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Sample records for automated patient-specific health

  1. Assessing the accuracy of an inter-institutional automated patient-specific health problem list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Laurel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health problem lists are a key component of electronic health records and are instrumental in the development of decision-support systems that encourage best practices and optimal patient safety. Most health problem lists require initial clinical information to be entered manually and few integrate information across care providers and institutions. This study assesses the accuracy of a novel approach to create an inter-institutional automated health problem list in a computerized medical record (MOXXI that integrates three sources of information for an individual patient: diagnostic codes from medical services claims from all treating physicians, therapeutic indications from electronic prescriptions, and single-indication drugs. Methods Data for this study were obtained from 121 general practitioners and all medical services provided for 22,248 of their patients. At the opening of a patient's file, all health problems detected through medical service utilization or single-indication drug use were flagged to the physician in the MOXXI system. Each new arising health problem were presented as 'potential' and physicians were prompted to specify if the health problem was valid (Y or not (N or if they preferred to reassess its validity at a later time. Results A total of 263,527 health problems, representing 891 unique problems, were identified for the group of 22,248 patients. Medical services claims contributed to the majority of problems identified (77%, followed by therapeutic indications from electronic prescriptions (14%, and single-indication drugs (9%. Physicians actively chose to assess 41.7% (n = 106,950 of health problems. Overall, 73% of the problems assessed were considered valid; 42% originated from medical service diagnostic codes, 11% from single indication drugs, and 47% from prescription indications. Twelve percent of problems identified through other treating physicians were considered valid compared to 28

  2. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac anatomy and pathology from in vivo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an automated method to segment left ventricle (LV) tissues from functional and delayed-enhancement (DE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a sequential multi-step approach. First, a region of interest (ROI) is computed to create a subvolume around the LV using morphological operations and image arithmetic. From the subvolume, the myocardial contours are automatically delineated using difference of Gaussians (DoG) filters and GSV snakes. These contours are used as a mask to identify pathological tissues, such as fibrosis or scar, within the DE-MRI. The presented automated technique is able to accurately delineate the myocardium and identify the pathological tissue in patient sets. The results were validated by two expert cardiologists, and in one set the automated results are quantitatively and qualitatively compared with expert manual delineation. Furthermore, the method is patient-specific, performed on an entire patient MRI series. Thus, in addition to providing a quick analysis of individual MRI scans, the fully automated segmentation method is used for effectively tagging regions in order to reconstruct computerized patient-specific 3D cardiac models. These models can then be used in electrophysiological studies and surgical strategy planning. (paper)

  3. Accuracy of patient specific organ-dose estimates obtained using an automated image segmentation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilat-Schmidt, Taly; Wang, Adam; Coradi, Thomas; Haas, Benjamin; Star-Lack, Josh

    2016-03-01

    The overall goal of this work is to develop a rapid, accurate and fully automated software tool to estimate patient-specific organ doses from computed tomography (CT) scans using a deterministic Boltzmann Transport Equation solver and automated CT segmentation algorithms. This work quantified the accuracy of organ dose estimates obtained by an automated segmentation algorithm. The investigated algorithm uses a combination of feature-based and atlas-based methods. A multiatlas approach was also investigated. We hypothesize that the auto-segmentation algorithm is sufficiently accurate to provide organ dose estimates since random errors at the organ boundaries will average out when computing the total organ dose. To test this hypothesis, twenty head-neck CT scans were expertly segmented into nine regions. A leave-one-out validation study was performed, where every case was automatically segmented with each of the remaining cases used as the expert atlas, resulting in nineteen automated segmentations for each of the twenty datasets. The segmented regions were applied to gold-standard Monte Carlo dose maps to estimate mean and peak organ doses. The results demonstrated that the fully automated segmentation algorithm estimated the mean organ dose to within 10% of the expert segmentation for regions other than the spinal canal, with median error for each organ region below 2%. In the spinal canal region, the median error was 7% across all data sets and atlases, with a maximum error of 20%. The error in peak organ dose was below 10% for all regions, with a median error below 4% for all organ regions. The multiple-case atlas reduced the variation in the dose estimates and additional improvements may be possible with more robust multi-atlas approaches. Overall, the results support potential feasibility of an automated segmentation algorithm to provide accurate organ dose estimates.

  4. Automated identification of brain tumours from single MR images based on segmentation with refined patient-specific priors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSanjuán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumours can have different shapes or locations, making their identification very challenging. In functional MRI, it is not unusual that patients have only one anatomical image due to time and financial constraints. Here, we provide a modified automatic lesion identification (ALI procedure which enables brain tumour identification from single MR images. Our method rests on (A a modified segmentation-normalisation procedure with an explicit extra prior for the tumour and (B an outlier detection procedure for abnormal voxel (i.e. tumour classification. To minimise tissue misclassification, the segmentation-normalisation procedure requires prior information of the tumour location and extent. We therefore propose that ALI is run iteratively so that the output of Step B is used as a patient-specific prior in Step A. We test this procedure on real T1-weighted images from 18 patients, and the results were validated in comparison to two independent observers’ manual tracings. The automated procedure identified the tumours successfully with an excellent agreement with the manual segmentation (area under the ROC curve = 0.97 ± 0.03. The proposed procedure increases the flexibility and robustness of the ALI tool and will be particularly useful for lesion-behaviour mapping studies, or when lesion identification and/or spatial normalisation are problematic.

  5. Automation is key to managing a population's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael B; Hodach, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Online tools for automating population health management can help healthcare organizations meet their patients' needs both during and between encounters with the healthcare system. These tools can facilitate: The use of registries to track patients' health status and care gaps. Outbound messaging to notify patients when they need care. Care team management of more patients at different levels of risk. Automation of workflows related to case management and transitions of care. Online educational and mobile health interventions to engage patients in their care. Analytics programs to identify opportunities for improvement. PMID:22523891

  6. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Estefanía

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses patient-specific modeling. It integrates computational modeling, experimental procedures, imagine clinical segmentation and mesh generation with the finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine and bioengineering. Specific areas of interest include cardiovascular problems, ocular and muscular systems and soft tissue modeling. Patient-specific modeling has been the subject of serious research over the last seven years and interest in the area is continually growing and this area is expected to further develop in the near future.

  7. Imaging based, patient specific dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The prognosis of achieving longtime remission for disseminated cancer disease is in many cases poor. A systemic treatment is required and therefore external beam radiation therapy is less suited. Treatment with radiolabeled pharmaceuticals, so called radionuclide therapy is such a systemic treatment. In radionuclide therapy, the absorbed dose is delivered by administration of radionuclides that emit electrons or alpha particles. It is here assumed that the released kinetic energy is transferred by interactions to sensitive parts of the cells activating cell death, and thus an accurate dosimetry is important. However, absorbed dose planning for radionuclide therapy is a real challenge in that the source cannot be turned on or off (as in external beam therapy) but decays exponentially with characteristics depending on the biokinetics and the radionuclide half-life. On a small-scale, the radiopharmaceutical is also heterogeneously distributed which means that the energy deposition is generally nonuniform. The biokinetics may also change over time which means that activity measurements need to be made at several time points to estimate the total amount of released energy in an organ or tumour. Practical issues regarding the number of measurements and patient mobility may therefore limit the accuracy in this calculation. The dose-rate for radionuclide therapy is also much lower than in external beam therapy. Since the treatment is systemic, circulating activity may result in absorbed doses to normal organs and tissues. Often this poses a problem and puts a limit on the amount of activity to can be administered. This is one of the major reasons for the requirement of an accurate patient-specific dosimetry. One of the major problems is that the biokinetics varies between patients and the activity uptake and clearance should therefore be measured for each individual patient in order to estimate the total number of decays in a particular organ/tissue. The way

  8. Initial Flight Results for an Automated Satellite Beacon Health Monitoring Network

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Anthony; Kitts, Christopher; Neumann, Michael; Mas, Ignacio; Rasay, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Beacon monitoring is an automated satellite health monitoring architecture that combines telemetry analysis, periodic low data rate message broadcasts by a spacecraft, and automated ground reception and data handling in order to implement a cost-effective anomaly detection and notification capability for spacecraft missions. Over the past two decades, this architecture has been explored and prototyped for a range of spacecraft mission classes to include use on NASA deep space probes, military...

  9. Patient-Specific Modeling in Tomorrow's Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews the frontier of research and clinical applications of Patient Specific Modeling, and provides a state-of-the-art update as well as perspectives on future directions in this exciting field. The book is useful for medical physicists, biomedical engineers and other engineers who are interested in the science and technology aspects of Patient Specific Modeling, as well as for radiologists and other medical specialists who wish to be updated about the state of implementation.

  10. Measurement properties of patient-specific instruments measuring physical function.

    OpenAIRE

    Barten, J.A.; Pisters, M.F.; Huisman, P.A.; Takken, T; Veenhof, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify patient-specific self-assessment instruments, which measure physical function in patients with musculoskeletal disorders and to evaluate the descriptive properties and the psychometric qualities of these instruments. Study Design and Setting: After a systematic search, included instruments were evaluated psychometrically by the checklist “quality criteria for measurement properties of health status instruments.” Results: Twenty-three studies were included, referring to ...

  11. A Novel Implementation for Automated Health Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Sarangamath, Praveen B; Gupta, Kiran A

    2016-01-01

    The main concept of the proposed work is derived from Wireless Body Area network (WBAN). The proposed work employs Raspberry Pi kit as a personal server which logs the health data and it can be accessed by any PDA within the LAN range. In this paper, two vital parameters namely Temperature sensor and Heart beat sensor have been considered.

  12. How a Fully Automated eHealth Program Simulates Three Therapeutic Processes: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ayna; Brendryen, Håvar

    2016-01-01

    Background eHealth programs may be better understood by breaking down the components of one particular program and discussing its potential for interactivity and tailoring in regard to concepts from face-to-face counseling. In the search for the efficacious elements within eHealth programs, it is important to understand how a program using lapse management may simultaneously support working alliance, internalization of motivation, and behavior maintenance. These processes have been applied to fully automated eHealth programs individually. However, given their significance in face-to-face counseling, it may be important to simulate the processes simultaneously in interactive, tailored programs. Objective We propose a theoretical model for how fully automated behavior change eHealth programs may be more effective by simulating a therapist’s support of a working alliance, internalization of motivation, and managing lapses. Methods We show how the model is derived from theory and its application to Endre, a fully automated smoking cessation program that engages the user in several “counseling sessions” about quitting. A descriptive case study based on tools from the intervention mapping protocol shows how each therapeutic process is simulated. Results The program supports the user’s working alliance through alliance factors, the nonembodied relational agent Endre and computerized motivational interviewing. Computerized motivational interviewing also supports internalized motivation to quit, whereas a lapse management component responds to lapses. The description operationalizes working alliance, internalization of motivation, and managing lapses, in terms of eHealth support of smoking cessation. Conclusions A program may simulate working alliance, internalization of motivation, and lapse management through interactivity and individual tailoring, potentially making fully automated eHealth behavior change programs more effective. PMID:27354373

  13. A parameter estimation framework for patient-specific hemodynamic computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itu, Lucian; Sharma, Puneet; Passerini, Tiziano; Kamen, Ali; Suciu, Constantin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a fully automated parameter estimation framework for performing patient-specific hemodynamic computations in arterial models. To determine the personalized values of the windkessel models, which are used as part of the geometrical multiscale circulation model, a parameter estimation problem is formulated. Clinical measurements of pressure and/or flow-rate are imposed as constraints to formulate a nonlinear system of equations, whose fixed point solution is sought. A key feature of the proposed method is a warm-start to the optimization procedure, with better initial solution for the nonlinear system of equations, to reduce the number of iterations needed for the calibration of the geometrical multiscale models. To achieve these goals, the initial solution, computed with a lumped parameter model, is adapted before solving the parameter estimation problem for the geometrical multiscale circulation model: the resistance and the compliance of the circulation model are estimated and compensated. The proposed framework is evaluated on a patient-specific aortic model, a full body arterial model, and multiple idealized anatomical models representing different arterial segments. For each case it leads to the best performance in terms of number of iterations required for the computational model to be in close agreement with the clinical measurements.

  14. Morphing patient-specific musculoskeletal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, John; Galibarov, Pavel E.; Al-Munajjed, Amir;

    Anatomically realistic musculoskeletal models tend to be very complicated. The current full-body model of the AnyScript Model Repository comprises more than 1000 individually activated muscles and hundreds of bones and joints, and the development of these generic body parts represents an investment...... of dozens of man-years. Healthy humans differ significantly in size, shape and general morphology, and this variation is even larger for patients with pathological anatomies. Thus, patient-specific models are imperative for reliable biomechanical analyses on which decisions of surgical treatments...... (ii). The morphing is subsequently used to transform parts of the generic musculoskeletal model to a patient-specific version, thus changing bone shapes, muscle insertion points, joint locations and other geometrical properties. Research questions include how to select point sets and whether...

  15. An Automated Approach to Calculating the Daily Dose of Tacrolimus in Electronic Health Records

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hua; Doan, Son; Birdwell, Kelly A.; Cowan, James D; Vincz, Andrew J.; Haas, David W.; Basford, Melissa A; Denny, Joshua C.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical research often requires extracting detailed drug information, such as medication names and dosages, from Electronic Health Records (EHR). Since medication information is often recorded as both structured and unstructured formats in the EHR, extracting all the relevant drug mentions and determining the daily dose of a medication for a selected patient at a given date can be a challenging and time-consuming task. In this paper, we present an automated approach using natural language pr...

  16. Health care professionals’ perspectives on automated multi-dose drug dispensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardage C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 1980s, manual repackaging of multi-dose medications from pharmacies in Sweden was successively substituted with automated multi-dose drug dispensing (MDD. There are few studies evaluating the consequences of automated MDD with regard to patient safety, and those that investigate this issue are not very extensive. Objectives: To investigate Swedish health care professionals’ perceived experience of automated MDD and its effects on patient adherence and patient safety. Methods: Three questionnaire forms, one for physicians, nurses, and assistant nurses/nursing assistants, were developed based on reviews of the literature and pilot testing of the questions in the intended target groups. The target groups were health professionals prescribing or administrating MDD to patients. A sample (every sixth municipality was drawn from the sampling frame of Swedish municipalities, resulting in 40 municipalities, about 14% of all municipalities in Sweden. Email addresses of general practitioners were obtained from county councils, while the municipalities assisted in getting contact details for nurses, assistant nurses and nursing assistants. A total of 915 questionnaires were distributed electronically to physicians, 515 to nurses, and 4,118 to assistant nurses/nursing assistants. The data were collected in September and October 2012. Results: The response rate among physicians, nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants was 31%, 43% and 23%, respectively. The professionals reported that automated MDD reduces duplication of medication, contributes to correct dosages, helps patients take their medication at the right time, and reduces confusion among patients. Fifteen per cent of the physicians and about one-third of the nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants reported that generic substitution makes it more difficult for the patient to identify the various medicines available in the sachets. The physicians did, however

  17. On the prospect of patient-specific biomechanics without patient-specific properties of tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Karol; Lu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents main theses of two keynote lectures delivered at Euromech Colloquium “Advanced experimental approaches and inverse problems in tissue biomechanics” held in Saint Etienne in June 2012. We are witnessing an advent of patient-specific biomechanics that will bring in the future personalized treatments to sufferers all over the world. It is the current task of biomechanists to devise methods for clinically-relevant patient-specific modeling. One of the obstacles standing before...

  18. Patient specific modelling in diagnosing depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a very common disease. Approximately 10% of people in the Western world experience severe depression during their lifetime and many more experience a mild form of depression. It is commonly believed that depression is caused by malfunctions in the biological system constituted by the...... hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We pose a novel model capable of showing both circardian as well as ultradian oscillations of hormone concentrations. We show that these patterns imitate those observed in the corresponding data. We demonstrate that patient-specific modelling shows its ability to make...

  19. Patient-specific simulation of tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, M.; Wells, A. K.; Jones, I. P.; Hamill, I. S.; Veeckmans, B.; Vos, W.; Lefevre, C.; Fetitia, C.

    2016-03-01

    Patient-specific simulation of air flows in lungs is now straightforward using segmented airways trees from CT scans as the basis for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. These models generally use static geometries, which do not account for the motion of the lungs and its influence on important clinical indicators, such as airway resistance. This paper is concerned with the simulation of tidal breathing, including the dynamic motion of the lungs, and the required analysis workflow. Geometries are based on CT scans obtained at the extremes of the breathing cycle, Total Lung Capacity (TLC) and Functional Residual Capacity (FRC). It describes how topologically consistent geometries are obtained at TLC and FRC, using a `skeleton' of the network of airway branches. From this a 3D computational mesh which morphs between TLC and FRC is generated. CFD results for a number of patient-specific cases, healthy and asthmatic, are presented. Finally their potential use in evaluation of the progress of the disease is discussed, focusing on an important clinical indicator, the airway resistance.

  20. Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Henak, Corinne R; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-18

    The mechanics of contacting cartilage layers is fundamentally important to understanding the development, homeostasis and pathology of diarthrodial joints. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of both the materials and the contact problem itself, numerical methods such as the finite element method are typically incorporated to obtain solutions. Over the course of five decades, we have moved from an initial qualitative understanding of articular cartilage material behavior to the ability to perform complex, three-dimensional contact analysis, including multiphasic material representations. This history includes the development of analytical and computational contact analysis methods that now provide the ability to perform highly nonlinear analyses. Numerical implementations of contact analysis based on the finite element method are rapidly advancing and will soon enable patient-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics using models based on medical image data. In addition to contact stress on the articular surfaces, these techniques can predict variations in strain and strain through the cartilage layers, providing the basis to predict damage and failure. This opens up exciting areas for future research and application to patient-specific diagnosis and treatment planning applied to a variety of pathologies that affect joint function and cartilage homeostasis.

  1. [Automated fertility and health surveillance systems in dairy cows. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Lisa; Martin, Rainer; Zerbe, Holm

    2016-08-17

    Automated surveillance systems have become increasingly important in dairy farming. This can be attributed to an increasing farm size with unaltered employee numbers, higher susceptibility of high-yielding animals to diseases and a general constraint to work more cost effectively. A variety of surveillance systems for different areas of application in dairy cow management are currently available. However, their applicability has not always been supported by scientific validation. With regards to the considerable costs in installing and running surveillance systems and to evaluate their practical aspects, further analyses are desirable. Considering the progress in computer-based systems in recent years, we are anticipating rapid developments in automated animal surveillance in the near future. Consequently, the need arises for veterinarians to understand the principles underlying such systems, to be able to assess their efficacy and to be capable of evaluating data derived from these systems in order to advise farmers appropriately. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits and limitations of current surveillance systems for oestrus-detection, partus-alarm and monitoring health status mainly with regards to metabolic disorders in dairy cows, but also for other selected areas of health monitoring. PMID:27465067

  2. Movie magic in the clinic: computer-generated characters for automated health counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    In this presentation, I demonstrate how many of the technologies used in movie special effects and games have been successfully used in health education and behavior change interventions. Computer-animated health counselors simulate human face-to-face dialogue as a computer interface medium, including not only verbal behavior but nonverbal conversational behavior such as hand gesture, body posture shifts, and facial display of emotion. This technology has now been successfully used in a wide range of health interventions for education and counseling of patients and consumers, including applications in physical activity promotion, medication adherence, and hospital discharge. These automated counselors have been deployed on home computers, hospital-based touch screen kiosks, and mobile devices with integrated health behavior sensing capability. Development of these agents is an interdisciplinary endeavor spanning the fields of character modeling and animation, computational linguistics, artificial intelligence, health communication and behavioral medicine. I will give demonstrations of several fielded systems, describe the technologies and methodologies underlying their development, and present results from five randomized controlled trials that have been completed or are in progress. PMID:18999232

  3. Neural Network Based State of Health Diagnostics for an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kangas, Lars J.; Hayes, James C.; Schrom, Brian T.; Suarez, Reynold; Hubbard, Charles W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2009-05-13

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to determine the state-of-health (SOH) of the Automated Radioxenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA). ARSA is a gas collection and analysis system used for non-proliferation monitoring in detecting radioxenon released during nuclear tests. SOH diagnostics are important for automated, unmanned sensing systems so that remote detection and identification of problems can be made without onsite staff. Both recurrent and feed-forward ANNs are presented. The recurrent ANN is trained to predict sensor values based on current valve states, which control air flow, so that with only valve states the normal SOH sensor values can be predicted. Deviation between modeled value and actual is an indication of a potential problem. The feed-forward ANN acts as a nonlinear version of principal components analysis (PCA) and is trained to replicate the normal SOH sensor values. Because of ARSA’s complexity, this nonlinear PCA is better able to capture the relationships among the sensors than standard linear PCA and is applicable to both sensor validation and recognizing off-normal operating conditions. Both models provide valuable information to detect impending malfunctions before they occur to avoid unscheduled shutdown. Finally, the ability of ANN methods to predict the system state is presented.

  4. On the prospect of patient-specific biomechanics without patient-specific properties of tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karol; Lu, Jia

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents main theses of two keynote lectures delivered at Euromech Colloquium "Advanced experimental approaches and inverse problems in tissue biomechanics" held in Saint Etienne in June 2012. We are witnessing an advent of patient-specific biomechanics that will bring in the future personalized treatments to sufferers all over the world. It is the current task of biomechanists to devise methods for clinically-relevant patient-specific modeling. One of the obstacles standing before the biomechanics community is the difficulty in obtaining patient-specific properties of tissues to be used in biomechanical models. We postulate that focusing on reformulating computational mechanics problems in such a way that the results are weakly sensitive to the variation in mechanical properties of simulated continua is more likely to bear fruit in near future. We consider two types of problems: (i) displacement-zero traction problems whose solutions in displacements are weakly sensitive to mechanical properties of the considered continuum; and (ii) problems that are approximately statically determinate and therefore their solutions in stresses are also weakly sensitive to mechanical properties of constituents. We demonstrate that the kinematically loaded biomechanical models of the first type are applicable in the field of image-guided surgery where the current, intraoperative configuration of a soft organ is of critical importance. We show that sac-like membranes, which are prototypes of many thin-walled biological organs, are approximately statically determinate and therefore useful solutions for wall stress can be obtained without the knowledge of the wall's properties. We demonstrate the clinical applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methods using examples from modeling neurosurgery and intracranial aneurysms. PMID:23491073

  5. Survival and health care costs until hospital discharge of patients treated with onsite, dispatched or without automated external defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Berdowski; M.J. Kuiper; M.G.W. Dijkgraaf; J.G.P. Tijssen; R.W. Koster

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine whether automated external defibrillator (AED) use during resuscitation is associated with lower in-hospital health care costs. Methods: For this observational prospective study, we included all treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of suspected cardiac ca

  6. Skin Biopsy and Patient-Specific Stem Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Nguyen, Huy V.; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells permits the development of next-generation patient-specific systems biology models reflecting personalized genomics profiles to better understand pathophysiology. In this chapter, we describe how to create a patient-specific iPS cell line. There are three major steps: (1) performing a skin biopsy procedure on the patient; (2) extracting human fibroblast cells from the skin biopsy tissue; and (3) reprogramming patient-specific fibroblast cells into the pluripotent stem cell stage. PMID:26141312

  7. Automated Cognitive Health Assessment From Smart Home-Based Behavior Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla Nath; Cook, Diane Joyce; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Smart home technologies offer potential benefits for assisting clinicians by automating health monitoring and well-being assessment. In this paper, we examine the actual benefits of smart home-based analysis by monitoring daily behavior in the home and predicting clinical scores of the residents. To accomplish this goal, we propose a clinical assessment using activity behavior (CAAB) approach to model a smart home resident's daily behavior and predict the corresponding clinical scores. CAAB uses statistical features that describe characteristics of a resident's daily activity performance to train machine learning algorithms that predict the clinical scores. We evaluate the performance of CAAB utilizing smart home sensor data collected from 18 smart homes over two years. We obtain a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.72) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided cognitive scores and a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.45) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided mobility scores. These prediction results suggest that it is feasible to predict clinical scores using smart home sensor data and learning-based data analysis.

  8. Effects of Vessel Tortuosity on Coronary Hemodynamics: An Idealized and Patient-Specific Computational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobtsova, Natalya; Chiastra, Claudio; Stremler, Mark A; Sane, David C; Migliavacca, Francesco; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-07-01

    Although coronary tortuosity can influence the hemodynamics of coronary arteries, the relationship between tortuosity and flow has not been thoroughly investigated partly due to the absence of a widely accepted definition of tortuosity and the lack of patient-specific studies that analyze complete coronary trees. Using a computational approach we investigated the effects of tortuosity on coronary flow parameters including pressure drop, wall shear stress, and helical flow strength as measured by helicity intensity. Our analysis considered idealized and patient-specific geometries. Overall results indicate that perfusion pressure decreases with increased tortuosity, but the patient-specific results show that more tortuous vessels have higher physiological wall shear stress values. Differences between the idealized and patient-specific results reveal that an accurate representation of coronary tortuosity must account for all relevant geometric aspects, including curvature imposed by the heart shape. The patient-specific results exhibit a strong correlation between tortuosity and helicity intensity, and the corresponding helical flow contributes directly to the observed increase in wall shear stress. Therefore, helicity intensity may prove helpful in developing a universal parameter to describe tortuosity and assess its impact on patient health. Our data suggest that increased tortuosity could have a deleterious impact via a reduction in coronary perfusion pressure, but the attendant increase in wall shear stress could afford protection against atherosclerosis. PMID:26498931

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith GM; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However, application of this method in health care practice is hampered because analyses are conducted manually and advanced statistical expertise is required. Objective This study aims to show how this limitation can be overcome by introducing automated vector autoregressive modeling (VAR) of EMA data and to evaluate its feasibility through comparisons with results of previously published manual analyses. Methods We developed a Web-based open source application, called AutoVAR, which automates time series analyses of EMA data and provides output that is intended to be interpretable by nonexperts. The statistical technique we used was VAR. AutoVAR tests and evaluates all possible VAR models within a given combinatorial search space and summarizes their results, thereby replacing the researcher’s tasks of conducting the analysis, making an informed selection of models, and choosing the best model. We compared the output of AutoVAR to the output of a previously published manual analysis (n=4). Results An illustrative example consisting of 4 analyses was provided. Compared to the manual output, the AutoVAR output presents similar model characteristics and statistical results in terms of the Akaike information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion, and the test statistic of the Granger causality test. Conclusions Results suggest that automated analysis and interpretation of times series is feasible. Compared to a manual procedure, the automated procedure is more robust and can save days of time. These findings may pave the way for using time series analysis for health promotion on a larger scale. AutoVAR was evaluated using the results of a previously conducted manual analysis

  10. Automation of Health Management, Troubleshooting and Recovery in Lunar Outpost Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall Phase-II goal is to develop the technologies and tools that can aid the automation of operation by providing intelligent decision support in situations...

  11. Study on hemodynamics in patient-specific thoracic aortic aneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the hemodynamics in patient-specific thoracic aortic aneurysm and discuss the reason for formation of aortic plaque.A 3-Dimensional pulsatile blood flow in thoracic aorta with a fusiform aneurysm and 3 main branched vessels was studied numerically with the average Reynolds number of 1399 and the Womersley number of 19.2.Based on the clinical 2-Dimensional CT slice data,the patient-specific geometry model was constructed using medical image process software.Un...

  12. Development of a fully automated network system for long-term health-care monitoring at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, K; Kubota, S; Ikarashi, A; Nogawa, M; Tanaka, S; Nemoto, T; Yamakoshi, K

    2007-01-01

    Daily monitoring of health condition at home is very important not only as an effective scheme for early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular and other diseases, but also for prevention and control of such diseases. From this point of view, we have developed a prototype room for fully automated monitoring of various vital signs. From the results of preliminary experiments using this room, it was confirmed that (1) ECG and respiration during bathing, (2) excretion weight and blood pressure, and (3) respiration and cardiac beat during sleep could be monitored with reasonable accuracy by the sensor system installed in bathtub, toilet and bed, respectively.

  13. Measurement properties of patient-specific instruments measuring physical function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, J.A.; Pisters, M.F.; Huisman, P.A.; Takken, T.; Veenhof, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify patient-specific self-assessment instruments, which measure physical function in patients with musculoskeletal disorders and to evaluate the descriptive properties and the psychometric qualities of these instruments. Study Design and Setting: After a systematic search, include

  14. Patient Specific Simulation for Planning of Cochlear Implantation Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Sergio; Perez, Frederic; Balust, Clara;

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is a surgical procedure that can restore the hearing capabilities to patients with severe or complete functional loss. However, the level of restoration varies highly between subjects and depends on patient-specific factors. This paper presents a software application for pla...

  15. A patient-specific scatter artifacts correction method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Brunner, Stephen; NIU, KAI; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a fast and patient-specific scatter artifact correction method for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) used in image-guided interventional procedures. Due to increased irradiated volume of interest in CBCT imaging, scatter radiation has increased dramatically compared to 2D imaging, leading to a degradation of image quality. In this study, we propose a scatter artifact correction strategy using an analytical convolution-based model whose free parameters are estimated usin...

  16. Patient specific tube current modulation for CT dose reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yannan; Yin, Zhye; Yao, Yangyang; Wang, Hui; Wu, Mingye; Kalra, Mannudeep; De Man, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Radiation exposure during CT imaging has drawn growing concern from academia, industry as well as the general public. Sinusoidal tube current modulation has been available in most commercial products and used routinely in clinical practice. To further exploit the potential of tube current modulation, Sperl et al. proposed a Computer-Assisted Scan Protocol and Reconstruction (CASPAR) scheme [6] that modulates the tube current based on the clinical applications and patient specific information. The purpose of this study is to accelerate the CASPAR scheme to make it more practical for clinical use and investigate its dose benefit for different clinical applications. The Monte Carlo simulation in the original CASPAR scheme was substituted by the dose reconstruction to accelerate the optimization process. To demonstrate the dose benefit, we used the CATSIM package generate the projection data and perform standard FDK reconstruction. The NCAT phantom at thorax position was used in the simulation. We chose three clinical cases (routine chest scan, coronary CT angiography with and without breast avoidance) and compared the dose level with different mA modulation schemes (patient specific, sinusoidal and constant mA) with matched image quality. The simulation study of three clinical cases demonstrated that the patient specific mA modulation could significantly reduce the radiation dose compared to sinusoidal modulation. The dose benefits depend on the clinical application and object shape. With matched image quality, for chest scan the patient specific mA profile reduced the dose by about 15% compared to the sinusoid mA modulation; for the organ avoidance scan the dose reduction to the breast was over 50% compared to the constant mA baseline.

  17. Feasibility of patient specific aortic blood flow CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan; Gårdhagen, Roland; Heiberg, Einar; Ebbers, Tino; Loyd, Dan; Länne, Toste; Karlsson, Matts

    2006-01-01

    Patient specific modelling of the blood flow through the human aorta is performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Velocity patterns are compared between computer simulations and measurements. The workflow includes several steps: MRI measurement to obtain both geometry and velocity, an automatic levelset segmentation followed by meshing of the geometrical model and CFD setup to perform the simulations follwed by the actual simulations. The computational results agree well with the measured data. PMID:17354898

  18. Patient specific 3D printed phantom for IMRT quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a patient specific phantom for patient specific dosimetric verification. Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. Calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was compared for a parallel-opposed head and neck field geometry to establish tissue equivalence. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom as well as traditional standard phantoms. The maximum difference in calculated dose was 1.8% for the parallel-opposed configuration. Passing rates of various dosimetric parameters were compared for the IMRT plan measurements; the 3D printed phantom results showed greater disagreement at superficial depths than other methods. A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine use. (paper)

  19. Automatic construction of patient-specific finite-element mesh of the spine from IVDs and vertebra segmentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, Jose M.; Lazary, Aron; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2016-03-01

    Computational medicine aims at developing patient-specific models to help physicians in the diagnosis and treatment selection for patients. The spine, and other skeletal structures, is an articulated object, composed of rigid bones (vertebrae) and non-rigid parts (intervertebral discs (IVD), ligaments and muscles). These components are usually extracted from different image modalities, involving patient repositioning. In the case of the spine, these models require the segmentation of IVDs from MR and vertebrae from CT. In the literature, there exists a vast selection of segmentations methods, but there is a lack of approaches to align the vertebrae and IVDs. This paper presents a method to create patient-specific finite element meshes for biomechanical simulations, integrating rigid and non-rigid parts of articulated objects. First, the different parts are aligned in a complete surface model. Vertebrae extracted from CT are rigidly repositioned in between the IVDs, initially using the IVDs location and then refining the alignment using the MR image with a rigid active shape model algorithm. Finally, a mesh morphing algorithm, based on B-splines, is employed to map a template finite-element (volumetric) mesh to the patient-specific surface mesh. This morphing reduces possible misalignments and guarantees the convexity of the model elements. Results show that the accuracy of the method to align vertebrae into MR, together with IVDs, is similar to that of the human observers. Thus, this method is a step forward towards the automation of patient-specific finite element models for biomechanical simulations.

  20. Automated Telephone Self-Management Support for Diabetes in a Low-Income Health Plan: A Health Care Utilization and Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Judy; Lee, Alexandra K; Handley, Margaret A; Ratanawongsa, Neda; Sarkar, Urmimala; Tseng, Samuel; Schillinger, Dean

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to determine whether automated telephone self-management support (ATSM) for low-income, linguistically diverse health plan members with diabetes affects health care utilization or cost. A government-sponsored managed care plan for low-income patients implemented a demonstration project between 2009 and 2011 that involved a 6-month ATSM intervention for 362 English-, Spanish-, or Cantonese-speaking members with diabetes from 4 publicly funded clinics. Participants were randomized to immediate intervention or a wait-list. Medical and pharmacy claims used in this analysis were obtained from the managed care plan. Medical claims included hospitalizations, ambulance use, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits. In the 6-month period following enrollment, intervention participants generated half as many emergency department visits and hospitalizations (rate ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.26, 1.04) compared to wait-listed participants, but these differences did not reach statistical significance (P=0.06). With adjustment for prior year cost, intervention participants also had a nonsignificant reduction of $26.78 in total health care costs compared to wait-listed individuals (P=0.93). The observed trends suggest that ATSM could yield potential health service benefits for health plans that provide coverage for chronic disease patients in safety net settings. ATSM should be further scaled up to determine whether it is associated with a greater reduction in health care utilization and costs. PMID:26102298

  1. Health Care in Home Automation Systems with Speech Recognition and Mobile Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Kurti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available - Home automation systems use technology to facilitate the lives of people using it, and it is especially useful for assisting the elderly and persons with special needs. These kind of systems have been a popular research subject in last few years. In this work, I present the design and development of a system that provides a life assistant service in a home environment, a smart home-based healthcare system controlled with speech recognition and mobile technology. This includes developing software with speech recognition, speech synthesis, face recognition, controls for Arduino hardware, and a smartphone application for remote controlling the system. With the developed system, elderly and persons with special needs can stay independently in their own home secure and with care facilities. This system is tailored towards the elderly and disabled, but it can also be embedded in any home and used by anybody. It provides healthcare, security, entertainment, and total local and remote control of home.

  2. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  3. Patient-Specific Pluripotent Stem Cells in Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpen Durnaoglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many human neurological diseases are not currently curable and result in devastating neurologic sequelae. The increasing availability of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs derived from adult human somatic cells provides new prospects for cellreplacement strategies and disease-related basic research in a broad spectrum of human neurologic diseases. Patient-specific iPSC-based modeling of neurogenetic and neurodegenerative diseases is an emerging efficient tool for in vitro modeling to understand disease and to screen for genes and drugs that modify the disease process. With the exponential increase in iPSC research in recent years, human iPSCs have been successfully derived with different technologies and from various cell types. Although there remain a great deal to learn about patient-specific iPSC safety, the reprogramming mechanisms, better ways to direct a specific reprogramming, ideal cell source for cellular grafts, and the mechanisms by which transplanted stem cells lead to an enhanced functional recovery and structural reorganization, the discovery of the therapeutic potential of iPSCs offers new opportunities for the treatment of incurable neurologic diseases. However, iPSC-based therapeutic strategies need to be thoroughly evaluated in preclinical animal models of neurological diseases before they can be applied in a clinical setting.

  4. Patient specific stress and rupture analysis of ascending thoracic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Olfa; Davis, Frances M; Rodriguez-Matas, Jose F; Duprey, Ambroise; Avril, Stéphane

    2015-07-16

    An ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) is a serious medical condition which, more often than not, requires surgery. Aneurysm diameter is the primary clinical criterion for determining when surgical intervention is necessary but, biomechanical studies have suggested that the diameter criterion is insufficient. This manuscript presents a method for obtaining the patient specific wall stress distribution of the ATAA and the retrospective rupture risk for each patient. Five human ATAAs and the preoperative dynamic CT scans were obtained during elective surgeries to replace each patient's aneurysm with a synthetic graft. The material properties and rupture stress for each tissue sample were identified using bulge inflation tests. The dynamic CT scans were used to generate patient specific geometries for a finite element (FE) model of each patient's aneurysm. The material properties from the bulge inflation tests were implemented in the FE model and the wall stress distribution at four different pressures was estimated. Three different rupture risk assessments were compared: the maximum diameter, the rupture risk index, and the overpressure index. The peak wall stress values for the patients ranged from 28% to 94% of the ATAA's failure stress. The rupture risk and overpressure indices were both only weakly correlated with diameter (ρ=-0.29, both cases). In the future, we plan to conduct a large experimental and computational study that includes asymptomatic patients under surveillance, patients undergoing elective surgery, and patients who have experienced rupture or dissection to determine if the rupture risk index or maximum diameter can meaningfully differentiate between the groups. PMID:25979384

  5. Patient-Specific Airway Wall Remodeling in Chronic Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mona; Kuschner, Ware G; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic lung disease affects more than a quarter of the adult population; yet, the mechanics of the airways are poorly understood. The pathophysiology of chronic lung disease is commonly characterized by mucosal growth and smooth muscle contraction of the airways, which initiate an inward folding of the mucosal layer and progressive airflow obstruction. Since the degree of obstruction is closely correlated with the number of folds, mucosal folding has been extensively studied in idealized circular cross sections. However, airflow obstruction has never been studied in real airway geometries; the behavior of imperfect, non-cylindrical, continuously branching airways remains unknown. Here we model the effects of chronic lung disease using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth. We perform finite element analysis of patient-specific Y-branch segments created from magnetic resonance images. We demonstrate that the mucosal folding pattern is insensitive to the specific airway geometry, but that it critically depends on the mucosal and submucosal stiffness, thickness, and loading mechanism. Our results suggests that patient-specific airway models with inherent geometric imperfections are more sensitive to obstruction than idealized circular models. Our models help to explain the pathophysiology of airway obstruction in chronic lung disease and hold promise to improve the diagnostics and treatment of asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and respiratory failure. PMID:25821112

  6. Old scissors to industrial automation: the impact of technologic evolution on worker's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoroski, Rita de Cassia Clark; Koppe, Vanessa Mazzocchi; Merino, Eugênio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    To cut a fabric, the professional performs different jobs and among them stands out the cut. The scissors has been the instrument most used for this activity. Over the years, technology has been conquering its space in the textile industry. However, despite the industrial automation able to offer subsidies to answer employment market demands, without appropriate orientation, the worker is exposed to the risks inherent at the job. Ergonomics is a science that search to promote the comfort and well being in consonance with efficacy. Its goals are properly well defined and clearly guide the actions aimed at transforming the working conditions. This study aimed to analyze the activity of cut tissues with a machine by a seamstress and the implications on their body posture. The methodology used was the observation technique and application of the Protocol RULA, where the result obtained was the level 3 and score 5, confirming that "investigations and changes are required soon". Conclude that using the machine to tissue cut should be encouraged, but in conjunction with orientations for improving posture while handling it. It seeks to prevent dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system that prevents employees from performing their work tasks efficiently and productively.

  7. A patient-specific scatter artifacts correction method

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Kai; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a fast and patient-specific scatter artifact correction method for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) used in image-guided interventional procedures. Due to increased irradiated volume of interest in CBCT imaging, scatter radiation has increased dramatically compared to 2D imaging, leading to a degradation of image quality. In this study, we propose a scatter artifact correction strategy using an analytical convolution-based model whose free parameters are estimated using a rough estimation of scatter profiles from the acquired cone-beam projections. It was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations with both monochromatic and polychromatic X-ray sources. The results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly reduced the scatter-induced shading artifacts and recovered CT numbers.

  8. A patient-specific scatter artifacts correction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Brunner, Stephen; Niu, Kai; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides a fast and patient-specific scatter artifact correction method for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) used in image-guided interventional procedures. Due to increased irradiated volume of interest in CBCT imaging, scatter radiation has increased dramatically compared to 2D imaging, leading to a degradation of image quality. In this study, we propose a scatter artifact correction strategy using an analytical convolution-based model whose free parameters are estimated using a rough estimation of scatter profiles from the acquired cone-beam projections. It was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations with both monochromatic and polychromatic X-ray sources. The results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly reduced the scatter-induced shading artifacts and recovered CT numbers.

  9. An automatic CFD-based flow diverter optimization principle for patient-specific intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiga, Gábor; Daróczy, László; Berg, Philipp; Thévenin, Dominique; Skalej, Martin; Beuing, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The optimal treatment of intracranial aneurysms using flow diverting devices is a fundamental issue for neuroradiologists as well as neurosurgeons. Due to highly irregular manifold aneurysm shapes and locations, the choice of the stent and the patient-specific deployment strategy can be a very difficult decision. To support the therapy planning, a new method is introduced that combines a three-dimensional CFD-based optimization with a realistic deployment of a virtual flow diverting stent for a given aneurysm. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method, it was applied to a patient-specific intracranial giant aneurysm that was successfully treated using a commercial flow diverter. Eight treatment scenarios with different local compressions were considered in a fully automated simulation loop. The impact on the corresponding blood flow behavior was evaluated qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and the optimal configuration for this specific case was identified. The virtual deployment of an uncompressed flow diverter reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 24.4% compared to the untreated case. Depending on the positioning of the local stent compression below the ostium, blood flow reduction could vary between 27.3% and 33.4%. Therefore, a broad range of potential treatment outcomes was identified, illustrating the variability of a given flow diverter deployment in general. This method represents a proof of concept to automatically identify the optimal treatment for a patient in a virtual study under certain assumptions. Hence, it contributes to the improvement of virtual stenting for intracranial aneurysms and can support physicians during therapy planning in the future.

  10. Using Personal Health Records for Automated Clinical Trials Recruitment: the ePaIRing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Adam; Natarajan, Karthik; Weng, Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development of a model describing the use of patient information to improve patient recruitment in clinical trials. This model, named ePaIRing (electronic Participant Identification and Recruitment Model) describes variations in how information flows between stakeholders, and how personal health records can specifically facilitate patient recruitment.

  11. Monitoring individual cow udder health in automated milking systems using online somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L P; Bjerring, M; Løvendahl, P

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a detection and monitoring model for mastitis based on automated frequent sampling of online cell count (OCC). Initially, data were filtered and adjusted for sensor drift and skewed distribution using ln-transformation. Acceptable data were passed on to a time-series model using double exponential smoothing to estimate level and trends at cow level. The OCC levels and trends were converted to a continuous (0-1) scale, termed elevated mastitis risk (EMR), where values close to zero indicate healthy cow status and values close to 1 indicate high risk of mastitis. Finally, a feedback loop was included to dynamically request a time to next sample, based on latest EMR values or errors in the raw data stream. The estimated EMR values were used to issue 2 types of alerts, new and (on-going) intramammary infection (IMI) alerts. The new alerts were issued when the EMR values exceeded a threshold, and the IMI alerts were issued for subsequent alerts. New alerts were only issued after the EMR had been below the threshold for at least 8d. The detection model was evaluated using time-window analysis and commercial herd data (6 herds, 595,927 milkings) at different sampling intensities. Recorded treatments of mastitis were used as gold standard. Significantly higher EMR values were detected in treated than in contemporary untreated cows. The proportion of detected mastitis cases using new alerts was between 28.0 and 43.1% and highest for a fixed sampling scheme aiming at 24h between measurements. This was higher for IMI alerts, between 54.6 and 89.0%, and highest when all available measurements were used. The lowest false alert rate of 6.5 per 1,000 milkings was observed when all measurements were used. The results showed that a dynamic sampling scheme with a default value of 24h between measurements gave only a small reduction in proportion of detected mastitis treatments and remained at 88.5%. It was concluded that filtering of raw data

  12. Automated screening system for retinal health using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition and integrated index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Koh, Joel E W; Tan, Jen Hong; Bhandary, Sulatha V; Rao, A Krishna; Fujita, Hamido; Hagiwara, Yuki; Chua, Chua Kuang; Laude, Augustinus

    2016-08-01

    Posterior Segment Eye Diseases (PSED) namely Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), glaucoma and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are the prime causes of vision loss globally. Vision loss can be prevented, if these diseases are detected at an early stage. Structural abnormalities such as changes in cup-to-disc ratio, Hard Exudates (HE), drusen, Microaneurysms (MA), Cotton Wool Spots (CWS), Haemorrhages (HA), Geographic Atrophy (GA) and Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) in PSED can be identified by manual examination of fundus images by clinicians. However, manual screening is labour-intensive, tiresome and time consuming. Hence, there is a need to automate the eye screening. In this work Bi-dimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) technique is used to decompose fundus images into 2D Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) to capture variations in the pixels due to morphological changes. Further, various entropy namely Renyi, Fuzzy, Shannon, Vajda, Kapur and Yager and energy features are extracted from IMFs. These extracted features are ranked using Chernoff Bound and Bhattacharyya Distance (CBBD), Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD), Fuzzy-minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (FmRMR), Wilcoxon, Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (ROC) and t-test methods. Further, these ranked features are fed to Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to classify normal and abnormal (DR, AMD and glaucoma) classes. The performance of the proposed eye screening system is evaluated using 800 (Normal=400 and Abnormal=400) digital fundus images and 10-fold cross validation method. Our proposed system automatically identifies normal and abnormal classes with an average accuracy of 88.63%, sensitivity of 86.25% and specificity of 91% using 17 optimal features ranked using CBBD and SVM-Radial Basis Function (RBF) classifier. Moreover, a novel Retinal Risk Index (RRI) is developed using two significant features to distinguish two classes using single number. Such a system helps to reduce eye

  13. Support of Integrated Health Management (IHM) through Automated Analyses of Flowfield-Derived Spectrographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Marshall C.; Cooper, Anita E.; Powers, W. T.

    2003-01-01

    Flow-field analysis techniques under continuing development at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center are the foundation for a new type of health monitoring instrumentation for propulsion systems and a vast range of other applications. Physics, spectroscopy, mechanics, optics, and cutting-edge computer sciences merge to make recent developments in such instrumentation possible. Issues encountered in adaptation of such a system to future space vehicles, or retrofit in existing hardware, are central to the work. This paper is an overview of the collaborative efforts results, current efforts, and future plans.

