for mobile applications. Physical dimensions as well as parameters of the implemented control loop are optimised simultaneously. The frequency response of the valve varies as a function of the pressure drop...... across the valve, and it is found to be necessary to scale the controller parameters in the optimised design as a function of pressure drop....

  18. Dynamic Performance Assessment of Side Facing Troop Seats During Impact (United States)


    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0095 DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF SIDE FACING TROOP SEATS DURING IMPACT Mr. Chris Burneka Mr. Chris...PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications , or other data included in this document for any purpose other than Government procurement does...not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the Government formulated or supplied the drawings, specifications , or other data does

  19. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices. (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman


    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  20. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  1. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.


    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  2. Affirmative Action: Reservation Seats untuk Perempuan di Parlemen India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Yunita Kurniaty


    Full Text Available The study aims to help us understand and analyze women's efforts in the policy-making process to increase their political participation in the constitutional and electoral processes. We can also see the extent to which the values rooted in the patriarchal culture in a society and what can be done and reduce them. Affirmative action is carried out in India by applying the system of reservation seats for women in the Indian Parliament. This is done in India is proven to increase the number of women in the Indian Parliament. By the way there are quotas for women as a strategy for accessing the political arena has growing support among MPs. In this study, Indonesia could get a reservation seats of learning about the system is done. To increase the representation in the "area" is very difficult to be touched by a quota system which is run now, it can be done with reservation seats quota to ensure women's representation in parliament.

  3. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar (United States)

    Gonçalves, R. M.


    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome.

  4. Assessing ergonomic risks of software: Development of the SEAT. (United States)

    Peres, S Camille; Mehta, Ranjana K; Ritchey, Paul


    Software utilizing interaction designs that require extensive dragging or clicking of icons may increase users' risks for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. The purpose of this research is to develop a Self-report Ergonomic Assessment Tool (SEAT) for assessing the risks of software interaction designs and facilitate mitigation of those risks. A 28-item self-report measure was developed by combining and modifying items from existing industrial ergonomic tools. Data were collected from 166 participants after they completed four different tasks that varied by method of input (touch or keyboard and mouse) and type of task (selecting or typing). Principal component analysis found distinct factors associated with stress (i.e., demands) and strain (i.e., response). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that participants could discriminate the different strain induced by the input methods and tasks. However, participants' ability to discriminate between the stressors associated with that strain was mixed. Further validation of the SEAT is necessary but these results indicate that the SEAT may be a viable method of assessing ergonomics risks presented by software design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, R M


    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome. (paper)



    Ismet Ibishi; Ahmet Latifi; Gzim Ibishi; Kadri Sejdiu; Melihate Shala-Galica; Bekim Latifi


    In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension ...

  7. [Low back pain perception from the prolonged use of a dynamic seat in sitting posture]. (United States)

    Galindo-Estupiñan, Zuli T; Maradei-García, Maria F; Espinel-Correal, Francisco


    Objective To determine whether a tilting system located in the seat of a chair allows for performing voluntary macro-repositioning movements of the pelvis in order to reduce the perception of pain after a prolonged period in the sitting posture. Methods Eight women participated in the experiment. They were asked to sit on the chair with the tilting system and the chair without the tilting system for sixty minutes on two different days but carried out at the same time of day. Discomfort was assessed with the visual analogic scale. Results people used the tilting system to do postural changes of macro-repositioning. However, these movements were less than the movements done with the body, not using the system. Moreover, discomfort perception was the same for each chair. This might be due to the fact that total of macro-repositioning movements did not change. Conclusion Future research should evaluate the effect of tilting systems that provide macro-repositioning in a controlled form, not like in this study. Also, it is necessary to study if these types of automatic systems contribute to the reduction of the discomfort due to a prolonged period in the sitting posture.

  8. Feasibility of closed-loop controller for righting seated posture after spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Murphy, Julie O; Audu, Musa L; Lombardo, Lisa M; Foglyano, Kevin M; Triolo, Ronald J


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can compromise the ability to maintain an erect seated posture. This study examined the feasibility of a sensor-based threshold controller to automatically modulate stimulation to paralyzed hip and trunk extensor muscles to restore upright sitting from forward leaning postures. Forward trunk tilt was estimated from the anterior-posterior component of gravitational acceleration sensed by a sternum-mounted wireless accelerometer. Stimulation increased if trunk tilt exceeded a specified flexion threshold and ceased once upright sitting was resumed. The controller was verified experimentally in five volunteers with SCI and successfully returned all subjects to upright postures from forward leaning positions. Upper-limb effort exerted while returning to erect posture was significantly reduced (to 7.4% +/- 3.7% of body mass) pooled across all volunteers while using the controller compared with using continuous and no stimulation (p Controller response times were consistent among subjects when applied while sitting with (0.30 +/- 0.05 s) or without a backrest (0.34 +/- 0.11 s). The controller enabled volunteers to lean farther forward (59.7° +/- 16.4°) in wheelchairs without upper-limb effort than with no stimulation. Clinical utility of the system for facilitating reach or preventing falls remains to be determined in future studies.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  10. Evaluation of safety belt education program for employees (United States)


    This research was designed to determine the effectiveness of a nine-month safety belt educational program, utilizing various informational materials developed by NHTSA, in increasing safety belt usage among corporate employees. The materials used inc...

  11. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel


    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  12. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...... on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...

  13. A study on the vibration of the charging belt in an electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Furu; Yuan Hongyong; Fan Weicheng; Yu Zengliang


    The vibration of the charging belt in an electrostatic accelerator has intense influences on the accelerator operation. A calculating model was set up to study the belt vibration. The results show that the belt tension, belt velocity and belt current all contribute to the belt vibration. There is an optimal relationship among the three factors by which the belt would run most smoothly. There exists a minimum value of optimal tension for various belt velocities. The vibrating frequency is generally around several Hz

  14. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energetic electrons are trapped in the Earth's radiation belts which occupy a toroidal region between 3 and 7 RE above the Earth's surface. Rapid loss of electrons from the radiation belts is known as dropouts. The source and loss mechanisms regulating the radiation belts population are not yet understood entirely, ...

  15. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  16. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an. 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW--SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  17. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  18. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  19. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    , the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  20. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.


    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  1. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  2. Mafic magmatism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; de Roever, E.W.F.; Thijssen, A.C.D.; Bleeker, W.; Söderlund, U.; Chamberlain, K.; Ernst, R.; Berndt, J.; Zeh, A.


    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt (BGB) is a metamorphic terrain within the Guiana Shield that experienced ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism at 2.07–2.05Ga. In the southwest of the BGB, the Kabalebo charnockites were emplaced at ca. 1.99Ga and thus postdate UHT metamorphism by at least 60Myr. Two

  3. 2014 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky. (United States)


    The objective of the survey summarized in this report was to establish a statewide safety belt usage rate in Kentucky for 2014. This rate can be compared to those determined from previous surveys. The 2014 statewide survey continues to document the i...

  4. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales. (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.


    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  5. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites (United States)

    Uwe Friedel


    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  6. Automatic Color Sorting Machine Using TCS230 Color Sensor And PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunhimohammed C K


    Full Text Available Sorting of products is a very difficult industrial process. Continuous manual sorting creates consistency issues. This paper describes a working prototype designed for automatic sorting of objects based on the color. TCS230 sensor was used to detect the color of the product and the PIC16F628A microcontroller was used to control the overall process. The identification of the color is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Two conveyor belts were used, each controlled by separate DC motors. The first belt is for placing the product to be analyzed by the color sensor, and the second belt is for moving the container, having separated compartments, in order to separate the products. The experimental results promise that the prototype will fulfill the needs for higher production and precise quality in the field of automation.

  7. Multi-leg Seat Inventory Control Based on EMSU and Virtual Bucket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan


    Full Text Available Expected marginal seat revenue (EMSR is a well-known method for airline seat inventory control airlines. However, this method employs a static model to study the dynamic reservation process, and does not take into account the risk tolerance of policy makers. Expected marginal seat utility (EMSU replaces revenue by utility, which addresses the real situation of seat inventory control. However, there is still a lack of multi-leg seat control algorithms based on EMSU. Therefore, using EMSU and bucket algorithms, this paper applies the Markov decision-making process to simulate the flight reservation process and builds a dynamic multi-leg seat inventory control model. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  9. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads


    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstrac...

  10. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang


    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  11. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  12. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua


    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  13. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions (United States)


    of 1500 lbf. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ACES-II, Ejection, Seat, Cam, Roller, Bearing, Friction, CKU-5, Rocket, Catapult , ROCAT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Booster = solid propellant grain in the catapult of a ROCAT Catapult = the telescopic tube phase that lifts the ACES-II ejection seat within the...Criteria (0-1 scaled collation of individual-axis DRI) ROCAT = Rocket Catapult ejection propulsion system SBLAZ (g) = Seat Back Linear Accelerometer

  14. Impact of seated and standing bicycle riding position on subsequent running performance


    Jensen, Randall L.; Ewers, Brendon J.; Cunniffe, Brian; Phelan, Brian; Harrison, Andrew J.; Shafat, Amir


    peer-reviewed This study examined the effects of cycling posture on subsequent running performance similar to the transition phase of a triathlon. Experienced, non-elite triathletes completed two trials of a cycle-run transition. During the last three minutes of a 30 minute cycling bout, at power output equal to lactate threshold, subjects either remained seated (SEAT), or alternated seated and standing cycling (30 s at a time; ALT). Heart rate, RPE, minimum and maximum knee angle, stride ...

  15. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.


    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  16. Development of Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry Data in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle based off of new anthropometric requirements. These requirements specify the need to account for a spinal elongation factor for anthropometric measurements involving the spine, such as eye height and seated height. However, to date there is no data relating spinal elongation to a seated posture. Only data relating spinal elongation to stature has been collected in microgravity. Therefore, it was proposed to collect seated height in microgravity to provide the Constellation designers appropriate data for their analyses. This document will describe the process in which the best method to collect seated height in microgravity was developed.

  17. The Effects of Ejection Seat Cushion Design on Physical Fatigue and Cognitive Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellettiere, Joseph; Parakkat, Julia; Reynolds, David; Sasidharan, Manikandan; El-Zoghbi, Muhamed; Oudenhuijzen, Aernout


    .... Subjective comfort survey data and cognitive performance data were gathered along with comparative objective data, including seated pressures, muscular fatigue levels, and lower extremity oxygen saturation...

  18. Car safety seat usage and selection among families attending University Hospital Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scully, P


    The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.

  19. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.


    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  20. Research and Application of an Automatic Clam Collecting Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bin


    Full Text Available To collect clams automatically and effectively on coastal beach, an automatic clam collecting device was designed. The device consists of a connecting device, a shovelling device, a conveying device, and a filtering device. The mechanical device is designed based on some of the presented devices, such as a blade with slope, a pipelined conveyor belt, planar linkage mechanisms and a ski mechanism. The connecting device is connected to the device body by bolts. The shovelling device adopts a blade with slope, which can reduce the resistance between sandy soil and the device. The transmission device adopts a conveyor belt with a two-stage reducer, which can effectively control the speed of the transmission and avoid the splash of mud. A mesh structure is used for soil filtering, which is designed with a certain slope, thus sandy soil and other impurities fall from the mesh for its own weight. The designed device for clam collecting will improve efficiency and decrease cost effectively.

  1. Rear-seat motor vehicle travel in the U.S.: using national data to define a population at risk. (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Kent, Richard


    Recent studies suggest that the relative protection offered by rear seating in motor vehicle crashes has decreased, potentially reflecting disproportionate advancements in front-seat safety technology. Safe adaptation of advanced front-seat restraint systems for the rear-seat environment will require exposure data that are currently unavailable. This study uses national data to quantify rear-seat occupancy patterns, restraint use, and annual travel exposure in the U.S. in order to support the development of advanced crash protection systems for rear-seat motor vehicle occupants. Data from the 2000-2006 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System and 2001 National Household Transportation Survey were analyzed in 2008 to quantify occupancy patterns (e.g., seat position, restraint use) and annual person-trips for rear-seat passengers in the U.S. The overall proportion of person-trips by rear-seat occupants is relatively low (12.9%); however national at-risk exposure remains significant (approximately 39 billion annual person-trips). Annual rear-seat travel exposure is similar among children < or = 12 years and adults (18.9 vs 19.1 billion person-trips) despite the fact that children are proportionally much more likely to ride in rear positions (79.3% vs 7.4%). Restraint use among adult rear-seat occupants was also much lower than among front-seat occupants (50.4% vs 82.2%). While rear-seat occupancy is relatively low compared with front-seat occupancy at-risk rear-seat travel by both child and adult passengers in the U.S. remains significant. Restraint use by rear-seat occupants is much lower than that among front-seat passengers, particularly among adults and older children, substantially increasing injury risk. Development of future crash protection systems for rear-seat passengers must account for these exposure patterns to ensure safe and effective integration into production vehicles.

  2. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin


    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  3. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his ...... a renewed stimulus for continuing and deepening Bob's research visions. A familiar touch is given to the book by some pictures kindly provided to us by his wife Nieba, the personal recollections of his brother Gary and some of his colleagues and friends....... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers...

  4. Automaticity or active control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    This study addresses the quasi-moderating role of habit strength in explaining action loyalty. A model of loyalty behaviour is proposed that extends the traditional satisfaction–intention–action loyalty network. Habit strength is conceptualised as a cognitive construct to refer to the psychological...... aspects of the construct, such as routine, inertia, automaticity, or very little conscious deliberation. The data consist of 2962 consumers participating in a large European survey. The results show that habit strength significantly moderates the association between satisfaction and action loyalty, and......, respectively, between intended loyalty and action loyalty. At high levels of habit strength, consumers are more likely to free up cognitive resources and incline the balance from controlled to routine and automatic-like responses....

  5. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  6. Automatic Language Identification (United States)


    hundreds guish one language from another. The reader is referred of input languages would need to be supported , the cost of to the linguistics literature...eventually obtained bet- 108 TRAINING FRENCH GERMAN ITRAIING FRENCH M- ALGORITHM - __ GERMAN NHSPANISH TRAINING SPEECH SET OF MODELS: UTTERANCES ONE MODEL...i.e. vowels ) for each speech utterance are located malized to be insensitive to overall amplitude, pitch and automatically. Next, feature vectors

  7. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke


    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  8. Child car seats - a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens. (United States)

    Clarke, David; Gormally, Michael; Sheahan, Jerome; Byrne, Miriam


    House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g) of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM) procedures. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers' seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001) between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  9. Ergonomic Assessment of a Seat Back Support (Spine Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Kazemi1


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : In case of inappropriateness of the dimensions of chairs or when users feel pain and pressure in their lumbar region due to poor posture, damage to the spine can be prevented using some additional supports. The aim of this study was ergonomic evaluation of one of these supportive products named “Spine Fit”. Methods : In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, in the first stage, five ergonomists evaluated the product regarding its dimension, adjustability, material, conformity, and manufacturer claims. Then, three groups of workers including office workers, office workers with low back pain, and bus drivers filled out a self-administered questionnaire after using Spine Fit . Results : For the first stage, an acceptable adjustability and dimension was found. Conformity for different kinds of office and bus seats was mostly fair. Findings from the second stage revealed that the subjects in three groups were satisfied regarding seats comfort and ease of use. Concerning the conformity of Spine Fit, it was in good level among office workers, while different levels of conformity were observed by drivers of different models of bus . Conclusion : Spine Fit supports back region based on its supportive role in pelvis, lumbar vertebrae column and thoracic spine. Moreover, Spine Fit features that reduce sweating can improve individuals’ convenience.

  10. Restaurant No. 1 seating capacity increases by 240

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    These days you need patience when looking for a seat in Restaurant No. 1 to eat your lunch. The opening of the new dining room, which will increase the restaurant’s seating capacity by 240, should alleviate the problem and improve service.   The new restaurant area. For the past several years the number of people using Restaurant No. 1 has grown steadily. Now, for a change, the restaurant itself is growing. Luz Lopez-Hernandez, leader of the project in the GS Department, explains: “Enlarging the restaurant has been on the GS Department's agenda for several years, but the project really got off the ground in 2009. Once it was approved and the design completed, construction itself only took seven months.” Seven months later, the restaurant extension is indeed on the verge of opening. One of the people who will be particularly happy is Joël Nallet, who manages the Novae restaurant: “I am thrilled, because until now, even if we managed to increase...

  11. Daylight And Seating Preference In Open-Plan Library Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Keskin


    Full Text Available Daylight factor has long been the predominant metric to evaluate daylight performance. Recently, the profession has moved toward annual dynamic daylight metrics such as useful daylight illuminance and daylight autonomy, which are based on absolute values of time varying daylight illuminance for a period of full year. As opposed to static daylight metrics that only concentrate on individual sky conditions, such as the widely used daylight factor, these metrics provide a more comprehensive way to measure illuminance for a wide range of sun positions and sky conditions. Although there is a growing consensus assigning importance to dynamic daylight metrics, there is no common understanding of how to integrate the preference and behaviour of building occupants in assessing the applicability of these metrics. In fact, it is when these occupancy observations and quantitative measurements are taken together that the importance of daylight performance metrics is fully realized. This study seeks to investigate the extent to which the influence of daylight on behaviour can be predicted, and for this the behaviour investigated is seating preferences of occupants in open plan, hot-desking spaces in two university libraries in Sheffield: Western Bank Library and the Information Commons. The results suggest that the association between daylight and seat choice may not be strong, and that any effect is better associated with daylight factor than with useful daylight illuminance or daylight autonomy.

  12. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Guk Kim

    Full Text Available Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%. The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826 and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  13. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort. (United States)

    Kim, Seong Guk; Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Song, Ye Eun; Kang, Tae Uk; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Dohyung; Kim, Han Sung


    Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%). The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826) and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  14. Dynamics of a belt-drive system using a linear complementarity problem for the belt pulley contact description (United States)

    Čepon, Gregor; Boltežar, Miha


    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient and realistic numerical model in order to predict the dynamic response of belt drives. The belt was modeled as a planar beam element based on an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. A viscoelastic material was adopted for the belt and the corresponding damping and stiffness matrices were determined. The belt-pulley contact was formulated as a linear complementarity problem together with a penalty method. This made it possible for us to accurately predict the contact forces, including the stick and slip zones between the belt and the pulley. The belt-drive model was verified by comparing it with the available analytical solutions. A good agreement was found. Finally, the applicability of the method was demonstrated by considering non-steady belt-drive operating conditions.

  15. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  16. The seating mechanics of head-neck modular tapers in vitro: Load-displacement measurements, moisture, and rate effects. (United States)

    Ouellette, Eric S; Shenoy, Aarti A; Gilbert, Jeremy L


    The mechanically assisted crevice corrosion performance of head-neck modular tapers is a significant concern in orthopedic biomaterials. Fretting crevice corrosion processes in modular tapers are thought to be influenced by a wide array of factors including seating mechanics of the junction, hence there is a need for in vitro test methods that can assess their performance. This study presented a test method to directly measure the load-displacement seating mechanics of modular tapers and used this method to compare the seating mechanics for different tapers, moisture, seating loads and seating rates. Seating mechanics were explored whereby the instantaneous load-displacement behavior of the head seating onto the neck is captured and used to define the mechanics of seating. Two distinct taper design/material combinations were assembled wet or dry using axially applied loads (500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 N) at two loading rates of 100 and 10 4  N/s (n = 5 for each condition) using a servohydraulic test frame. The results showed that pull-off strength scaled with seating load and ranged between 43% and 68% of seating load depending on sample and wetness. Tapers seated wet had higher pull-off strengths (2,200 ± 300 N) than those seated dry (1,800 ± 200 N, p mechanics (load-displacement plots) varied due to sample type and due to wetness with differences in seating energy, seating stiffness, and seating displacement. These results show the detailed mechanics of seating during assembly and provide significant insight into the complex interplay of factors associated with even "ideal" seating (axial, quasistatic) loading. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 9999:1-9, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  18. Numerical simulation of the gould belt dynamics (United States)

    Vasilkova, O. O.


    The results of numerical simulations of the Gould Belt motion for the 2D (a ring in the Galactic plane) and 3D (a spherical shell outside the Galactic plane) cases are presented. Particles of the expanding shell interact with each other within the framework of the N-body problem. The Galactic potential has been borrowed from Flynn et al. (1996). The total mass of the shell is 1.5 × 106 M⊙ in accordance with the estimate from Bobylev (2006). The initial mutual distances and velocities of the shell components are chosen in such a way that the shell reaches the present-day sizes of the Gould Belt in 30-60 Myr. In the 2D case, the ring is shown to be stretched with time into a rotating ellipse, which is consistent with the results from Blaauw (1952) obtained by other methods. In the 3D case, the projections of the initially spherical shell onto the Galactic plane are also rotating ellipses. A vertical oscillation of the Gould Belt components relative to the Galactic plane, a flattening of the spherical shell, and its inclination to the Galactic plane after a certain time interval have been revealed.

  19. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staley, Mark [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail:


    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2{pi} rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4{pi} rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  20. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.


    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  1. Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests. (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Bohman, Katarina; Bussières, Alain


    Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car. The near-side seating position was occupied by a Hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in the sled tests, and a rear or front facing child restraint or a 5th percentile side impact ATD in the crash tests. Head impacts occurred more frequently in vehicles where a forward facing child restraint was present behind the driver seat for both the low and high back booster seats. Pretensioners were found to reduce lateral head displacements in all sled test configurations but the greatest reduction in lateral excursion was obtained with a high back booster seat secured with LATCH and tested in combination with pretensioners.

  2. The Role of Parents and Caregivers in Providing Safe Transportation for Occupants Seated in Wheelchairs (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam; Bertocci, Gina


    The responsibility for providing safe transportation for travelers seated in wheelchairs is shared by many stakeholders, including wheelchair and tiedown/restraint manufacturers, vehicle modifiers and equipment installers, transit providers, rehabilitation technology suppliers, wheelchair/seating clinicians, and even informed and responsible…

  3. Effect of seat surface inclination on postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van der Heide, Jolanda C.; Fock, Johanna M.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert

    Background and Purpose Because it is debatable whether seat surface inclination improves motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the effect of seat surface tilting on postural control and quality of reaching was studied. Subjects The subjects were 58 children with CP aged 2 to 11 years

  4. 76 FR 31453 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats (United States)


    ... apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design... single-occupant side-facing seats: A. The Injury Criteria 1. Existing Criteria: All injury protection criteria of Sec. 25.562(c)(1) through (c)(6) apply to the occupant of a side-facing seat. Head injury...

  5. 77 FR 64797 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ..., pursuant to the council's Charter. The applicant chosen for the citizen-at-large seat should expect to... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: K...

  6. Flow Characteristics and Sizing of Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Andersen, Torben O.


    This paper investigates the steady-state flow characteristics and power losses of annular seat valves for digital displacement machines. Annular seat valves are promising candidates for active check-valves used in digital displacement fluid power machinery which excels in efficiency in a broad op...

  7. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory... (United States)


    ... Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of... ONMS is seeking applications for the following vacant seat on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine... 28, 2010. ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOA- Flower Garden Banks...

  8. The effect of asymmetrical limited hip flexion on seating posture, scoliosis and windswept hip distortion. (United States)

    Ágústsson, Atli; Sveinsson, Þórarinn; Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet


    Postural asymmetries with seating problems are common in adults with cerebral palsy. To analyse the prevalence of asymmetrical limited hip flexion (90°. Asymmetrical limited hip flexion affects the seating posture and is associated with scoliosis and windswept hip distortion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 68748 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Designated Seating Positions (United States)


    ... Volkswagen that sought additional lead time for implementing the new definition of ``designated seating... definition of the term, ``designated seating position,'' as used in the Federal motor vehicle safety... definition. The final rule made the new definition applicable to vehicles manufactured on and after September...