  14. Improved patient specific seizure detection during pre-surgical evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chua, Eric C-P

    2011-04-01

    There is considerable interest in improved off-line automated seizure detection methods that will decrease the workload of EEG monitoring units. Subject-specific approaches have been demonstrated to perform better than subject-independent ones. However, for pre-surgical diagnostics, the traditional method of obtaining a priori data to train subject-specific classifiers is not practical. We present an alternative method that works by adapting the threshold of a subject-independent to a specific subject based on feedback from the user.

  15. Patient-specific dose estimation for pediatric chest CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Colsher, James G.; Frush, Donald P. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Current methods for organ and effective dose estimations in pediatric CT are largely patient generic. Physical phantoms and computer models have only been developed for standard/limited patient sizes at discrete ages (e.g., 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 years old) and do not reflect the variability of patient anatomy and body habitus within the same size/age group. In this investigation, full-body computer models of seven pediatric patients in the same size/protocol group (weight: 11.9-18.2 kg) were created based on the patients' actual multi-detector array CT (MDCT) data. Organs and structures in the scan coverage were individually segmented. Other organs and structures were created by morphing existing adult models (developed from visible human data) to match the framework defined by the segmented organs, referencing the organ volume and anthropometry data in ICRP Publication 89. Organ and effective dose of these patients from a chest MDCT scan protocol (64 slice LightSpeed VCT scanner, 120 kVp, 70 or 75 mA, 0.4 s gantry rotation period, pitch of 1.375, 20 mm beam collimation, and small body scan field-of-view) was calculated using a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated to simulate radiation transport in the same CT system. The seven patients had normalized effective dose of 3.7-5.3 mSv/100 mAs (coefficient of variation: 10.8%). Normalized lung dose and heart dose were 10.4-12.6 mGy/100 mAs and 11.2-13.3 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. Organ dose variations across the patients were generally small for large organs in the scan coverage (<7%), but large for small organs in the scan coverage (9%-18%) and for partially or indirectly exposed organs (11%-77%). Normalized effective dose correlated weakly with body weight (correlation coefficient: r=-0.80). Normalized lung dose and heart dose correlated strongly with mid-chest equivalent diameter (lung: r=-0.99, heart: r=-0.93); these strong correlation relationships can be used to estimate patient-specific organ

  16. Automated health alerts from Kinect-based in-home gait measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Erik E; Skubic, Marjorie; Back, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    A method for automatically generating alerts to clinicians in response to changes in in-home gait parameters is investigated. Kinect-based gait measurement systems were installed in apartments in a senior living facility. The systems continuously monitored the walking speed, stride time, and stride length of apartment residents. A framework for modeling uncertainty in the residents' gait parameter estimates, which is critical for robust change detection, is developed; along with an algorithm for detecting changes that may be clinically relevant. Three retrospective case studies, of individuals who had their gait monitored for periods ranging from 12 to 29 months, are presented to illustrate use of the alert method. Evidence suggests that clinicians could be alerted to health changes at an early stage, while they are still small and interventions may be most successful. Additional potential uses are also discussed.

  17. Using an EPID for patient-specific VMAT quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A patient-specific quality assurance (QA) method was developed to verify gantry-specific individual multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures (control points) in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods: VMAT treatment plans were generated in an Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). DICOM images from a Varian EPID (aS1000) acquired in continuous acquisition mode were used for pretreatment QA. Each cine image file contains the grayscale image of the MLC aperture related to its specific control point and the corresponding gantry angle information. The TPS MLC file of this RapidArc plan contains the leaf positions for all 177 control points (gantry angles). In-house software was developed that interpolates the measured images based on the gantry angle and overlays them with the MLC pattern for all control points. The 38% isointensity line was used to define the edge of the MLC leaves on the portal images. The software generates graphs and tables that provide analysis for the number of mismatched leaf positions for a chosen distance to agreement at each control point and the frequency in which each particular leaf mismatches for the entire arc. Results: Seven patients plans were analyzed using this method. The leaves with the highest mismatched rate were found to be treatment plan dependent. Conclusions: This in-house software can be used to automatically verify the MLC leaf positions for all control points of VMAT plans using cine images acquired by an EPID.

  18. Additive manufacturing of patient-specific tubular continuum manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Ernar; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Tubular continuum robots, which are composed of multiple concentric, precurved, elastic tubes, provide more dexterity than traditional surgical instruments at the same diameter. The tubes can be precurved such that the resulting manipulator fulfills surgical task requirements. Up to now the only material used for the component tubes of those manipulators is NiTi, a super-elastic shape-memory alloy of nickel and titan. NiTi is a cost-intensive material and fabrication processes are complex, requiring (proprietary) technology, e.g. for shape setting. In this paper, we evaluate component tubes made of 3 different thermoplastic materials (PLA, PCL and nylon) using fused filament fabrication technology (3D printing). This enables quick and cost-effective production of custom, patient-specific continuum manipulators, produced on site on demand. Stress-strain and deformation characteristics are evaluated experimentally for 16 fabricated tubes of each thermoplastic with diameters and shapes equivalent to those of NiTi tubes. Tubes made of PCL and nylon exhibit properties comparable to those made of NiTi. We further demonstrate a tubular continuum manipulator composed of 3 nylon tubes in a transnasal, transsphenoidal skull base surgery scenario in vitro.

  19. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  20. Towards Patient-Specific Modeling of Coronary Hemodynamics in Healthy and Diseased State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen van der Horst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model describing the primary relations between the cardiac muscle and coronary circulation might be useful for interpreting coronary hemodynamics in case multiple types of coronary circulatory disease are present. The main contribution of the present study is the coupling of a microstructure-based heart contraction model with a 1D wave propagation model. The 1D representation of the vessels enables patient-specific modeling of the arteries and/or can serve as boundary conditions for detailed 3D models, while the heart model enables the simulation of cardiac disease, with physiology-based parameter changes. Here, the different components of the model are explained and the ability of the model to describe coronary hemodynamics in health and disease is evaluated. Two disease types are modeled: coronary epicardial stenoses and left ventricular hypertrophy with an aortic valve stenosis. In all simulations (healthy and diseased, the dynamics of pressure and flow qualitatively agreed with observations described in literature. We conclude that the model adequately can predict coronary hemodynamics in both normal and diseased state based on patient-specific clinical data.

  1. Patient-specific data fusion defines prognostic cancer subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Yuan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Different data types can offer complementary perspectives on the same biological phenomenon. In cancer studies, for example, data on copy number alterations indicate losses and amplifications of genomic regions in tumours, while transcriptomic data point to the impact of genomic and environmental events on the internal wiring of the cell. Fusing different data provides a more comprehensive model of the cancer cell than that offered by any single type. However, biological signals in different patients exhibit diverse degrees of concordance due to cancer heterogeneity and inherent noise in the measurements. This is a particularly important issue in cancer subtype discovery, where personalised strategies to guide therapy are of vital importance. We present a nonparametric Bayesian model for discovering prognostic cancer subtypes by integrating gene expression and copy number variation data. Our model is constructed from a hierarchy of Dirichlet Processes and addresses three key challenges in data fusion: (i To separate concordant from discordant signals, (ii to select informative features, (iii to estimate the number of disease subtypes. Concordance of signals is assessed individually for each patient, giving us an additional level of insight into the underlying disease structure. We exemplify the power of our model in prostate cancer and breast cancer and show that it outperforms competing methods. In the prostate cancer data, we identify an entirely new subtype with extremely poor survival outcome and show how other analyses fail to detect it. In the breast cancer data, we find subtypes with superior prognostic value by using the concordant results. These discoveries were crucially dependent on our model's ability to distinguish concordant and discordant signals within each patient sample, and would otherwise have been missed. We therefore demonstrate the importance of taking a patient-specific approach, using highly-flexible nonparametric

  2. Respiratory gated radiotherapy-pretreatment patient specific quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Rajesh; Sinha, Sujit Nath; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Samuvel, Kothandaraman; Yadav, Girigesh; Sigamani, Ashok Kumar; Subramani, Vikraman; Raj, N Arunai Nambi

    2016-01-01

    Organ motions during inter-fraction and intra-fraction radiotherapy introduce errors in dose delivery, irradiating excess of normal tissue, and missing target volume. Lung and heart involuntary motions cause above inaccuracies and gated dose delivery try to overcome above effects. Present work attempts a novel method to verify dynamic dose delivery using a four-dimensional (4D) phantom. Three patients with mobile target are coached to maintain regular and reproducible breathing pattern. Appropriate intensity projection image set generated from 4D-computed tomography (4D-CT) is used for target delineation. Intensity modulated radiotherapy plans were generated on selected phase using CT simulator (Siemens AG, Germany) in conjunction with "Real-time position management" (Varian, USA) to acquire 4D-CT images. Verification plans were generated for both ion chamber and Gafchromic (EBT) film image sets. Gated verification plans were delivered on the phantom moving with patient respiratory pattern. We developed a MATLAB-based software to generate maximum intensity projection, minimum intensity projections, and average intensity projections, also a program to convert patient breathing pattern to phantom compatible format. Dynamic thorax quality assurance (QA) phantom (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems type) is used to perform the patient specific QA, which holds an ion chamber and film to measure delivered radiation intensity. Exposed EBT films are analyzed and compared with treatment planning system calculated dose. The ion chamber measured dose shows good agreement with planned dose within ± 0.5% (0.203 ± 0.57%). Gamma value evaluated from EBT film shows passing rates 92-99% (96.63 ± 3.84%) for 3% dose and 3 mm distance criteria. Respiratory gated treatment delivery accuracy is found to be within clinically acceptable level. PMID:27051173

  3. Respiratory gated radiotherapy-pretreatment patient specific quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Thiyagarajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ motions during inter-fraction and intra-fraction radiotherapy introduce errors in dose delivery, irradiating excess of normal tissue, and missing target volume. Lung and heart involuntary motions cause above inaccuracies and gated dose delivery try to overcome above effects. Present work attempts a novel method to verify dynamic dose delivery using a four-dimensional (4D phantom. Three patients with mobile target are coached to maintain regular and reproducible breathing pattern. Appropriate intensity projection image set generated from 4D-computed tomography (4D-CT is used for target delineation. Intensity modulated radiotherapy plans were generated on selected phase using CT simulator (Siemens AG, Germany in conjunction with "Real-time position management" (Varian, USA to acquire 4D-CT images. Verification plans were generated for both ion chamber and Gafchromic (EBT film image sets. Gated verification plans were delivered on the phantom moving with patient respiratory pattern. We developed a MATLAB-based software to generate maximum intensity projection, minimum intensity projections, and average intensity projections, also a program to convert patient breathing pattern to phantom compatible format. Dynamic thorax quality assurance (QA phantom (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems type is used to perform the patient specific QA, which holds an ion chamber and film to measure delivered radiation intensity. Exposed EBT films are analyzed and compared with treatment planning system calculated dose. The ion chamber measured dose shows good agreement with planned dose within ± 0.5% (0.203 ± 0.57%. Gamma value evaluated from EBT film shows passing rates 92–99% (96.63 ± 3.84% for 3% dose and 3 mm distance criteria. Respiratory gated treatment delivery accuracy is found to be within clinically acceptable level.

  4. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  5. Patient-Specific Variations in Biomarkers across Gingivitis and Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Miller, Craig S; Dawson, Dolph; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of saliva, as an emerging diagnostic fluid in conjunction with classification techniques to discern biological heterogeneity in clinically labelled gingivitis and periodontitis subjects (80 subjects; 40/group) A battery of classification techniques were investigated as traditional single classifier systems as well as within a novel selective voting ensemble classification approach (SVA) framework. Unlike traditional single classifiers, SVA is shown to reveal patient-specific variations within disease groups, which may be important for identifying proclivity to disease progression or disease stability. Salivary expression profiles of IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, and MIP-1α from 80 patients were analyzed using four classification algorithms (LDA: Linear Discriminant Analysis [LDA], Quadratic Discriminant Analysis [QDA], Naïve Bayes Classifier [NBC] and Support Vector Machines [SVM]) as traditional single classifiers and within the SVA framework (SVA-LDA, SVA-QDA, SVA-NB and SVA-SVM). Our findings demonstrate that performance measures (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of traditional classification as single classifier were comparable to that of the SVA counterparts using clinical labels of the samples as ground truth. However, unlike traditional single classifier approaches, the normalized ensemble vote-counts from SVA revealed varying proclivity of the subjects for each of the disease groups. More importantly, the SVA identified a subset of gingivitis and periodontitis samples that demonstrated a biological proclivity commensurate with the other clinical group. This subset was confirmed across SVA-LDA, SVA-QDA, SVA-NB and SVA-SVM. Heatmap visualization of their ensemble sets revealed lack of consensus between these subsets and the rest of the samples within the respective disease groups indicating the unique nature of the patients in these subsets. While the source of variation is not known, the results presented clearly elucidate the

  6. Adaptive grid generation in a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Simona; Kallmes, David F.; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

    2013-11-01

    computational time for patient-specific hemodynamics simulations, which are used to help assess the likelihood of aneurysm rupture using CFD calculated flow patterns.

  7. Patient-Specific Variations in Biomarkers across Gingivitis and Periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Nagarajan

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of saliva, as an emerging diagnostic fluid in conjunction with classification techniques to discern biological heterogeneity in clinically labelled gingivitis and periodontitis subjects (80 subjects; 40/group A battery of classification techniques were investigated as traditional single classifier systems as well as within a novel selective voting ensemble classification approach (SVA framework. Unlike traditional single classifiers, SVA is shown to reveal patient-specific variations within disease groups, which may be important for identifying proclivity to disease progression or disease stability. Salivary expression profiles of IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, and MIP-1α from 80 patients were analyzed using four classification algorithms (LDA: Linear Discriminant Analysis [LDA], Quadratic Discriminant Analysis [QDA], Naïve Bayes Classifier [NBC] and Support Vector Machines [SVM] as traditional single classifiers and within the SVA framework (SVA-LDA, SVA-QDA, SVA-NB and SVA-SVM. Our findings demonstrate that performance measures (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of traditional classification as single classifier were comparable to that of the SVA counterparts using clinical labels of the samples as ground truth. However, unlike traditional single classifier approaches, the normalized ensemble vote-counts from SVA revealed varying proclivity of the subjects for each of the disease groups. More importantly, the SVA identified a subset of gingivitis and periodontitis samples that demonstrated a biological proclivity commensurate with the other clinical group. This subset was confirmed across SVA-LDA, SVA-QDA, SVA-NB and SVA-SVM. Heatmap visualization of their ensemble sets revealed lack of consensus between these subsets and the rest of the samples within the respective disease groups indicating the unique nature of the patients in these subsets. While the source of variation is not known, the results presented clearly

  8. Patterns of patient specific dosimetry in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); McMullen, Kevin P.; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) has been used for bone marrow transplant for hematologic and immune deficiency conditions. The goal of TBI is to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, with a generally accepted range of dose uniformity being within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. The moving table technique for TBI could make dose uniform in whole body by adjusting couch speed. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the actual dose by calculation and hence in vivo dosimetry (IVD) is routinely performed. Here, the authors present patterns of patient-specific IVD in 161 TBI patients treated at our institution. Methods: Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit (Model C9 Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, Picker X-ray Corporation) with customized moving bed (SITI Industrial Products, Inc., Fishers, IN) were used for TBI treatment. During treatment, OneDose{sup TM} (Sicel Technology, NC) Metal Oxide-silicon Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor detectors were placed at patient body surface; both entrance and exit side of the beam at patient head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee to estimate midplane dose. When large differences (>10%) between the prescribed and measured dose were observed, dose delivery was corrected for subsequent fractions by the adjustment of couch speed and/or bolus placement. Under IRB exempt status, the authors retrospectively analyzed the treatment records of 161 patients who received TBI treatment between 2006 and 2011. Results: Across the entire cohort, the median {+-} SD (range) percent variance between calculated and measured dose for head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee was -2.3 {+-} 10.2% (-66.2 to +35.3), 1.1 {+-} 11.5% (-62.2 to +40.3), -1.9 {+-} 9.5% (-66.4 to +46.6), -1.1 {+-} 7.2% (-35.2 to +42.9), and 3.4 {+-} 12.2% (-47.9 to +108.5), respectively. More than half of treatments were within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose for all anatomical regions. For 80% of treatments (10%-90%), dose at the umbilicus was within {+-}10

  9. Three-dimensional left ventricular segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging for patient-specific modelling purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiani, Enrico G.; Colombo, Andrea; Pepi, Mauro; Piazzese, Concetta; Maffessanti, Francesco; Lang, Roberto M.; Carminati, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Aims To propose a nearly automated left ventricular (LV) three-dimensional (3D) surface segmentation procedure, based on active shape modelling (ASM) and built on a database of 3D echocardiographic (3DE) LV surfaces, for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images, and to test its accuracy for LV volumes computation compared with ‘gold standard’ manual tracings and discs-summation method. Methods and results The ASM was created based on segmented LV surfaces (4D LV analysis, Tomtec) from 3DE datasets of 205 patients. Then, it was applied to the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging short-axis (SAX) images stack of 12 consecutive patients. After proper realignment using two- and four-chambers CMR long-axis views both as reference and for initializing LV apex and base (six points in total), the ASM was iteratively and automatically updated to match the information of all the SAX planes contemporaneously, resulting in an endocardial LV 3D mesh from which volume was directly derived. The same CMR images were analysed by an experienced cardiologist to derive end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes. Linear correlation and Bland–Altman analyses were applied vs. the manual ‘gold standard’. Active shape modelling results showed high correlations with manual values both for LV volumes (r2 > 0.98) and ejection fraction (EF) (r2 > 0.90), non-significant biases and narrow limits of agreement. Conclusion The proposed method resulted in accurate detection of 3D LV endocardial surfaces, which lead to fast and reliable measurements of LV volumes and EF when compared with manual tracing of CMR SAX images. The segmented 3D mesh, including a realistic LV apex and base, could constitute a novel starting point for more realistic patient-specific finite element modelling. PMID:25362176

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 51: An analysis of the effectiveness of automated pre-, post- and intra-treatment auditing of electronic health records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, A.; Seuntjens, J.; Parker, W.; Kildea, J. [Dept. of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Freeman, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    We describe development of automated, web-based, electronic health record (EHR) auditing software for use within our paperless radiation oncology clinic. By facilitating access to multiple databases within the clinic, each patient's EHR is audited prior to treatment, regularly during treatment, and post treatment. Anomalies such as missing documentation, non-compliant workflow and treatment parameters that differ significantly from the norm may be monitored, flagged and brought to the attention of clinicians. By determining historical trends using existing patient data and by comparing new patient data with the historical, we expect our software to provide a measurable improvement in the quality of radiotherapy at our centre.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 51: An analysis of the effectiveness of automated pre-, post- and intra-treatment auditing of electronic health records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe development of automated, web-based, electronic health record (EHR) auditing software for use within our paperless radiation oncology clinic. By facilitating access to multiple databases within the clinic, each patient's EHR is audited prior to treatment, regularly during treatment, and post treatment. Anomalies such as missing documentation, non-compliant workflow and treatment parameters that differ significantly from the norm may be monitored, flagged and brought to the attention of clinicians. By determining historical trends using existing patient data and by comparing new patient data with the historical, we expect our software to provide a measurable improvement in the quality of radiotherapy at our centre

  12. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  13. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  14. Automated Contingency Management for Propulsion Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing demand for improved reliability and survivability of mission-critical systems is driving the development of health monitoring and Automated Contingency...

  15. Combining Population and Patient-Specific Characteristics for Prostate Segmentation on 3D CT Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Guo, Rongrong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Liu, Xiabi; Tade, Funmilayo; Schuster, David M.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Prostate segmentation on CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore the population and patient-specific characteristics for the segmentation of the prostate on CT images. Because population learning does not consider the inter-patient variations and because patient-specific learning may not perform well for different patients, we are combining the population and patient-specific information to improve segmentation performance. Specifically, we train a population model based on the population data and train a patient-specific model based on the manual segmentation on three slice of the new patient. We compute the similarity between the two models to explore the influence of applicable population knowledge on the specific patient. By combining the patient-specific knowledge with the influence, we can capture the population and patient-specific characteristics to calculate the probability of a pixel belonging to the prostate. Finally, we smooth the prostate surface according to the prostate-density value of the pixels in the distance transform image. We conducted the leave-one-out validation experiments on a set of CT volumes from 15 patients. Manual segmentation results from a radiologist serve as the gold standard for the evaluation. Experimental results show that our method achieved an average DSC of 85.1% as compared to the manual segmentation gold standard. This method outperformed the population learning method and the patient-specific learning approach alone. The CT segmentation method can have various applications in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Flow topology in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms during rest and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized widening of the abdominal aorta. Flow in AAA is dominated by recirculation, transitional turbulence and low wall shear stress. Image-based CFD has recently enabled high resolution flow data in patient-specific AAA. This study aims to characterize transport in different AAAs, and understand flow topology changes from rest to exercise, which has been a hypothesized therapy due to potential acute changes in flow. Velocity data in 6 patients with different AAA morphology were obtained using image-based CFD under rest and exercise conditions. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields were computed from integration of the velocity data to identify dominant Lagrangian coherent structures. The flow topology was compared between rest and exercise conditions. For all patients, the systolic inflow jet resulted in coherent vortex formation. The evolution of this vortex varied greatly between patients and was a major determinant of transport inside the AAA during diastole. During exercise, previously observed stagnant regions were either replaced with undisturbed flow, regions of uniform high mixing, or persisted relatively unchanged. A mix norm measure provided a quantitative assessment of mixing. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, grant number 5R21HL108272.

  17. An automated, broad-based, near real-time public health surveillance system using presentations to hospital Emergency Departments in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Clayton

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a climate of concern over bioterrorism threats and emergent diseases, public health authorities are trialling more timely surveillance systems. The 2003 Rugby World Cup (RWC provided an opportunity to test the viability of a near real-time syndromic surveillance system in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. We describe the development and early results of this largely automated system that used data routinely collected in Emergency Departments (EDs. Methods Twelve of 49 EDs in the Sydney metropolitan area automatically transmitted surveillance data from their existing information systems to a central database in near real-time. Information captured for each ED visit included patient demographic details, presenting problem and nursing assessment entered as free-text at triage time, physician-assigned provisional diagnosis codes, and status at departure from the ED. Both diagnoses from the EDs and triage text were used to assign syndrome categories. The text information was automatically classified into one or more of 26 syndrome categories using automated "naïve Bayes" text categorisation techniques. Automated processes were used to analyse both diagnosis and free text-based syndrome data and to produce web-based statistical summaries for daily review. An adjusted cumulative sum (cusum was used to assess the statistical significance of trends. Results During the RWC the system did not identify any major public health threats associated with the tournament, mass gatherings or the influx of visitors. This was consistent with evidence from other sources, although two known outbreaks were already in progress before the tournament. Limited baseline in early monitoring prevented the system from automatically identifying these ongoing outbreaks. Data capture was invisible to clinical staff in EDs and did not add to their workload. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of syndromic surveillance using

  18. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing

    OpenAIRE

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital s...

  19. Patient-Specific Surgical Planning, Where Do We Stand? The Example of the Fontan Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zélicourt, Diane A; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2016-01-01

    The Fontan surgery for single ventricle heart defects is a typical example of a clinical intervention in which patient-specific computational modeling can improve patient outcome: with the functional heterogeneity of the presenting patients, which precludes generic solutions, and the clear influence of the surgically-created Fontan connection on hemodynamics, it is acknowledged that individualized computational optimization of the post-operative hemodynamics can be of clinical value. A large body of literature has thus emerged seeking to provide clinically relevant answers and innovative solutions, with an increasing emphasis on patient-specific approaches. In this review we discuss the benefits and challenges of patient-specific simulations for the Fontan surgery, reviewing state of the art solutions and avenues for future development. We first discuss the clinical impact of patient-specific simulations, notably how they have contributed to our understanding of the link between Fontan hemodynamics and patient outcome. This is followed by a survey of methodologies for capturing patient-specific hemodynamics, with an emphasis on the challenges of defining patient-specific boundary conditions and their extension for prediction of post-operative outcome. We conclude with insights into potential future directions, noting that one of the most pressing issues might be the validation of the predictive capabilities of the developed framework. PMID:26183962

  20. Voxel classification and graph cuts for automated segmentation of pathological periprosthetic hip anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malan, D.F.; Botha, C.P.; Valstar, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automated patient-specific image-based segmentation of tissues surrounding aseptically loose hip prostheses is desired. For this we present an automated segmentation pipeline that labels periprosthetic tissues in computed tomography (CT). The intended application of this pipeline is in pre-o

  1. 21 CFR 864.3875 - Automated tissue processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated tissue processor. 864.3875 Section 864.3875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Automated tissue processor. (a) Identification. An automated tissue processor is an automated system used...

  2. An automated online instrument to quantify aerosol-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) for ambient measurement and health-relevant aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Francis P. H.; Fuller, Stephen J.; Freshwater, Ray; Green, David C.; Kelly, Frank J.; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient aerosol particles have been well documented, but it is still unclear which aerosol properties are most important for their negative health impact. Some studies suggest the oxidative effects of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potential major contributors to the toxicity of particles. Traditional ROS measurement techniques are labour-intensive, give poor temporal resolution and generally have significant delays between aerosol sampling and ROS analysis. However, many oxidising particle components are reactive and thus potentially short-lived. Thus, a technique to quantify particle-bound ROS online would be beneficial to quantify also the short-lived ROS components. We introduce a new portable instrument to allow online, continuous measurement of particle-bound ROS using a chemical assay of 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), via fluorescence spectroscopy. All components of the new instrument are attached to a containing shell, resulting in a compact system capable of automated continuous field deployment over many hours or days. From laboratory measurements, the instrument was found to have a detection limit of ˜ 4 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per cubic metre (m3) air, a dynamic range up to at least ˜ 2000 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per m3 air and a time resolution of ≤ 12 min. The instrument allows for ˜ 16 h automated measurement if unattended and shows a fast response to changes in concentrations of laboratory-generated oxidised organic aerosol. The instrument was deployed at an urban site in London, and particulate ROS levels of up to 24 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per m3 air were detected with PM2.5 concentrations up to 28 µg m-3. The new and portable Online Particle-bound ROS Instrument (OPROSI) allows fast-response quantification; this is important due to the potentially short-lived nature of particle-bound ROS as well as fast-changing atmospheric conditions

  3. A fully automated health-care monitoring at home without attachment of any biological sensors and its clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Kosuke; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Ueno, Hiroshi; Kuwae, Yutaka; Ikarashi, Akira; Yuji, Tadahiko; Higashi, Yuji; Tanaka, Shinobu; Fujimoto, Toshiro; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Daily monitoring of health condition is important for an effective scheme for early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as adiposis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and other diseases. Commercially available devices for health care monitoring at home are cumbersome in terms of self-attachment of biological sensors and self-operation of the devices. From this viewpoint, we have been developing a non-conscious physiological monitor installed in a bath, a lavatory, and a bed for home health care and evaluated its measurement accuracy by simultaneous recordings of a biological sensors directly attached to the body surface. In order to investigate its applicability to health condition monitoring, we have further developed a new monitoring system which can automatically monitor and store the health condition data. In this study, by evaluation on 3 patients with cardiac infarct or sleep apnea syndrome, patients' health condition such as body and excretion weight in the toilet and apnea and hypopnea during sleeping were successfully monitored, indicating that the system appears useful for monitoring the health condition during daily living.

  4. Patient-Specific, Time-Varying Predictors of Post-ICU Informal Caregiver Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Chelluri, Lakshmipathi; Pinsky, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The outcomes of informal caregivers of survivors of critical illness likely depend on patient characteristics, which may change over time. To date, few studies have examined patient-specific predictors of post-ICU informal caregiver burden, and none has tested whether predictors vary after hospital discharge. Methods: We designed a prospective, longitudinal observational study, enrolling 48 patient-caregiver dyads from four ICUs in a university hospital. Informal caregiver depression symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Lifestyle disruption was measured with the Activity Restriction Scale. Linear regression models were built to test for patient- and caregiver-specific predictors of depression symptoms and lifestyle disruption 2, 6, and 12 months after ICU admission. Results: Patients had a mean (SD) age of 52.5 (19.7) years, 67% were men, median (interquartile range) Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score was 52 (38.5, 65). The caregivers had a mean (SD) age of 52.8 (12.8) years, 91.2% were women, and 48% were spouses. Predictors of caregiver depression symptoms were patient gender (men) at 2 and 12 months and tracheostomy at 12 months. Predictors of lifestyle disruption were patient education (more common among high school graduates) and patient gender (men) at 2 months, and tracheostomy, functional dependency, and patient gender (men) at 12 months. Conclusions: The determinants of post-ICU informal caregiver burden likely depend on characteristics of the patient as well as the caregiver and may vary over time. Further research is necessary to better understand the longitudinal determinants of burden in order to develop more effective caregiver interventions. PMID:19762552

  5. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  6. Patient-specific Deformation Modelling via Elastography: Application to Image-guided Prostate Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ni, Dong; Qin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided prostate interventions often require the registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images to provide high-quality guidance. One of the main challenges for registering MR images to TRUS images is how to estimate the TRUS-probe-induced prostate deformation that occurs during TRUS imaging. The combined statistical and biomechanical modeling approach shows promise for the adequate estimation of prostate deformation. However, the right setting of the biomechanical parameters is very crucial for realistic deformation modeling. We propose a patient-specific deformation model equipped with personalized biomechanical parameters obtained from shear wave elastography to reliably predict the prostate deformation during image-guided interventions. Using data acquired from a prostate phantom and twelve patients with suspected prostate cancer, we compared the prostate deformation model with and without patient-specific biomechanical parameters in terms of deformation estimation accuracy. The results show that the patient-specific deformation model possesses favorable model ability, and outperforms the model without patient-specific biomechanical parameters. The employment of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters obtained from elastography for deformation modeling shows promise for providing more precise deformation estimation in applications that use computer-assisted image-guided intervention systems. PMID:27272239

  7. Orbital and Maxillofacial Computer Aided Surgery: Patient-Specific Finite Element Models To Predict Surgical Outcomes

    CERN Document Server

    Luboz, V; Swider, P; Payan, Y; Luboz, Vincent; Chabanas, Matthieu; Swider, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses an important issue raised for the clinical relevance of Computer-Assisted Surgical applications, namely the methodology used to automatically build patient-specific Finite Element (FE) models of anatomical structures. From this perspective, a method is proposed, based on a technique called the Mesh-Matching method, followed by a process that corrects mesh irregularities. The Mesh-Matching algorithm generates patient-specific volume meshes from an existing generic model. The mesh regularization process is based on the Jacobian matrix transform related to the FE reference element and the current element. This method for generating patient-specific FE models is first applied to Computer-Assisted maxillofacial surgery, and more precisely to the FE elastic modelling of patient facial soft tissues. For each patient, the planned bone osteotomies (mandible, maxilla, chin) are used as boundary conditions to deform the FE face model, in order to predict the aesthetic outcome of the surgery. Seven F...

  8. From Patient-Specific Mathematical Neuro-Oncology to Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eBaldock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are notoriously aggressive, malignant brain tumors that have variable response to treatment. These patients often have poor prognosis, informed primarily by histopathology. Mathematical neuro-oncology (MNO is a young and burgeoning field that leverages mathematical models to predict and quantify response to therapies. These mathematical models can form the basis of modern precision medicine approaches to tailor therapy in a patient-specific manner. Patient specific models (PSMs can be used to overcome imaging limitations, improve prognostic predictions, stratify patients and assess treatment response in silico. The information gleaned from such models can aid in the construction and efficacy of clinical trials and treatment protocols, accelerating the pace of clinical research in the war on cancer. This review focuses on the growing translation of PSM to clinical neuro-oncology. It will also provide a forward-looking view on a new era of patient-specific mathematical neuro-oncology.

  9. Computational biomechanics for medicine fundamental science and patient-specific applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol; Wittek, Adam; Nielsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the computational engineering community is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. The Computational Biomechanics for Medicine titles provide an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologies and advancements. This latest installment comprises nine of the latest developments in both fundamental science and patient-specific applications, from researchers in Australia, New Zealand, USA, UK, France, Ireland, and China. Some of the interesting topics discussed are: cellular mechanics; tumor growth and modeling; medical image analysis; and both patient-specific fluid dynamics and solid mechanics simulations.

  10. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  11. Three dimensional patient-specific collagen architecture modulates cartilage responses in the knee joint during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Lasse P; Mononen, Mika E; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Nieminen, Miika T; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Korhonen, Rami K

    2016-08-01

    Site-specific variation of collagen fibril orientations can affect cartilage stresses in knee joints. However, this has not been confirmed by 3-D analyses. Therefore, we present a novel method for evaluation of the effect of patient-specific collagen architecture on time-dependent mechanical responses of knee joint cartilage during gait. 3-D finite element (FE) models of a human knee joint were created with the collagen architectures obtained from T2 mapped MRI (patient-specific model) and from literature (literature model). The effect of accuracy of the implementation of collagen fibril architecture into the model was examined by using a submodel with denser FE mesh. Compared to the literature model, fibril strains and maximum principal stresses were reduced especially in the superficial/middle regions of medial tibial cartilage in the patient-specific model after the loading response of gait (up to -413 and -26%, respectively). Compared to the more coarsely meshed joint model, the patient-specific submodel demonstrated similar strain and stress distributions but increased values particularly in the superficial cartilage regions (especially stresses increased >60%). The results demonstrate that implementation of subject-specific collagen architecture of cartilage in 3-D modulates location- and time-dependent mechanical responses of human knee joint cartilage. Submodeling with more accurate implementation of collagen fibril architecture alters cartilage stresses particularly in the superficial/middle tissue. PMID:26714834

  12. Patient-specific dosimetric endpoints based treatment plan quality control in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Staub, David; Chen, Mingli; Lu, Weiguo; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Xun; Li, Yongbao; Zhou, Linghong; Jiang, Steve B.; Gu, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the optimal plan for each patient is specific due to unique patient anatomy. To achieve such a plan, patient-specific dosimetric goals reflecting each patient’s unique anatomy should be defined and adopted in the treatment planning procedure for plan quality control. This study is to develop such a personalized treatment plan quality control tool by predicting patient-specific dosimetric endpoints (DEs). The incorporation of patient specific DEs is realized by a multi-OAR geometry-dosimetry model, capable of predicting optimal DEs based on the individual patient’s geometry. The overall quality of a treatment plan is then judged with a numerical treatment plan quality indicator and characterized as optimal or suboptimal. Taking advantage of clinically available prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans, we built and evaluated our proposed plan quality control tool. Using our developed tool, six of twenty evaluated plans were identified as sub-optimal plans. After plan re-optimization, these suboptimal plans achieved better OAR dose sparing without sacrificing the PTV coverage, and the dosimetric endpoints of the re-optimized plans agreed well with the model predicted values, which validate the predictability of the proposed tool. In conclusion, the developed tool is able to accurately predict optimally achievable DEs of multiple OARs, identify suboptimal plans, and guide plan optimization. It is a useful tool for achieving patient-specific treatment plan quality control.

  13. Validation of a patient-specific one-dimensional model of the systemic arterial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Philippe; Bohraus, Yvette; Perren, Fabienne; Lazeyras, Francois; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and validate a patient-specific distributed model of the systemic arterial tree. This model is built using geometric and hemodynamic data measured on a specific person and validated with noninvasive measurements of flow and pressure on the same person, providing thus a patient-specific model and validation. The systemic arterial tree geometry was obtained from MR angiographic measurements. A nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive law for the arterial wall is considered. Arterial wall distensibility is based on literature data and adapted to match the wave propagation velocity of the main arteries of the specific subject, which were estimated by pressure waves traveling time. The intimal shear stress is modeled using the Witzig-Womersley theory. Blood pressure is measured using applanation tonometry and flow rate using transcranial ultrasound and phase-contrast-MRI. The model predicts pressure and flow waveforms in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the in vivo measurements, in terms of wave shape and specific wave features. Comparison with a generic one-dimensional model shows that the patient-specific model better predicts pressure and flow at specific arterial sites. These results obtained let us conclude that a patient-specific one-dimensional model of the arterial tree is able to predict well pressure and flow waveforms in the main systemic circulation, whereas this is not always the case for a generic one-dimensional model. PMID:21622820

  14. An effective algorithm for the generation of patient-specific Purkinje networks in computational electrocardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamara, Simone; Vergara, Christian; Faggiano, Elena; Nobile, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    The Purkinje network is responsible for the fast and coordinated distribution of the electrical impulse in the ventricle that triggers its contraction. Therefore, it is necessary to model its presence to obtain an accurate patient-specific model of the ventricular electrical activation. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for the generation of a patient-specific Purkinje network, driven by measures of the electrical activation acquired on the endocardium. The proposed method provides a correction of an initial network, generated by means of a fractal law, and it is based on the solution of Eikonal problems both in the muscle and in the Purkinje network. We present several numerical results both in an ideal geometry with synthetic data and in a real geometry with patient-specific clinical measures. These results highlight an improvement of the accuracy provided by the patient-specific Purkinje network with respect to the initial one. In particular, a cross-validation test shows an accuracy increase of 19% when only the 3% of the total points are used to generate the network, whereas an increment of 44% is observed when a random noise equal to 20% of the maximum value of the clinical data is added to the measures.

  15. Patient-specific dosimetric endpoints based treatment plan quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the optimal plan for each patient is specific due to unique patient anatomy. To achieve such a plan, patient-specific dosimetric goals reflecting each patient’s unique anatomy should be defined and adopted in the treatment planning procedure for plan quality control. This study is to develop such a personalized treatment plan quality control tool by predicting patient-specific dosimetric endpoints (DEs). The incorporation of patient specific DEs is realized by a multi-OAR geometry-dosimetry model, capable of predicting optimal DEs based on the individual patient’s geometry. The overall quality of a treatment plan is then judged with a numerical treatment plan quality indicator and characterized as optimal or suboptimal. Taking advantage of clinically available prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans, we built and evaluated our proposed plan quality control tool. Using our developed tool, six of twenty evaluated plans were identified as sub-optimal plans. After plan re-optimization, these suboptimal plans achieved better OAR dose sparing without sacrificing the PTV coverage, and the dosimetric endpoints of the re-optimized plans agreed well with the model predicted values, which validate the predictability of the proposed tool. In conclusion, the developed tool is able to accurately predict optimally achievable DEs of multiple OARs, identify suboptimal plans, and guide plan optimization. It is a useful tool for achieving patient-specific treatment plan quality control. (paper)

  16. Rapid prototyping for patient-specific surgical orthopaedics guides: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Diana; Laptoiu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    There has been a lot of hype surrounding the advantages to be gained from rapid prototyping processes in a number of fields, including medicine. Our literature review aims objectively to assess how effective patient-specific surgical guides manufactured using rapid prototyping are in a number of orthopaedic surgical applications. To this end, we carried out a systematic review to identify and analyse clinical and experimental literature studies in which rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides are used, focusing especially on those that entail quantifiable outcomes and, at the same time, providing details on the guides' design and type of manufacturing process. Here, it should be mentioned that in this field there are not yet medium- or long-term data, and no information on revisions. In the reviewed studies, the reported positive opinions on the use of rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides relate to the following main advantages: reduction in operating times, low costs and improvements in the accuracy of surgical interventions thanks to guides' personalisation. However, disadvantages and sources of errors which can cause patient-specific surgical guide failures are as well discussed by authors. Stereolithography is the main rapid prototyping process employed in these applications although fused deposition modelling or selective laser sintering processes can also satisfy the requirements of these applications in terms of material properties, manufacturing accuracy and construction time. Another of our findings was that individualised drill guides for spinal surgery are currently the favourite candidates for manufacture using rapid prototyping. Other emerging applications relate to complex orthopaedic surgery of the extremities: the forearm and foot. Several procedures such as osteotomies for radius malunions or tarsal coalition could become standard, thanks to the significant assistance provided by rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical

  17. [Evolution of total knee arthroplasty : From robotics and navigation to patient-specific instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaker, R

    2016-04-01

    In this article the evolution beginning with the robotics of total knee arthroplasty to CT-based and kinematic navigation and patient-specific instruments is described. Thereby it is pointed out that in the early 1990s, CT imaging solely for the planning of a knee endoprosthesis was considered as obsolete radiation exposure and this led to the widespread development of kinematical systems.Also a patient specific planning tool based on CAD built acryl harz blocs existed at the time. There is an ongoing process of implanting total knee arthroplasties in a more exact position. Nowadays the new evolution of soft tissue balancing by using a kinematic alignment has put these efforts into perspective. PMID:27025867

  18. A review of rapid prototyped surgical guides for patient-specific total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S P; Dawood, A; Richards, R; Henckel, J; Hart, A J

    2012-11-01

    Improvements in the surgical technique of total knee replacement (TKR) are continually being sought. There has recently been interest in three-dimensional (3D) pre-operative planning using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT. The 3D images are increasingly used for the production of patient-specific models, surgical guides and custom-made implants for TKR. The users of patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) claim that they allow the optimum balance of technology and conventional surgery by reducing the complexity of conventional alignment and sizing tools. In this way the advantages of accuracy and precision claimed by computer navigation techniques are achieved without the disadvantages of additional intra-operative inventory, new skills or surgical time. This review describes the terminology used in this area and debates the advantages and disadvantages of PSI.

  19. Predictive Models with Patient Specific Material Properties for the Biomechanical Behavior of Ascending Thoracic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Olfa; Duprey, Ambroise; Favre, Jean-Pierre; Avril, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the patient-specific material properties of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) using preoperative dynamic gated computed tomography (CT) scans. The identification is based on the simultaneous minimization of two cost functions, which define the difference between model predictions and gated CT measurements of the aneurysm volume at respectively systole and cardiac mid-cycle. The method is applied on five patients who underwent surgical repair of their ATAA at the University Hospital Center of St. Etienne. For these patients, the aneurysms were collected and tested mechanically using an in vitro bench. For the sake of validation, the mechanical properties found using the in vivo approach and the in vitro bench were compared. We eventually performed finite-element stress analyses based on each set of material properties. Rupture risk indexes were estimated and compared, showing promising results of the patient-specific identification method based on gated CT. PMID:26178871

  20. Review of patient-specific simulations of transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Vy, P; Auffret, Vincent; Badel, Pierre; Rochette, Michel; Le Breton, Hervé; Haigron, Pascal; Avril, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    International audience Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) accounts for one of the most promising new cardiovascular procedures. This minimally invasive technique is still at its early stage and is constantly developing thanks to imaging techniques, computer science, biomechanics and technologies of prosthesis and delivery tools. As a result, patient-specific simulation can find an exciting playground in TAVI. It canexpress its potential by providing the clinicians with powerful...

  1. MMCTP: a radiotherapy research environment for Monte Carlo and patient-specific treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy research lacks a flexible computational research environment for Monte Carlo (MC) and patient-specific treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a flexible software package on low-cost hardware with the aim of integrating new patient-specific treatment planning with MC dose calculations suitable for large-scale prospective and retrospective treatment planning studies. We designed the software package 'McGill Monte Carlo treatment planning' (MMCTP) for the research development of MC and patient-specific treatment planning. The MMCTP design consists of a graphical user interface (GUI), which runs on a simple workstation connected through standard secure-shell protocol to a cluster for lengthy MC calculations. Treatment planning information (e.g., images, structures, beam geometry properties and dose distributions) is converted into a convenient MMCTP local file storage format designated, the McGill RT format. MMCTP features include (a) DICOMRT, RTOG and CADPlan CART format imports; (b) 2D and 3D visualization views for images, structure contours, and dose distributions; (c) contouring tools; (d) DVH analysis, and dose matrix comparison tools; (e) external beam editing; (f) MC transport calculation from beam source to patient geometry for photon and electron beams. The MC input files, which are prepared from the beam geometry properties and patient information (e.g., images and structure contours), are uploaded and run on a cluster using shell commands controlled from the MMCTP GUI. The visualization, dose matrix operation and DVH tools offer extensive options for plan analysis and comparison between MC plans and plans imported from commercial treatment planning systems. The MMCTP GUI provides a flexible research platform for the development of patient-specific MC treatment planning for photon and electron external beam radiation therapy. The impact of this tool lies in the fact that it allows for systematic, platform-independent, large

  2. The utility of patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells for the modelling of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cocks, Graham; Curran, Sarah; Gami, Priya; Uwanogho, Dafe; Jeffries, Aaron R.; Kathuria, Annie; Lucchesi, Walter; Wood, Victoria; Dixon, Rosemary; Ogilvie, Caroline; Steckler, Thomas; Price, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Until now, models of psychiatric diseases have typically been animal models. Whether they were to be used to further understand the pathophysiology of the disorder, or as drug discovery tools, animal models have been the choice of preference in mimicking psychiatric disorders in an experimental setting. While there have been cellular models, they have generally been lacking in validity. This situation is changing with the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In t...

  3. A Numerical Multiscale Framework for Modeling Patient-Specific Coronary Artery Bypass Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Abhay B.; Kahn, Andrew; Marsden, Alison

    2014-11-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is performed to revascularize diseased coronary arteries, using arterial, venous or synthetic grafts. Vein grafts, used in more than 70% of procedures, have failure rates as high as 50% in less than 10 years. Hemodynamics is known to play a key role in the mechano-biological response of vein grafts, but current non-invasive imaging techniques cannot fully characterize the hemodynamic and biomechanical environment. We numerically compute hemodynamics and wall mechanics in patient-specific 3D CABG geometries using stabilized finite element methods. The 3D patient-specific domain is coupled to a 0D lumped parameter circulatory model and parameters are tuned to match patient-specific blood pressures, stroke volumes, heart rates and heuristic flow-split values. We quantify differences in hemodynamics between arterial and venous grafts and discuss possible correlations to graft failure. Extension to a deformable wall approximation will also be discussed. The quantification of wall mechanics and hemodynamics is a necessary step towards coupling continuum models in solid and fluid mechanics with the cellular and sub-cellular responses of grafts, which in turn, should lead to a more accurate prediction of the long term outcome of CABG surgeries, including predictions of growth and remodeling.

  4. Patient-specific simulations of stenting procedures in coronary bifurcations: two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlacchi, Stefano; Colleoni, Sebastian George; Cárdenes, Rubén; Chiastra, Claudio; Diez, Jose Luis; Larrabide, Ignacio; Migliavacca, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Computational simulations of stenting procedures in idealized geometries can only provide general guidelines and their use in the patient-specific planning of percutaneous treatments is inadequate. Conversely, image-based patient-specific tools that are able to realistically simulate different interventional options might facilitate clinical decision-making and provide useful insights on the treatment for each individual patient. The aim of this work is the implementation of a patient-specific model that uses image-based reconstructions of coronary bifurcations and is able to replicate real stenting procedures following clinical indications. Two clinical cases are investigated focusing the attention on the open problems of coronary bifurcations and their main treatment, the provisional side branch approach. Image-based reconstructions are created combining the information from conventional coronary angiography and computed tomography angiography while structural finite element models are implemented to replicate the real procedure performed in the patients. First, numerical results show the biomechanical influence of stents deployment in the coronary bifurcations during and after the procedures. In particular, the straightening of the arterial wall and the influence of two overlapping stents on stress fields are investigated here. Results show that a sensible decrease of the vessel tortuosity occurs after stent implantation and that overlapping devices result in an increased stress state of both the artery and the stents. Lastly, the comparison between numerical and image-based post-stenting configurations proved the reliability of such models while replicating stent deployment in coronary arteries.

  5. Effects of segmentation on patient-specific numerical simulation of cerebral aneurysm hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Prem; Schmitt, Holger; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2006-03-01

    One of the factors affecting the accuracy of patient-specific, imaging-based computational hemodynamic studies is the accuracy of geometric models created from medical images. In the present study we have investigated as to how accurate the geometric models should be in the context of cerebral aneurysms in order to obtain an accurate reproduction of intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics in individual patients using numerical simulations. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) images obtained for a patient-specific anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm and a patient-specific middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm were used to construct the geometric models. For each aneurysm, two models were created, one using a different threshold value for image segmentation than the other. The average distance between the models was about the size of one in-plane pixel. It was found that for the MCA aneurysm, the simulated pressure and shear stress distributions for the two models were entirely different while for the ACoA aneurysm the mean pressure distribution obtained for the two models were similar, but the shear stress distributions were completely different. These results indicate that accurate reproduction of intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics would require the geometric reconstruction from medical images to be highly accurate.

  6. A Patient-Specific Airway Branching Model for Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Salwa Damanhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory mechanics models have the potential to guide mechanical ventilation. Airway branching models (ABMs were developed from classical fluid mechanics models but do not provide accurate models of in vivo behaviour. Hence, the ABM was improved to include patient-specific parameters and better model observed behaviour (ABMps. Methods. The airway pressure drop of the ABMps was compared with the well-accepted dynostatic algorithm (DSA in patients diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. A scaling factor (α was used to equate the area under the pressure curve (AUC from the ABMps to the AUC of the DSA and was linked to patient state. Results. The ABMps recorded a median α value of 0.58 (IQR: 0.54–0.63; range: 0.45–0.66 for these ARDS patients. Significantly lower α values were found for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P<0.001. Conclusion. The ABMps model allows the estimation of airway pressure drop at each bronchial generation with patient-specific physiological measurements and can be generated from data measured at the bedside. The distribution of patient-specific α values indicates that the overall ABM can be readily improved to better match observed data and capture patient condition.

  7. The effect of inlet waveforms on computational hemodynamics of patient-specific intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, J; Siddiqui, A H; Meng, H

    2014-12-18

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic quantities that have been shown to predict aneurysm rupture, as well as maximal WSS (MWSS), energy loss (EL) and pressure loss coefficient (PLc). Sixteen pulsatile CFD simulations were carried out on four typical saccular aneurysms using 4 different waveforms and an identical inflow rate as inlet boundary conditions. Our results demonstrated that under the same mean inflow rate, different waveforms produced almost identical WSS distributions and WSS magnitudes, similar OSI distributions but drastically different OSI magnitudes. The OSI magnitude is correlated with the pulsatility index of the waveform. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between aneurysm-averaged OSI values calculated from one waveform and those calculated from another waveform. In addition, different waveforms produced similar MWSS, EL and PLc in each aneurysm. In conclusion, inlet waveform has minimal effects on WSS, OSI distribution, MWSS, EL and PLc and a strong effect on OSI magnitude, but aneurysm-averaged OSI from different waveforms has a strong linear correlation with each other across different aneurysms, indicating that for the same aneurysm cohort, different waveforms can consistently stratify (rank) OSI of aneurysms. PMID:25446264

  8. Activity and High-Order Effective Connectivity Alterations in Sanfilippo C Patient-Specific Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Isaac; Soriano, Jordi; Orlandi, Javier G.; Torrent, Roger; Richaud-Patin, Yvonne; Jiménez-Delgado, Senda; Merlin, Simone; Follenzi, Antonia; Consiglio, Antonella; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel; Raya, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has been successfully used to recapitulate phenotypic traits of several human diseases in vitro. Patient-specific iPSC-based disease models are also expected to reveal early functional phenotypes, although this remains to be proved. Here, we generated iPSC lines from two patients with Sanfilippo type C syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder with inheritable progressive neurodegeneration. Mature neurons obtained from patient-specific iPSC lines recapitulated the main known phenotypes of the disease, not present in genetically corrected patient-specific iPSC-derived cultures. Moreover, neuronal networks organized in vitro from mature patient-derived neurons showed early defects in neuronal activity, network-wide degradation, and altered effective connectivity. Our findings establish the importance of iPSC-based technology to identify early functional phenotypes, which can in turn shed light on the pathological mechanisms occurring in Sanfilippo syndrome. This technology also has the potential to provide valuable readouts to screen compounds, which can prevent the onset of neurodegeneration. PMID:26411903

  9. Activity and High-Order Effective Connectivity Alterations in Sanfilippo C Patient-Specific Neuronal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Canals

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology has been successfully used to recapitulate phenotypic traits of several human diseases in vitro. Patient-specific iPSC-based disease models are also expected to reveal early functional phenotypes, although this remains to be proved. Here, we generated iPSC lines from two patients with Sanfilippo type C syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder with inheritable progressive neurodegeneration. Mature neurons obtained from patient-specific iPSC lines recapitulated the main known phenotypes of the disease, not present in genetically corrected patient-specific iPSC-derived cultures. Moreover, neuronal networks organized in vitro from mature patient-derived neurons showed early defects in neuronal activity, network-wide degradation, and altered effective connectivity. Our findings establish the importance of iPSC-based technology to identify early functional phenotypes, which can in turn shed light on the pathological mechanisms occurring in Sanfilippo syndrome. This technology also has the potential to provide valuable readouts to screen compounds, which can prevent the onset of neurodegeneration.

  10. Activity and High-Order Effective Connectivity Alterations in Sanfilippo C Patient-Specific Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Isaac; Soriano, Jordi; Orlandi, Javier G; Torrent, Roger; Richaud-Patin, Yvonne; Jiménez-Delgado, Senda; Merlin, Simone; Follenzi, Antonia; Consiglio, Antonella; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel; Raya, Angel

    2015-10-13

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has been successfully used to recapitulate phenotypic traits of several human diseases in vitro. Patient-specific iPSC-based disease models are also expected to reveal early functional phenotypes, although this remains to be proved. Here, we generated iPSC lines from two patients with Sanfilippo type C syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder with inheritable progressive neurodegeneration. Mature neurons obtained from patient-specific iPSC lines recapitulated the main known phenotypes of the disease, not present in genetically corrected patient-specific iPSC-derived cultures. Moreover, neuronal networks organized in vitro from mature patient-derived neurons showed early defects in neuronal activity, network-wide degradation, and altered effective connectivity. Our findings establish the importance of iPSC-based technology to identify early functional phenotypes, which can in turn shed light on the pathological mechanisms occurring in Sanfilippo syndrome. This technology also has the potential to provide valuable readouts to screen compounds, which can prevent the onset of neurodegeneration.

  11. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  12. Home automation as an example of construction innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlies, R.D. van der; Bronswijk, J.E.M.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Home automation can contribute to the health of (older) adults. Home automation covers a broad field of ‘intelligent’ electronic or mechanical devices in the home (domestic) environment. Realizing home automation is technically possible, though still not common. In this paper main influential factor

  13. 21 CFR 864.5600 - Automated hematocrit instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated hematocrit instrument. 864.5600 Section 864.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5600 Automated hematocrit instrument. (a) Identification. An automated hematocrit instrument is...

  14. The Effect of Patient-Specific Cerebral Oxygenation Monitoring on Postoperative Cognitive Function: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lucy; Murphy, Gavin J; Culliford, Lucy; Dreyer, Lucy; Clayton, Gemma; Downes, Richard; Nicholson, Eamonn; Stoica, Serban; Reeves, Barnaby C

    2015-01-01

    Background Indices of global tissue oxygen delivery and utilization such as mixed venous oxygen saturation, serum lactate concentration, and arterial hematocrit are commonly used to determine the adequacy of tissue oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, these global measures may not accurately reflect regional tissue oxygenation and ischemic organ injury remains a common and serious complication of CPB. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technology that measures regional tissue oxygenation. NIRS may be used alongside global measures to optimize regional perfusion and reduce organ injury. It may also be used as an indicator of the need for red blood cell transfusion in the presence of anemia and tissue hypoxia. However, the clinical benefits of using NIRS remain unclear and there is a lack of high-quality evidence demonstrating its efficacy and cost effectiveness. Objective The aim of the patient-specific cerebral oxygenation monitoring as part of an algorithm to reduce transfusion during heart valve surgery (PASPORT) trial is to determine whether the addition of NIRS to CPB management algorithms can prevent cognitive decline, postoperative organ injury, unnecessary transfusion, and reduce health care costs. Methods Adults aged 16 years or older undergoing valve or combined coronary artery bypass graft and valve surgery at one of three UK cardiac centers (Bristol, Hull, or Leicester) are randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either a standard algorithm for optimizing tissue oxygenation during CPB that includes a fixed transfusion threshold, or a patient-specific algorithm that incorporates cerebral NIRS monitoring and a restrictive red blood cell transfusion threshold. Allocation concealment, Internet-based randomization stratified by operation type and recruiting center, and blinding of patients, ICU and ward care staff, and outcome assessors reduce the risk of bias. The primary outcomes are cognitive function 3 months after

  15. The patient's perspective of the feasibility of a patient-specific instrument in physiotherapy goal setting : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Anita; Moser, Albine; Köke, Albère; Weijden, Trudy van der; Beurskens, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient participation in goal setting is important to deliver client-centered care. In daily practice, however, patient involvement in goal setting is not optimal. Patient-specific instruments, such as the Patient Specific Complaints (PSC) instrument, can support the goal-setting process

  16. Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS) is a repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee accident data. Many types...

  17. In Vitro Validation of Patient-Specific Hemodynamic Simulations in Coronary Aneurysms Caused by Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Ethan; Kahn, Andrew M; Burns, Jane C; Marsden, Alison

    2014-06-01

    To perform experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applied to patient specific coronary aneurysm anatomy of Kawasaki disease. We quantified hemodynamics in a patient-specific coronary artery aneurysm physical phantom under physiologic rest and exercise flow conditions. Using phase contrast MRI (PCMRI), we acquired 3-component flow velocity at two slice locations in the aneurysms. We then performed numerical simulations with the same geometry and inflow conditions, and performed qualitative and quantitative comparisons of velocities between experimental measurements and simulation results. We observed excellent qualitative agreement in flow pattern features. The quantitative spatially and temporally varying differences in velocity between PCMRI and CFD were proportional to the flow velocity. As a result, the percent discrepancy between simulation and experiment was relatively constant regardless of flow velocity variations. Through 1D and 2D quantitative comparisons, we found a 5-17% difference between measured and simulated velocities. Additional analysis assessed wall shear stress differences between deformable and rigid wall simulations. This study demonstrated that CFD produced good qualitative and quantitative predictions of velocities in a realistic coronary aneurysm anatomy under physiological flow conditions. The results provide insights on factors that may influence the level of agreement, and a set of in vitro experimental data that can be used by others to compare against CFD simulation results. The findings of this study increase confidence in the use of CFD for investigating hemodynamics in the specialized anatomy of coronary aneurysms. This provides a basis for future hemodynamics studies in patient-specific models of Kawasaki disease. PMID:25050140

  18. Patient-specific coronary artery blood flow simulation using myocardial volume partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kang, Dongwoo; Kang, Nahyup; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hyong-Euk; Kim, James D. K.

    2013-03-01

    Using computational simulation, we can analyze cardiovascular disease in non-invasive and quantitative manners. More specifically, computational modeling and simulation technology has enabled us to analyze functional aspect such as blood flow, as well as anatomical aspect such as stenosis, from medical images without invasive measurements. Note that the simplest ways to perform blood flow simulation is to apply patient-specific coronary anatomy with other average-valued properties; in this case, however, such conditions cannot fully reflect accurate physiological properties of patients. To resolve this limitation, we present a new patient-specific coronary blood flow simulation method by myocardial volume partitioning considering artery/myocardium structural correspondence. We focus on that blood supply is closely related to the mass of each myocardial segment corresponding to the artery. Therefore, we applied this concept for setting-up simulation conditions in the way to consider many patient-specific features as possible from medical image: First, we segmented coronary arteries and myocardium separately from cardiac CT; then the myocardium is partitioned into multiple regions based on coronary vasculature. The myocardial mass and required blood mass for each artery are estimated by converting myocardial volume fraction. Finally, the required blood mass is used as boundary conditions for each artery outlet, with given average aortic blood flow rate and pressure. To show effectiveness of the proposed method, fractional flow reserve (FFR) by simulation using CT image has been compared with invasive FFR measurement of real patient data, and as a result, 77% of accuracy has been obtained.

  19. Calculating patient specific doses in X-ray diagnostics and from radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk associated with exposure to ionising radiation is dependent on the characteristics of the exposed individual. The size and structure of the individual influences the absorbed dose distribution in the organs. Traditional methods used to calculate the patient organ doses are based on standardised calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. When estimating the radiation dose of an individual patient, patient specific calculation methods must be used. Methods for patient specific dosimetry in the fields of X-ray diagnostics and diagnostic and therapeutic use of radiopharmaceuticals were proposed in this thesis. A computer program, ODS-60, for calculating organ doses from diagnostic X-ray exposures was presented. The calculation is done in a patient specific phantom with depth dose and profile algorithms fitted to Monte Carlo simulation data from a previous study. Improvements to the version reported earlier were introduced, e.g. bone attenuation was implemented. The applicability of the program to determine patient doses from complex X-ray examinations (barium enema examination) was studied. The conversion equations derived for female and male patients as a function of patient weight gave the smallest deviation from the actual patient doses when compared to previous studies. Another computer program, Intdose, was presented for calculation of the dose distribution from radiopharmaceuticals. The calculation is based on convolution of an isotope specific point dose kernel with activity distribution, obtained from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Anatomical information is taken from magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) images. According to a phantom study, Intdose agreed within 3 % with measurements. For volunteers administered diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals, the results given by Intdose were found to agree with traditional methods in cases of medium sized patients. For patients

  20. Generation of Transplantable Beta Cells for Patient-Specific Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation offers a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, but it is challenged by insufficient donor tissue and side effects of current immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, alternative sources of insulin-producing cells and isletfriendly immunosuppression are required to increase the efficiency and safety of this procedure. Beta cells can be transdifferentiated from precursors or another heterologous (non-beta-cell source. Recent advances in beta cell regeneration from somatic cells such as fibroblasts could circumvent the usage of immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, generation of patient-specific beta cells provides the potential of an evolutionary treatment for patients with diabetes.

  1. Creating Patient-Specific Neural Cells for the In Vitro Study of Brain Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennand, Kristen J; Marchetto, M Carol; Benvenisty, Nissim; Brüstle, Oliver; Ebert, Allison; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Kaykas, Ajamete; Lancaster, Madeline A; Livesey, Frederick J; McConnell, Michael J; McKay, Ronald D; Morrow, Eric M; Muotri, Alysson R; Panchision, David M; Rubin, Lee L; Sawa, Akira; Soldner, Frank; Song, Hongjun; Studer, Lorenz; Temple, Sally; Vaccarino, Flora M; Wu, Jun; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; Gage, Fred H; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    As a group, we met to discuss the current challenges for creating meaningful patient-specific in vitro models to study brain disorders. Although the convergence of findings between laboratories and patient cohorts provided us confidence and optimism that hiPSC-based platforms will inform future drug discovery efforts, a number of critical technical challenges remain. This opinion piece outlines our collective views on the current state of hiPSC-based disease modeling and discusses what we see to be the critical objectives that must be addressed collectively as a field.

  2. Creating Patient-Specific Neural Cells for the In Vitro Study of Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen J. Brennand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a group, we met to discuss the current challenges for creating meaningful patient-specific in vitro models to study brain disorders. Although the convergence of findings between laboratories and patient cohorts provided us confidence and optimism that hiPSC-based platforms will inform future drug discovery efforts, a number of critical technical challenges remain. This opinion piece outlines our collective views on the current state of hiPSC-based disease modeling and discusses what we see to be the critical objectives that must be addressed collectively as a field.

  3. Voxel classification and graph cuts for automated segmentation of pathological periprosthetic hip anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Malan, D.F.; Botha, C.P.; Valstar, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automated patient-specific image-based segmentation of tissues surrounding aseptically loose hip prostheses is desired. For this we present an automated segmentation pipeline that labels periprosthetic tissues in computed tomography (CT). The intended application of this pipeline is in pre-operative planning. Methods Individual voxels were classified based on a set of automatically extracted image features. Minimum-cost graph cuts were computed on the classification results. The graph...

  4. Accuracy of Computational Cerebral Aneurysm Hemodynamics Using Patient-Specific Endovascular Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, Patrick; Levitt, Michael; Barbour, Michael; Mourad, Pierre; Kim, Louis; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    We study the hemodynamic conditions in patients with cerebral aneurysms through endovascular measurements and computational fluid dynamics. Ten unruptured cerebral aneurysms were clinically assessed by three dimensional rotational angiography and an endovascular guidewire with dual Doppler ultrasound transducer and piezoresistive pressure sensor at multiple peri-aneurysmal locations. These measurements are used to define boundary conditions for flow simulations at and near the aneurysms. The additional in vivo measurements, which were not prescribed in the simulation, are used to assess the accuracy of the simulated flow velocity and pressure. We also performed simulations with stereotypical literature-derived boundary conditions. Simulated velocities using patient-specific boundary conditions showed good agreement with the guidewire measurements, with no systematic bias and a random scatter of about 25%. Simulated velocities using the literature-derived values showed a systematic over-prediction in velocity by 30% with a random scatter of about 40%. Computational hemodynamics using endovascularly-derived patient-specific boundary conditions have the potential to improve treatment predictions as they provide more accurate and precise results of the aneurysmal hemodynamics. Supported by an R03 grant from NIH/NINDS

  5. An immersed-boundary framework for patient-specific optimization of inhaled drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Laura; Zaki, Tamer

    2014-11-01

    Predictive numerical simulations have the potential to significantly enhance therapies for lung disease by providing a valuable clinical aid and a platform to optimize drug delivery. A difficult challenge, however, is the influence of inter-subject variations of the airway geometries and their impact on the airflow and aerosol deposition. A personalized approach to the treatment of respiratory diseases is therefore required. An in silico framework for patient-specific predictions of the flow and aerosol deposition in the respiratory airways is presented. The approach efficiently accommodates geometric variation and airway motion in order to optimize pulmonary drug delivery. A non-rigid registration method is adopted to construct dynamic airway models conforming to the patient's breathing. Accurate predictions of the flow in realistic airway geometries are computed using direct numerical simulations (DNS) with boundary conditions enforced using a robust, implicit immersed boundary (IB) method for curvilinear meshes. A Lagrangian particle-tracking scheme is adopted to model the transport and deposition of the aerosol particles in the airways. Examples of flow and aerosol deposition in realistic extrathoracic airways and of a patient-specific dynamic lung model are presented.

  6. Computational Simulations of Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Placement and Hemodynamics in Patient-Specific Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, Kenneth; Sastry, Shankar; Kim, Jibum; Shontz, Suzanne; Campbell, Robert; Manning, Keefe; Lynch, Frank; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    A computational methodology for simulating inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement and IVC hemodynamics was developed and tested on two patient-specific IVC geometries: a left-sided IVC, and an IVC with a retroaortic left renal vein. Virtual IVC filter placement was performed with finite element analysis (FEA) using non-linear material models and contact modeling, yielding maximum vein displacements of approximately 10% of the IVC diameters. Blood flow was then simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with four cases for each patient IVC: 1) an IVC only, 2) an IVC with a placed filter, 3) an IVC with a placed filter and a model embolus, all at resting flow conditions, and 4) an IVC with a placed filter and a model embolus at exercise flow conditions. Significant hemodynamic differences were observed between the two patient IVCs, with the development of a right-sided jet (all cases) and a larger stagnation region (cases 3-4) in the left-sided IVC. These results support further investigation of the effects of IVC filter placement on a patient-specific basis.

  7. Effect of voxel size when calculating patient specific radionuclide dosimetry estimates using direct Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Kevin J; O'Keefe, Graeme J

    2014-09-01

    The scalable XCAT voxelised phantom was used with the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit to investigate the effect of voxel size on dosimetry estimates of internally distributed radionuclide calculated using direct Monte Carlo simulation. A uniformly distributed Fluorine-18 source was simulated in the Kidneys of the XCAT phantom with the organ self dose (kidney ← kidney) and organ cross dose (liver ← kidney) being calculated for a number of organ and voxel sizes. Patient specific dose factors (DF) from a clinically acquired FDG PET/CT study have also been calculated for kidney self dose and liver ← kidney cross dose. Using the XCAT phantom it was found that significantly small voxel sizes are required to achieve accurate calculation of organ self dose. It has also been used to show that a voxel size of 2 mm or less is suitable for accurate calculations of organ cross dose. To compensate for insufficient voxel sampling a correction factor is proposed. This correction factor is applied to the patient specific dose factors calculated with the native voxel size of the PET/CT study.

  8. Designing patient-specific 3D printed craniofacial implants using a novel topology optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, Alok; Park, Jaejong; Carrau, Diana; Nguyen, Tam H; Miller, Michael J; Paulino, Glaucio H

    2016-07-01

    Large craniofacial defects require efficient bone replacements which should not only provide good aesthetics but also possess stable structural function. The proposed work uses a novel multiresolution topology optimization method to achieve the task. Using a compliance minimization objective, patient-specific bone replacement shapes can be designed for different clinical cases that ensure revival of efficient load transfer mechanisms in the mid-face. In this work, four clinical cases are introduced and their respective patient-specific designs are obtained using the proposed method. The optimized designs are then virtually inserted into the defect to visually inspect the viability of the design . Further, once the design is verified by the reconstructive surgeon, prototypes are fabricated using a 3D printer for validation. The robustness of the designs are mechanically tested by subjecting them to a physiological loading condition which mimics the masticatory activity. The full-field strain result through 3D image correlation and the finite element analysis implies that the solution can survive the maximum mastication of 120 lb. Also, the designs have the potential to restore the buttress system and provide the structural integrity. Using the topology optimization framework in designing the bone replacement shapes would deliver surgeons new alternatives for rather complicated mid-face reconstruction.

  9. Patient-specific computer modelling of coronary bifurcation stenting: the John Doe programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Peter; Wentzel, Jolanda J; De Santis, Gianluca; Chiastra, Claudio; Migliavacca, Francesco; De Beule, Matthieu; Louvard, Yves; Dubini, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    John Doe, an 81-year-old patient with a significant distal left main (LM) stenosis, was treated using a provisional stenting approach. As part of an European Bifurcation Club (EBC) project, the complete stenting procedure was repeated using computational modelling. First, a tailored three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the bifurcation anatomy was created by fusion of multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging and intravascular ultrasound. Second, finite element analysis was employed to deploy and post-dilate the stent virtually within the generated patient-specific anatomical bifurcation model. Finally, blood flow was modelled using computational fluid dynamics. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the feasibility of such patient-specific simulations for bifurcation stenting and has provided unique insights into the bifurcation anatomy, the technical aspects of LM bifurcation stenting, and the positive impact of adequate post-dilatation on blood flow patterns. Potential clinical applications such as virtual trials and preoperative planning seem feasible but require a thorough clinical validation of the predictive power of these computer simulations.

  10. Comparison of Detailed and Simplified Models of Human Atrial Myocytes to Recapitulate Patient Specific Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Daniel M; Fenton, Flavio H; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2016-08-01

    Computer studies are often used to study mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF). A crucial component in these studies is the electrophysiological model that describes the membrane potential of myocytes. The models vary from detailed, describing numerous ion channels, to simplified, grouping ionic channels into a minimal set of variables. The parameters of these models, however, are determined across different experiments in varied species. Furthermore, a single set of parameters may not describe variations across patients, and models have rarely been shown to recapitulate critical features of AF in a given patient. In this study we develop physiologically accurate computational human atrial models by fitting parameters of a detailed and of a simplified model to clinical data for five patients undergoing ablation therapy. Parameters were simultaneously fitted to action potential (AP) morphology, action potential duration (APD) restitution and conduction velocity (CV) restitution curves in these patients. For both models, our fitting procedure generated parameter sets that accurately reproduced clinical data, but differed markedly from published sets and between patients, emphasizing the need for patient-specific adjustment. Both models produced two-dimensional spiral wave dynamics for that were similar for each patient. These results show that simplified, computationally efficient models are an attractive choice for simulations of human atrial electrophysiology in spatially extended domains. This study motivates the development and validation of patient-specific model-based mechanistic studies to target therapy. PMID:27494252

  11. Patient-specific modeling and analysis of dynamic behavior of individual sickle red blood cells under hypoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Du, E.; Li, Zhen; Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder exhibiting heterogeneous morphology and abnormal dynamics under hypoxic conditions. We developed a time-dependent cell model that is able to simulate the dynamic processes of repeated sickling and unsickling of red blood cells (RBCs) under physiological conditions. By using the kinetic cell model with parameters derived from patient-specific data, we present a mesoscopic computational study of the dynamic behavior of individual sickle RBCs flowing in a microfluidic channel with multiple microgates. We investigate how individual sickle RBCs behave differently from healthy ones in channel flow, and analyze the alteration of cellular behavior and response to single-cell capillary obstruction induced by cell rheologic rigidification and morphological change due to cell sickling under hypoxic conditions. We also simulate the flow dynamics of sickle RBCs treated with hydroxyurea (HU) and quantify the relative enhancement of hemodynamic performance of HU. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant U01HL114476.

  12. Towards personalised management of atherosclerosis via computational models in vascular clinics: technology based on patient-specific simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa; Di Tomaso, Giulia; Agu, Obiekezie; Pichardo-Almarza, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    The development of a new technology based on patient-specific modelling for personalised healthcare in the case of atherosclerosis is presented. Atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in the world and it has become a burden on clinical services as it manifests itself in many diverse forms, such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease/stroke and peripheral arterial disease. It is also a multifactorial, chronic and systemic process that lasts for a lifetime, putting enormous financial and clinical pressure on national health systems. In this Letter, the postulate is that the development of new technologies for healthcare using computer simulations can, in the future, be developed as in-silico management and support systems. These new technologies will be based on predictive models (including the integration of observations, theories and predictions across a range of temporal and spatial scales, scientific disciplines, key risk factors and anatomical sub-systems) combined with digital patient data and visualisation tools. Although the problem is extremely complex, a simulation workflow and an exemplar application of this type of technology for clinical use is presented, which is currently being developed by a multidisciplinary team following the requirements and constraints of the Vascular Service Unit at the University College Hospital, London.

  13. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  14. 社区卫生服务监督管理信息系统的构建%Construction of Automated Community Health Service Supervision and Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红濮; 雷行云; 陈荃; 谢莉琴

    2011-01-01

    为探索一套切实可行的社区卫生服务监督行政管理模式,我们以北京市海淀区社区卫生监督管理为研究对象,在全面需求分析的基础上,完成社区卫生服务监督管理需求分析与设计,并完成社区卫生服务系统的设置、注册、年度校验、变更功能软件的开发,为实现社区卫生服务监督管理法制化、规范化、自动化、信息化打下良好的工作基础.%With the purpose to explore a viable administrative supervision mode of community health service, here we take the example of Haidian District in Beijing and, on the basis of comprehensive demand analysis, complete demand analysis and design of automated community health service supervision and management system as well as the development of software concerning setting, registration, annual audition, and alteration. Our accomplishment has laid a good foundation for achieving the legislation, standardization, automation, and informatization of community health service supervising administration.

  15. A fast and robust patient specific Finite Element mesh registration technique: application to 60 clinical cases

    CERN Document Server

    Bucki, Marek; Payan, Yohan; 10.1016/j.media.2010.02.003

    2010-01-01

    Finite Element mesh generation remains an important issue for patient specific biomechanical modeling. While some techniques make automatic mesh generation possible, in most cases, manual mesh generation is preferred for better control over the sub-domain representation, element type, layout and refinement that it provides. Yet, this option is time consuming and not suited for intraoperative situations where model generation and computation time is critical. To overcome this problem we propose a fast and automatic mesh generation technique based on the elastic registration of a generic mesh to the specific target organ in conjunction with element regularity and quality correction. This Mesh-Match-and-Repair (MMRep) approach combines control over the mesh structure along with fast and robust meshing capabilities, even in situations where only partial organ geometry is available. The technique was successfully tested on a database of 5 pre-operatively acquired complete femora CT scans, 5 femoral heads partially...

  16. Ionization chamber array for patient specific VMAT, Tomotherapy and IMRT QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathakis, Sotiri, E-mail: Stathakis@uthscsa.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Therapy and Research Center at the University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio TX 78229 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The evaluation between measured and calculated dose is essential in the patient specific quality assurance procedures for intensity modulated radiation therapy. The high complexity of volumetric arc radiotherapy, Tomotherpay and intensity modulated radiation therapy deliveries attributed to the dynamic and synchronization requirements of such techniques require new methods and potentially new tools for the quality assurance of such techniques. Studies evaluating the dosimetric performance of EDR2 film and a 2D ionization chamber array quality assurance device have been performed in our institution. Our results showed that differences between the detector systems are small. The respective gamma index histograms showed that when 3% dose difference and 3mm distance to agreement are used, more than 90% of the evaluated points were within the tolerance criteria

  17. Characterization of the transport topology in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by disturbed blood flow patterns that are hypothesized to contribute to disease progression. The transport topology in six patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms was studied. Velocity data were obtained by image-based computational fluid dynamics modeling, with magnetic resonance imaging providing the necessary simulation parameters. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields were computed from the velocity data, and used to identify Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). The combination of FTLE fields and LCS was used to characterize topological flow features such as separation zones, vortex transport, mixing regions, and flow impingement. These measures offer a novel perspective into AAA flow. It was observed that all aneurysms exhibited coherent vortex formation at the proximal segment of the aneurysm. The evolution of the systolic vortex strongly influences the flow topology in the aneurysm. It was difficult to predict the vortex dynamics from the aneurysm morphology, motivating the application of image-based flow modeling.

  18. Ansys Fluent versus Sim Vascular for 4-D patient-specific computational hemodynamics in renal arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumbaraddi, Avinash; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Sawchuk, Alan; Dalsing, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this clinical-need driven research is to investigate the effect of renal artery stenosis (RAS) on the blood flow and wall shear stress in renal arteries through 4-D patient-specific computational hemodynamics (PSCH) and search for possible critical RASs that significantly alter the pressure gradient across the stenosis by manually varying the size of RAS from 50% to 95%. The identification of the critical RAS is important to understand the contribution of RAS to the overall renal resistance thus appropriate clinical therapy can be determined in order to reduce the hypertension. Clinical CT angiographic data together with Doppler Ultra sound images of an anonymous patient are used serving as the required inputs of the PSCH. To validate the PSCH, we use both Ansys Fluent and Sim Vascular and compare velocity, pressure, and wall-shear stress under identical conditions. Renal Imaging Technology Development Program (RITDP) Grant.

  19. Splintless orthognathic surgery: a novel technique using patient-specific implants (PSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Thomas; Bredell, Marius; Eliades, Theodore; Rücker, Martin; Essig, Harald

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, advances in three-dimensional imaging have conducted to breakthrough in the diagnosis, treatment planning and result assessment in orthognathic surgery. Hereby error-prone and time-consuming planning steps, like model surgery and transfer of the face bow, can be eluded. Numerous positioning devices, in order to transfer the three-dimensional treatment plan to the intraoperative site, have been described. Nevertheless the use of positioning devices and intraoperative splints are failure-prone and time-consuming steps, which have to be performed during the operation and during general anesthesia of the patient. We describe a novel time-sparing and failsafe technique using patient-specific implants (PSI) as positioning guides and concurrently as rigid fixation of the maxilla in the planned position. This technique avoids elaborate positioning and removal of manufactured positioning devices and allows maxillary positioning without the use of occlusal splints.

  20. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells in neurological disease modeling: the importance of nonhuman primate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Z

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhifang Qiu,1,2 Steven L Farnsworth,2 Anuja Mishra,1,2 Peter J Hornsby1,21Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: The development of the technology for derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells from human patients and animal models has opened up new pathways to the better understanding of many human diseases, and has created new opportunities for therapeutic approaches. Here, we consider one important neurological disease, Parkinson's, the development of relevant neural cell lines for studying this disease, and the animal models that are available for testing the survival and function of the cells, following transplantation into the central nervous system. Rapid progress has been made recently in the application of protocols for neuroectoderm differentiation and neural patterning of pluripotent stem cells. These developments have resulted in the ability to produce large numbers of dopaminergic neurons with midbrain characteristics for further study. These cells have been shown to be functional in both rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP models of Parkinson's disease. Patient-specific iPS cells and derived dopaminergic neurons have been developed, in particular from patients with genetic causes of Parkinson's disease. For complete modeling of the disease, it is proposed that the introduction of genetic changes into NHP iPS cells, followed by studying the phenotype of the genetic change in cells transplanted into the NHP as host animal, will yield new insights into disease processes not possible with rodent models alone.Keywords: Parkinson's disease, pluripotent cell differentiation, neural cell lines, dopaminergic neurons, cell transplantation, animal models

  1. Development of a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H. H.; Dong, S. L.; Yang, H. J. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chen, S. [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical Univ., Taiwan (China); Shih, C. T. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chuang, K. S. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Lin, C. H. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Yao, W. J. [PET Center, National Cheng Kung Univ. Hospital, Taiwan (China); Jan, M. L. [Physics Div., Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination using a SimSET-based Monte Carlo code. We added a dose deposition routine to store the deposited energy of the photons during their flights in SimSET and developed a user-friendly interface for reading PET and CT images. Dose calculated on ORNL phantom was used to validate the accuracy of this system. The S values for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 18}F and {sup 131}I obtained by the system were compared to those from the MCNP4C code and OLINDA. The ratios of S values computed by this system to those obtained with OLINDA for various organs were ranged from 0.93 to 1.18, which are comparable to that obtained from MCNP4C code (0.94 to 1.20). The average ratios of S value were 0.99{+-}0.04, 1.03{+-}0.05, and 1.00{+-}0.07 for isotopes {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, and {sup 99m}Tc, respectively. The simulation time of SimSET was two times faster than MCNP4C's for various isotopes. A 3D dose calculation was also performed on a patient data set with PET/CT examination using this system. Results from the patient data showed that the estimated S values using this system differed slightly from those of OLINDA for ORNL phantom. In conclusion, this system can generate patient-specific dose distribution and display the isodose curves on top of the anatomic structure through a friendly graphic user interface. It may also provide a useful tool to establish an appropriate dose-reduction strategy to patients in nuclear medicine environments. (authors)

  2. The numerical analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow in human patient-specific left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doost, Siamak N; Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Morsi, Yosry S

    2016-04-01

    Recently, various non-invasive tools such as the magnetic resonance image (MRI), ultrasound imaging (USI), computed tomography (CT), and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been widely utilized to enhance our current understanding of the physiological parameters that affect the initiation and the progression of the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) associated with heart failure (HF). In particular, the hemodynamics of left ventricle (LV) has attracted the attention of the researchers due to its significant role in the heart functionality. In this study, CFD owing its capability of predicting detailed flow field was adopted to model the blood flow in images-based patient-specific LV over cardiac cycle. In most published studies, the blood is modeled as Newtonian that is not entirely accurate as the blood viscosity varies with the shear rate in non-linear manner. In this paper, we studied the effect of Newtonian assumption on the degree of accuracy of intraventricular hemodynamics. In doing so, various non-Newtonian models and Newtonian model are used in the analysis of the intraventricular flow and the viscosity of the blood. Initially, we used the cardiac MRI images to reconstruct the time-resolved geometry of the patient-specific LV. After the unstructured mesh generation, the simulations were conducted in the CFD commercial solver FLUENT to analyze the intraventricular hemodynamic parameters. The findings indicate that the Newtonian assumption cannot adequately simulate the flow dynamic within the LV over the cardiac cycle, which can be attributed to the pulsatile and recirculation nature of the flow and the low blood shear rate. PMID:26849955

  3. Principal direction of inertia for 3D trajectories from patient-specific TMJ movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Seung; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Hwang, Soon-Jung; Kim, Seong-Ha; Yi, Won-Jin

    2013-03-01

    Accurate simulation and evaluation of mandibular movement is fundamental for the analysis of functional changes and effects of the mandible and maxilla before and after surgical treatments. We applied principal axes of inertia to the three-dimensional (3D) trajectories generated by patient-specific simulations of TMJ movements for the functional evaluations of mandible movement. Three-dimensional movements of the mandible and the maxilla were tracked based on a patient-specific splint and an optical tracking system. The dental occlusion recorded on the sprint provided synchronization for initial movement in the tracking and the simulation phases. The translation and rotation recorded during movement tracking was applied sequentially to the mandibular model in relation to a fixed maxilla model. The sequential 3D positions of selected landmarks on the mandible were calculated based on the reference coordinate system. The landmarks selected for analysis were bilateral condyles and pogonion points. The moment of inertia tensor was calculated with respect to the 3D trajectory points. Using the unit vectors along the principal axes derived from the tensor matrix, α, β and γ rotations around z-, y- and x-axes were determined to represent the principal directions as principal rotations respectively. The γ direction showed the higher standard deviation, variation of directions, than other directions at all the landmarks. The mandible movement has larger kinematic redundancy in the γ direction than α and β during mouth opening and closing. Principal directions of inertia would be applied to analyzing the changes in angular motion of trajectories introduced by mandibular shape changes from surgical treatments and also to the analysis of the influence of skeletal deformities on mandibular movement asymmetry. PMID:23321156

  4. EFFECTS OF PARENT ARTERY SEGMENTATION AND ANEURISMALWALL ELASTICITY ON PATIENT-SPECIFIC HEMODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-liang; DING Guang-hong; YANG Xin-jian; LI Hai-yun

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that hemodynamics and wall tension play an important role in the formation,growth and rupture of aneurysms.In the present study,the authors investigated the influence of parent artery segmentation and aneurismal-wall elasticity on patient-specific hemodynamic simulations with two patient-specific eases of cerebral aneurysms.Realistic models of the aneurysms were constructed from 3-D angiography images and blood flow dynamics was studied under physiologically representative waveform of inflow.For each aneurysm three computational models were constructed:Model 1 with more extensive upstream parent artery with the rigid arterial and aneurismal wall,Model 2 with the partial upstream parent artery with the elastic arterial and aneurismal wall,Model 3 with more extensive upstream parent artery with the rigid wall for arterial wall far from the aneurysm and the elastic wall for arterial wall near the aneurysm.The results show that Model 1 could predict complex intra-aneurismal flow patterns and wall shear stress distribution in the aneurysm,but is unable to give aneurismal wall deformation and tension,Model 2 demonstrates aneurismal wall deformation and tension,but fails to properly model inflow pattern contributed by the upstream parent artery,resulting in local misunderstanding Wall Shear Stress (WSS) distribution,Model 3 can overcome limitations of the former two models,and give an overall and accurate analysis on intra-aneurismal flow patterns,wall shear stress distribution,aneurismal-wall deformation and tension.Therefore we suggest that the proper length of extensive upstream parent artery and aneuri-smal-wall elasticity should be considered carefully in establishing computational model to predict the intra-aneurismal hemodynamic and wall tension.

  5. SU-E-T-603: PBS Prostate Plan Robustness: A Tool for Patient Specific Setup Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, S; Song, L; Chen, C; Chang, C; Chon, B; Tsai, H; Soffen, E; Cahlon, O; Mah, D [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, NJ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fiducial markers are commonly used for setup of prostate patients using orthogonal radiographs. After aligned with the markers, the displacement of the bony anatomy relative to the planned DRR can be up to 10 mm. Such offset can potentially have significant dosimetric effects because it changes the radiological path length of protons in differing amounts of bone. It is imperative to develop a method to evaluate its impact on target coverage and hence establish patient specific setup tolerance for prostate proton PBS treatment. Methods: Prostate patients were planned in RayStation according to the PCG protocol with bi-lateral beams. The primary planning objectives are: (1) 100% of CTV receives full prescription dose; (2) 98% of the prescription dose covers at least 98% of the PTV; (3) OARs meet criteria per protocol. For each patient 108 dose perturbations were automatically generated using an in-house script, which considered the isocenter shifting in S-I and A-P directions (up to ±15 mm with an interval of 6mm) as well as the range uncertainty (±3.5%). The target coverage was evaluated on the contour shifted along with prostate to mimic the daily treatment. Results: The minimum CTV coverage as a function of offsets in S-I and A-P directions is presented in a 2D contour map. The offsets along A-P direction generally have greater impact than along S-I direction. Both the CTV D98%>98% or CTV V98%>98% are achievable for most patients if the offset is <10 mm in either direction despite of range uncertainties. Conclusion: We developed a method to evaluate the plan robustness for proton PBS prostate treatment. It can provide patient specific setup tolerance of bony structure offset. For our current planning approach, a 1 cm displacement is acceptable. This approach can be generalized to other target structures that move relative to bony anatomy.

  6. Patient-Specific Biomechanical Modeling for Guidance During Minimally-Invasive Hepatic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantefève, Rosalie; Peterlik, Igor; Haouchine, Nazim; Cotin, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    During the minimally-invasive liver surgery, only the partial surface view of the liver is usually provided to the surgeon via the laparoscopic camera. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the actual position of the internal structures such as tumors and vessels from the pre-operative images. Nevertheless, such task can be highly challenging since during the intervention, the abdominal organs undergo important deformations due to the pneumoperitoneum, respiratory and cardiac motion and the interaction with the surgical tools. Therefore, a reliable automatic system for intra-operative guidance requires fast and reliable registration of the pre- and intra-operative data. In this paper we present a complete pipeline for the registration of pre-operative patient-specific image data to the sparse and incomplete intra-operative data. While the intra-operative data is represented by a point cloud extracted from the stereo-endoscopic images, the pre-operative data is used to reconstruct a biomechanical model which is necessary for accurate estimation of the position of the internal structures, considering the actual deformations. This model takes into account the patient-specific liver anatomy composed of parenchyma, vascularization and capsule, and is enriched with anatomical boundary conditions transferred from an atlas. The registration process employs the iterative closest point technique together with a penalty-based method. We perform a quantitative assessment based on the evaluation of the target registration error on synthetic data as well as a qualitative assessment on real patient data. We demonstrate that the proposed registration method provides good results in terms of both accuracy and robustness w.r.t. the quality of the intra-operative data.

  7. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The volumes were imported into a Vitrea 3D workstation (Vital Images Inc.) and the vascular lumen of various vessels and pathologies were segmented using a "marching cubes" algorithm. The results were exported as Stereo Lithographic (STL) files and were further processed by smoothing, trimming, and wall extrusion (to add a custom wall to the model). The models were printed using a Polyjet printer, Eden 260V (Objet-Stratasys). To verify the phantom geometry accuracy, the phantom was reimaged using rotational DSA, and the new data was compared with the initial patient data. The most challenging part of the phantom manufacturing was removal of support material. This aspect could be a serious hurdle in building very tortuous phantoms or small vessels. The accuracy of the printed models was very good: distance analysis showed average differences of 120 μm between the patient and the phantom reconstructed volume dimensions. Most errors were due to residual support material left in the lumen of the phantom. Despite the post-printing challenges experienced during the support cleaning, this technology could be a tremendous benefit to medical research such as in device development and testing.

  8. Towards Effective and Efficient Patient-Specific Quality Assurance for Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA) program based on measurement alone can be very time consuming due to the highly modulated dose distributions of IMPT fields. Incorporating independent dose calculation and treatment log file analysis could reduce the time required for measurements. In this article, we summarize our effort to develop an efficient and effective PSQA program that consists of three components: measurements, independent dose calculation, and analysis of patient-specific treatment delivery log files. Measurements included two-dimensional (2D) measurements using an ionization chamber array detector for each field delivered at the planned gantry angles with the electronic medical record (EMR) system in the QA mode and the accelerator control system (ACS) in the treatment mode, and additional measurements at depths for each field with the ACS in physics mode and without the EMR system. Dose distributions for each field in a water phantom were calculated independently using a recently developed in-house pencil beam algorithm and compared with those obtained using the treatment planning system (TPS). The treatment log file for each field was analyzed in terms of deviations in delivered spot positions from their planned positions using various statistical methods. Using this improved PSQA program, we were able to verify the integrity of the data transfer from the TPS to the EMR to the ACS, the dose calculation of the TPS, and the treatment delivery, including the dose delivered and spot positions. On the basis of this experience, we estimate that the in-room measurement time required for each complex IMPT case (e.g., a patient receiving bilateral IMPT for head and neck cancer) is less than 1 h using the improved PSQA program. Our experience demonstrates that it is possible to develop an efficient and effective PSQA program for IMPT with the equipment and resources available in the clinic

  9. Dose reconstruction for real-time patient-specific dose estimation in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Man, Bruno, E-mail: deman@ge.com; Yin, Zhye [Image Reconstruction Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Wu, Mingye [X-ray and CT Laboratory, GE Global Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); FitzGerald, Paul [Radiation Systems Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Kalra, Mannudeep [Divisions of Thoracic and Cardiac Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Many recent computed tomography (CT) dose reduction approaches belong to one of three categories: statistical reconstruction algorithms, efficient x-ray detectors, and optimized CT acquisition schemes with precise control over the x-ray distribution. The latter category could greatly benefit from fast and accurate methods for dose estimation, which would enable real-time patient-specific protocol optimization. Methods: The authors present a new method for volumetrically reconstructing absorbed dose on a per-voxel basis, directly from the actual CT images. The authors’ specific implementation combines a distance-driven pencil-beam approach to model the first-order x-ray interactions with a set of Gaussian convolution kernels to model the higher-order x-ray interactions. The authors performed a number of 3D simulation experiments comparing the proposed method to a Monte Carlo based ground truth. Results: The authors’ results indicate that the proposed approach offers a good trade-off between accuracy and computational efficiency. The images show a good qualitative correspondence to Monte Carlo estimates. Preliminary quantitative results show errors below 10%, except in bone regions, where the authors see a bigger model mismatch. The computational complexity is similar to that of a low-resolution filtered-backprojection algorithm. Conclusions: The authors present a method for analytic dose reconstruction in CT, similar to the techniques used in radiation therapy planning with megavoltage energies. Future work will include refinements of the proposed method to improve the accuracy as well as a more extensive validation study. The proposed method is not intended to replace methods that track individual x-ray photons, but the authors expect that it may prove useful in applications where real-time patient-specific dose estimation is required.