  10. Effects of heated seats in vehicles on thermal comfort during the initial warm-up period. (United States)

    Oi, Hajime; Tabata, Koji; Naka, Yasuhito; Takeda, Akira; Tochihara, Yutaka


    Eight subjects participated in a subjective experiment of eight conditions to investigate the effects of heated seats in vehicles on skin temperature, thermal sensation and thermal comfort during the initial warm-up period. The experimental conditions were designed as a combination of air temperature in the test room (5, 10, 15, or 20 °C) and heated seat (on/off). The heated seat was effective for improving thermal comfort during the initial warm-up period when air temperature was lower than 15 °C. Use of heated seats prevented decreases in or increased toe skin temperature. Heated seats also increased foot thermal sensation at 15 and 20 °C. Optimal thermal sensation in contact with the seat was higher when air temperature was lower. Optimal skin temperature in contact with the seat back was higher than that with the seat cushion. Moreover, these optimal skin temperatures were higher when air temperature was lower. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of seat adjustment and a thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis on the distribution of body-seat pressure in children with scoliosis and pelvic obliquity. (United States)

    Shoham, Yehudit; Meyer, Shirley; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L


    To determine the effect of a thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO) on the distribution of body-seat interface pressure in children with concomitant scoliosis and pelvic obliquity and to determine the effects of two methods commonly used in customized seating--elevation (push up) of the lower side of the pelvis or a wedge insertion beneath the raised pelvis--on the distribution of body-seat interface pressure. The study population comprised 15 children with an underlying neuromuscular disorder. All had scoliosis and pelvic obliquity when seated, and used a TLSO during sitting. Body-seat interface pressure was measured using the QA Pad. Maximum pressure, mean pressure and contact area were recorded at baseline and at 10 degrees 'push up' and 10 degrees wedge insertion, with and without the TLSO. X-rays were performed with and without the orthosis at baseline position. The TLSO reduced the scoliosis deformity by a mean of 5.3 degrees and significantly (p pelvic obliquity was contralateral to the side of the curve. Seat adjustment did not have any significant effect on pressure readings. Application of a TLSO in a child with scoliosis and contralateral pelvic obliquity significantly reduced the spinal curvature and interface sitting pressure. Manipulation of sitting by use of wedges under the pelvis had no significant effect on pressure distribution.

  12. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.


    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available Are considered a situation developed in the field of modelling of fluctuations of vehicles (truck, the attention on low vibroisolation properties of seats is focused. One of the reasons which the weak level of scrutiny of real characteristics of a pillow of a seat is. The technique of tests of pillows of seats is resulted, dependences of change of their parametres on a thickness of a layer pad of a pillow and a rubber category are received.The advanced mathematical model of a pillow of the seat, providing good coincidence of the peak-frequency characteristic in a strip of frequencies of 2–20 Hz and the block-schema of its realisation in package MATLAB\\SIMULIK is offered, allowing more to model fluctuations on a workplace of the driver of a vehicle more precisely. Pillow influence on vibration properties of seats is investigated.

  14. Effect of a Dynamic Seating Surface on Postural Control and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; Trew, Lisa

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate if a seating system involving a dynamic material covering the seat back and base improves postural control, alignment and function in children with cerebral palsy and to investigate consequences of adapting The Seated Postural Control Measure to a target...... group with multifunctional disabilities. Relevance: Developing sitting systems for disabled persons is of great importance to avoid sitting problems, to increase the level of functioning and postural control which will have an impact on their daily living and activities. This project takes its starting...... Ethical Committee. Outcome measures were Seated Postural Control Measure (SPCM), which was modified to meet the children’s needs, was used to measure alignment and function. Force Sensitive Applications (FSA) on the seat surfaces was used to measure postural movements and interface pressure. All tests...

  15. Potato Operation: automatic detection of potato diseases (United States)

    Lefebvre, Marc; Zimmerman, Thierry; Baur, Charles; Guegerli, Paul; Pun, Thierry


    The Potato Operation is a collaborative, multidisciplinary project in the domain of destructive testing of agricultural products. It aims at automatizing pulp sampling of potatoes in order to detect possible viral diseases. Such viruses can decrease fields productivity by a factor of up to ten. A machine, composed of three conveyor belts, a vision system, a robotic arm and controlled by a PC has been built. Potatoes are brought one by one from a bulk to the vision system, where they are seized by a rotating holding device. The sprouts, where the viral activity is maximum, are then detected by an active vision process operating on multiple views. The 3D coordinates of the sampling point are communicated to the robot arm holding a drill. Some flesh is then sampled by the drill, then deposited into an Elisa plate. After sampling, the robot arm washes the drill in order to prevent any contamination. The PC computer simultaneously controls these processes, the conveying of the potatoes, the vision algorithms and the sampling procedure. The master process, that is the vision procedure, makes use of three methods to achieve the sprouts detection. A profile analysis first locates the sprouts as protuberances. Two frontal analyses, respectively based on fluorescence and local variance, confirm the previous detection and provide the 3D coordinate of the sampling zone. The other two processes work by interruption of the master process.

  16. Random Deterioration Process of Conveyor Belt Evaluated by Statistical Analysis of Core Failures Detected Along Belt Axis and Elapsed Time (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek; Kirjanów, Agata; Kozlowski, Tomasz


    Magnetic diagnostic methods are used for steel cord belt condition evaluation since the beginning of 1970s. Initially they generated an analogue signal for several tens of centimetres of conveyor belts scanned sequentially with one measuring head in several cycles or the whole width of the belt at one time thanks to the installation of many measuring heads across the entire cross section. This did not allow identification of single centimetre failures, but rather an aggregate assessment of the state of quite wide waist. Modern diagnostic devices, thanks to miniaturization, allow up to 200 heads per belt width to identify damage of individual cords. Instead of analogue signals, they generate a zero-one digital signal corresponding to a change in the magnetic field sign, which can illustrate damage on 2D images. This makes it easier to identify the location and size of the damage in the belt image. Statistical analysis of digital signals summed up for consecutive sections along the belt axis allows to present both the source signal and its aggregation for band of a given width to form aggregate measures of belt damage such as the damage density per 1 meter of belt. Observation of changes in these measurements at different times allows on evaluation of its rate of change over time, which can be used to forecast future belt condition and to select the proper moment of preventive belt replacement to another one to avoid emergency downtimes (egg in underground mines) or to recondition of belts (egg. in lignite surface mines). The paper presents the results of investigations of the damage condition of a core of a single belt segment working in one of the copper ore underground mines. Scanning of the belt condition was performed few times at intervals of several months. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the changes in core condition, showing the random character of the damage process along the axis and its change over time.

  17. Optimization of Car Seats in the Interaction of Sitting Man on the Size of the Contact Pressure (United States)

    Martonka, R.; Fliegel, V.

    The crew vehicle, the driver and passengers are in a car in direct interaction with the car seat while driving, which affects a sitting person in many areas such as safety, comfort, a feeling of comfort and customization to individual requirements, ergonomics and variability. All these effects are caused by one or a group of elements used in the construction of the seat. Objective assessment of the requirements for the construction of car seats, regardless of the characteristics of the occupant is not possible to provide a subjective feeling of comfort for any seated person. Therefore, we include in the design of automotive seat occupant's subjective feelings. It is clear that car seats must "adapt" individual characteristics of a seated man (weight, corpulence, age, gender,…). One of the subjective feelings of a man sitting in the seat is comfortable for any seated person defined differently. Correlation was found between comfort seats and contact pressure distribution depending on the weight of a seated man. It is understandable that every sitting person has a different distribution of contact pressure. This has resulted in the same seat each person differently seems comfortable-hard. The research objective is always to ensure maximum contact area for any seated person. Parameter that must be optimized is the hardness of butt pads sitting person (usually polyurethane pad coated fabric cover).In the conventional design seat cushion hardness is fixed, without the possibility of adaptability by the individuality sitting man. This article deals with the assessment, definition and optimization of hardness of pad in the automobile seat, the contact pressure distribution and determining the regulatory range of hardness depending on the weight of a seated man.

  18. Automatic Evaluation Of Interferograms (United States)

    Becker, Friedhelm; Meier, Gerd E. A.; Wegner, Horst


    A system for the automatic evaluation of interference patterns has been developed. After digitizing the interferograms from classical and holografic interferometers with a television digitizer and performing different picture enhancement operations the fringe loci are extracted by use of a floating-threshold method. The fringes are numbered using a special scheme after the removal of any fringe disconnections which might appear if there was insufficient contrast in the interferograms. The reconstruction of the object function from the numbered fringe field is achieved by a local polynomial least-squares approximation. Applications are given, demonstrating the evaluation of interferograms of supersonic flow fields and the analysis of holografic interferograms of car-tyres.

  19. Automatic quantitative renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeyre, J.; Deltour, G.; Delisle, M.J.; Bouchard, A.


    Renal scintigraphy data may be analyzed automatically by the use of a processing system coupled to an Anger camera (TRIDAC-MULTI 8 or CINE 200). The computing sequence is as follows: normalization of the images; background noise subtraction on both images; evaluation of mercury 197 uptake by the liver and spleen; calculation of the activity fractions on each kidney with respect to the injected dose, taking into account the kidney depth and the results referred to normal values; edition of the results. Automation minimizes the scattering parameters and by its simplification is a great asset in routine work [fr

  20. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.


    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  1. Social prejudice hindering proper use of car safety seats. (United States)

    Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Orun, Emel; Yesilyurt, Kubra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur


    The compliance of parents with child passenger safety (CPS) has been mainly explained by their level of knowledge. Social, ethnic and cultural factors have not been investigated in detail. This study investigated the rate of compliance of parents with CPS guidelines, as well as the factors hindering it. Parents of infants aged 2-10 days were enrolled. The proportions of families obtaining a car safety seat (CSS; 57%) and complying with CPS recommendations (2%) were very low. Most of the parents thought CSS were harmful for infants (mother, 57%; father, 63%), despite having already purchased one. Parents believed their children to be too small to use CSS and cannot sit in CSS because they should lie flat on their backs at all times. These prejudices may be due to the social and cultural circumstances specific to Turkey, or corresponding findings may be found in countries with similar socioeconomic status. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki


    A method for active control over the interaction between the free convection flow around occupant‘s body and locally applied airflow from front on the velocity field at the breathing zone of a seated person was studied. A workplace equipped with personalised ventilation (PV) generating flow from......) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...... at 4 L/s resulted in the same velocity at the breathing zone as when only PV was used at 6 L/s. The maximum absolu...

  3. Hardfacing materials used in valves for seating and wear surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, W.G.


    Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity.

  4. Classroom ecology: relations between seating location, performance, and attendance. (United States)

    Marshall, P Douglas; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta


    Data from 70 classes and 1829 students over a period of 15 years were analyzed. Grade and attendance differences were analyzed for five different seating configurations: by row, by column, the front of the room versus the back of the room, the center of the room versus the perimeter of the room, and the middle of the room versus the sides of the room. Results utilizing numeric percentage grades and attendance percentages indicated students sitting in the more central parts of the class had higher percentage grades and attended classes more frequently than those students sitting in the less central parts of the class. Women attended class more frequently than men, yet there were no sex differences on grades.

  5. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations


    BEBIC, M. Z.; RISTIC, L. B.


    The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of...

  6. Nondestructive testing of belt-cable conveyor quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.I.


    The express technique for testing belt-cable conveyors, widely used in mining metallurgy and machine industry is suggested in the paper. The technique consists in irradiation of the surface layer of belt-cable medium by low-energy gamma radiation of 109 Cd radioisotope and registening characteristic K-series of iron in reflection geometry. Industrial tests of presented technique showed that it enables to reveal defects rather accurately and prevent rapture of transport belts

  7. A parametric model of child body shape in seated postures. (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Keon D; Ebert, Sheila; Reed, Matthew P


    The shape of the current physical and computational surrogates of children used for restraint system assessments is based largely on standard anthropometric dimensions. These scalar dimensions provide valuable information on the overall size of the individual but do not provide good guidance on shape or posture. This study introduced the development of a parametric model that statistically predicts individual child body shapes in seated postures with a few given parameters. Surface geometry data from a laser scanner of children ages 3 to 11 (n = 135) were standardized by a 2-level fitting method using intermediate templates. The standardized data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to efficiently describe the body shape variance. Parameters such as stature, body mass index, erect sitting height, and 2 posture variables related to torso recline and lumbar spine flexion were associated with the PCA model using regression. When the original scan data were compared with the predictions of the model using the given subject dimensions, the average root mean square error for the torso was 9.5 mm, and the 95th percentile error was 17.35 mm. For the first time, a statistical model of child body shapes in seated postures is available. This parametric model allows the generation of an infinite number of virtual children spanning a wide range of body sizes and postures. The results have broad applicability in product design and safety analysis. Future work is needed to improve the representation of hands and feet and to extend the age range of the model. The model presented in this article is publicly available online through

  8. Automatic readout micrometer (United States)

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  9. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.