  10. Towards Effective and Efficient Patient-Specific Quality Assurance for Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Ronald. Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA program based on measurement alone can be very time consuming due to the highly modulated dose distributions of IMPT fields. Incorporating independent dose calculation and treatment log file analysis could reduce the time required for measurements. In this article, we summarize our effort to develop an efficient and effective PSQA program that consists of three components: measurements, independent dose calculation, and analysis of patient-specific treatment delivery log files. Measurements included two-dimensional (2D measurements using an ionization chamber array detector for each field delivered at the planned gantry angles with the electronic medical record (EMR system in the QA mode and the accelerator control system (ACS in the treatment mode, and additional measurements at depths for each field with the ACS in physics mode and without the EMR system. Dose distributions for each field in a water phantom were calculated independently using a recently developed in-house pencil beam algorithm and compared with those obtained using the treatment planning system (TPS. The treatment log file for each field was analyzed in terms of deviations in delivered spot positions from their planned positions using various statistical methods. Using this improved PSQA program, we were able to verify the integrity of the data transfer from the TPS to the EMR to the ACS, the dose calculation of the TPS, and the treatment delivery, including the dose delivered and spot positions. On the basis of this experience, we estimate that the in-room measurement time required for each complex IMPT case (e.g., a patient receiving bilateral IMPT for head and neck cancer is less than 1 h using the improved PSQA program. Our experience demonstrates that it is possible to develop an efficient and effective PSQA program for IMPT with the equipment and resources available in the clinic.

  11. Are patient-specific joint and inertial parameters necessary for accurate inverse dynamics analyses of gait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbolt, Jeffrey A; Haftka, Raphael T; Chmielewski, Terese L; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2007-05-01

    Variations in joint parameter (JP) values (axis positions and orientations in body segments) and inertial parameter (IP) values (segment masses, mass centers, and moments of inertia) as well as kinematic noise alter the results of inverse dynamics analyses of gait. Three-dimensional linkage models with joint constraints have been proposed as one way to minimize the effects of noisy kinematic data. Such models can also be used to perform gait optimizations to predict post-treatment function given pre-treatment gait data. This study evaluates whether accurate patient-specific JP and IP values are needed in three-dimensional linkage models to produce accurate inverse dynamics results for gait. The study was performed in two stages. First, we used optimization analyses to evaluate whether patient-specific JP and IP values can be calibrated accurately from noisy kinematic data, and second, we used Monte Carlo analyses to evaluate how errors in JP and IP values affect inverse dynamics calculations. Both stages were performed using a dynamic, 27 degrees-of-freedom, full-body linkage model and synthetic (i.e., computer generated) gait data corresponding to a nominal experimental gait motion. In general, JP but not IP values could be found accurately from noisy kinematic data. Root-mean-square (RMS) errors were 3 degrees and 4 mm for JP values and 1 kg, 22 mm, and 74 500 kg * mm2 for IP values. Furthermore, errors in JP but not IP values had a significant effect on calculated lower-extremity inverse dynamics joint torques. The worst RMS torque error averaged 4% bodyweight * height (BW * H) due to JP variations but less than 0.25% (BW * H) due to IP variations. These results suggest that inverse dynamics analyses of gait utilizing linkage models with joint constraints should calibrate the model's JP values to obtain accurate joint torques.

  12. Towards Effective and Efficient Patient-Specific Quality Assurance for Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. Ronald., E-mail: xrzhu@mdanderson.org; Li, Yupeng; Mackin, Dennis; Li, Heng; Poenisch, Falk [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Lee, Andrew K.; Mahajan, Anita; Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Gillin, Michael T.; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhang, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    An intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA) program based on measurement alone can be very time consuming due to the highly modulated dose distributions of IMPT fields. Incorporating independent dose calculation and treatment log file analysis could reduce the time required for measurements. In this article, we summarize our effort to develop an efficient and effective PSQA program that consists of three components: measurements, independent dose calculation, and analysis of patient-specific treatment delivery log files. Measurements included two-dimensional (2D) measurements using an ionization chamber array detector for each field delivered at the planned gantry angles with the electronic medical record (EMR) system in the QA mode and the accelerator control system (ACS) in the treatment mode, and additional measurements at depths for each field with the ACS in physics mode and without the EMR system. Dose distributions for each field in a water phantom were calculated independently using a recently developed in-house pencil beam algorithm and compared with those obtained using the treatment planning system (TPS). The treatment log file for each field was analyzed in terms of deviations in delivered spot positions from their planned positions using various statistical methods. Using this improved PSQA program, we were able to verify the integrity of the data transfer from the TPS to the EMR to the ACS, the dose calculation of the TPS, and the treatment delivery, including the dose delivered and spot positions. On the basis of this experience, we estimate that the in-room measurement time required for each complex IMPT case (e.g., a patient receiving bilateral IMPT for head and neck cancer) is less than 1 h using the improved PSQA program. Our experience demonstrates that it is possible to develop an efficient and effective PSQA program for IMPT with the equipment and resources available in the clinic.

  13. The influence of boundary conditions on wall shear stress distribution in patients specific coronary trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giessen, Alina G; Groen, Harald C; Doriot, Pierre-André; de Feyter, Pim J; van der Steen, Antonius F W; van de Vosse, Frans N; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2011-04-01

    Patient specific geometrical data on human coronary arteries can be reliably obtained multislice computer tomography (MSCT) imaging. MSCT cannot provide hemodynamic variables, and the outflow through the side branches must be estimated. The impact of two different models to determine flow through the side branches on the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution in patient specific geometries is evaluated. Murray's law predicts that the flow ratio through the side branches scales with the ratio of the diameter of the side branches to the third power. The empirical model is based on flow measurements performed by Doriot et al. (2000) in angiographically normal coronary arteries. The fit based on these measurements showed that the flow ratio through the side branches can best be described with a power of 2.27. The experimental data imply that Murray's law underestimates the flow through the side branches. We applied the two models to study the WSS distribution in 6 coronary artery trees. Under steady flow conditions, the average WSS between the side branches differed significantly for the two models: the average WSS was 8% higher for Murray's law and the relative difference ranged from -5% to +27%. These differences scale with the difference in flow rate. Near the bifurcations, the differences in WSS were more pronounced: the size of the low WSS regions was significantly larger when applying the empirical model (13%), ranging from -12% to +68%. Predicting outflow based on Murray's law underestimates the flow through the side branches. Especially near side branches, the regions where atherosclerotic plaques preferentially develop, the differences are significant and application of Murray's law underestimates the size of the low WSS region.

  14. Configuration Management Automation (CMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  15. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  16. Shoe-String Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.L.

    2001-07-30

    Faced with a downsizing organization, serious budget reductions and retirement of key metrology personnel, maintaining capabilities to provide necessary services to our customers was becoming increasingly difficult. It appeared that the only solution was to automate some of our more personnel-intensive processes; however, it was crucial that the most personnel-intensive candidate process be automated, at the lowest price possible and with the lowest risk of failure. This discussion relates factors in the selection of the Standard Leak Calibration System for automation, the methods of automation used to provide the lowest-cost solution and the benefits realized as a result of the automation.

  17. Patient-specific CT dose determination from CT images using Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing

    Radiation dose from computed tomography (CT) has become a public concern with the increasing application of CT as a diagnostic modality, which has generated a demand for patient-specific CT dose determinations. This thesis work aims to provide a clinically applicable Monte-Carlo-based CT dose calculation tool based on patient CT images. The source spectrum was simulated based on half-value layer measurements. Analytical calculations along with the measured flux distribution were used to estimate the bowtie-filter geometry. Relative source output at different points in a cylindrical phantom was measured and compared with Monte Carlo simulations to verify the determined spectrum and bowtie-filter geometry. Sensitivity tests were designed with four spectra with the same kVp and different half-value layers, and showed that the relative output at different locations in a phantom is sensitive to different beam qualities. An mAs-to-dose conversion factor was determined with in-air measurements using an Exradin A1SL ionization chamber. Longitudinal dose profiles were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and compared with the Monte-Carlo-simulated dose profiles to verify the mAs-to-dose conversion factor. Using only the CT images to perform Monte Carlo simulations would cause dose underestimation due to the lack of a scatter region. This scenario was demonstrated with a cylindrical phantom study. Four different image extrapolation methods from the existing CT images and the Scout images were proposed. The results show that performing image extrapolation beyond the scan region improves the dose calculation accuracy under both step-shoot scan mode and helical scan mode. Two clinical studies were designed and comparisons were performed between the current CT dose metrics and the Monte-Carlo-based organ dose determination techniques proposed in this work. The results showed that the current CT dosimetry failed to show dose differences between patients with the same

  18. Patient-specific Monte Carlo dose calculations for 103Pd breast brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksys, N.; Cygler, J. E.; Caudrelier, J. M.; Thomson, R. M.

    2016-04-01

    This work retrospectively investigates patient-specific Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for 103Pd permanent implant breast brachytherapy, exploring various necessary assumptions for deriving virtual patient models: post-implant CT image metallic artifact reduction (MAR), tissue assignment schemes (TAS), and elemental tissue compositions. Three MAR methods (thresholding, 3D median filter, virtual sinogram) are applied to CT images; resulting images are compared to each other and to uncorrected images. Virtual patient models are then derived by application of different TAS ranging from TG-186 basic recommendations (mixed adipose and gland tissue at uniform literature-derived density) to detailed schemes (segmented adipose and gland with CT-derived densities). For detailed schemes, alternate mass density segmentation thresholds between adipose and gland are considered. Several literature-derived elemental compositions for adipose, gland and skin are compared. MC models derived from uncorrected CT images can yield large errors in dose calculations especially when used with detailed TAS. Differences in MAR method result in large differences in local doses when variations in CT number cause differences in tissue assignment. Between different MAR models (same TAS), PTV {{D}90} and skin {{D}1~\\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} each vary by up to 6%. Basic TAS (mixed adipose/gland tissue) generally yield higher dose metrics than detailed segmented schemes: PTV {{D}90} and skin {{D}1~\\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} are higher by up to 13% and 9% respectively. Employing alternate adipose, gland and skin elemental compositions can cause variations in PTV {{D}90} of up to 11% and skin {{D}1~\\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} of up to 30%. Overall, AAPM TG-43 overestimates dose to the PTV ({{D}90} on average 10% and up to 27%) and underestimates dose to the skin ({{D}1~\\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} on average 29% and up to 48%) compared to the various MC models derived using the post-MAR CT images studied

  19. Gene correction in patient-specific iPSCs for therapy development and disease modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon-Young; Ye, Zhaohui

    2016-09-01

    The discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent and the development of engineered endonucleases for enhancing genome editing are two of the most exciting and impactful technology advances in modern medicine and science. Human pluripotent stem cells have the potential to establish new model systems for studying human developmental biology and disease mechanisms. Gene correction in patient-specific iPSCs can also provide a novel source for autologous cell therapy. Although historically challenging, precise genome editing in human iPSCs is becoming more feasible with the development of new genome-editing tools, including ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR. iPSCs derived from patients of a variety of diseases have been edited to correct disease-associated mutations and to generate isogenic cell lines. After directed differentiation, many of the corrected iPSCs showed restored functionality and demonstrated their potential in cell replacement therapy. Genome-wide analyses of gene-corrected iPSCs have collectively demonstrated a high fidelity of the engineered endonucleases. Remaining challenges in clinical translation of these technologies include maintaining genome integrity of the iPSC clones and the differentiated cells. Given the rapid advances in genome-editing technologies, gene correction is no longer the bottleneck in developing iPSC-based gene and cell therapies; generating functional and transplantable cell types from iPSCs remains the biggest challenge needing to be addressed by the research field. PMID:27256364

  20. Patient specific fluid-structure ventricular modelling for integrated cardiac care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vecchi, A; Nordsletten, D A; Razavi, R; Greil, G; Smith, N P

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac diseases represent one of the primary causes of mortality and result in a substantial decrease in quality of life. Optimal surgical planning and long-term treatment are crucial for a successful and cost-effective patient care. Recently developed state-of-the-art imaging techniques supply a wealth of detailed data to support diagnosis. This provides the foundations for a novel approach to clinical planning based on personalisation, which can lead to more tailored treatment plans when compared to strategies based on standard population metrics. The goal of this study is to develop and apply a methodology for creating personalised ventricular models of blood and tissue mechanics to assess patient-specific metrics. Fluid-structure interaction simulations are performed to analyse the diastolic function in hypoplastic left heart patients, who underwent the first stage of a three-step surgical palliation and whose condition must be accurately evaluated to plan further intervention. The kinetic energy changes generated by the blood propagation in early diastole are found to reflect the intraventricular pressure gradient, giving indications on the filling efficiency. This suggests good agreement between the 3D model and the Euler equation, which provides a simplified relationship between pressure and kinetic energy and could, therefore, be applied in the clinical context. PMID:23340962

  1. Fast Monte Carlo Simulation for Patient-specific CT/CBCT Imaging Dose Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-01-01

    Recently, X-ray imaging dose from computed tomography (CT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) scans has become a serious concern. Patient-specific imaging dose calculation has been proposed for the purpose of dose management. While Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation can be quite accurate for this purpose, it suffers from low computational efficiency. In response to this problem, we have successfully developed a MC dose calculation package, gCTD, on GPU architecture under the NVIDIA CUDA platform for fast and accurate estimation of the x-ray imaging dose received by a patient during a CT or CBCT scan. Techniques have been developed particularly for the GPU architecture to achieve high computational efficiency. Dose calculations using CBCT scanning geometry in a homogeneous water phantom and a heterogeneous Zubal head phantom have shown good agreement between gCTD and EGSnrc, indicating the accuracy of our code. In terms of improved efficiency, it is found that gCTD attains a speed-up of ~400 times in the homogeneous water ...

  2. Surgical Guides (Patient-Specific Instruments for Pediatric Tibial Bone Sarcoma Resection and Allograft Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bellanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve local control of malignant pediatric bone tumors and to provide satisfactory oncological results, adequate resection margins are mandatory. The local recurrence rate is directly related to inappropriate excision margins. The present study describes a method for decreasing the resection margin width and ensuring that the margins are adequate. This method was developed in the tibia, which is a common site for the most frequent primary bone sarcomas in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computerized tomography (CT were used for preoperative planning to define the cutting planes for the tumors: each tumor was segmented on MRI, and the volume of the tumor was coregistered with CT. After preoperative planning, a surgical guide (patient-specific instrument that was fitted to a unique position on the tibia was manufactured by rapid prototyping. A second instrument was manufactured to adjust the bone allograft to fit the resection gap accurately. Pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens showed tumor-free resection margins in all four cases. The technologies described in this paper may improve the surgical accuracy and patient safety in surgical oncology. In addition, these techniques may decrease operating time and allow for reconstruction with a well-matched allograft to obtain stable osteosynthesis.

  3. Generation of Human Lens Epithelial-Like Cells From Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Qiu, Xiaodi; Yang, Jin; Liu, Tianjin; Luo, Yi; Lu, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Cataractogenesis begins from the dynamic lens epithelial cells (LECs) and adjacent fiber cells. LECs derived from cell lines cannot maintain the crystalline expression as the primary LECs. The current study aimed to efficiently generate large numbers of human LECs from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Anterior lens capsules were collected from cataract surgery and were used to culture primary hLECs. iPSCs were induced from these primary hLECs by lentiviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Then, the generated iPSCs were re-differentiated into hLECs by the 3-step addition of defined factor combinations (Noggin, BMP4/7, bFGF, and EGF) modified from an established method. During the re-differentiation process, colonies of interest were isolated using a glass picking tool and cloning cylinders based on the colony morphology. After two steps of isolation, populations of LEC-like cells (LLCs) were generated and identified by the expression of lens marker genes by qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The study introduced a modified protocol to isolate LLCs from iPSCs by defined factors in a short time frame. This technique could be useful for mechanistic studies of lens-related diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2555-2562, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991066

  4. Quantification of hepatic flow distribution using particle tracking for patient specific virtual Fontan surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiguang; Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Troianowski, Guillaume; Shadden, Shawn; Mohhan Reddy, V.; Feinstein, Jeffrey; Marsden, Alison

    2010-11-01

    The Fontan surgery is the third and final stage in a palliative series to treat children with single ventricle heart defects. In the extracardiac Fontan procedure, the inferior vena cava (IVC) is connected to the pulmonary arteries via a tube-shaped Gore-tex graft. Clinical observations have shown that the absence of a hepatic factor, carried in the IVC flow, can cause pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Although it is clear that hepatic flow distribution is an important determinant of Fontan performance, few studies have quantified its relation to Fontan design. In this study, we virtually implanted three types of grafts (T-junction, offset and Y-graft) into 5 patient specific models of the Glenn (stage 2) anatomy. We then performed 3D time-dependent simulations and systematically compared the IVC flow distribution, energy loss, and pressure levels in different surgical designs. A robustness test is performed to evaluate the sensitivity of hepatic distribution to pulmonary flow split. Results show that the Y-graft design effectively improves the IVC flow distribution, compared to traditional designs and that surgical designs could be customized on a patient-by-patient basis.

  5. Surface mesh to voxel data registration for patient-specific anatomical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; Giessler, Paul; Keszei, András.; Herrler, Andreas; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) models are frequently used for training, planning, and performing medical procedures. The Regional Anaesthesia Simulator and Assistant (RASimAs) project has the goal of increasing the application and effectiveness of regional anesthesia (RA) by combining a simulator of ultrasound-guided and electrical nerve-stimulated RA procedures and a subject-specific assistance system through an integration of image processing, physiological models, subject-specific data, and virtual reality. Individualized models enrich the virtual training tools for learning and improving regional anaesthesia (RA) skills. Therefore, we suggest patient-specific VPH models that are composed by registering the general mesh-based models with patient voxel data-based recordings. Specifically, the pelvis region has been focused for the support of the femoral nerve block. The processing pipeline is composed of different freely available toolboxes such as MatLab, the open Simulation framework (SOFA), and MeshLab. The approach of Gilles is applied for mesh-to-voxel registration. Personalized VPH models include anatomical as well as mechanical properties of the tissues. Two commercial VPH models (Zygote and Anatomium) were used together with 34 MRI data sets. Results are presented for the skin surface and pelvic bones. Future work will extend the registration procedure to cope with all model tissue (i.e., skin, muscle, bone, vessel, nerve, fascia) in a one-step procedure and extrapolating the personalized models to body regions actually being out of the captured field of view.

  6. Validation of a population of patient-specific adult acquired flatfoot deformity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratley, E Meade; Matheis, Erika A; Hayes, Curtis W; Adelaar, Robert S; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2013-12-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is a degenerative disease resulting in malalignment of the mid- and hindfoot secondary to posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and increasing implication of ligament pathologies. Despite the complex 3D nature of AAFD, 2D radiographs are still employed to diagnose and stage the disease. Computer modeling techniques allow for accurate 3D recreations of musculoskeletal systems for the investigation of biomechanical factors contributing to disease. Following Institutional Review Board approval, the lower limbs of six diagnosed AAFD sufferers were imaged with MRI, photographs, and X-ray. Next, a radiologist graded the MRI attenuation of eight soft-tissues implicated in AAFD. Six patient-specific rigid-body models were then created and loaded according to patient weight, graded soft-tissues, and extrinsic muscles. Model function was validated using clinically relevant kinematic measures in three planes. Agreement varied depending on the measure, with average absolute deviations of < 7° for angles and <4 mm for distances. Additionally, the clinically favored AP talonavicular coverage angle, ML talo-1st metatarsal angle, and ML 1st cuneiform height showed strong correlations of R(2) = 0.63, 0.75, and 0.85, respectively. Thus, computer modeling offers a promising methodology for the non-invasive investigation of in vivo kinematic behavior in pathologic feet and, once validated, may further be used to investigate biomechanical parameters that are difficult to measure clinically.

  7. Effects of Degree of Surgical Correction for Flatfoot Deformity in Patient-Specific Computational Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratley, E M; Matheis, E A; Hayes, C W; Adelaar, R S; Wayne, J S

    2015-08-01

    A cohort of adult acquired flatfoot deformity rigid-body models was developed to investigate the effects of isolated tendon transfer with successive levels of medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO). Following IRB approval, six diagnosed flatfoot sufferers were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their scans used to derive patient-specific models. Single-leg stance was modeled, constrained solely through physiologic joint contact, passive soft-tissue tension, extrinsic muscle force, body weight, and without assumptions of idealized mechanical joints. Surgical effect was quantified using simulated mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) X-rays, pedobarography, soft-tissue strains, and joint contact force. Radiographic changes varied across states with the largest average improvements for the tendon transfer (TT) + 10 mm MCO state evidenced through ML and AP talo-1st metatarsal angles. Interestingly, 12 of 14 measures showed increased deformity following TT-only, though all increases disappeared with inclusion of MCO. Plantar force distributions showed medial forefoot offloading concomitant with increases laterally such that the most corrected state had 9.0% greater lateral load. Predicted alterations in spring, deltoid, and plantar fascia soft-tissue strain agreed with prior cadaveric and computational works suggesting decreased strain medially with successive surgical repair. Finally, joint contact force demonstrated consistent medial offloading concomitant with variable increases laterally. Rigid-body modeling thus offers novel advantages for the investigation of foot/ankle biomechanics not easily measured in vivo.

  8. Induced radioactivity in a patient-specific collimator used in proton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M; Mauro, Egidio; Silari, Marco

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the activation of a patient-specific collimator, calculating dose rates, total activities and activities per unit mass of the mixture of radionuclides generated by proton irradiation in the energy range 100-250 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations were first performed for a generic case, using an approximate geometry and on the basis of assumptions on beam intensity and irradiation profile. A collimator used for a prostate cancer treatment was obtained from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC), Houston, USA, from which a number of samples were cut and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The results of the gamma spectrometry are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations performed using geometrical and irradiation data specific to the unit. The assumptions made for the simulations and their impact on the results are discussed. Dose rate measurements performed in a low-background area at CERN and routine radiation protection measurements at the MDACC are also reported. It is shown that it sh...

  9. PATIENT-SPECIFIC BLOOD DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS IN ASSESSING ENDOVASCULAR OCCLUSION OF INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-liang; WANG Sheng-zhang; DING Guang-hong; YANG Xin-jian; LI Hai-yun

    2009-01-01

    According to recent studies, there are various potential predictors for surgical outcome for cerebral aneurysms. An accurate surgical outcome assessment would help make better-informed decisions and avoid the risk of rebleeding. It is well known that hemodynamic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms. In this article, a computational fluid dynamic analysis is applied to one patient-specific model of the cerebral aneurysm located at the tip of basilar artery, by which the differences of hemodynamic parameters before and after endovascular treatment may be evaluated. Based on the model, we show that the flow behavior near the neck of the aneurysm sees great differences after endovascular treatment as compared with that before treatment, which also affects the wall shear stress and the displacement distribution. In addition, our whole simulation process is based on a series of CFD commercial software packages, which are easily available for doctors to implement such a method in their daily practice. These results would be used to assess the outcome of endovascular treatment for the aneurysm occlusion.

  10. Experimental unsteady flow study in a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Ch.; Mathioulakis, D. S.; Papaharilaou, Y.; Katsamouris, A.

    2011-06-01

    The velocity field in a patient-specific abdominal aneurysm model including the aorto-iliac bifurcation was measured by 2D PIV. Phase-averaged velocities obtained in 14 planes reveal details of the flow evolution during a cycle. The aneurysm expanding asymmetrically toward the anterior side of the aorta causes the generation of a vortex at its entrance, covering the entire aneurysm bulge progressively before flow peak. The fluid entering the aneurysm impinges on the left side of its distal end, following the axis of the upstream aorta segment, causing an increased flow rate in the left (compared to the right) common iliac artery. High shear stresses appear at the aneurysm inlet and outlet as well as along the posterior wall, varying proportionally to the flow rate. At the same regions, elevated flow disturbances are observed, being intensified at flow peak and during the deceleration phase. Low shear stresses are present in the recirculation region, being two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous ones. At flow peak and during the deceleration phase, a clockwise swirling motion (viewed from the inlet) is present in the aneurysm due to the out of plane curvature of the aorta.

  11. Cell reprogramming for the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells by defined factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqun YIN; Heng WANG; Hongguo CAO; Yunhai ZHANG; Yong TAO; Xiaorong ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), characterized by being able to differentiate into various types of cells, are generally regarded as the most promising sources for cell replacement therapies. However, as typical PSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are still far away from human clinics so far due to ethical issues and immune rejection response. One way to avoid such problems is to use stem cells derived from autologous somatic cells. Up to date, PSCs could be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent state with approaches including somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), fusion with stem cells, coculture with cells' extracts, and induction with defined factors. Among these, through reprogramming somatic cells directly by retroviral transduction of transcription factors, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been successfully generated in both mouse and human recently. These iPS cells shared similar morphology and growth properties to ESCs, could express ESCs marker genes, and could produce adult or germline-competent chimaeras and differentiate into a variety of cell types, including germ cells. Moreover, with iPS technique, patient specific PSCs could be derived more easily from handful somatic cells in human without immune rejection responses innately connected to ESCs. Consequently, generation of iPS cells would be of great help to further understand disease mechanisms, drug screening, and cell transplantation therapies as well.In summary,the recent progress in the study of cell reprogramming for the creation of patientspecific pluripotent stem cells, some existing problems, and research perspectives were suggested.

  12. Patient-specific system for prognosis of surgical treatment outcomes of human cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Kalinin, Aleksey A.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Kossovich, Elena L.; Kossovich, Leonid Y.; Menishova, Liyana R.; Polienko, Asel V.

    2015-03-01

    Object of study: Improvement of life quality of patients with high stroke risk ia the main goal for development of system for patient-specific modeling of cardiovascular system. This work is dedicated at increase of safety outcomes for surgical treatment of brain blood supply alterations. The objects of study are common carotid artery, internal and external carotid arteries and bulb. Methods: We estimated mechanical properties of carotid arteries tissues and patching materials utilized at angioplasty. We studied angioarchitecture features of arteries. We developed and clinically adapted computer biomechanical models, which are characterized by geometrical, physical and mechanical similarity with carotid artery in norm and with pathology (atherosclerosis, pathological tortuosity, and their combination). Results: Collaboration of practicing cardiovascular surgeons and specialists in the area of Mathematics and Mechanics allowed to successfully conduct finite-element modeling of surgical treatment taking into account various features of operation techniques and patching materials for a specific patient. Numerical experiment allowed to reveal factors leading to brain blood supply decrease and atherosclerosis development. Modeling of carotid artery reconstruction surgery for a specific patient on the basis of the constructed biomechanical model demonstrated the possibility of its application in clinical practice at approximation of numerical experiment to the real conditions.

  13. Mild anastomotic stenosis in patient-specific CABG model may enhance graft patency: a new hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yunlong; Luo, Tong; Guccione, Julius M; Teague, Shawn D; Tan, Wenchang; Navia, José A; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that flow patterns at the anastomosis of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) are complex and may affect the long-term patency. Various attempts at optimal designs of anastomosis have not improved long-term patency. Here, we hypothesize that mild anastomotic stenosis (area stenosis of about 40-60%) may be adaptive to enhance the hemodynamic conditions, which may contribute to slower progression of atherosclerosis. We further hypothesize that proximal/distal sites to the stenosis have converse changes that may be a risk factor for the diffuse expansion of atherosclerosis from the site of stenosis. Twelve (12) patient-specific models with various stenotic degrees were extracted from computed tomography images using a validated segmentation software package. A 3-D finite element model was used to compute flow patterns including wall shear stress (WSS) and its spatial and temporal gradients (WSS gradient, WSSG, and oscillatory shear index, OSI). The flow simulations showed that mild anastomotic stenosis significantly increased WSS (>15 dynes · cm(-2)) and decreased OSI (<0.02) to result in a more uniform distribution of hemodynamic parameters inside anastomosis albeit proximal/distal sites to the stenosis have a decrease of WSS (<4 dynes · cm(-2)). These findings have significant implications for graft adaptation and long-term patency. PMID:24058488

  14. Mild anastomotic stenosis in patient-specific CABG model may enhance graft patency: a new hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Huo

    Full Text Available It is well known that flow patterns at the anastomosis of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG are complex and may affect the long-term patency. Various attempts at optimal designs of anastomosis have not improved long-term patency. Here, we hypothesize that mild anastomotic stenosis (area stenosis of about 40-60% may be adaptive to enhance the hemodynamic conditions, which may contribute to slower progression of atherosclerosis. We further hypothesize that proximal/distal sites to the stenosis have converse changes that may be a risk factor for the diffuse expansion of atherosclerosis from the site of stenosis. Twelve (12 patient-specific models with various stenotic degrees were extracted from computed tomography images using a validated segmentation software package. A 3-D finite element model was used to compute flow patterns including wall shear stress (WSS and its spatial and temporal gradients (WSS gradient, WSSG, and oscillatory shear index, OSI. The flow simulations showed that mild anastomotic stenosis significantly increased WSS (>15 dynes · cm(-2 and decreased OSI (<0.02 to result in a more uniform distribution of hemodynamic parameters inside anastomosis albeit proximal/distal sites to the stenosis have a decrease of WSS (<4 dynes · cm(-2. These findings have significant implications for graft adaptation and long-term patency.

  15. Commissioning and validation of COMPASS system for VMAT patient specific quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimthong, J.; Kakanaporn, C.; Tuntipumiamorn, L.; Laojunun, P.; Iampongpaiboon, P.

    2016-03-01

    Pre-treatment patient specific quality assurance (QA) of advanced treatment techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is one of important QA in radiotherapy. The fast and reliable dosimetric device is required. The objective of this study is to commission and validate the performance of COMPASS system for dose verification of VMAT technique. The COMPASS system is composed of an array of ionization detectors (MatriXX) mounted to the gantry using a custom holder and software for the analysis and visualization of QA results. We validated the COMPASS software for basic and advanced clinical application. For the basic clinical study, the simple open field in various field sizes were validated in homogeneous phantom. And the advanced clinical application, the fifteen prostate and fifteen nasopharyngeal cancers VMAT plans were chosen to study. The treatment plans were measured by the MatriXX. The doses and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) reconstructed from the fluence measurements were compared to the TPS calculated plans. And also, the doses and DVHs computed using collapsed cone convolution (CCC) Algorithm were compared with Eclipse TPS calculated plans using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) that according to dose specified in ICRU 83 for PTV.

  16. Patient-specific acetabular shape modelling: comparison among sphere, ellipsoid and conchoid parameterisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveri, Pietro; Manzotti, Alfonso; Baroni, Guido

    2014-04-01

    The shape of the human acetabular cup was commonly represented as a hemisphere, but different geometries and patient-specific shapes have been recently proposed in the literature. Our aim was to test the limits of the sphericity assumption by comparing three different parameterisations, namely the sphere, the ellipsoid and the rotational conchoid. Models of hip surfaces, reconstructed from CT scans taken from Caucasian race cadavers and patients, were automatically processed to extract the acetabular surface. Two separate analyses were carried out on the overall acetabular shape, including both the acetabular fossa and the lunate surface (case A) and acetabular cup represented by the lunate surface only (case B). Nonlinear gradient-based and evolutionary computation approaches were implemented for the fitting process. Minor differences from the three idealised geometries were detected (median values of the fitting errors different from both the ellipsoid (p difference was detected between the ellipsoid and the conchoid for case A. Significance of the difference between ellipsoid and sphere (p difference was detected between the ellipsoid and the conchoid. In conclusion, we synthesise that the morphology of the overall acetabular cup can be parameterised both with an ellipsoid shape and with a conchoid shape as well with superior quality than the simple sphere. Differently, if one considers just the lunate surface, better fitting results are expected when using the ellipsoid. PMID:22789071

  17. Reconstruction with a patient-specific titanium implant after a wide anterior chest wall resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turna, Akif; Kavakli, Kuthan; Sapmaz, Ersin; Arslan, Hakan; Caylak, Hasan; Gokce, Hasan Suat; Demirkaya, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects is a challenging problem for thoracic surgeons, particularly after a wide resection of the chest wall that includes the sternum. The location and the size of the defect play a major role when selecting the method of reconstruction, while acceptable cosmetic and functional results remain the primary goal. Improvements in preoperative imaging techniques and reconstruction materials have an important role when planning and performing a wide chest wall resection with a low morbidity rate. In this report, we describe the reconstruction of a wide anterior chest wall defect with a patient-specific custom-made titanium implant. An infected mammary tumour recurrence in a 62-year old female, located at the anterior chest wall including the sternum, was resected, followed by a large custom-made titanium implant. Latissimus dorsi flap and split-thickness graft were also used for covering the implant successfully. A titanium custom-made chest wall implant could be a viable alternative for patients who had large chest wall tumours. PMID:24227881

  18. Patient-Specific Simulations Reveal Significant Differences in Mechanical Stimuli in Venous and Arterial Coronary Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Abhay B; Kahn, Andrew M; Marsden, Alison L

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical stimuli are key to understanding disease progression and clinically observed differences in failure rates between arterial and venous grafts following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We quantify biologically relevant mechanical stimuli, not available from standard imaging, in patient-specific simulations incorporating non-invasive clinical data. We couple CFD with closed-loop circulatory physiology models to quantify biologically relevant indices, including wall shear, oscillatory shear, and wall strain. We account for vessel-specific material properties in simulating vessel wall deformation. Wall shear was significantly lower (p = 0.014*) and atheroprone area significantly higher (p = 0.040*) in venous compared to arterial grafts. Wall strain in venous grafts was significantly lower (p = 0.003*) than in arterial grafts while no significant difference was observed in oscillatory shear index. Simulations demonstrate significant differences in mechanical stimuli acting on venous vs. arterial grafts, in line with clinically observed graft failure rates, offering a promising avenue for stratifying patients at risk for graft failure. PMID:27447176

  19. In Vitro Validation of a Multiscale Patient-Specific Norwood Palliation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Tianqi; Giardini, Alessandro; Biglino, Giovanni; Conover, Timothy; Figliola, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    In Norwood physiology, shunt size and the occurrence of coarctation can affect hemodynamics significantly. The aim of the study was to validate an in vitro model of the Norwood circulation against clinical measurements for patients presenting differing aortic morphologies. The mock circulatory system used coupled a lumped parameter network of the neonatal Norwood circulation with modified Blalock-Taussig (mBT) shunt with a three-dimensional aorta model. Five postoperative aortic arch anatomies of differing morphologies were reconstructed from imaging data, and the system was tuned to patient-specific clinical values. Experimentally measured flow rates and pressures were compared with clinical measurements. Time-based experimental and clinical pressure and flow signals within the aorta and pulmonary circulation branches agreed closely (0.72 mBT shunt by showing it capable of reproducing clinical pressure and flow rates at various positions of the circulation with very good fidelity across a range of patient physiologies and morphologies. The multiscale aspect of the model provides a means to study variables in isolation with their effects both locally and at the system level. The model serves as a tool to further the understanding of the complex physiology of single-ventricle circulation. PMID:26771396

  20. The Effect of Femoral Cutting Guide Design Improvements for Patient-Specific Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh-Ryong Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the application of patient-specific instruments (PSI for total knee arthroplasty (TKA increases the cost of the surgical procedure, PSI may reduce operative time and improve implant alignment, which could reduce the number of revision surgeries. We report our experience with TKA using PSI techniques in 120 patients from March to December 2014. PSI for TKA were created from data provided by computed tomography (CT scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; which imaging technology is more reliable for the PSI technique remains unclear. In the first 20 patients, the accuracy of bone resection and PSI stability were compared between CT and MRI scans with presurgical results as a reference; MRI produced better results. In the second and third groups, each with 50 patients, the results of bone resection and stability were compared in MRI scans with respect to the quality of scanning due to motion artifacts and experienced know-how in PSI design, respectively. The optimized femoral cutting guide design for PSI showed the closest outcomes in bone resection and PSI stability with presurgical data. It is expected that this design could be a reasonable guideline in PSI.

  1. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N; Velasco Forte, M; Tandon, A; Valverde, I

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ) and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports). The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015). The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods. PMID:27170842

  2. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Byrne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports. The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015. The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods.

  3. An Evaluation of the Rates of Repeat Notifiable Disease Reporting and Patient Crossover Using a Health Information Exchange-based Automated Electronic Laboratory Reporting System

    OpenAIRE

    Gichoya, Judy; Gamache, Roland E.; Vreeman, Daniel J.; Dixon, Brian E.; Finnell, John T.; Grannis, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    Patients move across healthcare organizations and utilize services with great frequency and variety. This fact impacts both health information technology policy and patient care. To understand the challenges faced when developing strategies for effective health information exchange, it is important to understand patterns of patient movement and utilization for many healthcare contexts, including managing public-health notifiable conditions. We studied over 10 years of public-health notifiable...

  4. The patient’s perspective of the feasibility of a patient-specific instrument in physiotherapy goal setting: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anita Stevens,1,2 Albine Moser,1,2 Albère Köke,1,3,4 Trudy van der Weijden,2 Anna Beurskens1,2 1Faculty of Health, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, 2Department of Family Medicine, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 3Adelante Centre of Research in Rehabilitation, Hoensbroek, 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: Patient participation in goal setting is important to deliver client-centered care. In daily practice, however, patient involvement in goal setting is not optimal. Patient-specific instruments, such as the Patient Specific Complaints (PSC instrument, can support the goal-setting process because patients can identify and rate their own problems. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ experiences with the feasibility of the PSC, in the physiotherapy goal setting. Method: We performed a qualitative study. Data were collected by observations of physiotherapy sessions (n=23 and through interviews with patients (n=23 with chronic conditions in physiotherapy practices. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Results: The PSC was used at different moments and in different ways. Two feasibility themes were analyzed. First was the perceived ambiguity with the process of administration: patients perceived a broad range of experiences, such as emotional and supportive, as well as feeling a type of uncomfortableness. The second was the perceived usefulness: patients found the PSC useful for themselves – to increase awareness and motivation and to inform the physiotherapist – as well as being useful for the physiotherapist – to determine appropriate treatment for their personal needs. Some patients did not perceive any usefulness and were not aware of any relation with their treatment. Patients with a more positive attitude toward questionnaires, patients with an active role, and health

  5. Nanomedicine-Based Neuroprotective Strategies in Patient Specific-iPSC and Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Fan Jang

    2014-03-01

    -based neuroprotective manipulations in patient specific-iPSCs and personalized medicine.

  6. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  7. Graph-cuts based reconstructing patient specific right ventricle: first human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liang; Wan, Min; Su, Yi; Teo, Soo Kng; Lim, Chi Wan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jun-Mei; Su, Bo Yang; Tan, Ju Le; Tan, Ru San

    2014-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is increasingly recognized to play an important role in the clinical status and long-term outcome in patients with congenital heart disease as well as ischemic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dysfunction. However, quantification of RV characteristics and function are still challenging due to its complex morphology and its thin wall with coarse trabeculations. To assess RV functions quantitatively, establishing the patient-specific model from medical images is a prerequisite task. This study aims to develop a novel method for RV model reconstruction. Magnetic resonance images were acquired and preprocessed. Contours of right ventricle, right atrium and pulmonary artery were manually delineated at all slices and all time frames. The contour coordinates as well as the medical image specifications such as image pixel resolution and slick thickness were exported. The contours were transformed to the correct positions. Reorientation and matching were executed in between neighboring contours; extrapolation and interpolation were conducted upon all contours. After preprocessing, the more dense point set was reconstructed through a variational tool. A Delaunay-based tetrahedral mesh was generated on the region of interest. The weighted minimal surface model was used to describe RV surface. The graphcuts technique, i.e., max-flow/min-cut algorithm, was applied to minimize the energy defined by the model. The reconstructed surface was extracted from the mesh according to the mincut. Smoothing and remeshing were performed. The CPU time to reconstruct the model for one frame was approximately 2 minutes. In 10 consecutive subjects referred for cardiac MRI (80% female), right ventricular volumes were measured using our method against the commercial available CMRtools package. The results demonstrated that there was a significant correlation in end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes between our method and commercial software (r= 0.89 for end

  8. Methodologies for Development of Patient Specific Bone Models from Human Body CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Vikas Narayan; Mulay, Arati Vinayak; Ahuja, Bharatkumar Bhagatraj

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with development of algorithm for physical replication of patient specific human bone and construction of corresponding implants/inserts RP models by using Reverse Engineering approach from non-invasive medical images for surgical purpose. In medical field, the volumetric data i.e. voxel and triangular facet based models are primarily used for bio-modelling and visualization, which requires huge memory space. On the other side, recent advances in Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology provides additional facilities/functions for design, prototyping and manufacturing of any object having freeform surfaces based on boundary representation techniques. This work presents a process to physical replication of 3D rapid prototyping (RP) physical models of human bone from various CAD modeling techniques developed by using 3D point cloud data which is obtained from non-invasive CT/MRI scans in DICOM 3.0 format. This point cloud data is used for construction of 3D CAD model by fitting B-spline curves through these points and then fitting surface between these curve networks by using swept blend techniques. This process also can be achieved by generating the triangular mesh directly from 3D point cloud data without developing any surface model using any commercial CAD software. The generated STL file from 3D point cloud data is used as a basic input for RP process. The Delaunay tetrahedralization approach is used to process the 3D point cloud data to obtain STL file. CT scan data of Metacarpus (human bone) is used as the case study for the generation of the 3D RP model. A 3D physical model of the human bone is generated on rapid prototyping machine and its virtual reality model is presented for visualization. The generated CAD model by different techniques is compared for the accuracy and reliability. The results of this research work are assessed for clinical reliability in replication of human bone in medical field.

  9. Patient-specific simulation of endovascular repair surgery with tortuous aneurysms requiring flexible stent-grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, David; Badel, Pierre; Orgeas, Laurent; Geindreau, Christian; du Roscoat, Sabine Rolland; Albertini, Jean-Noël; Avril, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    The rate of post-operative complications is the main drawback of endovascular repair, a technique used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms. Complex anatomies, featuring short aortic necks and high vessel tortuosity for instance, have been proved likely prone to these complications. In this context, practitioners could benefit, at the preoperative planning stage, from a tool able to predict the post-operative position of the stent-graft, to validate their stent-graft sizing and anticipate potential complications. In consequence, the aim of this work is to prove the ability of a numerical simulation methodology to reproduce accurately the shapes of stent-grafts, with a challenging design, deployed inside tortuous aortic aneurysms. Stent-graft module samples were scanned by X-ray microtomography and subjected to mechanical tests to generate finite-element models. Two EVAR clinical cases were numerically reproduced by simulating stent-graft models deployment inside the tortuous arterial model generated from patient pre-operative scan. In the same manner, an in vitro stent-graft deployment in a rigid polymer phantom, generated by extracting the arterial geometry from the preoperative scan of a patient, was simulated to assess the influence of biomechanical environment unknowns in the in vivo case. Results were validated by comparing stent positions on simulations and post-operative scans. In all cases, simulation predicted stents deployed locations and shapes with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The good results obtained in the in vitro case validated the ability of the methodology to simulate stent-graft deployment in very tortuous arteries and led to think proper modelling of biomechanical environment could reduce the few local discrepancies found in the in vivo case. In conclusion, this study proved that our methodology can achieve accurate simulation of stent-graft deployed shape even in tortuous patient specific aortic aneurysms and may be potentially helpful to

  10. PATIENT-SPECIFIC DATA FUSION FOR CANCER STRATIFICATION AND PERSONALISED TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijević, Vladimir; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    According to Cancer Research UK, cancer is a leading cause of death accounting for more than one in four of all deaths in 2011. The recent advances in experimental technologies in cancer research have resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of patient-specific datasets, which provide complementary information on the same cancer type. We introduce a versatile data fusion (integration) framework that can effectively integrate somatic mutation data, molecular interactions and drug chemical data to address three key challenges in cancer research: stratification of patients into groups having different clinical outcomes, prediction of driver genes whose mutations trigger the onset and development of cancers, and repurposing of drugs treating particular cancer patient groups. Our new framework is based on graph-regularised non-negative matrix tri-factorization, a machine learning technique for co-clustering heterogeneous datasets. We apply our framework on ovarian cancer data to simultaneously cluster patients, genes and drugs by utilising all datasets.We demonstrate superior performance of our method over the state-of-the-art method, Network-based Stratification, in identifying three patient subgroups that have significant differences in survival outcomes and that are in good agreement with other clinical data. Also, we identify potential new driver genes that we obtain by analysing the gene clusters enriched in known drivers of ovarian cancer progression. We validated the top scoring genes identified as new drivers through database search and biomedical literature curation. Finally, we identify potential candidate drugs for repurposing that could be used in treatment of the identified patient subgroups by targeting their mutated gene products. We validated a large percentage of our drug-target predictions by using other databases and through literature curation. PMID:26776197

  11. On the use of biomathematical models in patient-specific IMRT dose QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Heming [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Montefiore Medical Center and Institute of Onco-Physics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of biomathematical models such as tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) as new quality assurance (QA) metrics.Methods: Five different types of error (MLC transmission, MLC penumbra, MLC tongue and groove, machine output, and MLC position) were intentionally induced to 40 clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) patient plans (20 H and N cases and 20 prostate cases) to simulate both treatment planning system errors and machine delivery errors in the IMRT QA process. The changes in TCP and NTCP for eight different anatomic structures (H and N: CTV, GTV, both parotids, spinal cord, larynx; prostate: CTV, rectal wall) were calculated as the new QA metrics to quantify the clinical impact on patients. The correlation between the change in TCP/NTCP and the change in selected DVH values was also evaluated. The relation between TCP/NTCP change and the characteristics of the TCP/NTCP curves is discussed.Results:{Delta}TCP and {Delta}NTCP were summarized for each type of induced error and each structure. The changes/degradations in TCP and NTCP caused by the errors vary widely depending on dose patterns unique to each plan, and are good indicators of each plan's 'robustness' to that type of error.Conclusions: In this in silico QA study the authors have demonstrated the possibility of using biomathematical models not only as patient-specific QA metrics but also as objective indicators that quantify, pretreatment, a plan's robustness with respect to possible error types.

  12. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  13. A Patient-Specific Foot Model for the Estimate of Ankle Joint Forces in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinold, Joe A I; Mazzà, Claudia; Di Marco, Roberto; Hannah, Iain; Malattia, Clara; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Petrarca, Maurizio; Ronchetti, Anna B; Tanturri de Horatio, Laura; van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Wesarg, Stefan; Viceconti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the leading cause of childhood disability from a musculoskeletal disorder. It generally affects large joints such as the knee and the ankle, often causing structural damage. Different factors contribute to the damage onset, including altered joint loading and other mechanical factors, associated with pain and inflammation. The prediction of patients' joint loading can hence be a valuable tool in understanding the disease mechanisms involved in structural damage progression. A number of lower-limb musculoskeletal models have been proposed to analyse the hip and knee joints, but juvenile models of the foot are still lacking. This paper presents a modelling pipeline that allows the creation of juvenile patient-specific models starting from lower limb kinematics and foot and ankle MRI data. This pipeline has been applied to data from three children with JIA and the importance of patient-specific parameters and modelling assumptions has been tested in a sensitivity analysis focused on the variation of the joint reaction forces. This analysis highlighted the criticality of patient-specific definition of the ankle joint axes and location of the Achilles tendon insertions. Patient-specific detection of the Tibialis Anterior, Tibialis Posterior, and Peroneus Longus origins and insertions were also shown to be important. PMID:26374518

  14. Geometrical aspects of patient-specific modelling of the intervertebral disc: collagen fibre orientation and residual stress distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Giacomo; Studer, Harald; Huber, Gerd; Püschel, Klaus; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    Patient-specific modelling of the spine is a powerful tool to explore the prevention and the treatment of injuries and pathologies. Albeit several methods have been proposed for the discretization of the bony structures, the efficient representation of the intervertebral disc anisotropy remains a challenge, especially with complex geometries. Furthermore, the swelling of the disc's nucleus pulposus is normally added to the model after geometry definition, at the cost of changes of the material properties and an unrealistic description of the prestressed state. The aim of this study was to develop techniques, which preserve the patient-specific geometry of the disc and allow the representation of the system anisotropy and residual stresses, independent of the system discretization. Depending on the modelling features, the developed approaches resulted in a response of patient-specific models that was in good agreement with the physiological response observed in corresponding experiments. The proposed methods represent a first step towards the development of patient-specific models of the disc which respect both the geometry and the mechanical properties of the specific disc. PMID:26243011

  15. Transcriptome profiling of patient-specific human iPSC-cardiomyocytes predicts individual drug safety and efficacy responses in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, Elena; Burridge, Paul W.; Yu, Kun-Hsing; Ahrens, John H.; Termglinchan, Vittavat; Wu, Haodi; Liu, Chun; Shukla, Praveen; Sayed, Nazish; Churko, Jared M.; Shao, Ningyi; Woo, Nicole A.; Chao, Alexander S.; Gold, Joseph D.; Karakikes, Ioannis; Snyder, Michael P.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding individual susceptibility to drug-induced cardiotoxicity is key to improving patient safety and preventing drug attrition. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) enable the study of pharmacological and toxicological responses in patient-specific cardiomyocytes (CMs), and may serve as preclinical platforms for precision medicine. Transcriptome profiling in hiPSC-CMs from seven individuals lacking known cardiovascular disease-associated mutations, and in three isogenic human heart tissue and hiPSC-CM pairs, showed greater inter-patient variation than intra-patient variation, verifying that reprogramming and differentiation preserve patient-specific gene expression, particularly in metabolic and stress-response genes. Transcriptome-based toxicology analysis predicted and risk-stratified patient-specific susceptibility to cardiotoxicity, and functional assays in hiPSC-CMs using tacrolimus and rosiglitazone, drugs targeting pathways predicted to produce cardiotoxicity, validated inter-patient differential responses. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated pathway correction prevented drug-induced cardiotoxicity. Our data suggest that hiPSC-CMs can be used in vitro to predict and validate patient-specific drug safety and efficacy, potentially enabling future clinical approaches to precision medicine. PMID:27545504

  16. Patient-Specific Dosimetry and Radiobiological Modeling of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Grant - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Sgouros, Ph.D.

    2007-03-20

    radionuclide therapy to obtain normal organ and tumor dose vs. response correlations. Completion of the aims outlined above will make it possible to perform patient-specific dosimetry that incorporates considerations likely to provide robust dose-response relationships. Such an advance will improve targeted radionuclide therapy by making it possible to adopt treatment planning methodologies.

  17. Using patient-specific phantoms to evaluate deformable image registration algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nick; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Adams, Jeffrey; Li, Shunshan; Wen, Ning; Chetty, Indrin J; Zhong, Hualiang

    2013-11-04

    The quality of adaptive treatment planning depends on the accuracy of its underlying deformable image registration (DIR). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of two DIR algorithms, B-spline-based deformable multipass (DMP) and deformable demons (Demons), implemented in a commercial software package. Evaluations were conducted using both computational and physical deformable phantoms. Based on a finite element method (FEM), a total of 11 computational models were developed from a set of CT images acquired from four lung and one prostate cancer patients. FEM generated displacement vector fields (DVF) were used to construct the lung and prostate image phantoms. Based on a fast-Fourier transform technique, image noise power spectrum was incorporated into the prostate image phantoms to create simulated CBCT images. The FEM-DVF served as a gold standard for verification of the two registration algorithms performed on these phantoms. The registration algorithms were also evaluated at the homologous points quantified in the CT images of a physical lung phantom. The results indicated that the mean errors of the DMP algorithm were in the range of 1.0 ~ 3.1 mm for the computational phantoms and 1.9 mm for the physical lung phantom. For the computational prostate phantoms, the corresponding mean error was 1.0-1.9 mm in the prostate, 1.9-2.4mm in the rectum, and 1.8-2.1 mm over the entire patient body. Sinusoidal errors induced by B-spline interpolations were observed in all the displacement profiles of the DMP registrations. Regions of large displacements were observed to have more registration errors. Patient-specific FEM models have been developed to evaluate the DIR algorithms implemented in the commercial software package. It has been found that the accuracy of these algorithms is patient dependent and related to various factors including tissue deformation magnitudes and image intensity gradients across the regions of interest. This may suggest that

  18. SU-E-T-159: Evaluation of a Patient Specific QA Tool Based On TG119

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmeg, S; Zhang, Y; O' Daniel, J; Yin, F; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a 3D patient specific QA tool by analysis of the results produced from associated software in homogenous phantom and heterogonous patient CT. Methods: IMRT and VMAT plans of five test suites introduced by TG119 were created in ECLIPSE on a solid water phantom. The ten plans -of increasing complexity- were delivered to Delta4 to give a 3D measurement. The Delta4's “Anatomy” software uses the measured dose to back-calculate the energy fluence of the delivered beams, which is used for dose calculation in a patient CT using a pencilbeam algorithm. The effect of the modulated beams' complexity on the accuracy of the “Anatomy” calculation was evaluated. Both measured and Anatomy doses were compared to ECLIPSE calculation using 3% - 3mm gamma criteria.We also tested the effect of heterogeneity by analyzing the results of “Anatomy” calculation on a Brain VMAT and a 3D conformal lung cases. Results: In homogenous phantom, the gamma passing rates were found to be as low as 74.75% for a complex plan with high modulation. The mean passing rates were 91.47% ± 6.35% for “Anatomy” calculation and 99.46% ± 0.62% for Delta4 measurements.As for the heterogeneous cases, the rates were 96.54%±3.67% and 83.87%±9.42% for Brain VMAT and 3D lung respectively. This increased error in the lung case could be due to the use of the pencil beam algorithm as opposed to the AAA used by ECLIPSE.Also, gamma analysis showed high discrepancy along the beam edge in the “Anatomy” calculated results. This suggests a poor beam modeling in the penumbra region. Conclusion: The results show various sources of errors in “Anatomy” calculations. These include beam modeling in the penumbra region, complexity of a modulated beam (shown in homogenous phantom and brain cases) and dose calculation algorithms (3D conformal lung case)

  19. An in vitro assessment of the cerebral hemodynamics through three patient specific circle of Willis geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Paul; Delassus, Patrick; McCarthy, Peter; Sultan, Sheriff; Hynes, Niamh; Morris, Liam

    2014-01-01

    The Circle of Willis (CoW) is a complex pentagonal network comprised of fourteen cerebral vessels located at the base of the brain. The collateral flow feature within the circle of Willis allows the ability to maintain cerebral perfusion of the brain. Unfortunately, this collateral flow feature can create undesirable flow impact locations due to anatomical variations within the CoW. The interaction between hemodynamic forces and the arterial wall are believed to be involved in the formation of cerebral aneurysms, especially at irregular geometries such as tortuous segments, bends, and bifurcations. The highest propensity of aneurysm formation is known to form at the anterior communicating artery (AcoA) and at the junctions of the internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries (PcoAs). Controversy still remains as to the existence of blood flow paths through the communicating arteries for a normal CoW. This paper experimentally describes the hemodynamic conditions through three thin walled patient specific models of a complete CoW based on medical images. These models were manufactured by a horizontal dip spin coating method and positioned within a custom made cerebral testing system that simulated symmetrical physiological afferent flow conditions through the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. The dip spin coating procedure produced excellent dimensional accuracy. There was an average of less than 4% variation in diameters and wall thicknesses throughout all manufactured CoW models. Our cerebral test facility demonstrated excellent cycle to cycle repeatability, with variations of less than 2% and 1% for the time and cycle averaged flow rates, respectively. The peak systolic flow rates had less than a 4% variation. Our flow visualizations showed four independent flow sources originating from all four inlet arteries impacting at and crossing the AcoA with bidirectional cross flows. The flow paths entering the left and right vertebral arteries dissipated

  20. Advancing drug discovery for neuropsychiatric disorders using patient-specific stem cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggarty, Stephen J; Silva, M Catarina; Cross, Alan; Brandon, Nicholas J; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-06-01

    Compelling clinical, social, and economic reasons exist to innovate in the process of drug discovery for neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of patient-specific, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) now affords the ability to generate neuronal cell-based models that recapitulate key aspects of human disease. In the context of neuropsychiatric disorders, where access to physiologically active and relevant cell types of the central nervous system for research is extremely limiting, iPSC-derived in vitro culture of human neurons and glial cells is transformative. Potential applications relevant to early stage drug discovery, include support of quantitative biochemistry, functional genomics, proteomics, and perhaps most notably, high-throughput and high-content chemical screening. While many phenotypes in human iPSC-derived culture systems may prove adaptable to screening formats, addressing the question of which in vitro phenotypes are ultimately relevant to disease pathophysiology and therefore more likely to yield effective pharmacological agents that are disease-modifying treatments requires careful consideration. Here, we review recent examples of studies of neuropsychiatric disorders using human stem cell models where cellular phenotypes linked to disease and functional assays have been reported. We also highlight technical advances using genome-editing technologies in iPSCs to support drug discovery efforts, including the interpretation of the functional significance of rare genetic variants of unknown significance and for the purpose of creating cell type- and pathway-selective functional reporter assays. Additionally, we evaluate the potential of in vitro stem cell models to investigate early events of disease pathogenesis, in an effort to understand the underlying molecular mechanism, including the basis of selective cell-type vulnerability, and the potential to create new cell-based diagnostics to aid in the classification of patients and subsequent

  1. Segmenting CT prostate images using population and patient-specific statistics for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In the segmentation of sequential treatment-time CT prostate images acquired in image-guided radiotherapy, accurately capturing the intrapatient variation of the patient under therapy is more important than capturing interpatient variation. However, using the traditional deformable-model-based segmentation methods, it is difficult to capture intrapatient variation when the number of samples from the same patient is limited. This article presents a new deformable model, designed specifically for segmenting sequential CT images of the prostate, which leverages both population and patient-specific statistics to accurately capture the intrapatient variation of the patient under therapy. Methods: The novelty of the proposed method is twofold: First, a weighted combination of gradient and probability distribution function (PDF) features is used to build the appearance model to guide model deformation. The strengths of each feature type are emphasized by dynamically adjusting the weight between the profile-based gradient features and the local-region-based PDF features during the optimization process. An additional novel aspect of the gradient-based features is that, to alleviate the effect of feature inconsistency in the regions of gas and bone adjacent to the prostate, the optimal profile length at each landmark is calculated by statistically investigating the intensity profile in the training set. The resulting gradient-PDF combined feature produces more accurate and robust segmentations than general gradient features. Second, an online learning mechanism is used to build shape and appearance statistics for accurately capturing intrapatient variation. Results: The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on 306 images of the 24 patients. Compared to traditional gradient features, the proposed gradient-PDF combination features brought 5.2% increment in the success ratio of segmentation (from 94.1% to 99.3%). To evaluate the effectiveness of online

  2. Patient specific optimization-based treatment planning for catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Chen, Xin; Wootton, Jeffery; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.-Chow; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-02-01

    A 3D optimization-based thermal treatment planning platform has been developed for the application of catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treating advanced pelvic tumors. Optimal selection of applied power levels to each independently controlled transducer segment can be used to conform and maximize therapeutic heating and thermal dose coverage to the target region, providing significant advantages over current hyperthermia technology and improving treatment response. Critical anatomic structures, clinical target outlines, and implant/applicator geometries were acquired from sequential multi-slice 2D images obtained from HDR treatment planning and used to reconstruct patient specific 3D biothermal models. A constrained optimization algorithm was devised and integrated within a finite element thermal solver to determine a priori the optimal applied power levels and the resulting 3D temperature distributions such that therapeutic heating is maximized within the target, while placing constraints on maximum tissue temperature and thermal exposure of surrounding non-targeted tissue. This optimizationbased treatment planning and modeling system was applied on representative cases of clinical implants for HDR treatment of cervix and prostate to evaluate the utility of this planning approach. The planning provided significant improvement in achievable temperature distributions for all cases, with substantial increase in T90 and thermal dose (CEM43T90) coverage to the hyperthermia target volume while decreasing maximum treatment temperature and reducing thermal dose exposure to surrounding non-targeted tissues and thermally sensitive rectum and bladder. This optimization based treatment planning platform with catheter-based ultrasound applicators is a useful tool that has potential to significantly improve the delivery of hyperthermia in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy. The planning platform has been extended

  3. On the evaluation of patient specific IMRT QA using EPID, dynalog files and patient anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewayne Lee Defoor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research, investigates the viability of using the Electronic portal imaging device (EPID coupled with the treatment planning system (TPS, to calculate the doses delivered and verify agreement with the treatment plan. The results of QA analysis using the EPID, Delta4 and fluence calculations using the multi-leaf collimator (MLC dynalog files on 10 IMRT patients are presented in this study.Methods: EPID Fluence Images in integrated mode and Dynalog files for each field were acquired for 10 IMRT (6MV patients and processed through an in house MatLab program to create an opening density matrix (ODM which was used as the input fluence for dose calculation with the TPS (Pinnacle3, Philips. The EPID used in this study was the aSi1000 Varian on a Novalis TX linac equipped with high definition MLC. The resulting dose distributions were then exported to VeriSoft (PTW where a 3D gamma was calculated using 3 mm-3% criteria. The Scandidos Delta4 phantom was also used to measure a 2D dose distribution for all 10 patients and a 2D gamma was calculated for each patient using the Delta4 software.Results: The average 3D gamma for all 10 patients using the EPID images was 98.2% ± 2.6%. The average 3D gamma using the dynalog files was 94.6% ± 4.9%. The average 2D gamma from the Delta4 was 98.1% ± 2.5%. The minimum 3D gamma for the EPID and dynalog reconstructed dose distributions was found on the same patient which had a very large PTV, requiring the jaws to open to the maximum field size. Conclusion: Use of the EPID, combined with a TPS is a viable method for QA of IMRT plans. A larger ODM size can be implemented to accommodate larger field sizes. An adaptation of this process to Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT is currently under way.-----------------------------Cite this article as: Defoor D, Mavroidis P, Quino L, Gutierrez A, Papanikolaou N, Stathakis S. On the evaluation of patient specific IMRT QA using EPID, dynalog files and patient anatomy

  4. SU-E-T-159: Evaluation of a Patient Specific QA Tool Based On TG119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a 3D patient specific QA tool by analysis of the results produced from associated software in homogenous phantom and heterogonous patient CT. Methods: IMRT and VMAT plans of five test suites introduced by TG119 were created in ECLIPSE on a solid water phantom. The ten plans -of increasing complexity- were delivered to Delta4 to give a 3D measurement. The Delta4's “Anatomy” software uses the measured dose to back-calculate the energy fluence of the delivered beams, which is used for dose calculation in a patient CT using a pencilbeam algorithm. The effect of the modulated beams' complexity on the accuracy of the “Anatomy” calculation was evaluated. Both measured and Anatomy doses were compared to ECLIPSE calculation using 3% - 3mm gamma criteria.We also tested the effect of heterogeneity by analyzing the results of “Anatomy” calculation on a Brain VMAT and a 3D conformal lung cases. Results: In homogenous phantom, the gamma passing rates were found to be as low as 74.75% for a complex plan with high modulation. The mean passing rates were 91.47% ± 6.35% for “Anatomy” calculation and 99.46% ± 0.62% for Delta4 measurements.As for the heterogeneous cases, the rates were 96.54%±3.67% and 83.87%±9.42% for Brain VMAT and 3D lung respectively. This increased error in the lung case could be due to the use of the pencil beam algorithm as opposed to the AAA used by ECLIPSE.Also, gamma analysis showed high discrepancy along the beam edge in the “Anatomy” calculated results. This suggests a poor beam modeling in the penumbra region. Conclusion: The results show various sources of errors in “Anatomy” calculations. These include beam modeling in the penumbra region, complexity of a modulated beam (shown in homogenous phantom and brain cases) and dose calculation algorithms (3D conformal lung case)

  5. Graph-cuts based reconstructing patient specific right ventricle: first human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liang; Wan, Min; Su, Yi; Teo, Soo Kng; Lim, Chi Wan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jun-Mei; Su, Bo Yang; Tan, Ju Le; Tan, Ru San

    2014-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is increasingly recognized to play an important role in the clinical status and long-term outcome in patients with congenital heart disease as well as ischemic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dysfunction. However, quantification of RV characteristics and function are still challenging due to its complex morphology and its thin wall with coarse trabeculations. To assess RV functions quantitatively, establishing the patient-specific model from medical images is a prerequisite task. This study aims to develop a novel method for RV model reconstruction. Magnetic resonance images were acquired and preprocessed. Contours of right ventricle, right atrium and pulmonary artery were manually delineated at all slices and all time frames. The contour coordinates as well as the medical image specifications such as image pixel resolution and slick thickness were exported. The contours were transformed to the correct positions. Reorientation and matching were executed in between neighboring contours; extrapolation and interpolation were conducted upon all contours. After preprocessing, the more dense point set was reconstructed through a variational tool. A Delaunay-based tetrahedral mesh was generated on the region of interest. The weighted minimal surface model was used to describe RV surface. The graphcuts technique, i.e., max-flow/min-cut algorithm, was applied to minimize the energy defined by the model. The reconstructed surface was extracted from the mesh according to the mincut. Smoothing and remeshing were performed. The CPU time to reconstruct the model for one frame was approximately 2 minutes. In 10 consecutive subjects referred for cardiac MRI (80% female), right ventricular volumes were measured using our method against the commercial available CMRtools package. The results demonstrated that there was a significant correlation in end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes between our method and commercial software (r= 0.89 for end

  6. A coverage probability based method to estimate patient-specific small bowel planning volumes for use in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a statistical method for generation of patient-specific planning organ-at-risk volumes (PRVs) for the small bowel (SB), by efficient use of a few repeat CT scans. Materials and methods: The PRVs are generated from a coverage probability (CP) matrix of the small bowel wall (SBW) by thresholding. To estimate the CPs, we extend a previously published 'relative frequency of coverage' approach by adding a 'soft margin' around each SBW instance. This prevents the CP matrix from containing any holes, thus making it more robust. As the number of CTs approach infinity, the 'soft margin' approaches zero and the CP matrix converges to the 'relative frequency of coverage'. The PRVs were evaluated by using the bootstrap method in three patients with different degrees of SB motion: The PRVs from randomly sampled subsets of CTs were compared to the PRVs generated from all 10-11 CT scans, by analysis of sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the PRVs generated for CP = 0.005 (i.e. generous patient-specific PRVs) and for CP = 0.03 (i.e. tight patient-specific PRVs) were compared to an intestinal cavity (IC) approach and a population based PRV approach of 10 and 30 mm isotropic planning margins around SB. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the PRVs depend on the number of CT scans and the CP threshold. With three CT scans and a threshold of 0.03, an average sensitivity of 94-96% and specificity of 86-97% was obtained. All investigated SB planning volumes had an average overlap >89% of both SB and SBW. The tight patient-specific PRVs and the 10 mm margins had the lowest relative volumes, followed by the generous patient-specific PRVs, the 30 mm margins and the ICs. Conclusions: Based on a few CTs, our method generates patient-specific SB PRVs which are both sensitive and specific. Compared to conventional approaches, the patient-specific PRVs are either similar or better in predicting for SB voxels, and at the

  7. Use of smart home automation and implementation in care organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, E.R.C.M.; Huisman, C.A.M.; Kort, H.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (MINVWS) encourages the use of smart home automation (SHA) in small-scale senior accommodations (SSSAs). The initiatives were evaluated in order to determine which of the smart home automation systems contribute to enhance quality o

  8. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated zone reader. 866.2850 Section 866.2850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone...

  9. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated colony counter. 866.2170 Section 866.2170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated...

  10. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  11. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  12. Work and Programmable Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  13. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  14. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  15. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  16. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  17. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  18. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  19. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  20. Modelo geoespacial automatizado para la regionalización operativa en planeación de redes de servicios de salud Automated geospatial model for health services strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eugenio Hernández-Ávila

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Desarrollar un modelo automatizado de regionalización operativa para la planeación de las redes de servicios de salud propuestas en el Modelo Integrador de Atención a la Salud (MIDAS. Material y métodos. Con información disponible para México en 2005 y 2007 se realizó un modelo geoespacial para estimar el área potencial de influencia alrededor de cada unidad de atención médica, con base en el menor tiempo de viaje. Los resultados se compararon con un Estudio de Regionalización Operativa (ERO para Oaxaca llevado a cabo en 2005. Resultados. Comparado con el modelo geoespacial, el ERO asignó 48% de las localidades a centros de salud más lejanos y 23% de los centros de salud a hospitales más lejanos. Conclusiones. El modelo calculado en este estudio generó una regionalización más eficiente que el ERO de Oaxaca, minimizando el tiempo de viaje para el acceso a los servicios de salud. Este modelo ha sido adoptado por la Dirección General de Planeación y Desarrollo en Salud para la instrumentación del Plan Maestro Sectorial de Recursos para la Atención de la Salud.Objective. To develop an automated model for the operational regionalization needed in the planning of the health service networks proposed by the new Mexican health care model (Modelo Integrador de Servicios de Salud MIDAS. Material and Methods. Using available data for México during 2005 and 2007, a geospatial model was developed to estimate potential catchment areas around health facilities based on access travel time. The results were compared with an operational regionalization (ERO study manually carried out in Oaxaca with 2005 data. Results. The ERO assigned 48% of villages to health care centers further away than those assigned by the geospatial model, and 23% of these health centers referred patients to more distant hospitals. Conclusions. The model calculated by this study generated a more efficient regionalization than the ERO model, minimizing travel

  1. Open-Source Radiation Exposure Extraction Engine (RE3) with Patient-Specific Outlier Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenthal, Samuel J; Folio, Les; Kovacs, William; Seff, Ari; Derderian, Vana; Summers, Ronald M; Yao, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    We present an open-source, picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-integrated radiation exposure extraction engine (RE3) that provides study-, series-, and slice-specific data for automated monitoring of computed tomography (CT) radiation exposure. RE3 was built using open-source components and seamlessly integrates with the PACS. RE3 calculations of dose length product (DLP) from the Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) headers showed high agreement (R (2) = 0.99) with the vendor dose pages. For study-specific outlier detection, RE3 constructs robust, automatically updating multivariable regression models to predict DLP in the context of patient gender and age, scan length, water-equivalent diameter (D w), and scanned body volume (SBV). As proof of concept, the model was trained on 811 CT chest, abdomen + pelvis (CAP) exams and 29 outliers were detected. The continuous variables used in the outlier detection model were scan length (R (2)  = 0.45), D w (R (2) = 0.70), SBV (R (2) = 0.80), and age (R (2) = 0.01). The categorical variables were gender (male average 1182.7 ± 26.3 and female 1047.1 ± 26.9 mGy cm) and pediatric status (pediatric average 710.7 ± 73.6 mGy cm and adult 1134.5 ± 19.3 mGy cm). PMID:26644157

  2. Patient specific IMRT quality assurance with film, ionization chamber and detector arrays: Our institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was conducted to review patient specific IMRT QA delivered at our institution using Varian LINACs and TomoTherapy Hi-Art system and categorized according to the anatomical site, type of treatment machine, and treatment planning systems (TPS). Material and methods: Three thousand and three hundred seven patient data were evaluated for a time ranging from 2006 to 2011; these data were gauged using several methods used in the QA process. Ion chambers and film were used in 1738 patient plan QA in the earlier years followed by ion chamber arrays in 1569 patient plan QA in the latter years. Patients were grouped according to several parameters including TPS, site of treatment, and type of treatment machine in comparing the measured versus computed dose differences. From 2006 through early 2009, 736 TomoTherapy plans, 651 Pinnacle3 plans, and 351 Corvus plans were evaluated using ion chambers and films. The pass criterion at the institution at the time of these measurements was 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement. For the years ranging from 2009 to 2011, 1569 patient IMRT QAs were performed and evaluated on the institution's pass criteria of 90% γ value on Varian linacs with Millennium 80, 120 and High-Definition 120 multileaf collimators. Results: Average point dose difference between measured and calculated plans for Pinnacle3, Hi-ART TomoTherapy, and Corvus TPS were 0.1205%, −0.0042%, and −0.0178%. Among the QA plans measured using a 2D array, average gamma values for brain, head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were 97.2%, 95.7%, 96.2%, 97.0%, and 96.2%, respectively. Average gamma values based on 80, 120, HD 120 and TomoTherapy MLC configurations were 96.5%, 96.2%, 96.3%, and 97%, respectively. A 2-tailed paired Student's T-test did not reveal the presence of statistically significant differences based on either TPS, anatomical sites, number of beams or arcs, number of control points, or the MLC configuration (p

  3. A patient-specific aperture system with an energy absorber for spot scanning proton beams: Verification for clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Keisuke, E-mail: k.yasui.20@west-med.jp [Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, 1-1-1, Hirate-cho, Kita-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 462-8508, Japan and Department of Radiological Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20, Daikouminami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 461-8673 (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki; Omachi, Chihiro; Kibe, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Kensuke; Shibata, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Nikawa, Eiki; Asai, Kumiko; Shimomura, Akira; Kinou, Hideto; Isoyama, Shigeru; Mizoe, Jun-etsu [Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, 1-1-1, Hirate-cho, Kita-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 462-8508 (Japan); Fujii, Yusuke; Takayanagi, Taisuke; Hirayama, Shusuke [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory, 7-1-1, Omika-chou, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1292 (Japan); Nagamine, Yoshihiko [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Works, 3-1-1, Saiwai-chou, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 317-8511 (Japan); Shibamoto, Yuta [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1, Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 467-8601 (Japan); Komori, Masataka [Department of Radiological Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20, Daikouminami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 461-8673 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: In the authors’ proton therapy system, the patient-specific aperture can be attached to the nozzle of spot scanning beams to shape an irradiation field and reduce lateral fall-off. The authors herein verified this system for clinical application. Methods: The authors prepared four types of patient-specific aperture systems equipped with an energy absorber to irradiate shallow regions less than 4 g/cm{sup 2}. The aperture was made of 3-cm-thick brass and the maximum water equivalent penetration to be used with this system was estimated to be 15 g/cm{sup 2}. The authors measured in-air lateral profiles at the isocenter plane and integral depth doses with the energy absorber. All input data were obtained by the Monte Carlo calculation, and its parameters were tuned to reproduce measurements. The fluence of single spots in water was modeled as a triple Gaussian function and the dose distribution was calculated using a fluence dose model. The authors compared in-air and in-water lateral profiles and depth doses between calculations and measurements for various apertures of square, half, and U-shaped fields. The absolute doses and dose distributions with the aperture were then validated by patient-specific quality assurance. Measured data were obtained by various chambers and a 2D ion chamber detector array. Results: The patient-specific aperture reduced the penumbra from 30% to 70%, for example, from 34.0 to 23.6 mm and 18.8 to 5.6 mm. The calculated field width for square-shaped apertures agreed with measurements within 1 mm. Regarding patient-specific aperture plans, calculated and measured doses agreed within −0.06% ± 0.63% (mean ± SD) and 97.1% points passed the 2%-dose/2 mm-distance criteria of the γ-index on average. Conclusions: The patient-specific aperture system improved dose distributions, particularly in shallow-region plans.

  4. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  5. Development of an improved approach to radiation treatment therapy using high-definition patient-specific voxel phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.C.; Ryman, J.C.; Worley, B.A.; Stallings, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Through an internally funded project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a high-resolution phantom was developed based on the National Library of Medicine`s Visible Human Data. Special software was written using the interactive data language (IDL) visualization language to automatically segment and classify some of the organs and the skeleton of the Visible Male. A high definition phantom consisting of nine hundred 512 x 512 slices was constructed of the entire torso. Computed tomography (CT) images of a patient`s tumor near the spine were scaled and morphed into the phantom model to create a patient-specific phantom. Calculations of dose to the tumor and surrounding tissue were then performed using the patient-specific phantom.

  6. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-04: Statistical Process Control for Patient-Specific QA in Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAH, J [Myongji Hospital, Goyangsi, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); SHIN, D [National Cancer Center, Goyangsi, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and improve the reliability of proton QA process, to provide an optimal customized level using the statistical process control (SPC) methodology. The aim is then to suggest the suitable guidelines for patient-specific QA process. Methods: We investigated the constancy of the dose output and range to see whether it was within the tolerance level of daily QA process. This study analyzed the difference between the measured and calculated ranges along the central axis to suggest the suitable guidelines for patient-specific QA in proton beam by using process capability indices. In this study, patient QA plans were classified into 6 treatment sites: head and neck (41 cases), spinal cord (29 cases), lung (28 cases), liver (30 cases), pancreas (26 cases), and prostate (24 cases). Results: The deviations for the dose output and range of daily QA process were ±0.84% and ±019%, respectively. Our results show that the patient-specific range measurements are capable at a specification limit of ±2% in all treatment sites except spinal cord cases. In spinal cord cases, comparison of process capability indices (Cp, Cpm, Cpk ≥1, but Cpmk ≤1) indicated that the process is capable, but not centered, the process mean deviates from its target value. The UCL (upper control limit), CL (center line) and LCL (lower control limit) for spinal cord cases were 1.37%, −0.27% and −1.89%, respectively. On the other hands, the range differences in prostate cases were good agreement between calculated and measured values. The UCL, CL and LCL for prostate cases were 0.57%, −0.11% and −0.78%, respectively. Conclusion: SPC methodology has potential as a useful tool to customize an optimal tolerance levels and to suggest the suitable guidelines for patient-specific QA in clinical proton beam.

  7. Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanhang; Dunn, Martin L.; Hunter, Kendall S.; Lanning, Craig; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Claussen, Lori; Chen, S. James; Shandas, Robin

    2007-01-01

    We applied a statistical mechanics based microstructural model of pulmonary artery mechanics, developed from our previous studies of rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), to patient-specific clinical studies of children with PAH. Our previous animal studies provoked the hypothesis that increased cross-linking density of the molecular chains may be one biological remodeling mechanism by which the PA stiffens in PAH. This study appears to further confirm this hypothesis since varying...

  8. Abnormal Calcium Handling Properties Underlie Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Pathology in Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Feng; Lee, Andrew S.; Liang, Ping; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Nguyen, Patricia K; Wang, Li; Han, Leng; Yen, Michelle; Wang, Yongming; Sun, Ning; Abilez, Oscar J.; Hu, Shijun; Ebert, Antje D.; Navarrete, Enrique G.; Simmons, Chelsey S.

    2013-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a prevalent hereditary cardiac disorder linked to arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. While the causes of HCM have been identified as genetic mutations in the cardiac sarcomere, the pathways by which sarcomeric mutations engender myocyte hypertrophy and electrophysiological abnormalities are not understood. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying HCM development, we generated patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs)...

  9. Imaging, Virtual Planning, Design, and Production of Patient-Specific Implants and Clinical Validation in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Dérand, Per; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Hirsch, Jan-M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the workflow from imaging, via virtual design, to manufacturing of patient-specific titanium reconstruction plates, cutting guide and mesh, and its utility in connection with surgical treatment of acquired bone defects in the mandible using additive manufacturing by electron beam melting (EBM). Based on computed tomography scans, polygon skulls were created. Following that virtual treatment plans entailing free microvascular transfer of fibula flaps...

  10. Integrating Prognostics in Automated Contingency Management Strategies for Advanced Aircraft Controls Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated Contingency Management (ACM) is an emerging and game-changing area of engineering and scientific research that integrates prognostics and health...

  11. Towards the Personalized Treatment of Glioblastoma: Integrating Patient-Specific Clinical Data in a Continuous Mechanical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Colombo

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive and malignant among brain tumors. In addition to uncontrolled proliferation and genetic instability, GBM is characterized by a diffuse infiltration, developing long protrusions that penetrate deeply along the fibers of the white matter. These features, combined with the underestimation of the invading GBM area by available imaging techniques, make a definitive treatment of GBM particularly difficult. A multidisciplinary approach combining mathematical, clinical and radiological data has the potential to foster our understanding of GBM evolution in every single patient throughout his/her oncological history, in order to target therapeutic weapons in a patient-specific manner. In this work, we propose a continuous mechanical model and we perform numerical simulations of GBM invasion combining the main mechano-biological characteristics of GBM with the micro-structural information extracted from radiological images, i.e. by elaborating patient-specific Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI data. The numerical simulations highlight the influence of the different biological parameters on tumor progression and they demonstrate the fundamental importance of including anisotropic and heterogeneous patient-specific DTI data in order to obtain a more accurate prediction of GBM evolution. The results of the proposed mathematical model have the potential to provide a relevant benefit for clinicians involved in the treatment of this particularly aggressive disease and, more importantly, they might drive progress towards improving tumor control and patient's prognosis.

  12. Towards the Personalized Treatment of Glioblastoma: Integrating Patient-Specific Clinical Data in a Continuous Mechanical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, Elena; Boffano, Carlo; Acerbi, Francesco; Ciarletta, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and malignant among brain tumors. In addition to uncontrolled proliferation and genetic instability, GBM is characterized by a diffuse infiltration, developing long protrusions that penetrate deeply along the fibers of the white matter. These features, combined with the underestimation of the invading GBM area by available imaging techniques, make a definitive treatment of GBM particularly difficult. A multidisciplinary approach combining mathematical, clinical and radiological data has the potential to foster our understanding of GBM evolution in every single patient throughout his/her oncological history, in order to target therapeutic weapons in a patient-specific manner. In this work, we propose a continuous mechanical model and we perform numerical simulations of GBM invasion combining the main mechano-biological characteristics of GBM with the micro-structural information extracted from radiological images, i.e. by elaborating patient-specific Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data. The numerical simulations highlight the influence of the different biological parameters on tumor progression and they demonstrate the fundamental importance of including anisotropic and heterogeneous patient-specific DTI data in order to obtain a more accurate prediction of GBM evolution. The results of the proposed mathematical model have the potential to provide a relevant benefit for clinicians involved in the treatment of this particularly aggressive disease and, more importantly, they might drive progress towards improving tumor control and patient’s prognosis. PMID:26186462

  13. A patient-specific EMG-driven neuromuscular model for the potential use of human-inspired gait rehabilitation robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ye; Xie, Shengquan; Zhang, Yanxin

    2016-03-01

    A patient-specific electromyography (EMG)-driven neuromuscular model (PENm) is developed for the potential use of human-inspired gait rehabilitation robots. The PENm is modified based on the current EMG-driven models by decreasing the calculation time and ensuring good prediction accuracy. To ensure the calculation efficiency, the PENm is simplified into two EMG channels around one joint with minimal physiological parameters. In addition, a dynamic computation model is developed to achieve real-time calculation. To ensure the calculation accuracy, patient-specific muscle kinematics information, such as the musculotendon lengths and the muscle moment arms during the entire gait cycle, are employed based on the patient-specific musculoskeletal model. Moreover, an improved force-length-velocity relationship is implemented to generate accurate muscle forces. Gait analysis data including kinematics, ground reaction forces, and raw EMG signals from six adolescents at three different speeds were used to evaluate the PENm. The simulation results show that the PENm has the potential to predict accurate joint moment in real-time. The design of advanced human-robot interaction control strategies and human-inspired gait rehabilitation robots can benefit from the application of the human internal state provided by the PENm.

  14. Design and Implementation of an On-Chip Patient-Specific Closed-Loop Seizure Onset and Termination Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Bin Altaf, Muhammad Awais; Yoo, Jerald

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the design of an area- and energy-efficient closed-loop machine learning-based patient-specific seizure onset and termination detection algorithm, and its on-chip hardware implementation. Application- and scenario-based tradeoffs are compared and reviewed for seizure detection and suppression algorithm and system which comprises electroencephalography (EEG) data acquisition, feature extraction, classification, and stimulation. Support vector machine achieves a good tradeoff among power, area, patient specificity, latency, and classification accuracy for long-term monitoring of patients with limited training seizure patterns. Design challenges of EEG data acquisition on a multichannel wearable environment for a patch-type sensor are also discussed in detail. Dual-detector architecture incorporates two area-efficient linear support vector machine classifiers along with a weight-and-average algorithm to target high sensitivity and good specificity at once. On-chip implementation issues for a patient-specific transcranial electrical stimulation are also discussed. The system design is verified using CHB-MIT EEG database [1] with a comprehensive measurement criteria which achieves high sensitivity and specificity of 95.1% and 96.2%, respectively, with a small latency of 1 s. It also achieves seizure onset and termination detection delay of 2.98 and 3.82 s, respectively, with seizure length estimation error of 4.07 s. PMID:27093712

  15. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  16. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last...

  17. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  18. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  19. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  1. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  2. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  3. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  4. The use of patient-specific measurement instruments in the process of goal-setting: a systematic review of available instruments and their feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, A.; Beurskens, A.; Koke, A.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the currently available patient-specific measurement instruments used in the process of goal-setting and to assess their feasibility. METHODS: After a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and REHABDATA, patient-specific instruments w

  5. Primary Health Care Challenges in Rural/Remote Areas of Yakutia and Use of Automated Systems for the Medical Screening Examination of the Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardana A. Evseeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The negative consequences of social and economic changes in recent decades have primarily affected the rural population and violated the main principles of medical care organization for this group. The reduction by one third in the number of district hospitals, uncompensated by adequate development of outpatient care, and a shortage of doctors in rural clinics led to reduced availability of primary care. Specialized medical assistance in regional and national hospitals has also become less accessible to the rural population due to the high cost of travel. The number of doctors and nurses in rural areas is lower by 3.4 and 1.6 times, respectively, than in cities. In this regard, the burden and responsibility for rural health workers is much higher. Study of the opinions of the medical staff of the Northern and Arctic regions is an important part of the decision-making system in health care, allowing us to carry out modernization programs in the industry and increase their efficiency through feedback mechanisms. This article presents the available data on the problems of organizing medical assistance for residents of the Northern and Arctic regions of Yakutia, because dealing with these problems is still the most socially significant task for the authorities and carries a great load of negative experience, stereotypes, and scientific-methodological errors. To assess the quality of medical care, we conducted an anonymous survey of parents and medical staff of the Northern and Arctic regions of Yakutia. A total of 1,415 parents and 322 health specialists were interviewed between 2011 and 2012. The results of the anonymous survey revealed that in the Northern and Arctic regions of Yakutia there is a deficit of qualified specialists of different profiles, an unsatisfactory infrastructure of medical offices and hospitals, and a low level of income for medical personnel and the whole population. All above listed are some of the reasons for developing

  6. Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in pediatric chest CT: a study in 30 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Colsher, James G.; Frush, Donald P.

    2010-04-01

    Radiation-dose awareness and optimization in CT can greatly benefit from a dosereporting system that provides radiation dose and cancer risk estimates specific to each patient and each CT examination. Recently, we reported a method for estimating patientspecific dose from pediatric chest CT. The purpose of this study is to extend that effort to patient-specific risk estimation and to a population of pediatric CT patients. Our study included thirty pediatric CT patients (16 males and 14 females; 0-16 years old), for whom full-body computer models were recently created based on the patients' clinical CT data. Using a validated Monte Carlo program, organ dose received by the thirty patients from a chest scan protocol (LightSpeed VCT, 120 kVp, 1.375 pitch, 40-mm collimation, pediatric body scan field-of-view) was simulated and used to estimate patient-specific effective dose. Risks of cancer incidence were calculated for radiosensitive organs using gender-, age-, and tissue-specific risk coefficients and were used to derive patientspecific effective risk. The thirty patients had normalized effective dose of 3.7-10.4 mSv/100 mAs and normalized effective risk of 0.5-5.8 cases/1000 exposed persons/100 mAs. Normalized lung dose and risk of lung cancer correlated strongly with average chest diameter (correlation coefficient: r = -0.98 to -0.99). Normalized effective risk also correlated strongly with average chest diameter (r = -0.97 to -0.98). These strong correlations can be used to estimate patient-specific dose and risk prior to or after an imaging study to potentially guide healthcare providers in justifying CT examinations and to guide individualized protocol design and optimization.

  7. Feasibility study of patient-specific quality assurance system for high-dose-rate brachytherapy in patients with cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boram; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyeyoung; Han, Youngyih; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Jin Sung; Kim, Dong Wook; Sim, Jina; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted for the purpose of establishing a quality-assurance (QA) system for brachytherapy that can ensure patient-specific QA by enhancing dosimetric accuracy for the patient's therapy plan. To measure the point-absorbed dose and the 2D dose distribution for the patient's therapy plan, we fabricated a solid phantom that allowed for the insertion of an applicator for patient-specific QA and used an ion chamber and a film as measuring devices. The patient treatment plan was exported to the QA dose-calculation software, which calculated the time weight of dwell position stored in the plan DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) file to obtain an overall beam quality correction factor, and that correction was applied to the dose calculations. Experiments were conducted after importing the patient's treatment planning source data for the fabricated phantom and inserting the applicator, ion chamber, and film into the phantom. On completion of dose delivery, the doses to the ion chamber and film were checked against the corresponding treatment plan to evaluate the dosimetric accuracy. For experimental purposes, five treatment plans were randomly selected. The beam quality correction factors for ovoid and tandem brachytherapy applicators were found to be 1.15 and 1.10 - 1.12, respectively. The beam quality correction factor in tandem fluctuated by approximately 2%, depending on the changes in the dwell position. The doses measured by using the ion chamber showed differences ranging from -2.4% to 0.6%, compared to the planned doses. As for the film, the passing rate was 90% or higher when assessed using a gamma value of the local dose difference of 3% and a distance to agreement of 3 mm. The results show that the self-fabricated phantom was suitable for QA in clinical settings. The proposed patient-specific QA for the treatment planning is expected to contribute to reduce dosimetric errors in brachytherapy and, thus, to enhancing treatment

  8. High-fidelity tissue engineering of patient-specific auricles for reconstruction of pediatric microtia and other auricular deformities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa J Reiffel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Autologous techniques for the reconstruction of pediatric microtia often result in suboptimal aesthetic outcomes and morbidity at the costal cartilage donor site. We therefore sought to combine digital photogrammetry with CAD/CAM techniques to develop collagen type I hydrogel scaffolds and their respective molds that would precisely mimic the normal anatomy of the patient-specific external ear as well as recapitulate the complex biomechanical properties of native auricular elastic cartilage while avoiding the morbidity of traditional autologous reconstructions. METHODS: Three-dimensional structures of normal pediatric ears were digitized and converted to virtual solids for mold design. Image-based synthetic reconstructions of these ears were fabricated from collagen type I hydrogels. Half were seeded with bovine auricular chondrocytes. Cellular and acellular constructs were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsa of nude rats and harvested after 1 and 3 months. RESULTS: Gross inspection revealed that acellular implants had significantly decreased in size by 1 month. Cellular constructs retained their contour/projection from the animals' dorsa, even after 3 months. Post-harvest weight of cellular constructs was significantly greater than that of acellular constructs after 1 and 3 months. Safranin O-staining revealed that cellular constructs demonstrated evidence of a self-assembled perichondrial layer and copious neocartilage deposition. Verhoeff staining of 1 month cellular constructs revealed de novo elastic cartilage deposition, which was even more extensive and robust after 3 months. The equilibrium modulus and hydraulic permeability of cellular constructs were not significantly different from native bovine auricular cartilage after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed high-fidelity, biocompatible, patient-specific tissue-engineered constructs for auricular reconstruction which largely mimic the native auricle both

  9. The feasibility of producing patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants with a low-cost 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T W; Ling, Ji Min; Dinesh, Shree Kumar

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Commercially available, preformed patient-specific cranioplasty implants are anatomically accurate but costly. Acrylic bone cement is a commonly used alternative. However, the manual shaping of the bone cement is difficult and may not lead to a satisfactory implant in some cases. The object of this study was to determine the feasibility of fabricating molds using a commercial low-cost 3D printer for the purpose of producing patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants. METHODS Using data from a high-resolution brain CT scan of a patient with a calvarial defect posthemicraniectomy, a skull phantom and a mold were generated with computer software and fabricated with the 3D printer using the fused deposition modeling method. The mold was used as a template to shape the acrylic implant, which was formed via a polymerization reaction. The resulting implant was fitted to the skull phantom and the cranial index of symmetry was determined. RESULTS The skull phantom and mold were successfully fabricated with the 3D printer. The application of acrylic bone cement to the mold was simple and straightforward. The resulting implant did not require further adjustment or drilling prior to being fitted to the skull phantom. The cranial index of symmetry was 96.2% (the cranial index of symmetry is 100% for a perfectly symmetrical skull). CONCLUSIONS This study showed that it is feasible to produce patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants with a low-cost 3D printer. Further studies are required to determine applicability in the clinical setting. This promising technique has the potential to bring personalized medicine to more patients around the world. PMID:26566203

  10. Correlation of phantom-based and log file patient-specific QA with complexity scores for VMAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Christina E; Irvine, Denise M; McGarry, Conor K

    2014-11-08

    The motivation for this study was to reduce physics workload relating to patient- specific quality assurance (QA). VMAT plan delivery accuracy was determined from analysis of pre- and on-treatment trajectory log files and phantom-based ionization chamber array measurements. The correlation in this combination of measurements for patient-specific QA was investigated. The relationship between delivery errors and plan complexity was investigated as a potential method to further reduce patient-specific QA workload. Thirty VMAT plans from three treatment sites - prostate only, prostate and pelvic node (PPN), and head and neck (H&N) - were retrospectively analyzed in this work. The 2D fluence delivery reconstructed from pretreatment and on-treatment trajectory log files was compared with the planned fluence using gamma analysis. Pretreatment dose delivery verification was also car- ried out using gamma analysis of ionization chamber array measurements compared with calculated doses. Pearson correlations were used to explore any relationship between trajectory log file (pretreatment and on-treatment) and ionization chamber array gamma results (pretreatment). Plan complexity was assessed using the MU/ arc and the modulation complexity score (MCS), with Pearson correlations used to examine any relationships between complexity metrics and plan delivery accu- racy. Trajectory log files were also used to further explore the accuracy of MLC and gantry positions. Pretreatment 1%/1 mm gamma passing rates for trajectory log file analysis were 99.1% (98.7%-99.2%), 99.3% (99.1%-99.5%), and 98.4% (97.3%-98.8%) (median (IQR)) for prostate, PPN, and H&N, respectively, and were significantly correlated to on-treatment trajectory log file gamma results (R = 0.989, p log file gamma results (R = 0.623, p 0.57, p log file fluence delivery and ionization chamber array measurements were strongly correlated with on-treatment trajectory log file fluence delivery. The strong corre- lation

  11. Generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minyue Ma; Jiahao Sha; Zuomin Zhou; Qi Zhou; Qingzhang Li

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic stem(ES) cells are pluripotent cells that can give rise to derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. Due to its characteristics, the patient-specific ES cells are of great potential for transplantation therapies. Several strategies can reprogramme somatic cells back to pluripotent stem cells: nuclear transfer, fusion with ES cells, treatment with cell extract and induction by specific factors. Considering the future clinical use, the differentiation from ES to neurons, cardiomyocytes and many other types of cell scurrently provide basic cognition and experience to regenerative medicine. This article will review two courses, the reprogramming of differentiated cells and the differentiation of ES cells to specific cell types.