    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  10. An Active Seat Controller with Vehicle Suspension Feedforward and Feedback States: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alfadhli


    Full Text Available Active seat suspensions can be used to reduce the harmful vertical vibration of a vehicle’s seat by applying an external force using a closed loop controller. Many of the controllers found in the literature are difficult to implement practically, because they are based on using unavailable or difficult and costly measurements. This paper presents both simulation and experimental studies of five novel, simple, and cost-effective control strategies to be used for an active seat suspension in order to improve ride comfort at low frequencies below 20 Hz. These strategies use available and measurable feedforward (preview information states from the vehicle secondary suspension, as well as feedback states from the seat suspension, together with gains optimised to minimise the occupant vibration. The gains were optimised using a genetic algorithm (GA, with a fitness function based on the seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT factor. Constraints on the control force and the seat suspension stroke were also included in the optimisation algorithm. Simulation and laboratory experimental tests were carried out to assess the performance of the proposed controllers according to the ISO 2631-1 standard, in both the frequency and time domains with a range of different road profiles. The experimental tests were performed using a multi-axis simulation table (MAST and a physical active seat suspension configured as a hardware-in-loop (HIL simulation with a virtual linear quarter vehicle model (QvM. The results demonstrate that the proposed controllers substantially attenuate the vertical vibration at the driver’s seat compared with both a passive and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID active seat suspension and thus improve ride comfort together with reducing vibration-linked health risks. Moreover, experimental results show that employing both feedforward information and feedback vehicle body and seat acceleration signals in the controller

  11. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.


    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  12. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.


    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  13. Depositional belts in Nevada during the Famennian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, K.S. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))


    Deformed upper Famennian strata near the base of the Roberts Mountains allochthon in Nevada add detail to the paleogeography of the region at the time it was undergoing the transition from the shelf-slope setting of the early Paleozoic to the foreland basin and highland of the Antler orogeny. The uppermost Devonian part of the Pinecone sequence and correlative rocks in central and northeastern Nevada consists of black chert and argillite, commonly with nodular phosphate. Deposition took place in a detritus-starved, oxygen-poor slope or foredeep setting east of the advancing, but still submerged, Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Pinecone is less far-traveled than much of the allochthon as the time interval from deposition to the end of thrust movement and deformation was shorter. The late Famennian saw at least three contrasting belts of deposition in the vicinity of Nevada. First, black shale and micrite of the Leatham member of the Pilot Shale in eastern Nevada and western Utah formed in the deep subtidal/dysaerobic belt described by Sandberg and coworkers. Second, a bathyal belt, in central Nevada to the west of the Pilot, contained black chert and phosphate in a zone of high surface productivity. Also present, but rare, were beds of carbonate detritus with a probable provenance to the east, and olistoliths( ) of quartz sandstone like that known in the approaching Roberts Mountains allochthon to the west. Third, greenstones and chert of the Schoonover sequence, described by E. Miller and co-workers, were being deposited somewhere beyond the allochthon in an oxygenated, oceanic setting.

  14. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.


    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  15. Reachability Games on Automatic Graphs (United States)

    Neider, Daniel

    In this work we study two-person reachability games on finite and infinite automatic graphs. For the finite case we empirically show that automatic game encodings are competitive to well-known symbolic techniques such as BDDs, SAT and QBF formulas. For the infinite case we present a novel algorithm utilizing algorithmic learning techniques, which allows to solve huge classes of automatic reachability games.

  16. Automatic reactor protection system tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliant, J.D.; Jahnke, S.; Raimondo, E.


    The object of this paper is to present the automatic tester of reactor protection systems designed and developed by EDF and Framatome. In order, the following points are discussed: . The necessity for reactor protection system testing, . The drawbacks of manual testing, . The description and use of the Framatome automatic tester, . On-site installation of this system, . The positive results obtained using the Framatome automatic tester in France

  17. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  18. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.


    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  19. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.


    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  20. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A; Haeseler, F von


    Automatic sets D part of Z m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D part of Z m to be a Delone set in R m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples

  1. Numerical modeling of fold-and-thrust belts: Applications to Kuqa foreland fold belt, China (United States)

    Yin, H.; Morgan, J. K.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z.


    We constructed discrete element models to simulate the evolution of fold-and-thrust belts. The impact of rock competence and decollement strength on the geometric pattern and deformation mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts has been investigated. The models reproduced some characteristic features of fold-and-thrust belts, such as faulted detachment folds, pop-ups, far-traveled thrust sheets, passive-roof duplexes, and back thrusts. In general, deformation propagates farther above a weak decollement than above a strong decollement. Our model results confirm that fold-and-thrust belts with strong frictional decollements develop relatively steep and narrow wedges formed by closely spaced imbricate thrust slices, whereas fold belts with weak decollements form wide low-taper wedges composed of faulted detachment folds, pop-ups, and back thrusts. Far-traveled thrust sheets and passive-roof duplexes are observed in the model with a strong lower decollement and a weak upper detachment. Model results also indicate that the thickness of the weak layer is critical. If it is thick enough, it acts as a ductile layer that is able to flow under differential stress, which helps to partition deformation above and below it. The discrete element modeling results were used to interpret the evolution of Kuqa Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt along northern Tarim basin, China. Seismic and well data show that the widely distributed Paleogene rock salt has a significant impact on the deformation in this area. Structures beneath salt are closely spaced imbricate thrust and passive-roof duplex systems. Deformation above salt propagates much farther than below the salt. Faults above salt are relatively wide spaced. A huge controversy over the Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt is whether it is thin-skinned or thick-skinned. With the insights from DEM results, we suggest that Kuqa structures are mostly thin-skinned with Paleogene salt as decollement, except for the rear part near the backstop, where the

  2. The effect of seating preferences of the medical students on educational achievement. (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Parva, Mohammad; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Hemyari, Camellia; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali


    The seat selection and classroom dynamics may have mutual influence on the student performance and participation in both assigned and random seating arrangement. The aim of the study was to understand the influence of seat selection on educational achievement. The seating positions of the medical students were recorded on an architectural plan during each class session and the means and standard deviations of the students' locations were calculated in X and Y orientations. The locations of the students in the class were analyzed based on three architectural classifications: interactional zone, distance from the board, and access to the aisles. Final exam scores were used to measure the students' educational achievement. Our results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant relationship between the student's locations in the class and their attendance and educational achievements. two factors may effect on educational achievement: student seating in the high interactional zone and minimal changes in seating location. Seating in the high interaction zone was directly associated with higher performance and inversely correlated with the percentage of absences. This observation is consistent with the view that students in the front of the classroom are likely more motivated and interact with the lecturer more than their classmates.

  3. Physiological Motion Axis for the Seat of a Dynamic Office Chair (United States)

    Kuster, Roman Peter; Bauer, Christoph Markus; Oetiker, Sarah; Kool, Jan


    Objective The aim of this study was to determine and verify the optimal location of the motion axis (MA) for the seat of a dynamic office chair. Background A dynamic seat that supports pelvic motion may improve physical well-being and decrease the risk of sitting-associated disorders. However, office work requires an undisturbed view on the work task, which means a stable position of the upper trunk and head. Current dynamic office chairs do not fulfill this need. Consequently, a dynamic seat was adapted to the physiological kinematics of the human spine. Method Three-dimensional motion tracking in free sitting helped determine the physiological MA of the spine in the frontal plane. Three dynamic seats with physiological, lower, and higher MA were compared in stable upper body posture (thorax inclination) and seat support of pelvic motion (dynamic fitting accuracy). Spinal kinematics during sitting and walking were compared. Results The physiological MA was at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra, causing minimal thorax inclination and high dynamic fitting accuracy. Spinal motion in active sitting and walking was similar. Conclusion The physiological MA of the seat allows considerable lateral flexion of the spine similar to walking with a stable upper body posture and a high seat support of pelvic motion. Application The physiological MA enables lateral flexion of the spine, similar to walking, without affecting stable upper body posture, thus allowing active sitting while focusing on work. PMID:27150530

  4. Effects of heated seat and foot heater on thermal comfort and heater energy consumption in vehicle. (United States)

    Oi, Hajime; Yanagi, Kotaro; Tabata, Koji; Tochihara, Yutaka


    Subjective experiments involving 12 different conditions were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The experimental conditions involved various combinations of the operative temperature in the test room (10 or 20°C), a heated seat (on/off) and a foot heater (room operative temperature +10 or +20°C). The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. The room operative temperature at which the occupants felt a 'neutral' overall thermal sensation was decreased by about 3°C by using the heated seat or foot heater and by about 6°C when both devices were used. Moreover, the effects of these devices on vehicle heater energy consumption were investigated using simulations. As a result, it was revealed that heated seats and foot heaters can reduce the total heater energy consumption of vehicles. Statement of Relevance: Subjective experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal comfort. The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. These devices can reduce the total heater energy consumption in vehicles.

  5. Measuring static seated pressure distributions and risk for skin pressure ulceration in ice sledge hockey players. (United States)

    Darrah, Shaun D; Dicianno, Brad E; Berthold, Justin; McCoy, Andrew; Haas, Matthew; Cooper, Rory A


    To determine whether sledge hockey players with physical disability have higher average seated pressures compared to non-disabled controls. Fifteen age-matched controls without physical disability and 15 experimental participants with physical disability were studied using a pressure mapping device to determine risk for skin pressure ulceration and the impact of cushioning and knee angle positioning on seated pressure distributions. Regardless of participant group, cushioning, or knee angle, average seated pressures exceeded clinically acceptable seated pressures. Controls had significantly higher average seated pressures than the disability group when knees were flexed, both with the cushion (p = 0.013) and without (p = 0.015). Knee extension showed significantly lower average pressures in controls, both with the cushion (p hockey players utilize positioning with larger knee flexion angles. Implications for Rehabilitation Ice sledge hockey is a fast growing adaptive sport. Adaptive sports have been associated with several positive improvements in overall health and quality of life, though may be putting players at risk for skin ulceration. Measured static seated pressure in sledges greatly exceeds current clinically accepted clinical guidelines. With modern improvements in wheelchair pressure relief/cushioning there are potential methods for improvement of elevated seated pressure in ice hockey sledges.

  6. Biomechanical investigation of prolonged driving in an ergonomically designed truck seat prototype. (United States)

    Cardoso, Michelle; McKinnon, Colin; Viggiani, Dan; Johnson, Michel J; Callaghan, Jack P; Albert, Wayne J


    A postural evaluation during a prolonged driving task was conducted to determine the ergonomic validity of a new freely adjustable truck seat prototype. Twenty participants were recruited to perform two 2-h simulated driving sessions. Postures were assessed using motion capture, accelerometers and pressure pads. Subjective discomfort was also monitored in 15-min increments using ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) and the Automotive Seating Discomfort Questionnaire. Participants had a more neutral spine posture during the first hour of the drive and reported lower RPDs while sitting in the prototype. Pairing the gluteal backrest panel with the adjustable seat pan helped reduce the average sitting pressure. The industry-standard truck seat may lead to the development of poor whole body posture, and the proposed ergonomic redesign of a new truck seat helped improve sitting posture and reduce perceived discomfort. Practitioner Summary: A new freely adjustable truck seat prototype was compared to an Industry standard seat to assess hypothesised improvements to sitting posture and discomfort for long haul driving. It was found that the adjustable panels in the prototype helped promote spine posture, reduce sitting pressure and improved discomfort ratings.