  12. Imaging, virtual planning, design, and production of patient-specific implants and clinical validation in craniomaxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dérand, Per; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Hirsch, Jan-M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the workflow from imaging, via virtual design, to manufacturing of patient-specific titanium reconstruction plates, cutting guide and mesh, and its utility in connection with surgical treatment of acquired bone defects in the mandible using additive manufacturing by electron beam melting (EBM). Based on computed tomography scans, polygon skulls were created. Following that virtual treatment plans entailing free microvascular transfer of fibula flaps using patient-specific reconstruction plates, mesh, and cutting guides were designed. The design was based on the specification of a Compact UniLOCK 2.4 Large (Synthes(®), Switzerland). The obtained polygon plates were bent virtually round the reconstructed mandibles. Next, the resections of the mandibles were planned virtually. A cutting guide was outlined to facilitate resection, as well as plates and titanium mesh for insertion of bone or bone substitutes. Polygon plates and meshes were converted to stereolithography format and used in the software Magics for preparation of input files for the successive step, additive manufacturing. EBM was used to manufacture the customized implants in a biocompatible titanium grade, Ti6Al4V ELI. The implants and the cutting guide were cleaned and sterilized, then transferred to the operating theater, and applied during surgery. Commercially available software programs are sufficient in order to virtually plan for production of patient-specific implants. Furthermore, EBM-produced implants are fully usable under clinical conditions in reconstruction of acquired defects in the mandible. A good compliance between the treatment plan and the fit was demonstrated during operation. Within the constraints of this article, the authors describe a workflow for production of patient-specific implants, using EBM manufacturing. Titanium cutting guides, reconstruction plates for fixation of microvascular transfer of osteomyocutaneous bone grafts, and

  13. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  14. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  15. Automated phantom assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated phantom assay system developed for assaying phantoms spiked with minute quantities of radionuclides. The system includes a computer-controlled linear-translation table that positions the phantom at exact distances from a spectrometer. A multichannel analyzer (MCA) interfaces with a computer to collect gamma spectral data. Signals transmitted between the controller and MCA synchronize data collection and phantom positioning. Measured data are then stored on disk for subsequent analysis. The automated system allows continuous unattended operation and ensures reproducible results

  16. Automated gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  17. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, W; Swann, B; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N; Zhang, M [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Fisher, T [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice.

  18. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice

  19. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. PMID:26103485

  20. Patient-specific cardiovascular progenitor cells derived from integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells for vascular tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang; Wang, Yongyu; Jiao, Jiao; Liu, Zhongning; Zhao, Chao; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Zhanpeng; Forde, Kaitlynn; Wang, Lunchang; Wang, Jiangang; Baylink, David J; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Gao, Shaorong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Y Eugene; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) are promising in regenerating a live vascular replacement. However, the vascular cell source is limited, and it is crucial to develop a scaffold that accommodates new type of vascular progenitor cells and facilitates in vivo lineage specification of the cells into functional vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to regenerate vascular tissue. In the present study, integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were established from patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells through episomal vector nucleofection of reprogramming factors. The established hiPSCs were then induced into mesoderm-originated cardiovascular progenitor cells (CVPCs) with a highly efficient directed lineage specification method. The derived CVPCs were demonstrated to be able to differentiate into functional VSMCs. Subcutaneous implantation of CVPCs seeded on macroporous nanofibrous poly(l-lactide) scaffolds led to in vivo VSMC lineage specification and matrix deposition inside the scaffolds. In summary, we established integration-free patient-specific hiPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, derived CVPCs through directed lineage specification, and developed an advanced scaffold for these progenitor cells to further differentiate in vivo into VSMCs and regenerate vascular tissue in a subcutaneous implantation model. This study has established an efficient patient-specific approach towards in vivo regeneration of vascular tissue.

  1. High-quality conforming hexahedral meshes of patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms including their intraluminal thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarjuelo-Gutierrez, J; Rodriguez-Vila, B; Pierce, D M; Fastl, T E; Verbrugghe, P; Fourneau, I; Maleux, G; Herijgers, P; Holzapfel, G A; Gomez, E J

    2014-02-01

    In order to perform finite element (FE) analyses of patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms, geometries derived from medical images must be meshed with suitable elements. We propose a semi-automatic method for generating conforming hexahedral meshes directly from contours segmented from medical images. Magnetic resonance images are generated using a protocol developed to give the abdominal aorta high contrast against the surrounding soft tissue. These data allow us to distinguish between the different structures of interest. We build novel quadrilateral meshes for each surface of the sectioned geometry and generate conforming hexahedral meshes by combining the quadrilateral meshes. The three-layered morphology of both the arterial wall and thrombus is incorporated using parameters determined from experiments. We demonstrate the quality of our patient-specific meshes using the element Scaled Jacobian. The method efficiently generates high-quality elements suitable for FE analysis, even in the bifurcation region of the aorta into the iliac arteries. For example, hexahedral meshes of up to 125,000 elements are generated in less than 130 s, with 94.8 % of elements well suited for FE analysis. We provide novel input for simulations by independently meshing both the arterial wall and intraluminal thrombus of the aneurysm, and their respective layered morphologies.

  2. cGMP production of patient-specific iPSCs and photoreceptor precursor cells to treat retinal degenerative blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Luke A; Burnight, Erin R; DeLuca, Adam P; Anfinson, Kristin R; Cranston, Cathryn M; Kaalberg, Emily E; Penticoff, Jessica A; Affatigato, Louisa M; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2016-01-01

    Immunologically-matched, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived photoreceptor precursor cells have the potential to restore vision to patients with retinal degenerative diseases like retinitis pigmentosa. The purpose of this study was to develop clinically-compatible methods for manufacturing photoreceptor precursor cells from adult skin in a non-profit cGMP environment. Biopsies were obtained from 35 adult patients with inherited retinal degeneration and fibroblast lines were established under ISO class 5 cGMP conditions. Patient-specific iPSCs were then generated, clonally expanded and validated. Post-mitotic photoreceptor precursor cells were generated using a stepwise cGMP-compliant 3D differentiation protocol. The recapitulation of the enhanced S-cone phenotype in retinal organoids generated from a patient with NR2E3 mutations demonstrated the fidelity of these protocols. Transplantation into immune compromised animals revealed no evidence of abnormal proliferation or tumor formation. These studies will enable clinical trials to test the safety and efficiency of patient-specific photoreceptor cell replacement in humans. PMID:27471043

  3. Future of liver transplantation: Non-human primates for patient-specific organs from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhusudana Girija Sanal

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to fill the huge gap in supply versus demand of human organs include bioartificial organs, growing humanized organs in animals, cell therapy, and im-plantable bioengineered constructs. Reproducing the complex relations between different cell types, gen-eration of adequate vasculature, and immunological complications are road blocks in generation of bioengi-neered organs, while immunological complications limit the use of humanized organs produced in animals. Recent developments in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) biology offer a possibility of generating human, patient-specific organs in non-human primates (NHP) using patient-derived iPSC and NHP-derived iPSC lack-ing the critical developmental genes for the organ of interest complementing a NHP tetraploid embryo. The organ derived in this way will have the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile as the patient. This ap-proach can be curative in genetic disorders as this of-fers the possibility of gene manipulation and correction of the patient's genome at the iPSC stage before tet-raploid complementation. The process of generation of patient-specific organs such as the liver in this way has the great advantage of making use of the natural sig-naling cascades in the natural milieu probably resulting in organs of great quality for transplantation. However, the inexorable scientific developments in this direction involve several social issues and hence we need to educate and prepare society in advance to accept the revolutionary consequences, good, bad and ugly.

  4. Automated solvent concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Stuart, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Designed for automated drug identification system (AUDRI), device increases concentration by 100. Sample is first filtered, removing particulate contaminants and reducing water content of sample. Sample is extracted from filtered residue by specific solvent. Concentrator provides input material to analysis subsystem.

  5. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  6. ELECTROPNEUMATIC AUTOMATION EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgorukov, S. O.; National Aviation University; Roman, B. V.; National Aviation University

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects current situation in education regarding mechatronics learning difficulties. Com-plex of laboratory test benches on electropneumatic automation are considered as a tool in advancing through technical science. Course of laboratory works developed to meet the requirement of efficient and reliable way of practical skills acquisition is regarded the simplest way for students to learn the ba-sics of mechatronics.

  7. Building Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  8. Test Construction: Automated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal test construction deals with automated assembly of tests for educational and psychological measurement. Items are selected from an item bank to meet a predefined set of test specifications. Several models for optimal test construction are presented, and two algorithms for optimal test assemb

  9. Test Construction: Automated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal test construction deals with automated assembly of tests for educational and psychological measurement. Items are selected from an item bank to meet a predefined set of test specifications. Several models for optimal test construction are presented, and two algorithms for optimal test assemb

  10. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  11. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  12. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  13. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  14. Mathematical modeling of coupled drug and drug-encapsulated nanoparticle transport in patient-specific coronary artery walls

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Shaolie S.

    2011-08-20

    The majority of heart attacks occur when there is a sudden rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, exposing prothrombotic emboli to coronary blood flow, forming clots that can cause blockages of the arterial lumen. Diseased arteries can be treated with drugs delivered locally to vulnerable plaques. The objective of this work was to develop a computational tool-set to support the design and analysis of a catheter-based nanoparticulate drug delivery system to treat vulnerable plaques and diffuse atherosclerosis. A threedimensional mathematical model of coupled mass transport of drug and drug-encapsulated nanoparticles was developed and solved numerically utilizing isogeometric finite element analysis. Simulations were run on a patient-specific multilayered coronary artery wall segment with a vulnerable plaque and the effect of artery and plaque inhomogeneity was analyzed. The method captured trends observed in local drug delivery and demonstrated potential for optimizing drug design parameters, including delivery location, nanoparticle surface properties, and drug release rate. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  15. Personalised computational cardiology: Patient-specific modelling in cardiac mechanics and biomaterial injection therapies for myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Kevin L.; Davies, Neil H.; Guccione, Julius M.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive computational modelling in biomedical research offers the potential to integrate diverse data, uncover biological mechanisms that are not easily accessible through experimental methods and expose gaps in knowledge requiring further research. Recent developments in computing and diagnostic technologies have initiated the advancement of computational models in terms of complexity and specificity. Consequently, computational modelling can increasingly be utilised as enabling and complementing modality in the clinic—with medical decisions and interventions being personalised. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are amongst the leading causes of death globally despite optimal modern treatment. The development of novel MI therapies is challenging and may be greatly facilitated through predictive modelling. Here, we review the advances in patient-specific modelling of cardiac mechanics, distinguishing specificity in cardiac geometry, myofibre architecture and mechanical tissue properties. Thereafter, the focus narrows to the mechanics of the infarcted heart and treatment of myocardial infarction with particular attention on intramyocardial biomaterial delivery. PMID:26833320

  16. Mathematical modeling of coupled drug and drug-encapsulated nanoparticle transport in patient-specific coronary artery walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Shaolie S.; Hossainy, Syed F. A.; Bazilevs, Yuri; Calo, Victor M.; Hughes, Thomas J. R.

    2012-02-01

    The majority of heart attacks occur when there is a sudden rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, exposing prothrombotic emboli to coronary blood flow, forming clots that can cause blockages of the arterial lumen. Diseased arteries can be treated with drugs delivered locally to vulnerable plaques. The objective of this work was to develop a computational tool-set to support the design and analysis of a catheter-based nanoparticulate drug delivery system to treat vulnerable plaques and diffuse atherosclerosis. A three-dimensional mathematical model of coupled mass transport of drug and drug-encapsulated nanoparticles was developed and solved numerically utilizing isogeometric finite element analysis. Simulations were run on a patient-specific multilayered coronary artery wall segment with a vulnerable plaque and the effect of artery and plaque inhomogeneity was analyzed. The method captured trends observed in local drug delivery and demonstrated potential for optimizing drug design parameters, including delivery location, nanoparticle surface properties, and drug release rate.

  17. Using artificial intelligence to automate remittance processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W T; Snow, G M; Helmick, P M

    1998-06-01

    The consolidated business office of the Allegheny Health Education Research Foundation (AHERF), a large integrated healthcare system based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, sought to improve its cash-related business office activities by implementing an automated remittance processing system that uses artificial intelligence. The goal was to create a completely automated system whereby all monies it processed would be tracked, automatically posted, analyzed, monitored, controlled, and reconciled through a central database. Using a phased approach, the automated payment system has become the central repository for all of the remittances for seven of the hospitals in the AHERF system and has allowed for the complete integration of these hospitals' existing billing systems, document imaging system, and intranet, as well as the new automated payment posting, and electronic cash tracking and reconciling systems. For such new technology, which is designed to bring about major change, factors contributing to the project's success were adequate planning, clearly articulated objectives, marketing, end-user acceptance, and post-implementation plan revision.

  18. Using artificial intelligence to automate remittance processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W T; Snow, G M; Helmick, P M

    1998-06-01

    The consolidated business office of the Allegheny Health Education Research Foundation (AHERF), a large integrated healthcare system based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, sought to improve its cash-related business office activities by implementing an automated remittance processing system that uses artificial intelligence. The goal was to create a completely automated system whereby all monies it processed would be tracked, automatically posted, analyzed, monitored, controlled, and reconciled through a central database. Using a phased approach, the automated payment system has become the central repository for all of the remittances for seven of the hospitals in the AHERF system and has allowed for the complete integration of these hospitals' existing billing systems, document imaging system, and intranet, as well as the new automated payment posting, and electronic cash tracking and reconciling systems. For such new technology, which is designed to bring about major change, factors contributing to the project's success were adequate planning, clearly articulated objectives, marketing, end-user acceptance, and post-implementation plan revision. PMID:10179973

  19. Development and preliminary evaluation of a prototype audiovisual biofeedback device incorporating a patient-specific guiding waveform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel audio-visual biofeedback respiratory training tool to reduce respiratory irregularity. The audiovisual biofeedback system acquires sample respiratory waveforms of a particular patient and computes a patient-specific waveform to guide the patient's subsequent breathing. Two visual feedback models with different displays and cognitive loads were investigated: a bar model and a wave model. The audio instructions were ascending/descending musical tones played at inhale and exhale respectively to assist in maintaining the breathing period. Free-breathing, bar model and wave model training was performed on ten volunteers for 5 min for three repeat sessions. A total of 90 respiratory waveforms were acquired. It was found that the bar model was superior to free breathing with overall rms displacement variations of 0.10 and 0.16 cm, respectively, and rms period variations of 0.77 and 0.33 s, respectively. The wave model was superior to the bar model and free breathing for all volunteers, with an overall rms displacement of 0.08 cm and rms periods of 0.2 s. The reduction in the displacement and period variations for the bar model compared with free breathing was statistically significant (p = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively); the wave model was significantly better than the bar model (p = 0.006 and 0.005, respectively). Audiovisual biofeedback with a patient-specific guiding waveform significantly reduces variations in breathing. The wave model approach reduces cycle-to-cycle variations in displacement by greater than 50% and variations in period by over 70% compared with free breathing. The planned application of this device is anatomic and functional imaging procedures and radiation therapy delivery. (note)

  20. A human pluripotent stem cell model of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia recapitulates patient-specific drug responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela K. Preininger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although β-blockers can be used to eliminate stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT, this treatment is unsuccessful in ∼25% of cases. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs generated from these patients have potential for use in investigating the phenomenon, but it remains unknown whether they can recapitulate patient-specific drug responses to β-blockers. This study assessed whether the inadequacy of β-blocker therapy in an individual can be observed in vitro using patient-derived CPVT iPSC-CMs. An individual with CPVT harboring a novel mutation in the type 2 cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2 was identified whose persistent ventricular arrhythmias during β-blockade with nadolol were abolished during flecainide treatment. iPSC-CMs generated from this patient and two control individuals expressed comparable levels of excitation-contraction genes, but assessment of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak and load relationship revealed intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis was altered in the CPVT iPSC-CMs. β-adrenergic stimulation potentiated spontaneous Ca2+ waves and unduly frequent, large and prolonged Ca2+ sparks in CPVT compared with control iPSC-CMs, validating the disease phenotype. Pursuant to the patient's in vivo responses, nadolol treatment during β-adrenergic stimulation achieved negligible reduction of Ca2+ wave frequency and failed to rescue Ca2+ spark defects in CPVT iPSC-CMs. In contrast, flecainide reduced both frequency and amplitude of Ca2+ waves and restored the frequency, width and duration of Ca2+ sparks to baseline levels. By recapitulating the improved response of an individual with CPVT to flecainide compared with β-blocker therapy in vitro, these data provide new evidence that iPSC-CMs can capture basic components of patient-specific drug responses.

  1. Long-Term Morphological and Microarchitectural Stability of Tissue-Engineered, Patient-Specific Auricles In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin Peter; Hooper, Rachel C; Puetzer, Jennifer L; Nordberg, Rachel; Asanbe, Ope; Hernandez, Karina A; Spector, Jason A; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2016-03-01

    Current techniques for autologous auricular reconstruction produce substandard ear morphologies with high levels of donor-site morbidity, whereas alloplastic implants demonstrate poor biocompatibility. Tissue engineering, in combination with noninvasive digital photogrammetry and computer-assisted design/computer-aided manufacturing technology, offers an alternative method of auricular reconstruction. Using this method, patient-specific ears composed of collagen scaffolds and auricular chondrocytes have generated auricular cartilage with great fidelity following 3 months of subcutaneous implantation, however, this short time frame may not portend long-term tissue stability. We hypothesized that constructs developed using this technique would undergo continued auricular cartilage maturation without degradation during long-term (6 month) implantation. Full-sized, juvenile human ear constructs were injection molded from high-density collagen hydrogels encapsulating juvenile bovine auricular chondrocytes and implanted subcutaneously on the backs of nude rats for 6 months. Upon explantation, constructs retained overall patient morphology and displayed no evidence of tissue necrosis. Limited contraction occurred in vivo, however, no significant change in size was observed beyond 1 month. Constructs at 6 months showed distinct auricular cartilage microstructure, featuring a self-assembled perichondrial layer, a proteoglycan-rich bulk, and rounded cellular lacunae. Verhoeff's staining also revealed a developing elastin network comparable to native tissue. Biochemical measurements for DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and hydroxyproline content and mechanical properties of aggregate modulus and hydraulic permeability showed engineered tissue to be similar to native cartilage at 6 months. Patient-specific auricular constructs demonstrated long-term stability and increased cartilage tissue development during extended implantation, and offer a potential tissue-engineered solution for

  2. Development and preliminary evaluation of a prototype audiovisual biofeedback device incorporating a patient-specific guiding waveform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat, Raghu B; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Keall, Paul J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5847 (United States); George, Rohini [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)], E-mail: Paul.Keall@stanford.edu

    2008-06-07

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel audio-visual biofeedback respiratory training tool to reduce respiratory irregularity. The audiovisual biofeedback system acquires sample respiratory waveforms of a particular patient and computes a patient-specific waveform to guide the patient's subsequent breathing. Two visual feedback models with different displays and cognitive loads were investigated: a bar model and a wave model. The audio instructions were ascending/descending musical tones played at inhale and exhale respectively to assist in maintaining the breathing period. Free-breathing, bar model and wave model training was performed on ten volunteers for 5 min for three repeat sessions. A total of 90 respiratory waveforms were acquired. It was found that the bar model was superior to free breathing with overall rms displacement variations of 0.10 and 0.16 cm, respectively, and rms period variations of 0.77 and 0.33 s, respectively. The wave model was superior to the bar model and free breathing for all volunteers, with an overall rms displacement of 0.08 cm and rms periods of 0.2 s. The reduction in the displacement and period variations for the bar model compared with free breathing was statistically significant (p = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively); the wave model was significantly better than the bar model (p = 0.006 and 0.005, respectively). Audiovisual biofeedback with a patient-specific guiding waveform significantly reduces variations in breathing. The wave model approach reduces cycle-to-cycle variations in displacement by greater than 50% and variations in period by over 70% compared with free breathing. The planned application of this device is anatomic and functional imaging procedures and radiation therapy delivery. (note)

  3. NOTE: Development and preliminary evaluation of a prototype audiovisual biofeedback device incorporating a patient-specific guiding waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Raghu B.; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; George, Rohini; Keall, Paul J.

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel audio-visual biofeedback respiratory training tool to reduce respiratory irregularity. The audiovisual biofeedback system acquires sample respiratory waveforms of a particular patient and computes a patient-specific waveform to guide the patient's subsequent breathing. Two visual feedback models with different displays and cognitive loads were investigated: a bar model and a wave model. The audio instructions were ascending/descending musical tones played at inhale and exhale respectively to assist in maintaining the breathing period. Free-breathing, bar model and wave model training was performed on ten volunteers for 5 min for three repeat sessions. A total of 90 respiratory waveforms were acquired. It was found that the bar model was superior to free breathing with overall rms displacement variations of 0.10 and 0.16 cm, respectively, and rms period variations of 0.77 and 0.33 s, respectively. The wave model was superior to the bar model and free breathing for all volunteers, with an overall rms displacement of 0.08 cm and rms periods of 0.2 s. The reduction in the displacement and period variations for the bar model compared with free breathing was statistically significant (p = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively); the wave model was significantly better than the bar model (p = 0.006 and 0.005, respectively). Audiovisual biofeedback with a patient-specific guiding waveform significantly reduces variations in breathing. The wave model approach reduces cycle-to-cycle variations in displacement by greater than 50% and variations in period by over 70% compared with free breathing. The planned application of this device is anatomic and functional imaging procedures and radiation therapy delivery.

  4. A human pluripotent stem cell model of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia recapitulates patient-specific drug responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preininger, Marcela K.; Jha, Rajneesh; Maxwell, Joshua T.; Wu, Qingling; Singh, Monalisa; Dalal, Aarti; Mceachin, Zachary T.; Rossoll, Wilfried; Hales, Chadwick M.; Fischbach, Peter S.; Wagner, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although β-blockers can be used to eliminate stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), this treatment is unsuccessful in ∼25% of cases. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) generated from these patients have potential for use in investigating the phenomenon, but it remains unknown whether they can recapitulate patient-specific drug responses to β-blockers. This study assessed whether the inadequacy of β-blocker therapy in an individual can be observed in vitro using patient-derived CPVT iPSC-CMs. An individual with CPVT harboring a novel mutation in the type 2 cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) was identified whose persistent ventricular arrhythmias during β-blockade with nadolol were abolished during flecainide treatment. iPSC-CMs generated from this patient and two control individuals expressed comparable levels of excitation-contraction genes, but assessment of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak and load relationship revealed intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis was altered in the CPVT iPSC-CMs. β-adrenergic stimulation potentiated spontaneous Ca2+ waves and unduly frequent, large and prolonged Ca2+ sparks in CPVT compared with control iPSC-CMs, validating the disease phenotype. Pursuant to the patient's in vivo responses, nadolol treatment during β-adrenergic stimulation achieved negligible reduction of Ca2+ wave frequency and failed to rescue Ca2+ spark defects in CPVT iPSC-CMs. In contrast, flecainide reduced both frequency and amplitude of Ca2+ waves and restored the frequency, width and duration of Ca2+ sparks to baseline levels. By recapitulating the improved response of an individual with CPVT to flecainide compared with β-blocker therapy in vitro, these data provide new evidence that iPSC-CMs can capture basic components of patient-specific drug responses. PMID:27491078

  5. SU-E-T-475: An Accurate Linear Model of Tomotherapy MLC-Detector System for Patient Specific Delivery QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Mo, X; Chen, M; Olivera, G; Parnell, D; Key, S; Lu, W [21st Century Oncology, Madison, WI (United States); Reeher, M [21st Century Oncology, Naples, FL (United States); Galmarini, D [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: An accurate leaf fluence model can be used in applications such as patient specific delivery QA and in-vivo dosimetry for TomoTherapy systems. It is known that the total fluence is not a linear combination of individual leaf fluence due to leakage-transmission, tongue-and-groove, and source occlusion effect. Here we propose a method to model the nonlinear effects as linear terms thus making the MLC-detector system a linear system. Methods: A leaf pattern basis (LPB) consisting of no-leaf-open, single-leaf-open, double-leaf-open and triple-leaf-open patterns are chosen to represent linear and major nonlinear effects of leaf fluence as a linear system. An arbitrary leaf pattern can be expressed as (or decomposed to) a linear combination of the LPB either pulse by pulse or weighted by dwelling time. The exit detector responses to the LPB are obtained by processing returned detector signals resulting from the predefined leaf patterns for each jaw setting. Through forward transformation, detector signal can be predicted given a delivery plan. An equivalent leaf open time (LOT) sinogram containing output variation information can also be inversely calculated from the measured detector signals. Twelve patient plans were delivered in air. The equivalent LOT sinograms were compared with their planned sinograms. Results: The whole calibration process was done in 20 minutes. For two randomly generated leaf patterns, 98.5% of the active channels showed differences within 0.5% of the local maximum between the predicted and measured signals. Averaged over the twelve plans, 90% of LOT errors were within +/−10 ms. The LOT systematic error increases and shows an oscillating pattern when LOT is shorter than 50 ms. Conclusion: The LPB method models the MLC-detector response accurately, which improves patient specific delivery QA and in-vivo dosimetry for TomoTherapy systems. It is sensitive enough to detect systematic LOT errors as small as 10 ms.

  6. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumming, I; Lasso, A; Rankin, A; Fichtinger, G [Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery, School of Computing, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Joshi, C P; Falkson, C; Schreiner, L John [CCSEO, Kingston General Hospital and Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required

  7. Patient-specific scatter correction for flat-panel detector-based cone-beam CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Brunner, Stephen; Niu, Kai; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-02-01

    A patient-specific scatter correction algorithm is proposed to mitigate scatter artefacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT). The approach belongs to the category of convolution-based methods in which a scatter potential function is convolved with a convolution kernel to estimate the scatter profile. A key step in this method is to determine the free parameters introduced in both scatter potential and convolution kernel using a so-called calibration process, which is to seek for the optimal parameters such that the models for both scatter potential and convolution kernel is able to optimally fit the previously known coarse estimates of scatter profiles of the image object. Both direct measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have been proposed by other investigators to achieve the aforementioned rough estimates. In the present paper, a novel method has been proposed and validated to generate the needed coarse scatter profile for parameter calibration in the convolution method. The method is based upon an image segmentation of the scatter contaminated CBCT image volume, followed by a reprojection of the segmented image volume using a given x-ray spectrum. The reprojected data is subtracted from the scatter contaminated projection data to generate a coarse estimate of the needed scatter profile used in parameter calibration. The method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using numerical simulations and experimental CBCT data acquired on a clinical CBCT imaging system. Results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce scatter artefacts and recover the correct CT number. Numerical simulation results show the method is patient specific, can accurately estimate the scatter, and is robust with respect to segmentation procedure. For experimental and in vivo human data, the results show the CT number can be successfully recovered and anatomical structure visibility can be significantly improved.

  8. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required

  9. SU-E-T-345: Validation of a Patient-Specific Monte Carlo Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Dosimetry Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besemer, A; Bednarz, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There is a compelling need for personalized dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy given that conventional dose calculation methods fail to accurately predict dose response relationships. To address this need, we have developed a Geant4-based Monte Carlo patient-specific 3D dosimetry platform for TRT. This platform calculates patient-specific dose distributions based on serial CT/PET or CT/SPECT images acquired after injection of the TRT agent. In this work, S-values and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were calculated using this platform and benchmarked against reference values. Methods: S-values for 1, 10, 100, and 1000g spherical tumors with uniform activity distributions of I-124, I-125, I-131, F-18, and Ra-223 were calculated and compared to OLINDA/EXM reference values. SAFs for monoenergetic photons of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 MeV and S factors for monoenergetic electrons of 0.935 MeV were calculated for the liver, kidneys, lungs, pancreas, spleen, and adrenals in the Zubal Phantom and compared with previously published values. Sufficient particles were simulated to keep the voxel statistical uncertainty below 5%. Results: The calculated spherical S-values agreed within a few percent of reference data from OLINDA/EXM for each radionuclide and sphere size. The comparison of photon SAFs and electron S-values with previously published values showed good agreement with the previously published values. The S-values and SAFs of the source organs agreed within 1%. Conclusion: Our platform has been benchmarked against reference values for a variety of radionuclides and over a wide range of energies and tumor sizes. Therefore, this platform could be used to provide accurate patientspecific dosimetry for use in radiopharmaceutical clinical trials.

  10. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  11. Automated theorem proving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, David A

    2014-03-01

    Automated theorem proving is the use of computers to prove or disprove mathematical or logical statements. Such statements can express properties of hardware or software systems, or facts about the world that are relevant for applications such as natural language processing and planning. A brief introduction to propositional and first-order logic is given, along with some of the main methods of automated theorem proving in these logics. These methods of theorem proving include resolution, Davis and Putnam-style approaches, and others. Methods for handling the equality axioms are also presented. Methods of theorem proving in propositional logic are presented first, and then methods for first-order logic. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:115-128. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1269 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304304

  12. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  13. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  14. The Automated Medical Office

    OpenAIRE

    Petreman, Mel

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a c...

  15. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  16. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-06-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  17. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de, E-mail: a.j.schootvande@amc.uva.nl; Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Chai, X. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Palo Alto, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  18. Automation in organizations: Eternal conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some ideas on and insights into the problems associated with automation in organizations are presented with emphasis on the concept of automation, its relationship to the individual, and its impact on system performance. An analogy is drawn, based on an American folk hero, to emphasize the extent of the problems encountered when dealing with automation within an organization. A model is proposed to focus attention on a set of appropriate dimensions. The function allocation process becomes a prominent aspect of the model. The current state of automation research is mentioned in relation to the ideas introduced. Proposed directions for an improved understanding of automation's effect on the individual's efficiency are discussed. The importance of understanding the individual's perception of the system in terms of the degree of automation is highlighted.

  19. Estimation of wall properties and wall strength of aortic aneurysms using modern imaging techniques. One more step towards a patient-specific assessment of aneurysm rupture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Metaxa, Eleni; Pagonidis, Konstantinos; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Ioannou, Christos V

    2013-08-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysmal disease is a major health problem with rupture representing its main complication accompanied by great mortality. Elective repair is currently performed with mortality rates 1cm/year enlargement. It is well established that even small AAAs without indication for surgical repair can experience rupture with catastrophic outcomes whereas larger aneurysms often remain intact for a long period. It is recognized, therefore, that the currently used, maximum diameter criterion can not accurately predict AAAs evolution. There is increasing interest in the role of patient-specific biomechanical profiling of AAA development and rupture. Biomechanically, rupture of a vessel occurs when intravascular forces exceed vessel wall structural endurance. Peak Wall Stress (PWS) has been previously shown to better identify AAAs prone to rupture than maximum diameter, but currently stress analysis takes into account several assumptions that influence results to a large extent and limit their use. Moreover stress represents only one of two determinants of rupture risk according to the biomechanical perspective. Wall strength and mechanical properties on the other hand cannot be assessed in vivo but only ex vivo through mechanical studies with mean values of these parameters taken into account for rupture risk estimations. New possibilities in the field of aortic imaging offer promising tools for the validation and advancement of stress analysis and the in vivo evaluation of AAAs' wall properties and wall strength. Documentation of aortic wall motion during cardiac cycle is now feasible through ECG-gated multi-detector CT imaging offering new possibilities towards an individualized method for rupture risk and expansion-rate predictions based on data acquired in vivo. PMID:23714223

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Automated Digital Microscopy for Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, S. (Stefania); Ismail, N; Clark, D. (David); Lewis, JJ; Omar, S; A. Dreyer; Chihota, V.; Churchyard, G.; Dowdy, DW

    2016-01-01

    Automated digital microscopy has the potential to improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), particularly in settings where molecular testing is too expensive to perform routinely. The cost-effectiveness of TB diagnostic algorithms using automated digital microscopy remains uncertain. Using data from a demonstration study of an automated digital microscopy system (TBDx, Applied Visual Systems, Inc.), we performed an economic evaluation of TB diagnosis in South Africa from the health sy...

  1. Automated Assessment, Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Rizik M. H. Al-Sayyed; Amjad Hudaib; Muhannad AL-Shboul; Yousef Majdalawi; Mohammed Bataineh

    2010-01-01

    This research paper evaluates the usability of automated exams and compares them with the paper-and-pencil traditional ones. It presents the results of a detailed study conducted at The University of Jordan (UoJ) that comprised students from 15 faculties. A set of 613 students were asked about their opinions concerning automated exams; and their opinions were deeply analyzed. The results indicate that most students reported that they are satisfied with using automated exams but they have sugg...

  2. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  3. Test Automation of Online Games

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeldt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    State of the art browser games are increasingly complex pieces of software with extensive code basis. With increasing complexity, a software becomes harder to maintain. Automated regression testing can simplify these maintenance processes and thereby enable developers as well as testers to spend their workforce more efficiently. This thesis addresses the utilization of automated tests in web applications. As a use case test automation is applied to an online-based strategy game for the bro...

  4. Pretreatment Patient Specific Quality Assurance and Gamma Index Variation Study in Gantry Dependent EPID Positions for IMRT Prostate Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siji Cyriac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment quality assurance (QA is a major concern in complex radiation therapy treatment plans like intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. Present study considers the variations in gamma index for gantry dependent pretreatment verification and commonly practiced zero gantry angle verifications for ten prostate IMRT plans using two commercial medical linear accelerators (Varian 2300 CD, Varian Clinac iX. Two verification plans (the one with all fields at the actual treatment angles and one with all fields merged to 0 degree gantry angles for all the patients were generated to obtain dose fluence mapping using amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID. The gamma index was found depend on gantry angles but the difference between zero and the nonzero treatment angles is in the confidence level for clinical acceptance. The acceptance criteria of gamma method were always satisfied in both cases for two machines and are stable enough to execute the patient specific pretreatment quality assurance at 0 degree gantry angle for prostate IMRTs, where limited number of gantry angles are used.

  5. The effect of aneurismai-wall mechanical properties on patient-specific hemodynamic simulations: two clinical case reports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jialiang Chen; Shengzhang Wang; Guanghong Ding; Xinjian Yang; Huiyan Li

    2009-01-01

    Hemodynamic factors such as the wall shear stress play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of cerebral aneurysms. In present study, we apply computational fluid-structure interaction analyses on cerebral aneurysms with two different constitutive relations for aneurismal wall in order to investigate the effect of the aneurismal wall mechanical properties on the simulation results. We carry out these analyses by using two patient-specific models of cerebral aneurysms of different sizes located in different branches of the circle of Willis. The models are constructed from 3D rotational angiography image data and blood flow dynamics is studied under physiologically representative waveform of inflow. From the patient models analyzed in this investigation, we find that the deformations of cerebral aneurysms are very small. But due to the nonlinear character of the Navier-Stokes equations, these small deformations could have significant influences on the flow characteristics. In addition, we find that the aneurismal-wall mechanical properties have great effects on the deformation distribution of the aneurysm, which also affects the wall shear stress distribution and flow patterns. Therefore, how to define a proper constitutive relation for aneurismal wall should be considered carefully in the hemodynamic simulation.

  6. A Patient Specific Biomechanical Analysis of Custom Root Analogue Implant Designs on Alveolar Bone Stress: A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anssari Moin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse by means of FEA the influence of 5 custom RAI designs on stress distribution of peri-implant bone and to evaluate the impact on microdisplacement for a specific patient case. Materials and Methods. A 3D surface model of a RAI for the upper right canine was constructed from the cone beam computed tomography data of one patient. Subsequently, five (targeted press-fit design modification FE models with five congruent bone models were designed: “Standard,” “Prism,” “Fins,” “Plug,” and “Bulbs,” respectively. Preprocessor software was applied to mesh the models. Two loads were applied: an oblique force (300 N and a vertical force (150 N. Analysis was performed to evaluate stress distributions and deformed contact separation at the peri-implant region. Results. The lowest von Mises stress levels were numerically observed for the Plug design. The lowest levels of contact separation were measured in the Fins model followed by the Bulbs design. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the applied methodology, adding targeted press-fit geometry to the RAI standard design will have a positive effect on stress distribution, lower concentration of bone stress, and will provide a better primary stability for this patient specific case.

  7. A comparative study of 1D and 3D hemodynamics in patient-specific hepatic portal vein networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonášová A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of software for use in clinical practice is often associated with many requirements and restrictions set not only by the medical doctors, but also by the hospital’s budget. To meet the requirement of reliable software, which is able to provide results within a short time period and with minimal computational demand, a certain measure of modelling simplification is usually inevitable. In case of blood flow simulations carried out in large vascular networks such as the one created by the hepatic portal vein, simplifications are made by necessity. The most often employed simplification includes the approach in the form of dimensional reduction, when the 3D model of a large vascular network is substituted with its 1D counterpart. In this context, a question naturally arises, how this reduction can affect the simulation accuracy and its outcome. In this paper, we try to answer this question by performing a quantitative comparison of 3D and 1D flow models in two patient-specific hepatic portal vein networks. The numerical simulations are carried out under average flow conditions and with the application of the three-element Windkessel model, which is able to approximate the downstream flow resistance of real hepatic tissue. The obtained results show that, although the 1D model can never truly substitute the 3D model, its easy implementation, time-saving model preparation and almost no demands on computer technology dominate as advantages over obvious but moderate modelling errors arising from the performed dimensional reduction.

  8. Patient-specific simulation of a trileaflet aortic heart valve in a realistic left ventricle and aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Le, Trung; Stolarski, Henryk; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-11-01

    We develop a patient-specific model of the left ventricle consisting of: (1) magnetic-resonance images (MRI) data for wall geometry and kinematics reconstruction of the left ventricle during one cardiac cycle and (2) an elastic trileaflet aortic heart valve implanted in (3) a realistic aorta interacting with blood flow driven by the pulsating left ventricle. Blood flow is simulated via a new fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method, which couples the sharp-interface CURVIB [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, JCP, (2007)] for handling complex moving boundaries with a new, rotation-free finite-element (FE) formulation for simulating large tissue deformations [H. Stolarski, A. Gilmanov, F. Sotiropoulos, IJNME, (2013)] The new FE shell formulation has been extensively tested and validated for a range of relevant problems showing good agreements. Validation of the coupled FSI-FE-CURVIB model is carried out for a thin plate undergoing flow-induced vibrations in the wake of a square cylinder and the computed results are in good agreement with published data. The new approach has been applied to simulate dynamic interaction of a trileaflet aortic heart valve with pulsating blood flow at physiological conditions and realistic artery and left ventricle geometry.

  9. Patient-specific quantification of respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty for step-and-shoot IMRT of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Heng; Park, Peter; Liu, Wei; Matney, Jason; Balter, Peter; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Li, Yupeng [Applied Research, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to quantify respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty at the planning stage for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using an analytical technique.Methods: Ten patients with stage II/III lung cancer who had undergone a planning four-dimensional (4D) computed tomographic scan and step-and-shoot IMRT planning were selected with a mix of motion and tumor size for this retrospective study. A step-and-shoot IMRT plan was generated for each patient. The maximum and minimum doses with respiratory motion were calculated for each plan, and the mean deviation from the 4D dose was calculated, taking delivery time, fractionation, and patient breathing cycle into consideration.Results: For all patients evaluated in this study, the mean deviation from the 4D dose in the planning target volume (PTV) was <2.5%, with a standard deviation <1.2%, and maximum point dose variation from the 4D dose was <6.2% in the PTV assuming delivery dose rate of 200 MU/min and patient breathing cycle of 8 s. The motion-induced dose uncertainty is a function of motion, fractionation, MU (plan modulation), dose rate, and patient breathing cycle.Conclusions: Respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the dose uncertainty on a patient-specific basis, which could be useful for plan evaluation and treatment strategy determination for selected patients.

  10. The Numerical Study of the Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms before and after Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jun Soo; Choi, Sun-Young

    2016-01-01

    The patient-specific pre- and postsurgery cerebral arterial geometries in the study were reconstructed from computed tomography angiography (CTA). Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models were used to investigate the hemodynamic phenomena in the cerebral arteries before and after surgery of the aneurysm under realistic conditions. CFD simulations for laminar flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid were conducted by using commercial software, ANSYS v15, with the rigid vascular wall assumption. The study found that the flow patterns with the complex vortical structures inside the aneurysm were similar. We also found that the inflow jet streams were coming strongly in aneurysm sac in the presurgery models, while the flow patterns in postsurgery models were quite different from those in presurgery models. The average wall shear stress after surgery for model 1 was approximately three times greater than that before surgery, while it was about twenty times greater for model 2. The area of low WSS in the daughter saccular aneurysm region in model 2 is associated with aneurysm rupture. Thus the distribution of WSS in aneurysm region provides useful prediction for the risk of aneurysm rupture. PMID:27274764

  11. Patient-specific quantification of respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty for step-and-shoot IMRT of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to quantify respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty at the planning stage for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using an analytical technique.Methods: Ten patients with stage II/III lung cancer who had undergone a planning four-dimensional (4D) computed tomographic scan and step-and-shoot IMRT planning were selected with a mix of motion and tumor size for this retrospective study. A step-and-shoot IMRT plan was generated for each patient. The maximum and minimum doses with respiratory motion were calculated for each plan, and the mean deviation from the 4D dose was calculated, taking delivery time, fractionation, and patient breathing cycle into consideration.Results: For all patients evaluated in this study, the mean deviation from the 4D dose in the planning target volume (PTV) was <2.5%, with a standard deviation <1.2%, and maximum point dose variation from the 4D dose was <6.2% in the PTV assuming delivery dose rate of 200 MU/min and patient breathing cycle of 8 s. The motion-induced dose uncertainty is a function of motion, fractionation, MU (plan modulation), dose rate, and patient breathing cycle.Conclusions: Respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the dose uncertainty on a patient-specific basis, which could be useful for plan evaluation and treatment strategy determination for selected patients

  12. Patient-specific analysis of post-operative aortic hemodynamics: a focus on thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auricchio, F.; Conti, M.; Lefieux, A.; Morganti, S.; Reali, A.; Sardanelli, F.; Secchi, F.; Trimarchi, S.; Veneziani, A.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the impact of endovascular repair on aortic hemodynamics. The study addresses the assessment of post-operative hemodynamic conditions of a real clinical case through patient-specific analysis, combining accurate medical image analysis and advanced computational fluid-dynamics (CFD). Although the main clinical concern was firstly directed to the endoluminal protrusion of the prosthesis, the CFD simulations have demonstrated that there are two other important areas where the local hemodynamics is impaired and a disturbed blood flow is present: the first one is the ostium of the subclavian artery, which is partially closed by the graft; the second one is the stenosis of the distal thoracic aorta. Besides the clinical relevance of these specific findings, this study highlights how CFD analyses allow to observe important flow effects resulting from the specific features of patient vessel geometries. Consequently, our results demonstrate the potential impact of computational biomechanics not only on the basic knowledge of physiopathology, but also on the clinical practice, thanks to a quantitative extraction of knowledge made possible by merging medical data and mathematical models.

  13. Real-time surgery simulation of intracranial aneurysm clipping with patient-specific geometries and haptic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenz, Wolfgang; Dirnberger, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    Providing suitable training for aspiring neurosurgeons is becoming more and more problematic. The increasing popularity of the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms leads to a lack of simple surgical situations for clipping operations, leaving mainly the complex cases, which present even experienced surgeons with a challenge. To alleviate this situation, we have developed a training simulator with haptic interaction allowing trainees to practice virtual clipping surgeries on real patient-specific vessel geometries. By using specialized finite element (FEM) algorithms (fast finite element method, matrix condensation) combined with GPU acceleration, we can achieve the necessary frame rate for smooth real-time interaction with the detailed models needed for a realistic simulation of the vessel wall deformation caused by the clamping with surgical clips. Vessel wall geometries for typical training scenarios were obtained from 3D-reconstructed medical image data, while for the instruments (clipping forceps, various types of clips, suction tubes) we use models provided by manufacturer Aesculap AG. Collisions between vessel and instruments have to be continuously detected and transformed into corresponding boundary conditions and feedback forces, calculated using a contact plane method. After a training, the achieved result can be assessed based on various criteria, including a simulation of the residual blood flow into the aneurysm. Rigid models of the surgical access and surrounding brain tissue, plus coupling a real forceps to the haptic input device further increase the realism of the simulation.

  14. Patient-specific computational analysis of the influence of a stent on the unsteady flow in cerebral aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Schjodt, Kathleen; Puntel, Anthony; Kostov, Nikolay; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

    2013-06-01

    We present a patient-specific computational analysis of the influence of a stent on the unsteady flow in cerebral aneurysms. The analysis is based on four different arterial models extracted form medical images, and the stent is placed across the neck of the aneurysm to reduce the flow circulation in the aneurysm. The core computational technique used in the analysis is the space-time (ST) version of the variational multiscale (VMS) method and is called "DSD/SST-VMST". The special techniques developed for this class of cardiovascular fluid mechanics computations are used in conjunction with the DSD/SST-VMST technique. The special techniques include NURBS representation of the surface over which the stent model and mesh are built, mesh generation with a reasonable resolution across the width of the stent wire and with refined layers of mesh near the arterial and stent surfaces, modeling the double-stent case, and quantitative assessment of the flow circulation in the aneurysm. We provide a brief overview of the special techniques, compute the unsteady flow patterns in the aneurysm for the four arterial models, and investigate in each case how those patterns are influenced by the presence of single and double stents.

  15. Automatic 4D reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac mesh with 1-to-1 vertex correspondence from segmented contours lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Wan Lim

    Full Text Available We propose an automatic algorithm for the reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac mesh models with 1-to-1 vertex correspondence. In this framework, a series of 3D meshes depicting the endocardial surface of the heart at each time step is constructed, based on a set of border delineated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data of the whole cardiac cycle. The key contribution in this work involves a novel reconstruction technique to generate a 4D (i.e., spatial-temporal model of the heart with 1-to-1 vertex mapping throughout the time frames. The reconstructed 3D model from the first time step is used as a base template model and then deformed to fit the segmented contours from the subsequent time steps. A method to determine a tree-based connectivity relationship is proposed to ensure robust mapping during mesh deformation. The novel feature is the ability to handle intra- and inter-frame 2D topology changes of the contours, which manifests as a series of merging and splitting of contours when the images are viewed either in a spatial or temporal sequence. Our algorithm has been tested on five acquisitions of cardiac MRI and can successfully reconstruct the full 4D heart model in around 30 minutes per subject. The generated 4D heart model conforms very well with the input segmented contours and the mesh element shape is of reasonably good quality. The work is important in the support of downstream computational simulation activities.

  16. Sound speed based patient-specific biomechanical modeling for registration of USCT volumes with X-ray mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T.; Stromboni, A.; Duric, N.; Zapf, M.; Gemmeke, H.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography is an upcoming imaging modality for early breast cancer detection. For evaluation of the method, comparison with the standard method X-ray mammography is of strongest interest. To overcome the significant differences in dimensionality and compression state of the breast, in earlier work a registration method based on biomechanical modeling of the breast was proposed. However only homogeneous models could be applied, i.e. inner structures of the breast were neglected. In this work we extend the biomechanical modeling of the breast by estimating patient-specific tissue parameters automatically from the speed of sound volume. Two heterogeneous models are proposed modeling a quadratic and an exponential relationship between speed of sound and tissue stiffness. The models were evaluated using phantom images and clinical data. The size of all lesions is better preserved using heterogeneous models, especially using an exponential relationship. The presented approach yields promising results and gives a physical justification to our registration method. It can be considered as a first step towards a realistic modeling of the breast.

  17. Pretreatment Patient Specific Quality Assurance and Gamma Index Variation Study in Gantry Dependent EPID Positions for IMRT Prostate Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretreatment quality assurance (QA) is a major concern in complex radiation therapy treatment plans like intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Present study considers the variations in gamma index for gantry dependent pretreatment verification and commonly practiced zero gantry angle verifications for ten prostate IMRT plans using two commercial medical linear accelerators (Varian 2300 CD, Varian Clinac iX). Two verification plans (the one with all fields at the actual treatment angles and one with all fields merged to 0 degree gantry angles) for all the patients were generated to obtain dose fluence mapping using amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID). The gamma index was found depend on gantry angles but the difference between zero and the nonzero treatment angles is in the confidence level for clinical acceptance. The acceptance criteria of gamma method were always satisfied in both cases for two machines and are stable enough to execute the patient specific pretreatment quality assurance at 0 degree gantry angle for prostate IMRTs, where limited number of gantry angles are used.

  18. Computational Modelling of Multi-folded Balloon Delivery Systems for Coronary Artery Stenting: Insights into Patient-Specific Stent Malapposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragkousis, Georgios E; Curzen, Nick; Bressloff, Neil W

    2015-08-01

    Despite the clinical effectiveness of coronary artery stenting, percutaneous coronary intervention or "stenting" is not free of complications. Stent malapposition (SM) is a common feature of "stenting" particularly in challenging anatomy, such as that characterized by long, tortuous and bifurcated segments. SM is an important risk factor for stent thrombosis and recently it has been associated with longitudinal stent deformation. SM is the result of many factors including reference diameter, vessel tapering, the deployment pressure and the eccentric anatomy of the vessel. For the purpose of the present paper, virtual multi-folded balloon models have been developed for simulated deployment in both constant and varying diameter vessels under uniform pressure. The virtual balloons have been compared to available compliance charts to ensure realistic inflation response at nominal pressures. Thereafter, patient-specific simulations of stenting have been conducted aiming to reduce SM. Different scalar indicators, which allow a more global quantitative judgement of the mechanical performance of each delivery system, have been implemented. The results indicate that at constant pressure, the proposed balloon models can increase the minimum stent lumen area and thereby significantly decrease SM.

  19. Automated systems to identify relevant documents in product risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Xue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Product risk management involves critical assessment of the risks and benefits of health products circulating in the market. One of the important sources of safety information is the primary literature, especially for newer products which regulatory authorities have relatively little experience with. Although the primary literature provides vast and diverse information, only a small proportion of which is useful for product risk assessment work. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the possibility of using text mining to automate the identification of useful articles, which will reduce the time taken for literature search and hence improving work efficiency. In this study, term-frequency inverse document-frequency values were computed for predictors extracted from the titles and abstracts of articles related to three tumour necrosis factors-alpha blockers. A general automated system was developed using only general predictors and was tested for its generalizability using articles related to four other drug classes. Several specific automated systems were developed using both general and specific predictors and training sets of different sizes in order to determine the minimum number of articles required for developing such systems. Results The general automated system had an area under the curve value of 0.731 and was able to rank 34.6% and 46.2% of the total number of 'useful' articles among the first 10% and 20% of the articles presented to the evaluators when tested on the generalizability set. However, its use may be limited by the subjective definition of useful articles. For the specific automated system, it was found that only 20 articles were required to develop a specific automated system with a prediction performance (AUC 0.748 that was better than that of general automated system. Conclusions Specific automated systems can be developed rapidly and avoid problems caused by subjective definition of useful

  20. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    This book proposes a novel design method that combines both genetic programming (GP) to automatically explore the open-ended design space and bond graphs (BG) to unify design representations of multi-domain Mechatronic systems. Results show that the method, formally called GPBG method, can...... successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  1. The automated medical office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreman, M

    1990-08-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency.

  2. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  3. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  4. Automation from pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state transition diagram (STD) model has been helpful in the design of real time software, especially with the emergence of graphical computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools. Nevertheless, the translation of the STD to real time code has in the past been primarily a manual task. At Los Alamos we have automated this process. The designer constructs the STD using a CASE tool (Cadre Teamwork) using a special notation for events and actions. A translator converts the STD into an intermediate state notation language (SNL), and this SNL is compiled directly into C code (a state program). Execution of the state program is driven by external events, allowing multiple state programs to effectively share the resources of the host processor. Since the design and the code are tightly integrated through the CASE tool, the design and code never diverge, and we avoid design obsolescence. Furthermore, the CASE tool automates the production of formal technical documents from the graphic description encapsulated by the CASE tool. (author)

  5. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  6. Automated Postediting of Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar

    1994-01-01

    Large amounts of low- to medium-quality English texts are now being produced by machine translation (MT) systems, optical character readers (OCR), and non-native speakers of English. Most of this text must be postedited by hand before it sees the light of day. Improving text quality is tedious work, but its automation has not received much research attention. Anyone who has postedited a technical report or thesis written by a non-native speaker of English knows the potential of an automated postediting system. For the case of MT-generated text, we argue for the construction of postediting modules that are portable across MT systems, as an alternative to hardcoding improvements inside any one system. As an example, we have built a complete self-contained postediting module for the task of article selection (a, an, the) for English noun phrases. This is a notoriously difficult problem for Japanese-English MT. Our system contains over 200,000 rules derived automatically from online text resources. We report on l...

  7. Maneuver Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  8. Positive predictive value of a case definition for diabetes mellitus using automated administrative health data in children and youth exposed to antipsychotic drugs or control medications: a Tennessee Medicaid study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo William V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed and validated an automated database case definition for diabetes in children and youth to facilitate pharmacoepidemiologic investigations of medications and the risk of diabetes. Methods The present study was part of an in-progress retrospective cohort study of antipsychotics and diabetes in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 6–24 years. Diabetes was identified from diabetes-related medical care encounters: hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and filled prescriptions. The definition required either a primary inpatient diagnosis or at least two other encounters of different types, most commonly an outpatient diagnosis with a prescription. Type 1 diabetes was defined by insulin prescriptions with at most one oral hypoglycemic prescription; other cases were considered type 2 diabetes. The definition was validated for cohort members in the 15 county region geographically proximate to the investigators. Medical records were reviewed and adjudicated for cases that met the automated database definition as well as for a sample of persons with other diabetes-related medical care encounters. Results The study included 64 cases that met the automated database definition. Records were adjudicated for 46 (71.9%, of which 41 (89.1% met clinical criteria for newly diagnosed diabetes. The positive predictive value for type 1 diabetes was 80.0%. For type 2 and unspecified diabetes combined, the positive predictive value was 83.9%. The estimated sensitivity of the definition, based on adjudication for a sample of 30 cases not meeting the automated database definition, was 64.8%. Conclusion These results suggest that the automated database case definition for diabetes may be useful for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of medications and diabetes.

  9. Fluid-structure interaction of a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm treated with an endovascular stent-graft.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molony, David S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are local dilatations of the infrarenal aorta. If left untreated they may rupture and lead to death. One form of treatment is the minimally invasive insertion of a stent-graft into the aneurysm. Despite this effective treatment aneurysms may occasionally continue to expand and this may eventually result in post-operative rupture of the aneurysm. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is a particularly useful tool for investigating aneurysm biomechanics as both the wall stresses and fluid forces can be examined. METHODS: Pre-op, Post-op and Follow-up models were reconstructed from CT scans of a single patient and FSI simulations were performed on each model. The FSI approach involved coupling Abaqus and Fluent via a third-party software - MpCCI. Aneurysm wall stress and compliance were investigated as well as the drag force acting on the stent-graft. RESULTS: Aneurysm wall stress was reduced from 0.38 MPa before surgery to a value of 0.03 MPa after insertion of the stent-graft. Higher stresses were seen in the aneurysm neck and iliac legs post-operatively. The compliance of the aneurysm was also reduced post-operatively. The peak Post-op axial drag force was found to be 4.85 N. This increased to 6.37 N in the Follow-up model. CONCLUSION: In a patient-specific case peak aneurysm wall stress was reduced by 92%. Such a reduction in aneurysm wall stress may lead to shrinkage of the aneurysm over time. Hence, post-operative stress patterns may help in determining the likelihood of aneurysm shrinkage post EVAR. Post-operative remodelling of the aneurysm may lead to increased drag forces.

  10. Stereo-particle image velocimetry measurements of a patient-specific Fontan physiology utilizing novel pressure augmentation stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopski, Steven G; Rangus, Owen M; Fox, Carson S; Moskowitz, William B; Throckmorton, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    Single ventricle anomalies are a challenging set of congenital heart defects that require lifelong clinical management due to progressive decline of cardiovascular function. Few therapeutic devices are available for these patients, and conventional blood pumps are not designed for the unique anatomy of the single ventricle physiology. To address this unmet need, we are developing an axial flow blood pump with a protective cage or stent for Fontan patients. This study investigates the 3-D particle image velocimetry measurements of two cage designs being deployed in a patient-specific Fontan anatomy. We considered a control case without a pump, impeller placed in the inferior vena cava, and two cases where the impeller has two protective stents with unique geometric characteristics. The experiments were evaluated at a cardiac output of 3 L/min, a fixed vena caval flow split of 40%/60%, a fixed pulmonary arterial flow split of 50%/50%, and for operating speeds of 1000-4000 rpm. The introduction of the cardiovascular stents had a substantial impact on the flow conditions leaving the pump and entering the cavopulmonary circulation. The findings indicated that rotational speeds above 4000 rpm for this pump could result in irregular flows in this specific circulatory condition. Although retrograde flow into the superior vena cava was not measured, the risk of this occurrence increases with higher pump speeds. The against-with stent geometry outperformed the other configurations by generating higher pressures and more energetic flows. These results provide further support for the viability of mechanical cavopulmonary assistance as a therapeutic treatment strategy for Fontan patients.

  11. Accuracy of CT-based patient-specific guides for total knee arthroplasty in patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotanus, M G M; van Haaren, E H; Hendrickx, R P M; Jansen, E J P; Kort, N P

    2015-12-01

    Published clinical trials who studied the accuracy of patient-specific guides (PSG) for total knee arthroplasty exclude patients with articular deformity of the knee joint. We prospectively analysed a series of 30 patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the knee joint with use of PSG. At 1 year post-operative, the achieved biomechanical (HKA) axis and varus/valgus of the femur and tibia components were measured on anterior-posterior (AP) long-standing weight-bearing radiographs. Flexion/extension of the femoral and AP slope of the tibia component was measured on standard lateral radiographs. Percentages >3° deviation of the pre-operative planned HKA axis and individual implant components were considered as outliers. Approved and used implant size, median blood loss (ml) and operation time (min) were obtained from the operation records. Pre- and 1-year post-operative patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were performed. Eighty-three per cent of the patients had a HKA axis restored <3° of the pre-operative planned alignment. Varus/valgus outliers were 0.0 and 6.7 % for the femoral and tibial components, respectively. Percentages of outliers of flexion/extension were 36.7 % for the femoral component and 10.0 % for the AP slope of the tibial component. Median blood loss was 300 ml (50-700), while operation time was 67 min (44-144). In 20 % of all cases, the approved implant size was changed into one size smaller. One-year post-operative PROMs improved significantly. We conclude that the accuracy of CT-based PSG is not impaired in patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis and this modality can restore biomechanical limb alignment. PMID:26265403

  12. Evaluation of deformation accuracy of a virtual pneumoperitoneum method based on clinical trials for patient-specific laparoscopic surgery simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masahiro; Qu, Jia Di; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    This paper evaluates deformation accuracy of a virtual pneumoperitoneum method by utilizing measurement data of real deformations of patient bodies. Laparoscopic surgery is an option of surgical operations that is less invasive technique as compared with traditional surgical operations. In laparoscopic surgery, the pneumoperitoneum process is performed to create a viewing and working space. Although a virtual pneumoperitoneum method based on 3D CT image deformation has been proposed for patient-specific laparoscopy simulators, quantitative evaluation based on measurements obtained in real surgery has not been performed. In this paper, we evaluate deformation accuracy of the virtual pneumoperitoneum method based on real deformation data of the abdominal wall measured in operating rooms (ORs.) The evaluation results are used to find optimal deformation parameters of the virtual pneumoperitoneum method. We measure landmark positions on the abdominal wall on a 3D CT image taken before performing a pneumoperitoneum process. The landmark positions are defined based on anatomical structure of a patient body. We also measure the landmark positions on a 3D CT image deformed by the virtual pneumoperitoneum method. To measure real deformations of the abdominal wall, we measure the landmark positions on the abdominal wall of a patient before and after the pneumoperitoneum process in the OR. We transform the landmark positions measured in the OR from the tracker coordinate system to the CT coordinate system. A positional error of the virtual pneumoperitoneum method is calculated based on positional differences between the landmark positions on the 3D CT image and the transformed landmark positions. Experimental results based on eight cases of surgeries showed that the minimal positional error was 13.8 mm. The positional error can be decreased from the previous method by calculating optimal deformation parameters of the virtual pneumoperitoneum method from the experimental

  13. Computerized tomography based “patient specific blocks” improve postoperative mechanical alignment in primary total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Birla, Vikas P; Agarwal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the postoperative mechanical alignment achieved after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using computer tomography (CT) based patient specific blocks (PSB) to conventional instruments (CI). METHODS: Total 80 knees were included in the study, with 40 knees in both the groups operated using PSB and CI. All the knees were performed by a single surgeon using the same cruciate sacrificing implants. In our study we used CT based PSB to compare with CI. Postoperative mechanical femoro-tibial angle (MFT angle) was measured on long leg x-rays using picture archiving and communication system (PACS). We compared mechanical alignment achieved using PSB and CI in TKA using statistical analysis. RESULTS: The PSB group (group 1) included 17 females and seven males while in CI group (group 2) there were 15 females and eight males. The mean age of patients in group 1 was 60.5 years and in group 2 it was 60.2 years. The mean postoperative MFT angle measured on long-leg radiographs in group 1 was 178.23° (SD = 2.67°, range: 171.9° to 182.5°) while in group 2, the mean MFT angle was 175.73° (SD = 3.62°, range: 166.0° to 179.8°). There was significant improvement in postoperative mechanical alignment (P value = 0.001), in PSB group compared to CI. Number of outliers were also found to be less in group operated with PSB (7 Knee) compared to those operated with CI (17 Knee). CONCLUSION: PSB improve mechanical alignment after total knee arthroplasty, compared to CI. This may lead to lower rates of revision in the PSB based TKA as compared to the conventional instrumentation.

  14. An approach for patient-specific multi-domain vascular mesh generation featuring spatially varying wall thickness modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Samarth S; Liu, Peng; Finol, Ender A

    2015-07-16

    In this work, we present a computationally efficient image-derived volume mesh generation approach for vasculatures that implements spatially varying patient-specific wall thickness with a novel inward extrusion of the wall surface mesh. Multi-domain vascular meshes with arbitrary numbers, locations, and patterns of both iliac bifurcations and thrombi can be obtained without the need to specify features or landmark points as input. In addition, the mesh output is coordinate-frame independent and independent of the image grid resolution with high dimensional accuracy and mesh quality, devoid of errors typically found in off-the-shelf image-based model generation workflows. The absence of deformable template models or Cartesian grid-based methods enables the present approach to be sufficiently robust to handle aneurysmatic geometries with highly irregular shapes, arterial branches nearly parallel to the image plane, and variable wall thickness. The assessment of the methodology was based on i) estimation of the surface reconstruction accuracy, ii) validation of the output mesh using an aneurysm phantom, and iii) benchmarking the volume mesh quality against other frameworks. For the phantom image dataset (pixel size 0.105 mm; slice spacing 0.7 mm; and mean wall thickness 1.401±0.120 mm), the average wall thickness in the mesh was 1.459±0.123 mm. The absolute error in average wall thickness was 0.060±0.036 mm, or about 8.6% of the largest image grid spacing (0.7 mm) and 4.36% of the actual mean wall thickness. Mesh quality metrics and the ability to reproduce regional variations of wall thickness were found superior to similar alternative frameworks. PMID:25976018

  15. Determination of patient-specific internal gross tumor volumes for lung cancer using four-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the optimal approach to delineating patient-specific internal gross target volumes (IGTV) from four-dimensional (4-D) computed tomography (CT) image data sets used in the planning of radiation treatment for lung cancers. We analyzed 4D-CT image data sets of 27 consecutive patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (stage I: 17, stage III: 10). The IGTV, defined to be the envelope of respiratory motion of the gross tumor volume in each 4D-CT data set was delineated manually using four techniques: (1) combining the gross tumor volume (GTV) contours from ten respiratory phases (IGTVAllPhases); (2) combining the GTV contours from two extreme respiratory phases (0% and 50%) (IGTV2Phases); (3) defining the GTV contour using the maximum intensity projection (MIP) (IGTVMIP); and (4) defining the GTV contour using the MIP with modification based on visual verification of contours in individual respiratory phase (IGTVMIP-Modified). Using the IGTVAllPhases as the optimum IGTV, we compared volumes, matching indices, and extent of target missing using the IGTVs based on the other three approaches. The IGTVMIP and IGTV2Phases were significantly smaller than the IGTVAllPhases (p < 0.006 for stage I and p < 0.002 for stage III). However, the values of the IGTVMIP-Modified were close to those determined from IGTVAllPhases (p = 0.08). IGTVMIP-Modified also matched the best with IGTVAllPhases. IGTVMIP and IGTV2Phases underestimate IGTVs. IGTVMIP-Modified is recommended to improve IGTV delineation in lung cancer

  16. Blood flow dynamic improvement with aneurysm repair detected by a patient-specific model of multiple aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sughimoto, Koichi; Takahara, Yoshiharu; Mogi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Ken'ichi; Liang, Fuyou; Liu, Hao

    2014-05-01

    Aortic aneurysms may cause the turbulence of blood flow and result in the energy loss of the blood flow, while grafting of the dilated aorta may ameliorate these hemodynamic disturbances, contributing to the alleviation of the energy efficiency of blood flow delivery. However, evaluating of the energy efficiency of blood flow in an aortic aneurysm has been technically difficult to estimate and not comprehensively understood yet. We devised a multiscale computational biomechanical model, introducing novel flow indices, to investigate a single male patient with multiple aortic aneurysms. Preoperative levels of wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were elevated but declined after staged grafting procedures: OSI decreased from 0.280 to 0.257 (first operation) and 0.221 (second operation). Graftings may strategically counter the loss of efficient blood delivery to improve hemodynamics of the aorta. The energy efficiency of blood flow also improved postoperatively. Novel indices of pulsatile pressure index (PPI) and pulsatile energy loss index (PELI) were evaluated to characterize and quantify energy loss of pulsatile blood flow. Mean PPI decreased from 0.445 to 0.423 (first operation) and 0.359 (second operation), respectively; while the preoperative PELI of 0.986 dropped to 0.820 and 0.831. Graftings contributed not only to ameliorate wall shear stress or oscillatory shear index but also to improve efficient blood flow. This patient-specific modeling will help in analyzing the mechanism of aortic aneurysm formation and may play an important role in quantifying the energy efficiency or loss in blood delivery. PMID:23852404

  17. Fluid-structure interaction of a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm treated with an endovascular stent-graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGloughlin Tim M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA are local dilatations of the infrarenal aorta. If left untreated they may rupture and lead to death. One form of treatment is the minimally invasive insertion of a stent-graft into the aneurysm. Despite this effective treatment aneurysms may occasionally continue to expand and this may eventually result in post-operative rupture of the aneurysm. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI is a particularly useful tool for investigating aneurysm biomechanics as both the wall stresses and fluid forces can be examined. Methods Pre-op, Post-op and Follow-up models were reconstructed from CT scans of a single patient and FSI simulations were performed on each model. The FSI approach involved coupling Abaqus and Fluent via a third-party software - MpCCI. Aneurysm wall stress and compliance were investigated as well as the drag force acting on the stent-graft. Results Aneurysm wall stress was reduced from 0.38 MPa before surgery to a value of 0.03 MPa after insertion of the stent-graft. Higher stresses were seen in the aneurysm neck and iliac legs post-operatively. The compliance of the aneurysm was also reduced post-operatively. The peak Post-op axial drag force was found to be 4.85 N. This increased to 6.37 N in the Follow-up model. Conclusion In a patient-specific case peak aneurysm wall stress was reduced by 92%. Such a reduction in aneurysm wall stress may lead to shrinkage of the aneurysm over time. Hence, post-operative stress patterns may help in determining the likelihood of aneurysm shrinkage post EVAR. Post-operative remodelling of the aneurysm may lead to increased drag forces.

  18. SU-F-BRF-01: A GPU Framework for Developing Interactive High-Resolution Patient-Specific Biomechanical Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a GPU-based framework that can generate highresolution and patient-specific biomechanical models from a given simulation CT and contoured structures, optimized to run at interactive speeds, for addressing adaptive radiotherapy objectives. Method: A Massspring-damping (MSD) model was generated from a given simulation CT. The model's mass elements were generated for every voxel of anatomy, and positioned in a deformation space in the GPU memory. MSD connections were established between neighboring mass elements in a dense distribution. Contoured internal structures allowed control over elastic material properties of different tissues. Once the model was initialized in GPU memory, skeletal anatomy was actuated using rigid-body transformations, while soft tissues were governed by elastic corrective forces and constraints, which included tensile forces, shear forces, and spring damping forces. The model was validated by applying a known load to a soft tissue block and comparing the observed deformation to ground truth calculations from established elastic mechanics. Results: Our analyses showed that both local and global load experiments yielded results with a correlation coefficient R2 > 0.98 compared to ground truth. Models were generated for several anatomical regions. Head and neck models accurately simulated posture changes by rotating the skeletal anatomy in three dimensions. Pelvic models were developed for realistic deformations for changes in bladder volume. Thoracic models demonstrated breast deformation due to gravity when changing treatment position from supine to prone. The GPU framework performed at greater than 30 iterations per second for over 1 million mass elements with up to 26 MSD connections each. Conclusions: Realistic simulations of site-specific, complex posture and physiological changes were simulated at interactive speeds using patient data. Incorporating such a model with live patient tracking would facilitate real

  19. Mechanical cavopulmonary assistance of a patient-specific Fontan physiology: numerical simulations, lumped parameter modeling, and suction experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Amy L; Carr, James P; Tahir, Sharjeel A; Tate, Ryan; Downs, Emily A; Bhavsar, Sonya S; Wu, Yi; Grizzard, John D; Moskowitz, William B

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the performance of a magnetically levitated, intravascular axial flow blood pump for mechanical circulatory support of the thousands of Fontan patients in desperate need of a therapeutic alternative. Four models of the extracardiac, total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) Fontan configuration were evaluated to formulate numerical predictions: an idealized TCPC, a patient-specific TCPC per magnetic resonance imaging data, and each of these two models having a blood pump in the inferior vena cava (IVC). A lumped parameter model of the Fontan physiology was used to specify boundary conditions. Pressure-flow characteristics, energy gain calculations, scalar stress levels, and blood damage estimations were executed for each model. Suction limitation experiments using the Sylgard elastomer tubing were also conducted. The pump produced pressures of 1-16 mm Hg for 2000-6000 rpm and flow rates of 0.5-4.5 L/min. The pump inlet or IVC pressure was found to decrease at higher rotational speeds. Maximum scalar stress estimations were 3 Pa for the nonpump models and 290 Pa for the pump-supported cases. The blood residence times for the pump-supported cases were shorter (0.9 s) as compared with the nonsupported configurations (2.5 s). However, the blood damage indices were higher (1.5%) for the anatomic model with pump support. The pump successfully augmented pressure in the TCPC junction and increased the hydraulic energy of the TCPC as a function of flow rate and rotational speed. The suction experiments revealed minimal deformation (<3%) at 9000 rpm. The findings of this study support the continued design and development of this blood pump.

  20. SU-F-BRE-08: Feasibility of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for IMRT/IGRT QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehler, E; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Test the feasibility of 3D printed, per-patient phantoms for IMRT QA to analyze the treatment delivery quality within the patient geometry. Methods: Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom. During the delivery of the IMRT QA on to the 3D printed phantom, the same patient positioning indexing system was used on the phantom and image guidance (cone beam CT) was used to localize the phantom, serving as a test of the IGRT system as well. The 3D printed phantom was designed to accommodate four radiochromic film planes (two axial, one coronal and one sagittal) and an ionization chamber measurement. As a frame of comparison, the IMRT QA was also performed on traditional phantoms. Dosimetric tolerance levels such as 3mm / 3% Gamma Index as well as 3% and 5% dose difference were considered. All detector systems were calibrated against a NIST traceable ionization chamber. Results: Comparison of results 3D printed patient phantom with the standard IMRT QA systems showed similar passing rates for the 3D printed phantom and the standard phantoms. However, the locations of the failing regions did not necessarily correlate. The 3D printed phantom was localized within 1 mm and 1° using on-board cone beam CT. Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine clinical use.

  1. SU-F-BRF-01: A GPU Framework for Developing Interactive High-Resolution Patient-Specific Biomechanical Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neylon, J; Qi, S; Sheng, K; Kupelian, P; Santhanam, A [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a GPU-based framework that can generate highresolution and patient-specific biomechanical models from a given simulation CT and contoured structures, optimized to run at interactive speeds, for addressing adaptive radiotherapy objectives. Method: A Massspring-damping (MSD) model was generated from a given simulation CT. The model's mass elements were generated for every voxel of anatomy, and positioned in a deformation space in the GPU memory. MSD connections were established between neighboring mass elements in a dense distribution. Contoured internal structures allowed control over elastic material properties of different tissues. Once the model was initialized in GPU memory, skeletal anatomy was actuated using rigid-body transformations, while soft tissues were governed by elastic corrective forces and constraints, which included tensile forces, shear forces, and spring damping forces. The model was validated by applying a known load to a soft tissue block and comparing the observed deformation to ground truth calculations from established elastic mechanics. Results: Our analyses showed that both local and global load experiments yielded results with a correlation coefficient R{sup 2} > 0.98 compared to ground truth. Models were generated for several anatomical regions. Head and neck models accurately simulated posture changes by rotating the skeletal anatomy in three dimensions. Pelvic models were developed for realistic deformations for changes in bladder volume. Thoracic models demonstrated breast deformation due to gravity when changing treatment position from supine to prone. The GPU framework performed at greater than 30 iterations per second for over 1 million mass elements with up to 26 MSD connections each. Conclusions: Realistic simulations of site-specific, complex posture and physiological changes were simulated at interactive speeds using patient data. Incorporating such a model with live patient tracking would facilitate

  2. SU-F-BRE-08: Feasibility of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for IMRT/IGRT QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Test the feasibility of 3D printed, per-patient phantoms for IMRT QA to analyze the treatment delivery quality within the patient geometry. Methods: Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom. During the delivery of the IMRT QA on to the 3D printed phantom, the same patient positioning indexing system was used on the phantom and image guidance (cone beam CT) was used to localize the phantom, serving as a test of the IGRT system as well. The 3D printed phantom was designed to accommodate four radiochromic film planes (two axial, one coronal and one sagittal) and an ionization chamber measurement. As a frame of comparison, the IMRT QA was also performed on traditional phantoms. Dosimetric tolerance levels such as 3mm / 3% Gamma Index as well as 3% and 5% dose difference were considered. All detector systems were calibrated against a NIST traceable ionization chamber. Results: Comparison of results 3D printed patient phantom with the standard IMRT QA systems showed similar passing rates for the 3D printed phantom and the standard phantoms. However, the locations of the failing regions did not necessarily correlate. The 3D printed phantom was localized within 1 mm and 1° using on-board cone beam CT. Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine clinical use

  3. Get smart! automate your house!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amstel, P.; Gorter, N.; De Rouw, J.

    2016-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will help you in reducing both energy usage and costs by automating your home. It gives an introduction to a number of home automation systems that every homeowner can install.

  4. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch;

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  5. Automated separation for heterogeneous immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    Truchaud, A.; Barclay, J; Yvert, J. P.; Capolaghi, B.

    1991-01-01

    Beside general requirements for modern automated systems, immunoassay automation involves specific requirements as a separation step for heterogeneous immunoassays. Systems are designed according to the solid phase selected: dedicated or open robots for coated tubes and wells, systems nearly similar to chemistry analysers in the case of magnetic particles, and a completely original design for those using porous and film materials.

  6. Automated Test-Form Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  7. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  8. Opening up Library Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  9. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions....... The systematic approach inexorably leads to a proliferation of redundant structures that needs to be addressed properly. Global filtering techniques cause a drastic elimination of interesting structures that damages the quality of the analysis. On the other hand, a selection of closed patterns allows...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions...

  10. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  11. Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Lewis, Dean C.; Buchanan, Randy K.; Buchanan, Aubri

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Electrostatics Chamber (MEC) is an environmental chamber designed primarily to create atmospheric conditions like those at the surface of Mars to support experiments on electrostatic effects in the Martian environment. The chamber is equipped with a vacuum system, a cryogenic cooling system, an atmospheric-gas replenishing and analysis system, and a computerized control system that can be programmed by the user and that provides both automation and options for manual control. The control system can be set to maintain steady Mars-like conditions or to impose temperature and pressure variations of a Mars diurnal cycle at any given season and latitude. In addition, the MEC can be used in other areas of research because it can create steady or varying atmospheric conditions anywhere within the wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges between the extremes of Mars-like and Earth-like conditions.

  12. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  13. Automated synthetic scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Ryan N.

    Physics-based simulations generate synthetic imagery to help organizations anticipate system performance of proposed remote sensing systems. However, manually constructing synthetic scenes which are sophisticated enough to capture the complexity of real-world sites can take days to months depending on the size of the site and desired fidelity of the scene. This research, sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Sensors Directorate, successfully developed an automated approach to fuse high-resolution RGB imagery, lidar data, and hyperspectral imagery and then extract the necessary scene components. The method greatly reduces the time and money required to generate realistic synthetic scenes and developed new approaches to improve material identification using information from all three of the input datasets.

  14. Automated Essay Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semire DIKLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  15. Patient-specific scatter correction in clinical cone beam computed tomography imaging made possible by the combination of Monte Carlo simulations and a ray tracing algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot Thing, Rune; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image quality is limited by scattered photons. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations provide the ability of predicting the patient-specific scatter contamination in clinical CBCT imaging. Lengthy simulations prevent MC-based scatter correction from...

  16. The changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance within 42,033 Escherichia coli isolates from nosocomial, community and urology patient-specific urinary tract infections, Dublin, 1999-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Ivor M

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection over an eleven year period, and to determine whether E. coli antibiotic resistance rates vary depending on whether the UTI represents a nosocomial, community acquired or urology patient specific infection.

  17. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettmann, Maryam E., E-mail: rettmann.maryam@mayo.edu; Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon J.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Robb, Richard A. [Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Kwartowitz, David M. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Gunawan, Mia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Johnson, Susan B.; Packer, Douglas L. [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Dalegrave, Charles [Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiology Division Hospital Sao Paulo, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 04024-002 Brazil (Brazil); Kolasa, Mark W. [David Grant Medical Center, Fairfield, California 94535 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  18. Repeated injections of {sup 131}I-rituximab show patient-specific stable biodistribution and tissue kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonescu, Cristian; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Schaffland, Andreas O.; Grannavel, Carine [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kosinski, Marek [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); University of Lausanne, Institute of Applied Radiophysics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Monnin, Pascal; Verdun, Francis R. [University of Lausanne, Institute of Applied Radiophysics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ketterer, Nicolas [University Hospital of Lausanne, Multidisciplinary Oncology Center, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kovacsovics, Tibor [Oregon Health and Science University, Center for Hematological Malignancies, Portland, OR (United States); Buchegger, Franz [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); University Hospital of Geneva, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-08-01

    It is generally assumed that the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabelled antibodies remain similar between dosimetric and therapeutic injections in radioimmunotherapy. However, circulation half-lives of unlabelled rituximab have been reported to increase progressively after the weekly injections of standard therapy doses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of the pharmacokinetics of repeated {sup 131}I-rituximab injections during treatment with unlabelled rituximab in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Patients received standard weekly therapy with rituximab (375 mg/m{sup 2}) for 4 weeks and a fifth injection at 7 or 8 weeks. Each patient had three additional injections of 185 MBq {sup 131}I-rituximab in either treatment weeks 1, 3 and 7 (two patients) or weeks 2, 4 and 8 (two patients). The 12 radiolabelled antibody injections were followed by three whole-body (WB) scintigraphic studies during 1 week and blood sampling on the same occasions. Additional WB scans were performed after 2 and 4 weeks post {sup 131}I-rituximab injection prior to the second and third injections, respectively. A single exponential radioactivity decrease for WB, liver, spleen, kidneys and heart was observed. Biodistribution and half-lives were patient specific, and without significant change after the second or third injection compared with the first one. Blood T{sub 1/2}{beta}, calculated from the sequential blood samples and fitted to a bi-exponential curve, was similar to the T{sub 1/2} of heart and liver but shorter than that of WB and kidneys. Effective radiation dose calculated from attenuation-corrected WB scans and blood using Mirdose3.1 was 0.53+0.05 mSv/MBq (range 0.48-0.59 mSv/MBq). Radiation dose was highest for spleen and kidneys, followed by heart and liver. These results show that the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of {sup 131}I-rituximab, while specific to each patient, remained constant during unlabelled antibody therapy

  19. SU-E-T-472: A Multi-Dimensional Measurements Comparison to Analyze a 3D Patient Specific QA Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a 3D patient specific QA tool using 2D film and 3D Presage dosimetry. Methods: A brain IMRT case was delivered to Delta4, EBT2 film and Presage plastic dosimeter. The film was inserted in the solid water slabs at 7.5cm depth for measurement. The Presage dosimeter was inserted into a head phantom for 3D dose measurement. Delta4's Anatomy software was used to calculate the corresponding dose to the film in solid water slabs and to Presage in the head phantom. The results from Anatomy were compared to both calculated results from Eclipse and measured dose from film and Presage to evaluate its accuracy. Using RIT software, we compared the “Anatomy” dose to the EBT2 film measurement and the film measurement to ECLIPSE calculation. For 3D analysis, DICOM file of “Anatomy” was extracted and imported to CERR software, which was used to compare the Presage dose to both “Anatomy” calculation and ECLIPSE calculation. Gamma criteria of 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm was used for comparison. Results: Gamma passing rates of film vs “Anatomy”, “Anatomy” vs ECLIPSE and film vs ECLIPSE were 82.8%, 70.9% and 87.6% respectively when 3% - 3mm criteria is used. When the criteria is changed to 5% - 5mm, the passing rates became 87.8%, 76.3% and 90.8% respectively. For 3D analysis, Anatomy vs ECLIPSE showed gamma passing rate of 86.4% and 93.3% for 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm respectively. The rate is 77.0% for Presage vs ECLIPSE analysis. The Anatomy vs ECLIPSE were absolute dose comparison. However, film and Presage analysis were relative comparison Conclusion: The results show higher passing rate in 3D than 2D in “Anatomy” software. This could be due to the higher degrees of freedom in 3D than in 2D for gamma analysis

  20. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  1. Verification of Accuracy of CyberKnife Tumor-tracking Radiation Therapy Using Patient-specific Lung Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jinhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Si Yeol, E-mail: coocoori@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sang Min; Kwak, Jungwon; Yoon, KyoungJun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wonsik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seong-Yun [Asan Institute for Life Science, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Kyung; Cho, Byungchul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of the CyberKnife Xsight Lung Tracking System (XLTS) compared with that of a fiducial-based target tracking system (FTTS) using patient-specific lung phantoms. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional printing technology was used to make individualized lung phantoms that closely mimicked the lung anatomy of actual patients. Based on planning computed tomographic data from 6 lung cancer patients who underwent stereotactic ablative radiation therapy using the CyberKnife, the volume above a certain Hounsfield unit (HU) was assigned as the structure to be filled uniformly with polylactic acid material by a 3-dimensional printer (3D Edison, Lokit, Korea). We evaluated the discrepancies between the measured and modeled target positions, representing the total tracking error, using 3 log files that were generated during each treatment for both the FTTS and the XLTS. We also analyzed the γ index between the film dose measured under the FTTS and XLTS. Results: The overall mean values and standard deviations of total tracking errors for the FTTS were 0.36 ± 0.39 mm, 0.15 ± 0.64 mm, and 0.15 ± 0.62 mm for the craniocaudal (CC), left–right (LR), and anteroposterior (AP) components, respectively. Those for the XLTS were 0.38 ± 0.54 mm, 0.13 ± 0.18 mm, and 0.14 ± 0.37 mm for the CC, LR, and AP components, respectively. The average of γ passing rates was 100% for the criteria of 3%, 3 mm; 99.6% for the criteria of 2%, 2 mm; and 86.8% for the criteria of 1%, 1 mm. Conclusions: The XLTS has segmentation accuracy comparable with that of the FTTS and small total tracking errors.

  2. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justication for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 109 bits per 14 x 17. The equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 (inch) film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (*approx* 16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system (author)

  3. Simulation-based Design and Validation of Automated Contingency Management for Propulsion Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper introduces a novel Prognostics-enhanced Automated Contingency Management (or ACM+P) paradigm based on both current health state (diagnosis) and future...

  4. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  5. National Automated Conformity Inspection Process

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...

  6. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Rihan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappliances and they are relieved from the tasks thatpreviously required manual control. This paper tracks thedevelopment of home automation technology over the lasttwo decades. Various home automation technologies havebeen explained briefly, giving a chronological account of theevolution of one of the most talked about technologies ofrecent times.

  7. Automation of antimicrobial activity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Samuel P; Madonna, Megan C; López-Pérez, Daneli; Lin, Nancy J; Pasco, Madeleine D

    2016-03-01

    Manual and automated methods were compared for routine screening of compounds for antimicrobial activity. Automation generally accelerated assays and required less user intervention while producing comparable results. Automated protocols were validated for planktonic, biofilm, and agar cultures of the oral microbe Streptococcus mutans that is commonly associated with tooth decay. Toxicity assays for the known antimicrobial compound cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were validated against planktonic, biofilm forming, and 24 h biofilm culture conditions, and several commonly reported toxicity/antimicrobial activity measures were evaluated: the 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Using automated methods, three halide salts of cetylpyridinium (CPC, CPB, CPI) were rapidly screened with no detectable effect of the counter ion on antimicrobial activity. PMID:26970766

  8. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  9. Home automation with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    Dundar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to learn Intel Galileo for home automation and cross-platform software development. No knowledge of programming with Intel Galileo is assumed, but knowledge of the C programming language is essential.

  10. Towards automated traceability maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Patrick; Gotel, Orlena

    2012-10-01

    Traceability relations support stakeholders in understanding the dependencies between artifacts created during the development of a software system and thus enable many development-related tasks. To ensure that the anticipated benefits of these tasks can be realized, it is necessary to have an up-to-date set of traceability relations between the established artifacts. This goal requires the creation of traceability relations during the initial development process. Furthermore, the goal also requires the maintenance of traceability relations over time as the software system evolves in order to prevent their decay. In this paper, an approach is discussed that supports the (semi-) automated update of traceability relations between requirements, analysis and design models of software systems expressed in the UML. This is made possible by analyzing change events that have been captured while working within a third-party UML modeling tool. Within the captured flow of events, development activities comprised of several events are recognized. These are matched with predefined rules that direct the update of impacted traceability relations. The overall approach is supported by a prototype tool and empirical results on the effectiveness of tool-supported traceability maintenance are provided. PMID:23471308

  11. Automated Gas Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  12. Aprendizaje automático

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    En este libro se introducen los conceptos básicos en una de las ramas más estudiadas actualmente dentro de la inteligencia artificial: el aprendizaje automático. Se estudian temas como el aprendizaje inductivo, el razonamiento analógico, el aprendizaje basado en explicaciones, las redes neuronales, los algoritmos genéticos, el razonamiento basado en casos o las aproximaciones teóricas al aprendizaje automático.

  13. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  14. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  15. Evaluation of Constant Thickness Cartilage Models vs. Patient Specific Cartilage Models for an Optimized Computer-Assisted Planning of Periacetabular Osteotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Modern computerized planning tools for periacetabular osteotomy (PAO use either morphology-based or biomechanics-based methods. The latter relies on estimation of peak contact pressures and contact areas using either patient specific or constant thickness cartilage models. We performed a finite element analysis investigating the optimal reorientation of the acetabulum in PAO surgery based on simulated joint contact pressures and contact areas using patient specific cartilage model. Furthermore we investigated the influences of using patient specific cartilage model or constant thickness cartilage model on the biomechanical simulation results. Ten specimens with hip dysplasia were used in this study. Image data were available from CT arthrography studies. Bone models were reconstructed. Mesh models for the patient specific cartilage were defined and subsequently loaded under previously reported boundary and loading conditions. Peak contact pressures and contact areas were estimated in the original position. Afterwards we used a validated preoperative planning software to change the acetabular inclination by an increment of 5° and measured the lateral center edge angle (LCE at each reorientation position. The position with the largest contact area and the lowest peak contact pressure was defined as the optimal position. In order to investigate the influence of using patient specific cartilage model or constant thickness cartilage model on the biomechanical simulation results, the same procedure was repeated with the same bone models but with a cartilage mesh of constant thickness. Comparison of the peak contact pressures and the contact areas between these two different cartilage models showed that good correlation between these two cartilage models for peak contact pressures (r = 0.634 ∈ [0.6, 0.8], p 0.8, p < 0.001. For both cartilage models, the largest contact areas and the lowest peak pressures were found at the same position. Our study is

  16. Managing laboratory automation in a changing pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M L

    1995-01-01

    The health care reform movement in the USA and increased requirements by regulatory agencies continue to have a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry and the laboratory. Laboratory management is expected to improve effciency by providing more analytical results at a lower cost, increasing customer service, reducing cycle time, while ensuring accurate results and more effective use of their staff. To achieve these expectations, many laboratories are using robotics and automated work stations. Establishing automated systems presents many challenges for laboratory management, including project and hardware selection, budget justification, implementation, validation, training, and support. To address these management challenges, the rationale for project selection and implementation, the obstacles encountered, project outcome, and learning points for several automated systems recently implemented in the Quality Control Laboratories at Eli Lilly are presented. PMID:18925014

  17. Optimising automation of a manual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corena de Beer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs are widely used to quantify immunoglobulin levels induced by infection or vaccination. Compared to conventional manual assays, automated ELISA systems offer more accurate and reproducible results, faster turnaround times and cost effectiveness due to the use of multianalyte reagents.Design: The VaccZyme™ Human Anti-Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib kit (MK016 from The Binding Site Company was optimised to be used on an automated BioRad PhD™ system in the Immunology Laboratory (National Health Laboratory Service in Tygerberg, South Africa.Methods: An automated ELISA system that uses individual well incubation was compared to a manual method that uses whole-plate incubation.Results: Results were calculated from calibration curves constructed with each assay. Marked differences in calibration curves were observed for the two methods. The automated method produced lower-than-recommended optical density values and resulted in invalid calibration curves and diagnostic results. A comparison of the individual steps of the two methods showed a difference of 10 minutes per incubation cycle. All incubation steps of the automated method were subsequently increased from 30 minutes to 40 minutes. Several comparative assays were performed according to the amended protocol and all calibration curves obtained were valid. Calibrators and controls were also included as samples in different positions and orders on the plate and all results were valid.Conclusion: Proper validation is vital before converting manual ELISA assays to automated or semi-automated methods. 

  18. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF BREAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakers relate to Electric Power Systems’ equipment, the reliability of which influence, to a great extend, on reliability of Power Plants. In particular, the breakers determine structural reliability of switchgear circuit of Power Stations and network substations. Failure in short-circuit switching off by breaker with further failure of reservation unit or system of long-distance protection lead quite often to system emergency.The problem of breakers’ reliability improvement and the reduction of maintenance expenses is becoming ever more urgent in conditions of systematic increasing of maintenance cost and repair expenses of oil circuit and air-break circuit breakers. The main direction of this problem solution is the improvement of diagnostic control methods and organization of on-condition maintenance. But this demands to use a great amount of statistic information about nameplate data of breakers and their operating conditions, about their failures, testing and repairing, advanced developments (software of computer technologies and specific automated information system (AIS.The new AIS with AISV logo was developed at the department: “Reliability of power equipment” of AzRDSI of Energy. The main features of AISV are:· to provide the security and data base accuracy;· to carry out systematic control of breakers conformity with operating conditions;· to make the estimation of individual  reliability’s value and characteristics of its changing for given combination of characteristics variety;· to provide personnel, who is responsible for technical maintenance of breakers, not only with information but also with methodological support, including recommendations for the given problem solving  and advanced methods for its realization.

  19. Single-scan patient-specific scatter correction in computed tomography using peripheral detection of scatter and compressed sensing scatter retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Bowen; Lee, Ho; Xing, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray scatter results in a significant degradation of image quality in computed tomography (CT), representing a major limitation in cone-beam CT (CBCT) and large field-of-view diagnostic scanners. In this work, a novel scatter estimation and correction technique is proposed that utilizes peripheral detection of scatter during the patient scan to simultaneously acquire image and patient-specific scatter information in a single scan, and in conjunction with a proposed compressed sensin...