  7. Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses. (United States)

    Iyo, Toru; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Omae, Kazuyuki


    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine than their tap water sources. However, the total viable microbial count was below the water-quality standard for tap water. In addition, the heat of the toilet seats' warm-water tanks caused heterotrophic bacteria in the source tap water to proliferate inside the nozzle pipes and the warm-water tanks. Escherichia coli was detected on the spray nozzles of about 5% of the toilet seats, indicating that the self-cleaning mechanism of the spray nozzles was largely functioning properly. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on about 2% of the toilet seats. P. aeruginosa was found to remain for long durations in biofilms that formed inside warm-water tanks. Infection-prevention measures aimed at P. aeruginosa should receive full consideration when managing warm-water bidet toilet seats in hospitals in order to prevent opportunistic infections in intensive care units, hematology wards, and other hospital locations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  9. Correlation of spine deformity, lung function, and seat pressure in spina bifida. (United States)

    Patel, Jayesh; Walker, Janet L; Talwalkar, Vishwas R; Iwinski, Henry J; Milbrandt, Todd A


    Spinal deformity, a common problem in children with myelodysplasia, is associated with alterations in pulmonary function and sitting balance. Sitting imbalance causes areas of high pressure in patients already at high risk for developing pressure ulcers due to insensate skin. We asked: Does spinal deformity affect pulmonary function tests in children with myelodysplasia? Does the magnitude of spinal curvatures and pelvic obliquity affect seating pressures? Does spinal deformity and seated pressures correlate with a history of pressure ulcers? We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with myelodysplasia and scoliosis (mean age, 14 years). The mean thoracic scoliosis was 64° with a mean pelvic obliquity of 15°. The mean forced vital capacity was 59% of predicted. The mean of the average and peak seated pressures were 24 and 137 mm Hg, respectively. We examined spinal radiographs, pulmonary function tests, and seated pressure maps and evaluated correlations of spinal deformity measures, pulmonary function, and seated pressures. The thoracic scoliosis inversely correlated with lung volume and weakly related with only the forced midexpiratory volume parameter (R(2) = 31%). The curve magnitude was associated with % seated area with pressures of 38 to 70 mm Hg while lesser degrees of pelvic obliquity were associated with % seating area with pressures of less than 38 mm Hg (R(2) = 25% and 24%, respectively). A history of pressure ulcers did not correlate with any spinal deformity or seated pressure measures. All patients displayed a reduced forced vital capacity, but this reduction was not related to increasing scoliosis. The smaller scoliosis curves and lesser degrees of pelvic obliquity were associated with larger areas of low seated pressures.

  10. An online means of testing asymmetries in seating preference reveals a bias for airplanes and theaters. (United States)

    Nicholls, Michael E R; Thomas, Nicole A; Loetscher, Tobias


    The aim of this study was to investigate asymmetrical interactions between humans and their environment using online seat booking sites. Functional differences between the cerebral hemispheres affect the choices people make. For example, when asked to imagine going to a cinema, people preferentially select seats to the right We investigated whether this experimental research generalizes to online booking sites for aircraft and theaters. Occupancy rates for seats taken on the left and right sides were assessed for 100 airline flights with 12,762 available seats and 37 theater performances with 34,456 seats. On the basis of previous research, a rightward bias was predicted for aircraft and theaters. For aircraft, contrary to expectation, occupancy rate was higher for left- compared with right-side seats. For theaters, a rightward bias was observed when the theater was less than half full.The bias was not affected by the orientation of the map. For aircraft, the leftward preference could be attributable to a rightward turning bias or a "feeling" that the port seats are closer to the exit, even though they are not. For theaters, the data demonstrate that the rightward preference observed in earlier studies exists only when the theater is relatively empty. Asymmetrical seating may play an important role in the efficient assimilation of information from the environment, and this role should take this into account when designing effective human-environment interfaces.The online method of assessing seating used in the current study provides an informative and potentially powerful means of assessing asymmetries in human perception and action.

  11. Automatic quantitative metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos, E.J.B.V.; Ambrozio Filho, F.; Cunha, R.C.


    The quantitative determination of metallographic parameters is analysed through the description of Micro-Videomat automatic image analysis system and volumetric percentage of perlite in nodular cast irons, porosity and average grain size in high-density sintered pellets of UO 2 , and grain size of ferritic steel. Techniques adopted are described and results obtained are compared with the corresponding ones by the direct counting process: counting of systematic points (grid) to measure volume and intersections method, by utilizing a circunference of known radius for the average grain size. The adopted technique for nodular cast iron resulted from the small difference of optical reflectivity of graphite and perlite. Porosity evaluation of sintered UO 2 pellets is also analyzed [pt

  12. Semi-automatic fluoroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpley, M.W.


    Extruded aluminum-clad uranium-aluminum alloy fuel tubes must pass many quality control tests before irradiation in Savannah River Plant nuclear reactors. Nondestructive test equipment has been built to automatically detect high and low density areas in the fuel tubes using x-ray absorption techniques with a video analysis system. The equipment detects areas as small as 0.060-in. dia with 2 percent penetrameter sensitivity. These areas are graded as to size and density by an operator using electronic gages. Video image enhancement techniques permit inspection of ribbed cylindrical tubes and make possible the testing of areas under the ribs. Operation of the testing machine, the special low light level television camera, and analysis and enhancement techniques are discussed


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias


    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  14. Automatic surveying techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.


    In order to investigate the feasibility of automatic surveying methods in a more systematic manner, the PEP organization signed a contract in late 1975 for TRW Systems Group to undertake a feasibility study. The completion of this study resulted in TRW Report 6452.10-75-101, dated December 29, 1975, which was largely devoted to an analysis of a survey system based on an Inertial Navigation System. This PEP note is a review and, in some instances, an extension of that TRW report. A second survey system which employed an ''Image Processing System'' was also considered by TRW, and it will be reviewed in the last section of this note. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. M2-F1 ejection seat test at South Edwards (United States)


    The M2-F1 was fitted with an ejection seat before the airtow flights began. The project selected the seat used in the T-37 as modified by the Weber Company to use a rocket rather than a ballistic charge for ejection. To test the ejection seat, the Flight Research Center's Dick Klein constructed a plywood mockup of the M2-F1's top deck and canopy. On the first firings, the test was unsuccessful, but on the final test the dummy in the seat landed safely. The M2-F1 ejection seat was later used in the two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles and the three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. Three of them crashed, but in each case the pilot ejected from the vehicle successfully. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with

  16. Automatic alkaloid removal system. (United States)

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd


    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user.

  17. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens


    David Clarke; Michael Gormally; Jerome Sheahan; Miriam Byrne


    [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump o...

  18. Occupant seating anthropometry: body ellipses and contact zones for side-impact protection research (United States)

    Culver, Clyde C.; Viano, David C.

    The study has developed an anthropometric description of seated occupants and determined body regions representing major paths in side-impact crashes. The study has identified five major body ellipses defining the head, shoulder, chest, abdomen and pelvis of seated occupants of various sizes, including the six-year-old child. Body contact zones have been determined for front-seated occupants. These templates provide information for the design of side interiors to improve occupant protection in side-impact crashes by load-transfer and energy-absorption characteristics of biocompatible interiors.

  19. Airline seat inventory control benefiting from currency differentials to enhance revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Love


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop an airline seat inventory control model which will capitalise on currency differentials that exist between city pairs. The approach taken here is to maximise Expected Marginal Seat Revenues as proposed by Belobaba for non-nested fare classes. the basic Expected Marginal Seat Revenue model is extended to explicitly include the effects of overbooking. Data from the South African Airways return flight between Cape Town and London is utilised to demonstrate the model.

  20. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings. (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan


    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p bicycle seat designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Orbital Alignment of Main-belt Comets (United States)

    Kim, Yoonyoung; JeongAhn, Youngmin; Hsieh, Henry H.


    We examine the orbital element distribution of main-belt comets (MBCs), which are objects that exhibit cometary activity yet orbit in the main asteroid belt and may be potentially useful as tracers of ice in the inner solar system. We find that the currently known and currently active MBCs have remarkably similar longitudes of perihelion, which are also aligned with that of Jupiter. The clustered objects have significantly higher current osculating eccentricities relative to their proper eccentricities, consistent with their orbits being currently, though only temporarily, secularly excited in osculating eccentricity due to Jupiter’s influence. At the moment, most MBCs seem to have current osculating elements that may be particularly favorable for the object becoming active (e.g., maybe because of higher perihelion temperatures or higher impact velocities causing an effective increase in the size of the potential triggering impactor population). At other times, other icy asteroids will have those favorable conditions and might become MBCs at those times as well.

  2. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma


    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  3. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène


    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.


    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  5. Modulation of forelimb and hindlimb muscle activity during quadrupedal tied-belt and split-belt locomotion in intact cats. (United States)

    Frigon, A; Thibaudier, Y; Hurteau, M-F


    The modulation of the neural output to forelimb and hindlimb muscles when the left and right sides step at different speeds from one another in quadrupeds was assessed by obtaining electromyography (EMG) in seven intact adult cats during split-belt locomotion. To determine if changes in EMG during split-belt locomotion were modulated according to the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, values were compared to those obtained during tied-belt locomotion (equal left-right speeds) at matched speeds. Cats were chronically implanted for EMG, which was obtained from six muscles: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, sartorius, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. During tied-belt locomotion, cats stepped from 0.4 to 1.0m/s in 0.1m/s increments whereas during split-belt locomotion, cats stepped with left-right speed differences of 0.1 to 0.4m/s in 0.1m/s increments. During tied-belt locomotion, EMG burst durations and mean EMG amplitudes of all muscles respectively decreased and increased with increasing speed. During split-belt locomotion, there was a clear differential modulation of the EMG patterns between flexors and extensors and between the slow and fast sides. Changes in the EMG pattern of some muscles could be explained by the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, while in other muscles there were clear dissociations from tied-belt values at matched speeds. Therefore, results show that EMG patterns during split-belt locomotion are modulated to meet task requirements partly via signals related to the stepping speed of the homonymous limb and from the other limbs. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Classifying visemes for automatic lipreading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Michiel; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Matousek, Vaclav; Mautner, Pavel; Ocelikovi, Jana; Sojka, Petr


    Automatic lipreading is automatic speech recognition that uses only visual information. The relevant data in a video signal is isolated and features are extracted from it. From a sequence of feature vectors, where every vector represents one video image, a sequence of higher level semantic elements

  7. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep


    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  8. Anorthosite belts, continental drift, and the anorthosite event. (United States)

    Herz, N


    Most anorthosites lie in two principal belts when plotted on a predrift continental reconstruction. Anorthosite ages in the belts cluster around 1300 +/- 200 million years and range from 1100 to 1700 million years. This suggests that anorthosites are the product of a unique cataclysmic event or a thermal event that was normal only during the earth's early history.

  9. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte


    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  10. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Abraão


    Full Text Available We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  11. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor (United States)

    Tavares, Abraão; Faria, Allbens


    We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  12. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)


    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  13. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.


    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  14. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Ogunjobi


    Jun 6, 2017 ... during solar wind stream interface and magnetic cloud driven storms. O Ogunjobi1,2,* ... Keywords. Stream interfaces; magnetic clouds; magnetosphere; Earth's radiation belts; L-shell. 1. Introduction. The Earth's ...... storage ring embedded in earth's outer Van Allen belt;. Science 340 186–190. Behera J K ...

  15. Loss Prevention through Safety Belt Use: A Handbook for Managers. (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help managers address safety belt usage issues through a cost-effective and direct approach--establishing an employee safety belt program. The handbook offers a hands-on guide for conducting the program and provides for implementation at all levels. The handbook contains cost information, a program overview, policy and…

  16. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    its east by the NW-SE trending Chitradurga thrust fault and on its west by another major NNW-. SSE trending fault, the NW-SE extension is ... the schist belt is a major thrust contact marked by a strong mylonitic zone believed to .... for the chlorite phyllite schists and gold bearing quartz veins in the Hutti-Muski schist belt area.

  17. 30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation. (United States)


    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.350 Belt air course ventilation... areas where mechanized mining equipment is being installed or removed. (1) The belt air course must be... mechanized mining equipment is being installed or removed, shall be permitted only when evaluated and...

  18. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  19. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua


    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  20. Evolution of the stress fields in the Zagros Foreland Folded Belt using focal mechanisms and kinematic analyses: the case of the Fars salient, Iran (United States)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Zafarmand, Bahareh; Oveisi, Behnam


    The NW-SE trending Zagros orogenic belt was initiated during the convergence of the Afro-Arabian continent and the Iranian microcontinent in the Late Cretaceous. Ongoing convergence is confirmed by intense seismicity related to compressional stresses collision-related in the Zagros orogenic belt by reactivation of an early extensional faulting to latter compressional segmented strike-slip and dip-slip faulting. These activities are strongly related either to the deep-seated basement fault activities (deep-seated earthquakes) underlies the sedimentary cover or gently dipping shallow-seated décollement horizon of the rheological weak rocks of the infra-Cambrian Hormuz salt. The compressional stress regimes in the different units play an important role in controlling the stress conditions between the different units within the sedimentary cover and basement. A significant set of nearly N-S trending right-lateral strike-slip faults exists throughout the study area in the Fars area in the Zagros Foreland Folded Belt. Fault-slip and focal mechanism data were analyzed using the stress inversion method to reconstruct the paleo and recent stress conditions. The results suggest that the current direction of maximum principal stress averages N19°E, with N38°E that for the past from Cretaceous to Tertiary (although a few sites on the Kar-e-Bass fault yield a different direction). The results are consistent with the collision of the Afro-Arabian continent and the Iranian microcontinent. The difference between the current and paleo-stress directions indicates an anticlockwise rotation in the maximum principle stress direction over time. This difference resulted from changes in the continental convergence path, but was also influenced by the local structural evolution, including the lateral propagation of folds and the presence of several local décollement horizons that facilitated decoupling of the deformation between the basement and the sedimentary cover. The obliquity of

  1. Burden of road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing safety belt laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. (United States)

    Martin, Aurélie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Salmi, L Rachid


    Delayed implementation of effective road safety policies must be considered when quantifying the avoidable part of the fatal and nonfatal injuries burden. We sought to assess the avoidable part of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing road safety laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. We chose one country for each of the regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (WB) country income levels. We used freely available data sets (WHO, International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group, the WB). Delays in implementation were calculated until 2013, from the year mandatory use of safety belts by motor vehicle front seat occupants was first introduced worldwide. We used life expectancy tables and age groups as social values in the DALY calculation model. From the estimated total burden, avoidable DALYs were calculated using estimates of the effectiveness of seat belt laws on fatal and nonfatal injuries combined, as extracted from published international reviews of evidence. From the reference year 1972, implementation delays varied from 27 years (Uzbekistan) to 41 years in Bolivia (no seat belt law as of 2013). During delays, total absolute numbers of DALYs lost due to road traffic injuries reached 8,462,099 in Nigeria, 7,203,570 in Morocco, 4,695,500 in Uzbekistan, 3,866,391 in Cambodia, 3,253,359 in Bolivia, and 3,128,721 in Sri Lanka. Using effectiveness estimates ranging from 3 to 20% reduction, the avoidable burden of road traffic injuries for car occupants was highest in Uzbekistan (avoidable part from 1.2 to 10.4%) and in Morocco (avoidable part from 1.5 to 12.3%). In countries where users of public transport and pedestrians were the most affected by the burden, the avoidable parts ranged from 0.5 to 4.4% (Nigeria) and from 0.5 to 3.4% (Bolivia). Burden of road traffic injuries mostly affected motorcyclists in Sri Lanka and Cambodia where the avoidable parts were

  2. Effect of a weightlifting belt on spinal shrinkage. (United States)

    Bourne, N D; Reilly, T


    Spinal loading during weightlifting results in a loss of stature which has been attributed to a decrease in height of the intervertebral discs--so-called 'spinal shrinkage'. Belts are often used during the lifting of heavy weights, purportedly to support, stabilize and thereby attenuate the load on the spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a standard weightlifting belt in attenuating spinal shrinkage. Eight male subjects with a mean age of 24.8 years performed two sequences of circuit weight-training, one without a belt and on a separate occasion with a belt. The circuit training regimen consisted of six common weight-training exercises. These were performed in three sets of ten with a change of exercise after each set of ten repetitions. A stadiometer sensitive to within 0.01 mm was used to record alterations in stature. Measurements of stature were taken before and after completion of the circuit. The absolute visual analogue scale (AVAS) was used to measure the discomfort and pain intensity resulting from each of the two conditions. The circuit weight-training caused stature losses of 3.59mm without the belt and 2.87 mm with the belt (P greater than 0.05). The subjects complained of significantly less discomfort when the belt was worn (P less than 0.05). The degree of shrinkage was significantly correlated (r = 0.752, P less than 0.05) with perceived discomfort but only when the belt was not worn. These results suggest the potential benefits of wearing a weightlifting belt and support the hypothesis that the belt can help in stabilizing the trunk. Images Figure 1 PMID:1810615

  3. Quasi-Static and Dynamic Sled Testing of Prototype Commuter Rail Passenger Seats (United States)


    In support of the Federal Railroad Administration?s (FRA) Railroad Equipment Safety Program, tests have been conducted on prototype commuter rail passenger seats which have been designed for improved occupant protection during commuter train accident...

  4. 78 FR 49728 - Availability of Seats for National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Councils (United States)


    ... Fishing (alternate); Mobile Gear Commercial Fishing (primary member); Business Industry (alternate); At... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for... Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC...

  5. 77 FR 16212 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... member and alternate, Tourism member and alternate, Education member and alternate, Chumash member and... particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and...

  6. SIT (seated immobility thromboembolism) syndrome: a 21st century lifestyle hazard. (United States)

    Beasley, Richard; Heuser, Patricia; Raymond, Nigel


    The association between prolonged seated immobility and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is well recognised in relation to travel. In this case series, we report the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following prolonged sitting in relation to work and/or recreation. The cases were characterised by the considerable length of time the individuals sat, the extensive nature of the VTE events in young individuals without other recognised risk factors, and the lack of recognition by the attending doctors of seated immobility as the likely major risk factor. While recognising that the association may be coincidental rather than causal, we propose the acronym 'SIT' (seated immobility thromboembolism) syndrome to encompass all forms of seated immobility associated with VTE.

  7. 77 FR 15359 - Availability of Seats for the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine... the following seats on the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (council): Education... (including snorkeling), Tourism, Maritime History & Interpretation, and Citizen- at-Large. Applicants are...

  8. 76 FR 291 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats (United States)


    ... the lower lumbar spinal column. 3. The load limit in the torso in the lateral direction. Human... seats the injury criteria are currently limited to head, spine, and femur loads. The head and lumbar...

  9. 75 FR 42379 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding... the State and Federal management agencies, user groups, researchers, educators, policy makers, and... and is instrumental in helping develop policies, program goals, and identify education, outreach...

  10. 78 FR 14271 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding... federal management agencies, user groups, researchers, educators, policy makers, and other various groups... helping develop policies, program goals, and identify education, outreach, research, long-term monitoring...

  11. Effect of the "Long Term Solution" Seat Pack on Harvard II (CT156) Aircrew Accommodation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Pierre


    ...). A previous study determined that any increase in seat thickness would likely have repercussions on the ability of the taller individuals to see all of the information displayed by the Electronic...

  12. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats (United States)


    ... provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35) to announce the CPSC's intention to... instructions with infant bath seats thus would be ``usual and customary'' and not within the definition of...

  13. Comparison of interior crashworthiness observed in passenger train accidents and 8G dynamic seat sled tests (United States)


    The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration conducts engineering research to address protection of passengers and crew during train accidents. This research includes accident investigations and dynamic seat testing t...

  14. Design Method for Fast Switching Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    corresponding to the piston movement, which has been shown to facilitate superior part load efficiency combined with high bandwidth compared to traditional displacement machines. However, DD machines need fast switching on-off valves with low pressure loss for efficient operation, especially in fast rotating......Digital Displacement (DD) machines are upcoming technology where the displacement of each pressure chamber is controlled electronically by use of two fast switching seat valves. The effective displacement and operation type (pumping/motoring) may be controlled by manipulating the seat valves...... method for DD seat valves are presented, taking into account the significant aspects related to obtaining efficient DD valves with basis in a given DD machine specifications. The seat area is minimized and the stroke length is minimized to obtain fast switching times while considering the pressure loss...


    Lin, Jun; Lu, Meng; Wu, Tong; Yang, Lei; Wu, Tongning


    In the electric vehicles (EVs), children can sit on a safety seat installed in the rear seats. Owing to their smaller physical dimensions, their heads, generally, are closer to the underfloor electrical systems where the magnetic field (MF) exposure is the greatest. In this study, the magnetic flux density (B) was measured in the rear seats of 10 different EVs, for different driving sessions. We used the measurement results from different heights corresponding to the locations of the heads of an adult and an infant to calculate the induced electric field (E-field) strength using anatomical human models. The results revealed that measured B fields in the rear seats were far below the reference levels by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Although small children may be exposed to higher MF strength, induced E-field strengths were much lower than that of adults due to their particular physical dimensions.

  16. The Ocean-Atmosphere Hydrothermohaline Conveyor Belt (United States)

    Döös, Kristofer; Kjellsson, Joakim; Zika, Jan; Laliberté, Frédéric; Brodeau, Laurent


    The ocean thermohaline circulation is linked to the hydrothermal circulation of the atmosphere. The ocean thermohaline circulation is expressed in potential temperature-salinity space and comprises a tropical upper-ocean circulation, a global conveyor belt cell and an Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The atmospheric hydrothermal circulation in a potential temperature-specific humidity space unifies the tropical Hadley and Walker cells as well as the midlatitude eddies into a single, global circulation. Superimposed, these thermohaline and hydrothermal stream functions reveal the possibility of a close connection between some parts of the water and air mass conversions. The exchange of heat and fresh water through the sea surface (precipiation-evaporation) and incoming solar radiation act to make near-surface air warm and moist while making surface water warmer and saltier as both air and water travel towards the Equator. In the tropics, air masses can undergo moist convection releasing latent heat by forming precipitation, thus acting to make warm surface water fresher. We propose that the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship for moist near-surface air acts like a lower bound for the atmospheric hydrothermal cell and an upper bound for the ocean thermohaline Conveyor-Belt cell. The analysis is made by combining and merging the overturning circulation of the ocean and atmosphere by relating the salinity of the ocean to the humidity of the atmosphere, where we set the heat and freshwater transports equal in the two stream functions By using simulations integrated with our Climate-Earth system model EC-Earth, we intend to produce the "hydrothermohaline" stream function of the coupled ocean-atmosphere overturning circulation in one single picture. We explore how the oceanic thermohaline Conveyor Belt can be linked to the global atmospheric hydrothermal circulation and if the water and air mass conversions in humidity-temperature-salinity space can be related and linked to each

  17. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding


    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  18. Thermometry system development for thermoradiotherapy of deep-seated tumours (United States)

    Fadeev, A. M.; Ivanov, S. M.; Perelstein, E. A.; Polozov, S. M.


    Therapeutic hyperthermia (including RF hyperthermia) in combination with radiotherapy (called thermoradiotherapy) is one of widely used contemporary cancer treatment methods. The independent electron linac and RF system or their combinations are necessary for effective therapy. Whole-body hyperthermia is used for treatment of metastatic cancer that was spread throughout the body, regional one is used for treatment of part of the body (for instance leg or abdominal cavity). Local hyperthermia with characteristic size of heating volume of 20-100 mm permits to heat tumour without overheating of healthy tissues. The thermometry of deep suited tissues during the hyperthermia process is an important and complex task. Invasive methods as thermistors, optical sensors or thermo-couples can not be widely used because all of them are able to transport tumor cells to the healthy region of the patient body. Distant methods of the temperature measurement such, as radiothermometry and acoustic thermometry can not be used for tissues seated deeper than 5-7 cm. One of possible ways to solve the problem of temperature measurement of the deep suited tissues is discussed in this article: it was proposed to use the same electrodes for RF hyperthermia and thermometry. As known electrodynamics characteristics of tissues are sufficiently depends on temperature. It was proposed to use this effect for active radiothermometry in local hyperthermia. Two opposite RF dipoles can be used as generator and receiver of pick-up signal.

  19. The effect of a dynamic chair on seated energy expenditure. (United States)

    Synnott, Aoife; Dankaerts, Wim; Seghers, Jan; Purtill, Helen; O'Sullivan, Kieran


    Dynamic sitting approaches have been advocated to increase seated energy expenditure with the view of lessening the sedentary nature of the task. This study compared energy expenditure (EE) and overall body discomfort on a novel dynamic chair with a standard office chair. Fifteen pain-free participants completed a DVD viewing task on both chairs in a randomised order. Energy expenditure and discomfort were collected simultaneously. Linear mixed models were used to analyse steady-state EE recorded on each of the chairs. Differences in discomfort were analysed using Wilkoxon Signed Rank Tests. Sitting on the novel dynamic chair significantly (p = 0.005) increased energy expenditure compared to a standard office chair. The discomfort experienced was mild overall, but was significantly greater on the dynamic chair (p = 0.004). Whilst the EE was seen to be significantly higher on the dynamic chair, the MET values are still below 1.5 METS. Thus, the use of a dynamic chair does not seem to be the most effective measure to prevent sedentary behaviour. Practitioner Summary: Sitting on a dynamic chair increased energy expenditure compared to sitting on a standard office chair among pain-free participants. Whilst the EE was seen to be significantly higher on the dynamic chair, the MET values are still below 1.5 METS (low level EE).

  20. Tilted seat position for non-ambulant individuals with neurological and neuromuscular impairment: a systematic review


    Michael, SM; Porter, D; Pountney, TE


    Objective: To determine the effects of tilt-in-space seating on outcomes for people with neurological or neuromuscular impairment who cannot walk. Data sources: Search through electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED). Discussions with researchers who are active in field. Review methods: Selection criteria included interventional studies that investigated the effects of seat tilt on outcome or observational studies that identified outcomes for those who had used tilt-in-space seati...

  1. Effect of Implant Connection Type and Depth on the Seating Accuracy of Hand-Tightened Abutments. (United States)

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Belbasi, Simin; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nazari, Vahideh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh


    Improper seating of abutment on the implant is a common problem. This study investigated the effect of the type of implant/abutment interface on the complete seating of the abutments on the head of implants placed at different gingival depths. Three implant systems with three different connections including straight external hexagon, butt-joint internal tri-lobed, and conical internal hexagon were used. Two gingival thicknesses (2 and 7 mm) were created using pink baseplate wax around the straight abutments seated on the implants. After placing the implants in acrylic blocks, the wax was replaced with the gingival mask material to simulate the gingival drape around the implant heads. Afterwards, 15 prosthodontists were asked to hand-tighten the straight abutments in the corresponding implant bodies relying only on their tactile sense. At the final stage, the gingival mask was removed, and the seating quality of the abutments on implant bodies was assessed visually. The effect of implant connection and depth on abutment seating accuracy was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and multiple-comparison tests. No significant difference was found regarding the effect of either depth or connection design on the accuracy of the abutment seating (p > 0.05); however, pairwise comparison of the combined effect of the depth and connection design was significant (p = 0.009). Accuracy of abutment seating on the Nobel Active implants at both 2 and 7 mm depths were significantly better than Replace system with 7 mm depth (p = 0.027). The same results were obtained in comparison between Nobel Active system at both 2 and 7 mm depths with Branemark system with 7 mm depth (p = 0.006). An increase in implant placement depth meant a decrease in accuracy of the abutment seating. The internal conical connection design showed the best result in abutment positioning in deep implants as compared with external and internal butt-joint connection designs. © 2017 by the American College of

  2. Are toilet seats a vector for transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus? (United States)

    Giannini, Mary Anne; Nance, Donna; McCullers, Jonathan A


    We studied the bacterial burden on toilet seats in a children's cancer hospital to validate a policy requesting that immunocompromised children use alcohol wipes on the seats prior to use of the toilets. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 3.3% of hospital toilets when wipes were not in use. Use of wipes resulted in a 50-fold reduction in mean daily bacterial counts and eliminated MRSA. PMID:19243856

  3. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds (United States)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.


    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  4. Automatic exposure for xeromammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichinger, H.


    During mammography without intensifying screens, exposure measurements are carried out behind the film. It is, however, difficult to construct an absolutely shadow-free ionization chamber of adequate sensitivity working in the necessary range of 25 to 50 kV. Repeated attempts have been made to utilize the advantages of automatic exposure for xero-mammography. In this case also the ionization chamber was placed behind the Xerox plate. Depending on tube filtration, object thickness and tube voltage, more than 80%, sometimes even 90%, of the radiation is absorbed by the Xerox plate. Particularly the characteristic Mo radiation of 17.4 keV and 19.6 keV is almost totally absorbed by the plate and cannot therefore be registered by the ionization chamber. This results in a considerable dependence of the exposure on kV and object thickness. Dependence on tube voltage and object thickness have been examined dosimetrically and spectroscopically with a Ge(Li)-spectrometer. Finally, the successful use of a shadow-free chamber is described; this has been particularly adapted for xero-mammography and is placed in front of the plate. (orig) [de

  5. Historical Review and Perspective on Automatic Journalizing


    Kato, Masaki


    ContentsIntroduction1. EDP Accounting and Automatic Journalizing2. Learning System of Automatic Journalizing3. Automatic Journalizing by the Artificial Intelligence4. Direction of the Progress of the Accounting Information System

  6. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.


    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  7. Sitting on a Sloping Seat Does Not Reduce the Strain Sustained by the Postural Chain (United States)

    Hamaoui, Alain; Hassaïne, Myriam; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio


    The objective of this study was to explore the effect of a forward sloping seat on posture and muscular activity of the trunk and lower limbs. To this aim, twelve asymptomatic participants were tested in six conditions varying seat slope (0°, 15° forward) and height (high, medium, low). Angular position of head, trunk and pelvis was assessed with an inertial orientation system, and muscular activity of 11 superficial postural muscles located in the trunk and lower limbs was estimated using normalized EMG. Results showed that a forward sloping seat, compared to a flat seat, induced a greater activity of the soleus (p<0.01), vastus lateralis (p<0.05) and vastus medialis (p<0.05), as well a lower hip flexion (p<0.01). In contrast, no significant variation of head, trunk and pelvis angular position was observed according to seat slope. It was concluded that forward sloping seats increase the load sustained by the lower limbs, without a systematic improvement of body posture. PMID:25587989

  8. Evaluation of the seat fastening in the frame of a road bus submitted to frontal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Walber

    Full Text Available The collective intercity transportation by bus is currently a mean of locomotion much sought after by people. Security in accidents is a very important factor that must be taken into account in design of bus body structure, being the evaluation of passenger safety of this type of vehicle is an important subject that should be checked, because in many accidents occur disconnection between seats and fastening members causing serious passengers injury, often fatal. This work aims at evaluation the behavior of frame fixing of seats of intercity bus bodies, submitted to the frontal impact situation in a rigid wall of 100% offset, through evaluation by finite element method (FEM. This study uses a numerical model corresponding to the body structure and chassis, developed through flexible beam elements, combining with shell elements for the structure of the seats and its fastening members, with the objective of not missing the essential aspects of the problem, allowing the solution with a reduced computational time. The numerical model of bus body and seat was impacted against a rigid wall at a speed of 8.89 m/s, being its validation according to the deceleration curve established by Regulation 80. Then it was gotten the Von Mises stress in fastening members of the seat structure in bus body. It is also presented a proposal to improve the fastening of the seat structure, comparing the results of the stress gotten in the two types fastening submitted to the frontal impact.

  9. "Hot Seat" Questioning: A Technique to Promote and Evaluate Student Dialogue (United States)

    Crider, Anthony

    Several approaches have been proposed to include students in classroom dialogue, including "think-pair-share" and "talk to your neighbor." I recently implemented an additional technique in which four students answer questions in a "Hot Seat" at the front of the classroom. An unforeseen by-product of this was student-initiated peer instruction outside of the classroom. A small case study (approximately 50 students) on the effect of the Hot Seat using the midterm exam showed that students were 9.5 +/- 3.2% more likely to correctly answer a question related to material covered while they occupied the Hot Seat. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test revealed that they were twice as likely to learn their Hot Seat material. A survey revealed one likely reason: Students typically spent 15-60 additional minutes preparing for class on their two assigned Hot Seat dates. Curiously, students received no significant benefit (2.2 +/- 3.6%) from their second turn in the Hot Seat, possibly reflecting student immunization to its motivational pressure.

  10. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gomez-Gil


    Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  11. Comparison of respiratory physiologic features when infants are placed in car safety seats or car beds. (United States)

    Kinane, T Bernard; Murphy, Joan; Bass, Joel L; Corwin, Michael J


    The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory physiologic features of healthy term infants placed in either a car bed or a car safety seat. Within the first 1 week of life, 67 healthy term infants were recruited and assigned randomly to be monitored in either a car bed (33 infants) or a car safety seat (34 infants). Physiologic data, including oxygen saturation and frequency and type of apnea, were obtained and analyzed in a blinded manner. The groups spent similar amounts of time in the devices (car bed: 71.6 minutes; car seat: 74.2 minutes). The mean oxygen saturation values were not different between the groups (car bed: 97.1%; car seat: 97.3%). The percentages of time with oxygen saturation of car bed: 11.8[corrected]%; car seat: 18.3[corrected]%). In both groups, a number of infants spent high percentages of study time with oxygen saturation of car safety seat group (54%-63% of study time). Values for the 6 infants in the car bed group with the most time at this level were lower (20%-42%). This difference in the duration of oxygen saturation of features of infants in the 2 car safety devices were observed to be similar. Of note, substantial periods of time with oxygen saturation of < 95% were surprisingly common in both groups.

  12. A Case Study: Designing for Sustainability and Reliability in an Automotive Seat Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Yuce


    Full Text Available Recently, sustainability has been a growing concern for many industries and especially for the transportation sector due to it being the second largest energy consumer and largest contributor of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union. New legal restrictions on the emission rates have forced the automotive sector to examine different fuel-efficient technologies. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the most important methods of improving fuel efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. Accordingly, lighter, safer, more fuel efficient, and environmentally sustainable vehicles are a priority for European authorities. In the present work, the passenger seat structure was considered as the area for lightweighting due to its important role in the mass of commercial vehicles in terms of numbers per vehicle. In addition, seat structures presented the best opportunity for weight reduction using new materials and design techniques. Detailed (3D finite element models of passenger seats were developed for finite element analyses (FEA. To obtain a lightweight and safe seat structure, different materials and thicknesses of profiles were analyzed. Lightweight passenger seat prototypes were developed and an overall 20% weight reduction was achieved including the structural frame, chassis and pillar. In addition, the new passenger seat meets ECE R14 safety norms.

  13. Fighting Corruption: A Cross-National Study on the Effect of Reserved Legislative Seats for Ethnic Groups on Corruption


    Stendahl, Ludvig


    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between reserved seats for ethnic groups in national legislatures and corruption. In 2008, over 30 countries were reserving seats for ethnic groups in their national legislature. The share of seats that was reserved ranged from a 2 percent reserved seats arrangement for a small ethnic minority, to a 100 percent reserved seats power-sharing arrangement between two or more ethnic groups. By applying theories of informal power, this essay hypo...

  14. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye


    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  15. Oscillations control of a transmission belt by Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C) (United States)

    Temporelli, Robin; Micheau, Philippe


    A transmission belt deals with non-linear phenomena such as parametric excitations that can bring the belt in an instability region resulting in large transverse oscillations. These oscillations can cause belt life deflection, noise and unexpected vibration on its environment. The present study proposes a new strategy to control oscillations of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations. Indeed, for a transmission belt, periodic torque fluctuations cause periodic belt tension fluctuations which can be a source of excitation for the belt and resulting in belt oscillations under certain conditions. The presence of a clutch between the belt end-point and the source of torque fluctuations offers a means to clip torque fluctuations and thus to clip belt excitation. In keeping with this notion, belt oscillations can be controlled by an Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C) strategy. Through an example of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations, the E4C strategy is presented and a new analytical model of belt behavior with its E4C strategy is constructed. Free belt oscillations (E4C is not activated) and controlled belt oscillations (E4C is activated) are observed through an experimental setup and predicted owing to the new analytical model. Finally, the E4C strategy leads to frequency unlocking that successfully removes belt oscillations. This new analytical model furthermore provides an accurate prediction of belt behavior with its E4C strategy.

  16. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.


    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  17. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.


    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  18. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.

  19. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech


    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  20. Review of GEM Radiation Belt Dropout and Buildup Challenges (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Li, Wen; Morley, Steve; Albert, Jay


    In Summer 2015 the US NSF GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) focus group named "Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling" started the "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges, focused on quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts. This is a community effort which includes selecting challenge events, gathering model inputs that are required to model the radiation belt dynamics during these events (e.g., various magnetospheric waves, plasmapause and density models, electron phase space density data), simulating the challenge events using different types of radiation belt models, and validating the model results by comparison to in situ observations of radiation belt electrons (from Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, LANL/GEO, etc). The goal is to quantitatively assess the relative importance of various acceleration, transport, and loss processes in the observed radiation belt dropouts and buildups. Since 2015, the community has selected four "challenge" events under four different categories: "storm-time enhancements", "non-storm enhancements", "storm-time dropouts", and "non-storm dropouts". Model inputs and data for each selected event have been coordinated and shared within the community to establish a common basis for simulations and testing. Modelers within and outside US with different types of radiation belt models (diffusion-type, diffusion-convection-type, test particle codes, etc.) have participated in our challenge and shared their simulation results and comparison with spacecraft measurements. Significant progress has been made in quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts as well as accessing the modeling with new measures of model performance. In this presentation, I will review the activities from our "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges and the progresses achieved in understanding radiation belt physics and improving model validation and verification.

  1. 78 FR 53386 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection (United States)


    ... belt use until acceptable automatic systems became available, the agency added a compliance option for... were conducted. Two involved seat belt use observations among rental car customers from U.S. airports... a follow-up telephone interview among private car owners in the general population. \\3\\ A. Westefeld...

  2. Automatic analysis of multiparty meetings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMI) meeting corpus, the development of a meeting speech recognition system, and systems for the automatic segmentation, summarization and social processing of meetings, together with some example applications based on these systems.

  3. AVID: Automatic Visualization Interface Designer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuah, Mei


    .... Automatic generation offers great flexibility in performing data and information analysis tasks, because new designs are generated on a case by case basis to suit current and changing future needs...

  4. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.


    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  5. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.


    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  6. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping


    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID

  7. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Liu


    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the

  8. Designing a system for measuring the flow of material transported on belts using ultrasonic sensors (United States)

    Mihuţ, N. M.


    Excavation tailings (scraping) and extracting the useful (lignite) in surface mine pits in Mining Basin Oltenia is achieved with technological lines of excavation - transport - dump of high productivity. A correlation of working capacity of the main components of technological lines (motor rotor, high capacity transport, car dumps) is necessary for economic reasons on electricity consumption. To achieve experience in the process was chosen excavator SRS 1400 from South Jilt career in the CET Turceni. The question of coal excavated volume has a great importance in the mine pits. At the excavation is desired a density estimate for each machine production tracking, cost estimation and tracking product unit profitability of each band on various sections zones. Permanent display size excavated volume snapshots in the excavator's cabin permits to track tape loading, eliminating unproductive times and information management to determine profitability. Another important requirement is closing the loop of the machine drive system of an excavator for a uniform deposition of carbon on the strip, thus achieving automatic control of the loading belt. Such equipment is important for the system dispatching in surface mine pits. Through a system of three ultrasound transducers to determine the smart instant of coal excavated section which, coupled with the tape speed, integrated over time will determine the amount of excavated coal. The basis of the system developed is a device for determining the volume and quantity of coal excavated acting on the march and optimize the system speed excavator working order. The device is designed primarily following the careers of lignite production: rotor excavators, rubber conveyor belts and dump facilities. Newly developed system aims to achieve the following determines: the optimum energy excavation depending on the nature of excavated material - lignite, shale, clay, etc., economic times to use the excavator bucket teeth rotor, energy

  9. An automatic image recognition approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Barbu


    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the graphical analysis domain. We propose an automatic image recognition technique. This approach consists of two main pattern recognition steps. First, it performs an image feature extraction operation on an input image set, using statistical dispersion features. Then, an unsupervised classification process is performed on the previously obtained graphical feature vectors. An automatic region-growing based clustering procedure is proposed and utilized in the classification stage.

  10. Impact of Active Climate Control Seats on Energy Use, Fuel Use, and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, Cory J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Titov, Eugene V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    A project was developed through collaboration between Gentherm and NREL to determine the impact of climate control seats for light-duty vehicles in the United States. The project used a combination of experimentation and analysis, with experimental results providing critical input to the analysis process. First, outdoor stationary vehicle testing was performed at NREL's facility in Golden, CO using multiple occupants. Two pre-production Ford Focus electric vehicles were used for testing; one containing a standard inactive seat and the second vehicle containing a Gentherm climate control seat. Multiple maximum cool-down and steady-state cooling tests were performed in late summer conditions. The two vehicles were used to determine the increase in cabin temperature when using the climate control seat in comparison to the baseline vehicle cabin temperature with a standard seat at the equivalent occupant whole-body sensation. The experiments estimated that on average, the climate control seats allowed for a 2.61 degrees Celsius increase in vehicle cabin temperature at equivalent occupant body sensation compared to the baseline vehicle. The increased cabin air temperature along with their measured energy usage were then used as inputs to the national analysis process. The national analysis process was constructed from full vehicle cabin, HVAC, and propulsion models previously developed by NREL. In addition, three representative vehicle platforms, vehicle usage patterns, and vehicle registration weighted environmental data were integrated into the analysis process. Both the baseline vehicle and the vehicle with climate control seats were simulated, using the experimentally determined cabin temperature offset of 2.61degrees Celsius and added seat energy as inputs to the climate control seat vehicle model. The U.S. composite annual fuel use savings for the climate control seats over the baseline A/C system was determined to be 5.1 gallons of gasoline per year per

  11. Effect of one-way clutch on the nonlinear vibration of belt-drive systems with a continuous belt model (United States)

    Ding, Hu; Zu, Jean W.


    This study focuses on the nonlinear steady-state response of a belt-drive system with a one-way clutch. A dynamic model is established to describe the rotations of the driving pulley, the driven pulley, and the accessory shaft. Moreover, the model considers the transverse vibration of the translating belt spans for the first time in belt-drive systems coupled with a one-way clutch. The excitation of the belt-drive system is derived from periodic fluctuation of the driving pulley. In automotive systems, this kind of fluctuation is induced by the engine firing harmonic pulsations. The derived coupled discrete-continuous nonlinear equations consist of integro-partial-differential equations and piece-wise ordinary differential equations. Using the Galerkin truncation, a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained from the integro-partial-differential equations. Applying the Runge-Kutta time discretization, the time histories of the dynamic response are numerically solved for the driven pulley and the accessory shaft and the translating belt spans. The resonance areas of the coupled belt-drive system are determined using the frequency sweep. The effects of the one-way clutch on the belt-drive system are studied by comparing the frequency-response curves of the translating belt with and without one-way clutch device. Furthermore, the results of 2-term and 4-term Galerkin truncation are compared to determine the numerical convergence. Moreover, parametric studies are conducted to understand the effects of the system parameters on the nonlinear steady-state response. It is concluded that one-way clutch not only decreases the resonance amplitude of the driven pulley and shaft's rotational vibration, but also reduces the resonance region of the belt's transverse vibration.

  12. Effect of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu


    [Purpose] We assessed the effects of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. [Subjects] Ten males were recruited. [Methods] The suspension seat support was developed to prevent abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture during computer work. The gluteal pressure was measured with a TekScan system and the trunk flexion angle was measured with a video camera, to compare the differences between a general chair and the suspension seat support. [Results] The gluteal peak pressures were decreased significantly in the suspension seat support versus the general chair. The trunk flexion angle was also decreased significantly in the suspension seat support compared with the general chair. [Conclusions] This study suggests that the suspension seat support chair contributes to preventing abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture.

  13. Evolution of Hutti-Maski greenstone belt of the Eastern Dharwar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    evolution of the Hutti greenstone belt and the gold mineralization in it. 77. 78. 2. Geological setting. 79. The Hutti-Maski greenstone belt is a 74 km long N-S trending volcano-sedimentary. 80 belt with metamorphosed mafic volcanic rocks being the predominant lithology (Fig.1). 81. Towards the northern part, the belt takes an ...

  14. Split-belt adaptation and gait symmetry in transtibial amputees walking with a hybrid EMG controlled ankle-foot prosthesis. (United States)

    Kannape, Oliver A; Herr, Hugh M


    Our ability to automatically adapt our walking pattern to the demands of our environment is central to maintaining a steady gait. Accordingly, a large effort is being made to extend and integrate this adaptability to lower-limb prostheses. To date, the main focus of this research has been on short term adaptation, such as in response to a terrain transition or a sudden change in the environment. However, long term adaptation and underlying sensorimotor learning processes are critical to optimizing walking patterns and predictively changing our gait when faced with continued perturbations. Furthermore, investigating these processes in lower-limb amputees may provide a unique window into the interplay between sensory driven adaptation and top-down cerebellar modulation of locomotor reflexes and may potentially help alleviate gait asymmetries. In the current exploratory study, we therefore investigated adaptation, sensorimotor learning, and gait symmetry in a group of transtibial amputees walking with a hybrid-EMG controlled powered prosthesis and matched controls (both groups N=3). Participants were asked to perform a split-belt walking trial during which the belt on the affected side ran at twice the speed of the contralateral belt (1.0m/s and 0.5m/s respectively). Adaptation, sensorimotor learning, and symmetry are compared to two baseline conditions. Initial results illustrate that the amputees were readily able to use the hybrid controller, modulated their EMG depending on treadmill speed, and successfully adapted their gait during split-belt walking. However, the temporal gait parameters suggest that amputees used a different adaptation technique and showed reduced sensorimotor learning, while gait symmetry was improved, in the short term, post-adaptation.

  15. Automated bow shock and radiation belt edge identification methods and their application for Cluster, THEMIS/ARTEMIS and Van Allen Probes data (United States)

    Facsko, Gabor; Sibeck, David; Balogh, Tamas; Kis, Arpad; Wesztergom, Viktor


    The bow shock and the outer rim of the outer radiation belt are detected automatically by our algorithm developed as a part of the Boundary Layer Identification Code Cluster Active Archive project. The radiation belt positions are determined from energized electron measurements working properly onboard all Cluster spacecraft. For bow shock identification we use magnetometer data and, when available, ion plasma instrument data. In addition, electrostatic wave instrument electron density, spacecraft potential measurements and wake indicator auxiliary data are also used so the events can be identified by all Cluster probes in highly redundant way, as the magnetometer and these instruments are still operational in all spacecraft. The capability and performance of the bow shock identification algorithm were tested using known bow shock crossing determined manually from January 29, 2002 to February 3,. The verification enabled 70% of the bow shock crossings to be identified automatically. The method shows high flexibility and it can be applied to observations from various spacecraft. Now these tools have been applied to Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)/Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) magnetic field, plasma and spacecraft potential observations to identify bow shock crossings; and to Van Allen Probes supra-thermal electron observations to identify the edges of the radiation belt. The outcomes of the algorithms are checked manually and the parameters used to search for bow shock identification are refined.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  17. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay. (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette


    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Guam, 2003 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Guam in the...

  19. Continuing scearch for a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.


    The EN Tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates to support a varied program of atomic physics research. As such, the demands on the accelerator often require a range of operation from ∼0.38 to 7.0 MV on the terminal, with low ripple and long term steady state operation. The standard charging belts obtained from the manufacture have generally given acceptable performance, but it is reasonable that modem manufacturing techniques and materials could increase belt lifetimes and improve accelerator performance, particularly voltage ripple. A new belt of significantly different construction from that of the conventional belts was specified, purchased, and installed in 1993. After 2800 hours of use at voltages from 0.38 to 5.8 MV, it was removed from the accelerator in early August 1995

  20. Calculated limits for particle fluxes in Jupiter's Van Allen belts (United States)

    Haffner, J.


    Electron and proton fluxes in Jupiter's radiation belts are calculated, along with the envelopes of dose rates. The following assumptions are made: the particles in the Jupiter belts are influenced only by the magnetic field of the planet; the particles act correspondingly to the particles in the Earth's belts and the Earth's belts can be used as a model; the magnetic field of Jupiter is essentially a dipole; the radiation of a decimetric nature received from Jupiter is synchrotron radiation due to the electrons, and to a first approximation it is emitted isotropically; and the strength of the emission in the decimetric wavelength range gives an upper bound considering how strong the field can be and how many electrons there are. The point dose rates for tissue and 0.1 gram/cm aluminum shielding at about 3 Jupiter radii are 10000 rads/hr for electrons and 1000 rads/hr for protons.