  20. Patient-Specific CT-Based Instrumentation versus Conventional Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on Clinical Outcomes and In-Hospital Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kotela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a frequently performed procedure in orthopaedic surgery. Recently, patient-specific instrumentation was introduced to facilitate correct positioning of implants. The aim of this study was to compare the early clinical results of TKA performed with patient-specific CT-based instrumentation and conventional technique. A prospective, randomized controlled trial on 112 patients was performed between January 2011 and December 2011. A group of 112 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group comprised 52 patients who received the Signature CT-based implant positioning system, and the control group consisted of 60 patients with conventional instrumentation. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the KSS scale, WOMAC scale, and VAS scales to assess knee pain severity and patient satisfaction with the surgery. Specified in-hospital data were recorded. Patients were followed up for 12 months. At one year after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to clinical outcomes and in-hospital data, including operative time, blood loss, hospital length of stay, intraoperative observations, and postoperative complications. Further high-quality investigations of various patient-specific systems and longer follow-up may be helpful in assessing their utility for TKA.

  1. Fast simulations of patient-specific haemodynamics of coronary artery bypass grafts based on a POD-Galerkin method and a vascular shape parametrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Francesco; Faggiano, Elena; Ippolito, Sonia; Manzoni, Andrea; Quarteroni, Alfio; Rozza, Gianluigi; Scrofani, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    In this work a reduced-order computational framework for the study of haemodynamics in three-dimensional patient-specific configurations of coronary artery bypass grafts dealing with a wide range of scenarios is proposed. We combine several efficient algorithms to face at the same time both the geometrical complexity involved in the description of the vascular network and the huge computational cost entailed by time dependent patient-specific flow simulations. Medical imaging procedures allow to reconstruct patient-specific configurations from clinical data. A centerlines-based parametrization is proposed to efficiently handle geometrical variations. POD-Galerkin reduced-order models are employed to cut down large computational costs. This computational framework allows to characterize blood flows for different physical and geometrical variations relevant in the clinical practice, such as stenosis factors and anastomosis variations, in a rapid and reliable way. Several numerical results are discussed, highlighting the computational performance of the proposed framework, as well as its capability to carry out sensitivity analysis studies, so far out of reach. In particular, a reduced-order simulation takes only a few minutes to run, resulting in computational savings of 99% of CPU time with respect to the full-order discretization. Moreover, the error between full-order and reduced-order solutions is also studied, and it is numerically found to be less than 1% for reduced-order solutions obtained with just O(100) online degrees of freedom.

  2. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  3. International Conference Automation : Challenges in Automation, Robotics and Measurement Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the set of papers accepted for presentation at the International Conference Automation, held in Warsaw, 2-4 March of 2016. It presents the research results presented by top experts in the fields of industrial automation, control, robotics and measurement techniques. Each chapter presents a thorough analysis of a specific technical problem which is usually followed by numerical analysis, simulation, and description of results of implementation of the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .

  4. Automated power management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. A joint effort between NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology and NASA's Office of Space Station Freedom, it strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. The initial station operation will use ground-based dispatches to perform the necessary command and control tasks. These tasks constitute planning and decision-making activities that strive to eliminate unplanned outages. We perceive an opportunity to help these dispatchers make fast and consistent on-line decisions by automating three key tasks: failure detection and diagnosis, resource scheduling, and security analysis. Expert systems will be used for the diagnostics and for the security analysis; conventional algorithms will be used for the resource scheduling.

  5. Computer automation and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid advances in computing, resulting from micro chip revolution has increased its application manifold particularly for computer automation. Yet the level of automation available, has limited its application to more complex and dynamic systems which require an intelligent computer control. In this paper a review of Artificial intelligence techniques used to augment automation is presented. The current sequential processing approach usually adopted in artificial intelligence has succeeded in emulating the symbolic processing part of intelligence, but the processing power required to get more elusive aspects of intelligence leads towards parallel processing. An overview of parallel processing with emphasis on transputer is also provided. A Fuzzy knowledge based controller for amination drug delivery in muscle relaxant anesthesia on transputer is described. 4 figs. (author)

  6. Unmet needs in automated cytogenetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though some, at least, of the goals of automation systems for analysis of clinical cytogenetic material seem either at hand, like automatic metaphase finding, or at least likely to be met in the near future, like operator-assisted semi-automatic analysis of banded metaphase spreads, important areas of cytogenetic analsis, most importantly the determination of chromosomal aberration frequencies in populations of cells or in samples of cells from people exposed to environmental mutagens, await practical methods of automation. Important as are the clinical diagnostic applications, it is apparent that increasing concern over the clastogenic effects of the multitude of potentially clastogenic chemical and physical agents to which human populations are being increasingly exposed, and the resulting emergence of extensive cytogenetic testing protocols, makes the development of automation not only economically feasible but almost mandatory. The nature of the problems involved, and acutal of possible approaches to their solution, are discussed

  7. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B;

    2014-01-01

    corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters......Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...

  8. Network based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahabeddini Parizi, Mohammad; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of appropriate automation concepts which increase productivity in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) requires a lot of effort, due to their limited resources. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for small firms to open up for the external sources of knowledge, which co......, this paper develops and discusses a set of guidelines for systematic productivity improvement within an innovative collaboration in regards to automation processes in SMEs.......The implementation of appropriate automation concepts which increase productivity in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) requires a lot of effort, due to their limited resources. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for small firms to open up for the external sources of knowledge, which...... could be obtained through network interaction. Based on two extreme cases of SMEs representing low-tech industry and an in-depth analysis of their manufacturing facilities this paper presents how collaboration between firms embedded in a regional ecosystem could result in implementation of new...

  9. Design automation for integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, S. B.; de Geus, A. J.; Rohrer, R. A.

    1983-04-01

    Consideration is given to the development status of the use of computers in automated integrated circuit design methods, which promise the minimization of both design time and design error incidence. Integrated circuit design encompasses two major tasks: error specification, in which the goal is a logic diagram that accurately represents the desired electronic function, and physical specification, in which the goal is an exact description of the physical locations of all circuit elements and their interconnections on the chip. Design automation not only saves money by reducing design and fabrication time, but also helps the community of systems and logic designers to work more innovatively. Attention is given to established design automation methodologies, programmable logic arrays, and design shortcuts.

  10. Automation: the competitive edge for HMOs and other alternative delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussin, J A

    1987-12-01

    Until recently, many, if not most, Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) were not automated. Moreover, HMOs that were automated tended to be automated only on a limited basis. Recently, however, the highly competitive marketplace within which HMOs and other Alternative Delivery Systems (ADS) exist has required that they operate at a maximum effectiveness and efficiency. Given the complex nature of ADSs, the volume of transactions in ADSs, the large number of members served by ADSs, and the numerous providers who are paid at different rates and on different bases by ADSs, it is impossible for an ADS to operate effectively or efficiently, let alone show optimal performance, without a sophisticated, comprehensive automated system. Reliable automated systems designed specifically to address ADS functions such as enrollment and premium billing, finance and accounting, medical information and patient management, and marketing have recently become available at a reasonable cost. PMID:3451941

  11. Automated Podcasting System for Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ypatios Grigoriadis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results achieved at Graz University of Technology (TU Graz in the field of automating the process of recording and publishing university lectures in a very new way. It outlines cornerstones of the development and integration of an automated recording system such as the lecture hall setup, the recording hardware and software architecture as well as the development of a text-based search for the final product by method of indexing video podcasts. Furthermore, the paper takes a look at didactical aspects, evaluations done in this context and future outlook.

  12. Agile Data: Automating database refactorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an automated approach to database change management throughout the companies’ development workflow. By using automated tools, companies can avoid common issues related to manual database deployments. This work was motivated by analyzing usual problems within organizations, mostly originated from manual interventions that may result in systems disruptions and production incidents. In addition to practices of continuous integration and continuous delivery, the current paper describes a case study in which a suggested pipeline is implemented in order to reduce the deployment times and decrease incidents due to ineffective data controlling.

  13. Design automation, languages, and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    As the complexity of electronic systems continues to increase, the micro-electronic industry depends upon automation and simulations to adapt quickly to market changes and new technologies. Compiled from chapters contributed to CRC's best-selling VLSI Handbook, this volume covers a broad range of topics relevant to design automation, languages, and simulations. These include a collaborative framework that coordinates distributed design activities through the Internet, an overview of the Verilog hardware description language and its use in a design environment, hardware/software co-design, syst

  14. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  15. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  16. Automated synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Esposito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid-containing glycans play a major role in cell-surface interactions with external partners such as cells and viruses. Straightforward access to sialosides is required in order to study their biological functions on a molecular level. Here, automated oligosaccharide synthesis was used to facilitate the preparation of this class of biomolecules. Our strategy relies on novel sialyl α-(2→3 and α-(2→6 galactosyl imidates, which, used in combination with the automated platform, provided rapid access to a small library of conjugation-ready sialosides of biological relevance.

  17. Toward designing for trust in database automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriate reliance on system automation is imperative for safe and productive work, especially in safety-critical systems. It is unsafe to rely on automation beyond its designed use; conversely, it can be both unproductive and unsafe to manually perform tasks that are better relegated to automated tools. Operator trust in automated tools mediates reliance, and trust appears to affect how operators use technology. As automated agents become more complex, the question of trust in automation is increasingly important. In order to achieve proper use of automation, we must engender an appropriate degree of trust that is sensitive to changes in operating functions and context. In this paper, we present research concerning trust in automation in the domain of automated tools for relational databases. Lee and See have provided models of trust in automation. One model developed by Lee and See identifies three key categories of information about the automation that lie along a continuum of attributional abstraction. Purpose-, process-and performance-related information serve, both individually and through inferences between them, to describe automation in such a way as to engender r properly-calibrated trust. Thus, one can look at information from different levels of attributional abstraction as a general requirements analysis for information key to appropriate trust in automation. The model of information necessary to engender appropriate trust in automation [1] is a general one. Although it describes categories of information, it does not provide insight on how to determine the specific information elements required for a given automated tool. We have applied the Abstraction Hierarchy (AH) to this problem in the domain of relational databases. The AH serves as a formal description of the automation at several levels of abstraction, ranging from a very abstract purpose-oriented description to a more concrete description of the resources involved in the automated process

  18. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  19. Towards Automated System Synthesis Using SCIDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Susmit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Automated synthesis of systems that are correct by construction has been a long-standing goal of computer science. Synthesis is a creative task and requires human intuition and skill. Its complete automation is currently beyond the capacity of programs that do automated reasoning. However, there is a pressing need for tools and techniques that can automate non-intuitive and error-prone synthesis tasks. This thesis proposes a novel synthesis approach to solve such tasks in the synthesis of pro...

  20. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  1. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper presents new evidence on trade‐induced automation in manufacturing firms using unique data combining a retrospective survey that we have assembled with register data for 2005‐2010. In particular, we establish a causal effect where firms that have specialized in product types for which ...

  2. Feasibility Analysis of Crane Automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ming-xiao; MEI Xue-song; JIANG Ge-dong; ZHANG Gui-qing

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the modeling methods, open-loop control and closed-loop control techniques of various forms of cranes, worldwide, and discusses their feasibilities and limitations in engineering. Then the dynamic behaviors of cranes are analyzed. Finally, we propose applied modeling methods and feasible control techniques and demonstrate the feasibilities of crane automation.

  3. Automation of Feynman diagram evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automation of Feynman diagram evaluations is presented. It consists of two parts: the analyzer of diagrams and the interpreter of a special text manipulating language. This language can be used to create a source code for analytical or numerical evaluations and to keep the control of the process in general

  4. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  5. Automated visual inspection of textile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1997-01-01

    A method for automated inspection of two types of textile is presented. The goal of the inspection is to determine defects in the textile. A prototype is constructed for simulating the textile production line. At the prototype the images of the textile are acquired by a high speed line scan camera...

  6. Distribution system analysis and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to techniques that allow engineers to simulate, analyse and optimise power distribution systems which combined with automation, underpin the emerging concept of the "smart grid". This book is supported by theoretical concepts with real-world applications and MATLAB exercises.

  7. Teacherbot: Interventions in Automated Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Sian

    2015-01-01

    Promises of "teacher-light" tuition and of enhanced "efficiency" via the automation of teaching have been with us since the early days of digital education, sometimes embraced by academics and institutions, and sometimes resisted as a set of moves which are damaging to teacher professionalism and to the humanistic values of…

  8. Automation, Labor Productivity and Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    CEBR fremlægger nu den første rapport i AIM-projektet. Rapporten viser, at der er gode muligheder for yderligere automation i en stor del af de danske fremstillingsvirksomheder. For i dag er gennemsnitligt kun omkring 30 % af virksomhedernes produktionsprocesser automatiserede. Navnlig procesområ...

  9. Adaptation : A Partially Automated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact

  10. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  11. Automation; The New Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstein, George E.

    Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…

  12. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley H L Chan

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii a multi-material skull base simulator and iii 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and

  13. SU-E-T-69: Cloud-Based Monte Carlo Patient-Specific Quality Assurance (QA) Method for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X; Xing, L; Luxton, G; Bush, K [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Azcona, J [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient-specific QA for VMAT is incapable of providing full 3D dosimetric information and is labor intensive in the case of severe heterogeneities or small-aperture beams. A cloud-based Monte Carlo dose reconstruction method described here can perform the evaluation in entire 3D space and rapidly reveal the source of discrepancies between measured and planned dose. Methods: This QA technique consists of two integral parts: measurement using a phantom containing array of dosimeters, and a cloud-based voxel Monte Carlo algorithm (cVMC). After a VMAT plan was approved by a physician, a dose verification plan was created and delivered to the phantom using our Varian Trilogy or TrueBeam system. Actual delivery parameters (i.e., dose fraction, gantry angle, and MLC at control points) were extracted from Dynalog or trajectory files. Based on the delivery parameters, the 3D dose distribution in the phantom containing detector were recomputed using Eclipse dose calculation algorithms (AAA and AXB) and cVMC. Comparison and Gamma analysis is then conducted to evaluate the agreement between measured, recomputed, and planned dose distributions. To test the robustness of this method, we examined several representative VMAT treatments. Results: (1) The accuracy of cVMC dose calculation was validated via comparative studies. For cases that succeeded the patient specific QAs using commercial dosimetry systems such as Delta- 4, MAPCheck, and PTW Seven29 array, agreement between cVMC-recomputed, Eclipse-planned and measured doses was obtained with >90% of the points satisfying the 3%-and-3mm gamma index criteria. (2) The cVMC method incorporating Dynalog files was effective to reveal the root causes of the dosimetric discrepancies between Eclipse-planned and measured doses and provide a basis for solutions. Conclusion: The proposed method offers a highly robust and streamlined patient specific QA tool and provides a feasible solution for the rapidly increasing use of VMAT

  14. Automation of Workplace Lifting Hazard Assessment for Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Spector, June T.; Lieblich, Max; Bao, Stephen; McQuade, Kevin; Hughes, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. ...

  15. Design and development of automated TLD contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) is issued to occupational worker to register the external exposure received during his course of work. Before sending back the TLDs for processing it is the responsibility of the parent institution to check and certify that the TLDs are free of radioactive contamination. To ease the duty of health physicist a PC based automated TLD contamination monitor was designed and developed and the details of the same are presented in this paper

  16. Portable Automated Oxygen Administration System for hypoxaemic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alzoubi, Khawla; Alguraan, Ziyad; Omar M. Ramahi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen is a lifesaving medication that should be offered with an administration to a patient who suffers from oxygen deficiency to avoid toxic effects of excessive oxygen supplement as well as to minimize the exposure to hypoxaemia. This work aims to automate the process of administering oxygen delivery in order to extend the continuous oxygen administration process beyond the IC units, reduce the cost of oxygen administration in terms of well-trained health care providers and equipment, prol...

  17. Managing laboratory automation in a changing pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The health care reform movement in the USA and increased requirements by regulatory agencies continue to have a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry and the laboratory. Laboratory management is expected to improve effciency by providing more analytical results at a lower cost, increasing customer service, reducing cycle time, while ensuring accurate results and more effective use of their staff. To achieve these expectations, many laboratories are using robotics and automated work stat...

  18. Interdisciplinarity and Ubiquitous Internet Technologies in Support of Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Babulak Prof., Ph.D., P.Eng., Eur.Ing., C.Eng.,

    2006-01-01

    The Telecommunications and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying solid foundation for the future generation of the Ubiquitous Internet access, omnipresent web technologies and ultimate automated information cyberspace. Recent technological advancements in the areas of global mobility, wireless technologies and miniaturization are driven by the economic and social prosperity. The current state of the art in Differentiated Networks, Health Informatics, A...

  19. Construction and accuracy assessment of patient-specific biocompatible drill template for cervical anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS insertion: an in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoqing Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the properties of three-column fixation and anterior-approach-only procedure, anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS is ideal for severe multilevel traumatic cervical instabilities. However, the accurate insertion of ATPS remains challenging. Here we constructed a patient-specific biocompatible drill template and evaluated its accuracy in assisting ATPS insertion. METHODS: After ethical approval, 24 formalin-preserved cervical vertebrae (C2-C7 were CT scanned. 3D reconstruction models of cervical vertebra were obtained with 2-mm-diameter virtual pin tracts at the central pedicles. The 3D models were used for rapid prototyping (RP printing. A 2-mm-diameter Kirschner wire was then inserted into the pin tract of the RP model before polymethylmethacrylate was used to construct the patient-specific biocompatible drill template. After removal of the anterior soft tissue, a 2-mm-diameter Kirschner wire was inserted into the cervical pedicle with the assistance of drill template. Cadaveric cervical spines with pin tracts were subsequently scanned using the same CT scanner. A 3D reconstruction was performed of the scanned spines to get 3D models of the vertebrae containing the actual pin tracts. The deviations were calculated between 3D models with virtual and actual pin tracts at the middle point of the cervical pedicle. 3D models of 3.5 mm-diameter screws were used in simulated insertion to grade the screw positions. FINDINGS: The patient-specific biocompatible drill template was constructed to assist ATPS insertion successfully. There were no significant differences between medial/lateral deviations (P = 0.797 or between superior/inferior deviations (P = 0.741. The absolute deviation values were 0.82±0.75 mm and 1.10±0.96 mm in axial and sagittal planes, respectively. In the simulated insertion, the screws in non-critical position were 44/48 (91.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The patient-specific drill template is biocompatible, easy

  20. SU-D-304-06: Measurement of LET in Patient-Specific Proton Therapy Treatment Fields Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granville, DA [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sahoo, N; Sawakuchi, GO [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors (OSLDs) for measurements of dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET) in patient-specific proton therapy treatment fields. Methods: We used Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C OSLDs made from the same material as commercially available nanoDot OSLDs from Landauer, Inc. We calibrated two parameters of the OSL signal as functions of LET in therapeutic proton beams: the ratio of the ultraviolet and blue emission intensities (UV/blue ratio) and the OSL curve shape. These calibration curves were created by irradiating OSLDs in passively scattered beams of known LET (0.96 to 3.91 keV/µm). The LET values were determined using a validated Monte Carlo model of the beamline. We then irradiated new OSLDs with the prescription dose (16 to 74 cGy absorbed dose to water) at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) of four patient-specific treatment fields. From readouts of these OSLDs, we determined both the UV/blue ratio and OSL curve shape parameters. Combining these parameters with the calibration curves, we were able to measure LET using the OSLDs. The measurements were compared to the theoretical LET values obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the patient-specific treatments fields. Results: Using the UV/blue ratio parameter, we were able to measure LET within 3.8%, 6.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the Monte Carlo value for each of the patient fields. Similarly, using the OSL curve shape parameter, LET measurements agreed within 0.5%, 11.0%, 2.5% and 7.6% for each of the four fields. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method to verify LET in patient-specific proton therapy treatment fields using OSLDs. The possibility of enhancing biological effectiveness of proton therapy treatment plans by including LET in the optimization has been previously shown. The LET verification method we have demonstrated will be useful in the quality assurance of such LET optimized treatment plans. DA Granville received

  1. Assessing the radiation-induced second cancer risk in proton therapy for pediatric brain tumors: the impact of employing a patient-specific aperture in pencil beam scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Changran; Moteabbed, Maryam; Xie, Yunhe; Schuemann, Jan; Yock, Torunn; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation-induced second cancer risks for in-field and out-of-field organs and tissues for pencil beam scanning (PBS) and passive scattering proton therapy (PPT) and assess the impact of adding patient-specific apertures to sharpen the penumbra in pencil beam scanning for pediatric brain tumor patients. Five proton therapy plans were created for each of three pediatric patients using PPT as well as PBS with two spot sizes (average sigma of ~17 mm and ~8 mm at isocenter) and choice of patient-specific apertures. The lifetime attributable second malignancy risks for both in-field and out-of-field tissues and organs were compared among five delivery techniques. The risk for in-field tissues was calculated using the organ equivalent dose, which is determined by the dose volume histogram. For out-of-field organs, the organ-specific dose equivalent from secondary neutrons was calculated using Monte Carlo and anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. We find that either for small spot size PBS or for large spot size PBS, a patient-specific aperture reduces the in-field cancer risk to values lower than that for PPT. The reduction for large spot sizes (on average 43%) is larger than for small spot sizes (on average 21%). For out-of-field organs, the risk varies only marginally by employing a patient-specific aperture (on average from  -2% to 16% with increasing distance from the tumor), but is still one to two orders of magnitude lower than that for PPT. In conclusion, when pencil beam spot sizes are large, the addition of apertures to sharpen the penumbra decreases the in-field radiation-induced secondary cancer risk. There is a slight increase in out-of-field cancer risk as a result of neutron scatter from the aperture, but this risk is by far outweighed by the in-field risk benefit from using an aperture with a large PBS spot size. In general, the risk for developing a second malignancy in out-of-field organs for PBS remains

  2. SU-E-J-72: Dosimetric Study of Cone-Beam CT-Based Radiation Treatment Planning Using a Patient-Specific Stepwise CT-Density Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S; Le, Q; Mutaf, Y; Yi, B; D’Souza, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess dose calculation accuracy of cone-beam CT (CBCT) based treatment plans using a patient-specific stepwise CT-density conversion table in comparison to conventional CT-based treatment plans. Methods: Unlike CT-based treatment planning which use fixed CT-density table, this study used patient-specific CT-density table to minimize the errors in reconstructed mass densities due to the effects of CBCT Hounsfield unit (HU) uncertainties. The patient-specific CT-density table was a stepwise function which maps HUs to only 6 classes of materials with different mass densities: air (0.00121g/cm3), lung (0.26g/cm3), adipose (0.95g/cm3), tissue (1.05 g/cm3), cartilage/bone (1.6g/cm3), and other (3g/cm3). HU thresholds to define different materials were adjusted for each CBCT via best match with the known tissue types in these images. Dose distributions were compared between CT-based plans and CBCT-based plans (IMRT/VMAT) for four types of treatment sites: head and neck (HN), lung, pancreas, and pelvis. For dosimetric comparison, PTV mean dose in both plans were compared. A gamma analysis was also performed to directly compare dosimetry in the two plans. Results: Compared to CT-based plans, the differences for PTV mean dose were 0.1% for pelvis, 1.1% for pancreas, 1.8% for lung, and −2.5% for HN in CBCT-based plans. The gamma passing rate was 99.8% for pelvis, 99.6% for pancreas, and 99.3% for lung with 3%/3mm criteria, and 80.5% for head and neck with 5%/3mm criteria. Different dosimetry accuracy level was observed: 1% for pelvis, 3% for lung and pancreas, and 5% for head and neck. Conclusion: By converting CBCT data to 6 classes of materials for dose calculation, 3% of dose calculation accuracy can be achieved for anatomical sites studied here, except HN which had a 5% accuracy. CBCT-based treatment planning using a patient-specific stepwise CT-density table can facilitate the evaluation of dosimetry changes resulting from variation in patient anatomy.

  3. Illinois: Library Automation and Connectivity Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Bridget L.; Bloomberg, Kathleen L.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of library automation in Illinois focuses on ILLINET, the Illinois Library and Information Network. Topics include automated resource sharing; ILLINET's online catalog; regional library system automation; community networking and public library technology development; telecommunications initiatives; electronic access to state government…

  4. You're a What? Automation Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, John

    2010-01-01

    Many people think of automation as laborsaving technology, but it sure keeps Jim Duffell busy. Defined simply, automation is a technique for making a device run or a process occur with minimal direct human intervention. But the functions and technologies involved in automated manufacturing are complex. Nearly all functions, from orders coming in…

  5. Using Natural Language Processing to Improve Accuracy of Automated Notifiable Disease Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Friedlin, Jeff; Grannis, Shaun; Overhage, J Marc

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether using a natural language processing (NLP) system results in improved accuracy and completeness of automated electronic laboratory reporting (ELR) of notifiable conditions. We used data from a community-wide health information exchange that has automated ELR functionality. We focused on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), a reportable infection found in unstructured, free-text culture result reports. We used the Regenstrief EXtraction tool (REX) for this wor...

  6. Comparison of Automated Treponemal and Nontreponemal Test Algorithms as First-Line Syphilis Screening Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hee Jin; Chung, Jae-Woo; Park, Seong Yeon; Chae, Seok Lae

    2015-01-01

    Background Automated Mediace Treponema pallidum latex agglutination (TPLA) and Mediace rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assays are used by many laboratories for syphilis diagnosis. This study compared the results of the traditional syphilis screening algorithm and a reverse algorithm using automated Mediace RPR or Mediace TPLA as first-line screening assays in subjects undergoing a health checkup. Methods Samples from 24,681 persons were included in this study. We routinely performed Mediace RPR and...

  7. Automated quantification of aligned collagen for human breast carcinoma prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Bredfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality in cancer patients is directly attributable to the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to distant sites from the primary tumor. This migration of tumor cells begins with a remodeling of the local tumor microenvironment, including changes to the extracellular matrix and the recruitment of stromal cells, both of which facilitate invasion of tumor cells into the bloodstream. In breast cancer, it has been proposed that the alignment of collagen fibers surrounding tumor epithelial cells can serve as a quantitative image-based biomarker for survival of invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Specific types of collagen alignment have been identified for their prognostic value and now these tumor associated collagen signatures (TACS are central to several clinical specimen imaging trials. Here, we implement the semi-automated acquisition and analysis of this TACS candidate biomarker and demonstrate a protocol that will allow consistent scoring to be performed throughout large patient cohorts. Methods: Using large field of view high resolution microscopy techniques, image processing and supervised learning methods, we are able to quantify and score features of collagen fiber alignment with respect to adjacent tumor-stromal boundaries. Results: Our semi-automated technique produced scores that have statistically significant correlation with scores generated by a panel of three human observers. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted survival in a cohort of 196 breast cancer patients. Feature rank analysis reveals that TACS positive fibers are more well-aligned with each other, are of generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells at larger angles of interaction. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the utility of a supervised learning protocol for streamlining the analysis of collagen alignment with respect to tumor stromal boundaries.

  8. Virtual 3D planning and patient specific surgical guides for osteotomies around the knee: a feasibility and proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, J; Premanathan, A

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the benefits of patient specific instrument guides, applied to osteotomies around the knee. Single, dual and triple planar osteotomies were performed on tibias or femurs in 14 subjects. In all patients, a detailed pre-operative plan was prepared based upon full leg standing radiographic and CT scan information. The planned level of the osteotomy and open wedge resection was relayed to the surgery by virtue of a patient specific guide developed from the images. The mean deviation between the planned wedge angle and the executed wedge angle was 0° (-1 to 1, sd 0.71) in the coronal plane and 0.3° (-0.9 to 3, sd 1.14) in the sagittal plane. The mean deviation between the planned hip, knee, ankle angle (HKA) on full leg standing radiograph and the post-operative HKA was 0.3° (-1 to 2, sd 0.75). It is concluded that this is a feasible and valuable concept from the standpoint of pre-operative software based planning, surgical application and geometrical accuracy of outcome. PMID:24187376

  9. Patient-Specific Simulations of Reactivity in Models of the Pulmonary Vasculature: A 3-D Numerical Study with Fluid-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall; Zhang, Yanhang; Lanning, Craig

    2005-11-01

    Insight into the progression of pulmonary hypertension may be obtained from thorough study of vascular flow during reactivity testing, an invasive diagnostic procedure which can dramatically alter vascular hemodynamics. Diagnostic imaging methods, however, are limited in their ability to provide extensive data. Here we present detailed flow and wall deformation results from simulations of pulmonary arteries undergoing this procedure. Patient-specific 3-D geometric reconstructions of the first four branches of the pulmonary vasculature were obtained clinically and meshed for use with computational software. Transient simulations in normal and reactive states were obtained from four such models were completed with patient-specific velocity inlet conditions and flow impedance exit conditions. A microstructurally based orthotropic hyperelastic model that simulates pulmonary artery mechanics under normotensive and hypoxic hypertensive conditions treated wall constitutive changes due to pressure reactivity and arterial remodeling. Pressure gradients, velocity fields, arterial deformation, and complete topography of shear stress were obtained. These models provide richer detail of hemodynamics than can be obtained from current imaging techniques, and should allow maximum characterization of vascular function in the clinical situation.

  10. [Partial replacement of the knee joint with patient-specific instruments and implants (ConforMIS iUni, iDuo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, J; Steinert, A; Zilkens, C; Zeh, A; Schnurr, C; Schmitt-Sody, M; Gebauer, M

    2016-04-01

    Knee arthroplasty is a successful standard procedure in orthopedic surgery; however, approximately 20 % of patients are dissatisfied with the clinical results as they suffer pain and can no longer achieve the presurgery level of activity. According to the literature the reasons are inexact fitting of the prosthesis or too few anatomically formed implants resulting in less physiological kinematics of the knee joint. Reducing the number of dissatisfied patients and the corresponding number of revisions is an important goal considering the increasing need for artificial joints. In this context, patient-specific knee implants are an obvious alternative to conventional implants. For the first time implants are now matched to the individual bone and not vice versa to achieve the best possible individual situation and geometry and more structures (e.g. ligaments and bone) are preserved or only those structures are replaced which were actually destroyed by arthrosis. According to the authors view, this represents an optimal and pioneering addition to conventional implants. Patient-specific implants and the instruments needed for correct alignment and fitting can be manufactured by virtual 3D reconstruction and 3D printing based on computed tomography (CT) scans. The portfolio covers medial as well as lateral unicondylar implants, medial as well as lateral bicompartmental implants (femorotibial and patellofemoral compartments) and cruciate ligament-preserving as well as cruciate ligament-substituting total knee replacements; however, it must be explicitly emphasized that the literature is sparse and no long-term data are available. PMID:26984107

  11. Evaluation of a patient-specific cost function to predict the influence of foot path on the knee adduction torque during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregly, Benjamin J; Reinbolt, Jeffery A; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2008-02-01

    A large external knee adduction torque during gait has been correlated with the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Though foot path changes (e.g. toeing out) can reduce the adduction torque, no method currently exists to predict whether an optimal foot path exists for a specific patient. This study evaluates a patient-specific optimization cost function to predict how foot path changes influence both adduction torque peaks. Video motion and ground reaction data were collected from a patient with knee OA performing normal, toe out, and wide stance gait. Joint and inertial parameters in a dynamic, 27 degree-of-freedom, full-body gait model were calibrated to the patient's normal gait data. The model was then used in gait optimizations that predicted how the patient's adduction torque peaks would change due to changes in foot path. The cost function tracked the patient's normal gait data using weight factors calibrated to toe out gait and tested using wide stance gait. For both gait motions, the same cost function weights predicted the change in both adduction torque peaks to within 7% error. With further development, this approach may eventually permit the design of patient-specific rehabilitation procedures such as an optimal foot path for patients with knee OA.

  12. Advanced 3D mesh manipulation in stereolithographic files and post-print processing for the manufacturing of patient-specific vascular flow phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ryan P.; Chand, Arpita; Vidiyala, Sowmya; Arechavala, Stacie M.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    Complex vascular anatomies can cause the failure of image-guided endovascular procedures. 3D printed patient-specific vascular phantoms provide clinicians and medical device companies the ability to preemptively plan surgical treatments, test the likelihood of device success, and determine potential operative setbacks. This research aims to present advanced mesh manipulation techniques of stereolithographic (STL) files segmented from medical imaging and post-print surface optimization to match physiological vascular flow resistance. For phantom design, we developed three mesh manipulation techniques. The first method allows outlet 3D mesh manipulations to merge superfluous vessels into a single junction, decreasing the number of flow outlets and making it feasible to include smaller vessels. Next we introduced Boolean operations to eliminate the need to manually merge mesh layers and eliminate errors of mesh self-intersections that previously occurred. Finally we optimize support addition to preserve the patient anatomical geometry. For post-print surface optimization, we investigated various solutions and methods to remove support material and smooth the inner vessel surface. Solutions of chloroform, alcohol and sodium hydroxide were used to process various phantoms and hydraulic resistance was measured and compared with values reported in literature. The newly mesh manipulation methods decrease the phantom design time by 30 - 80% and allow for rapid development of accurate vascular models. We have created 3D printed vascular models with vessel diameters less than 0.5 mm. The methods presented in this work could lead to shorter design time for patient specific phantoms and better physiological simulations.

  13. Automated measurement of cell motility and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Julie

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time-lapse microscopic imaging provides a powerful approach for following changes in cell phenotype over time. Visible responses of whole cells can yield insight into functional changes that underlie physiological processes in health and disease. For example, features of cell motility accompany molecular changes that are central to the immune response, to carcinogenesis and metastasis, to wound healing and tissue regeneration, and to the myriad developmental processes that generate an organism. Previously reported image processing methods for motility analysis required custom viewing devices and manual interactions that may introduce bias, that slow throughput, and that constrain the scope of experiments in terms of the number of treatment variables, time period of observation, replication and statistical options. Here we describe a fully automated system in which images are acquired 24/7 from 384 well plates and are automatically processed to yield high-content motility and morphological data. Results We have applied this technology to study the effects of different extracellular matrix compounds on human osteoblast-like cell lines to explore functional changes that may underlie processes involved in bone formation and maintenance. We show dose-response and kinetic data for induction of increased motility by laminin and collagen type I without significant effects on growth rate. Differential motility response was evident within 4 hours of plating cells; long-term responses differed depending upon cell type and surface coating. Average velocities were increased approximately 0.1 um/min by ten-fold increases in laminin coating concentration in some cases. Comparison with manual tracking demonstrated the accuracy of the automated method and highlighted the comparative imprecision of human tracking for analysis of cell motility data. Quality statistics are reported that associate with stage noise, interference by non

  14. An Overview of Moonlight Applications Test Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appasami Govindasamy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days web applications are developed by new technologies like Moonlight, Silverlight, JAVAFX, FLEX, etc. Silverlight is Microsoft's cross platform runtime and development technology for running Web-based multimedia applications in windows platform. Moonlight is an open-source implementation of the Silverlight development platform for Linux and other Unix/X11-based operating systems. It is a new technology in .Net 4.0 to develop rich interactive and attractive platform independent web applications. User Interface Test Automation is very essential for Software industries to reduce test time, cost and man power. Moonlight is new .NET technology to develop rich interactive Internet applications with the collaboration of Novel Corporation. Testing these kinds of applications are not so easy to test, especially the User interface test automation is very difficult. Software test automation has the capability to decrease the overall cost of testing and improve software quality, but most testing organizations have not been able to achieve the full potential of test automation. Many groups that implement test automation programs run into a number of common pitfalls. These problems can lead to test automation plans being completely scrapped, with the tools purchased for test automation becoming expensive. Often teams continue their automation effort, burdened with huge costs in maintaining large suites of automated test scripts. This paper will first discuss some of the key benefits of software test automation, and then examine the most common techniques used to implement software test automation of Moonlight Applications Test Automation. It will then discuss test automation and their potential. Finally, it will do test automation.

  15. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch;

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of corrosion rates and other parameters connected with corrosion processes are important, first as indicators of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials and second because such measurements are based on general and fundamental physical, chemical, and electrochemical relations....... Hence improvements and innovations in methods applied in corrosion research are likeliy to benefit basic disciplines as well. A method for corrosion measurements can only provide reliable data if the beckground of the method is fully understood. Failure of a method to give correct data indicates a need...... to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...

  16. CCD characterization and measurements automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern mosaic cameras have grown both in size and in number of sensors. The required volume of sensor testing and characterization has grown accordingly. For camera projects as large as the LSST, test automation becomes a necessity. A CCD testing and characterization laboratory was built and is in operation for the LSST project. Characterization of LSST study contract sensors has been performed. The characterization process and its automation are discussed, and results are presented. Our system automatically acquires images, populates a database with metadata information, and runs express analysis. This approach is illustrated on 55Fe data analysis. 55Fe data are used to measure gain, charge transfer efficiency and charge diffusion. Examples of express analysis results are presented and discussed.

  17. Automated nanomanipulation for nanodevice construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanowire field-effect transistors (nano-FETs) are nanodevices capable of highly sensitive, label-free sensing of molecules. However, significant variations in sensitivity across devices can result from poor control over device parameters, such as nanowire diameter and the number of electrode-bridging nanowires. This paper presents a fabrication approach that uses wafer-scale nanowire contact printing for throughput and uses automated nanomanipulation for precision control of nanowire number and diameter. The process requires only one photolithography mask. Using nanowire contact printing and post-processing (i.e. nanomanipulation inside a scanning electron microscope), we are able to produce devices all with a single-nanowire and similar diameters at a speed of ∼1 min/device with a success rate of 95% (n = 500). This technology represents a seamless integration of wafer-scale microfabrication and automated nanorobotic manipulation for producing nano-FET sensors with consistent response across devices. (paper)

  18. DOLFIN: Automated Finite Element Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Logg, Anders; 10.1145/1731022.1731030

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a library aimed at automating the solution of partial differential equations using the finite element method. By employing novel techniques for automated code generation, the library combines a high level of expressiveness with efficient computation. Finite element variational forms may be expressed in near mathematical notation, from which low-level code is automatically generated, compiled and seamlessly integrated with efficient implementations of computational meshes and high-performance linear algebra. Easy-to-use object-oriented interfaces to the library are provided in the form of a C++ library and a Python module. This paper discusses the mathematical abstractions and methods used in the design of the library and its implementation. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate the use of the library in application code.

  19. Automated illustration of patients instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duy; Nakamura, Carlos; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A picture can be a powerful communication tool. However, creating pictures to illustrate patient instructions can be a costly and time-consuming task. Building on our prior research in this area, we developed a computer application that automatically converts text to pictures using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques. After iterative testing, the automated illustration system was evaluated using 49 previously unseen cardiology discharge instructions. The completeness of the system-generated illustrations was assessed by three raters using a three-level scale. The average inter-rater agreement for text correctly represented in the pictograph was about 66 percent. Since illustration in this context is intended to enhance rather than replace text, these results support the feasibility of conducting automated illustration.

  20. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Neeraj; Aggarwal Lalit

    2010-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits ...

  1. Automated Periodontal Diseases Classification System

    OpenAIRE

    Aliaa A. A. Youssif; Abeer Saad Gawish,; Mohammed Elsaid Moussa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient and innovative system for automated classification of periodontal diseases, The strength of our technique lies in the fact that it incorporates knowledge from the patients' clinical data, along with the features automatically extracted from the Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained microscopic images. Our system uses image processing techniques based on color deconvolution, morphological operations, and watershed transforms for epithelium & connective tissue se...

  2. Home automation in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, J E; Tello, S F

    1994-01-01

    Environmental control units and home automation devices contribute to the independence and potential of individuals with disabilities, both at work and at home. Devices currently exist that can assist people with physical, cognitive, and sensory disabilities to control lighting, appliances, temperature, security, and telephone communications. This article highlights several possible applications for these technologies and discusses emerging technologies that will increase the benefits these devices offer people with disabilities. PMID:24440955

  3. Small Business Innovations (Automated Information)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Bruce G. Jackson & Associates Document Director is an automated tool that combines word processing and database management technologies to offer the flexibility and convenience of text processing with the linking capability of database management. Originally developed for NASA, it provides a means to collect and manage information associated with requirements development. The software system was used by NASA in the design of the Assured Crew Return Vehicle, as well as by other government and commercial organizations including the Southwest Research Institute.

  4. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  5. System of automated map design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preprint 'System of automated map design' contains information about the program shell for construction of territory map, performing level line drawing of arbitrary two-dimension field (in particular, the radionuclide concentration field). The work schedule and data structures are supplied, as well as data on system performance. The preprint can become useful for experts in radioecology and for all persons involved in territory pollution mapping or multi-purpose geochemical mapping. (author)

  6. Method development in automated mineralogy

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmann, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The underlying research that resulted in this doctoral dissertation was performed at the Division of Economic Geology and Petrology of the Department of Mineralogy, TU Bergakademie Freiberg between 2011 and 2014. It was the primary aim of this thesis to develop and test novel applications for the technology of ‘Automated Mineralogy’ in the field of economic geology and geometallurgy. A “Mineral Liberation Analyser” (MLA) instrument of FEI Company was used to conduct most analytical studies. T...

  7. GUI test automation with SWTBot

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurkiewicz, Milosz

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents theoretical background of GUI test automation as well as technologies, tools and methodologies required to fully understand the test program written in SWTBot. Practical part of the thesis was to implement a program testing File Menu options of Pegasus RCP application developed in Nokia Siemens Networks. Concluding this dissertation, in the author’s opinion test programs written using SWTBot are relatively easy to read and intuitive for people familiar w...

  8. Automated minimax design of networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Voldby, J

    1975-01-01

    A new gradient algorithm for the solution of nonlinear minimax problems has been developed. The algorithm is well suited for automated minimax design of networks and it is very simple to use. It compares favorably with recent minimax and leastpth algorithms. General convergence problems related...... to minimax design of networks are discussed. Finally, minimax design of equalization networks for reflectiontype microwave amplifiers is carried out by means of the proposed algorithm....

  9. Adaptation: A Partially Automated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact design is developed around import procedures of M-company. An overview of the artefact is discussed in detail to fully describes the adaptation mechanism with automatic adjustment for compliance re...

  10. TU-C-BRE-06: Effect of Implementing In-House Treatment Couch Model On Patient Specific QA for Pinnacle SmartArc Treatment Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Failure to model the treatment couch during VMAT QA planar dose calculation may Result in discrepancies between measured and calculated dose. These discrepancies are due to beam attenuation by the treatment couch that is not included in dose calculation. This work evaluates effects of accounting for this attenuation on patient specific VMAT QA results using an in-house created Varian Exact couch model in Pinnacl Methods: Patient specific VMAT QA results for 13 Pinnacle SmartArc plans generated for treatment on a Varian iX accelerator were studied. These plans included 3 treatment sites (7 H'N, 5 brain, 1 prostate). A Pinnacle model for Varian Exact couch was created in-house to replace the CT simulator couch. Composite arc planar doses were calculated with no couch present (NC) and with the Exact couch model (CM) in place for each plan. QA measurements were taken using IBA Matrixx Evolution ion chamber array set up in IBA MultiCube and were compared to each planar dose. Gamma passing criteria of both 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm tolerances were used. Results: Over all treatment sites, increases in gamma passing rates from NC to CM ranged from -0.4% to +27.3% at 3%/3mm and +0.1% to +30.5% at 2%/2mm. Mean increases in passing rates were +3.7% and +5.3% for 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm tolerances, respectively. Site-specific mean increases (NC to CM) in gamma passing rates were +4.4%, +3.4%, +0.4% (3%/3mm tolerance) and +6.9%, +3.7%, and +2.9% at (2%/2mm tolerance) for H'N, brain, and prostate, respectively. Conclusion: Results support use of a couch model when generating planar dose for patient specific VMAT QA analysis. The improvements were most noticeable at 2%/2mm tolerance and for the H'N and brain sites. Eliminating treatment couch beam attenuation as a source of discrepancy in QA measurements may improve the ability to recognize otherwise masked delivered dose errors

  11. The sensitivity of gamma-index method to the positioning errors of high-definition MLC in patient-specific VMAT QA for SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the sensitivity of various gamma criteria used in the gamma-index method for patient-specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam. Three types of intentional misalignments were introduced to original high-definition multi-leaf collimator (HD-MLC) plans. The first type, referred to Class Out, involved the opening of each bank of leaves. The second type, Class In, involved the closing of each bank of leaves. The third type, Class Shift, involved the shifting of each bank of leaves towards the ground. Patient-specific QAs for the original and the modified plans were performed with MapCHECK2 and EBT2 films. The sensitivity of the gamma-index method using criteria of 1%/1 mm, 1.5%/1.5 mm, 1%/2 mm, 2%/1 mm and 2%/2 mm was investigated with absolute passing rates according to the magnitudes of MLCs misalignments. In addition, the changes in dose-volumetric indicators due to the magnitudes of MLC misalignments were investigated. The correlations between passing rates and the changes in dose-volumetric indicators were also investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (γ). The criterion of 2%/1 mm was able to detect Class Out and Class In MLC misalignments of 0.5 mm and Class Shift misalignments of 1 mm. The widely adopted clinical criterion of 2%/2 mm was not able to detect 0.5 mm MLC errors of the Class Out or Class In types, and also unable to detect 3 mm Class Shift errors. No correlations were observed between dose-volumetric changes and gamma passing rates (γ < 0.8). Gamma criterion of 2%/1 mm was found to be suitable as a tolerance level with passing rates of 90% and 80% for patient-specific VMAT QA for SBRT when using MapCHECK2 and EBT2 film, respectively

  12. TU-F-BRF-02: MR-US Prostate Registration Using Patient-Specific Tissue Elasticity Property Prior for MR-Targeted, TRUS-Guided HDR Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has become a popular treatment modality for prostate cancer. Conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate HDR brachytherapy could benefit significantly from MR-targeted, TRUS-guided procedure where the tumor locations, acquired from the multiparametric MRI, are incorporated into the treatment planning. In order to enable this integration, we have developed a MR-TRUS registration with a patient-specific biomechanical elasticity prior. Methods: The proposed method used a biomechanical elasticity prior to guide the prostate volumetric B-spline deformation in the MRI and TRUS registration. The patient-specific biomechanical elasticity prior was generated using ultrasound elastography, where two 3D TRUS prostate images were acquired under different probe-induced pressures during the HDR procedure, which takes 2-4 minutes. These two 3D TRUS images were used to calculate the local displacement (elasticity map) of two prostate volumes. The B-spline transformation was calculated by minimizing the Euclidean distance between the normalized attribute vectors of the prostate surface landmarks on the MR and TRUS. This technique was evaluated through two studies: a prostate-phantom study and a pilot study with 5 patients undergoing prostate HDR treatment. The accuracy of our approach was assessed through the locations of several landmarks in the post-registration and TRUS images; our registration results were compared with the surface-based method. Results: For the phantom study, the mean landmark displacement of the proposed method was 1.29±0.11 mm. For the 5 patients, the mean landmark displacement of the surface-based method was 3.25±0.51 mm; our method, 1.71±0.25 mm. Therefore, our proposed method of prostate registration outperformed the surfaced-based registration significantly. Conclusion: We have developed a novel MR-TRUS prostate registration approach based on patient-specific biomechanical elasticity prior

  13. Interdisciplinarity and Ubiquitous Internet Technologies in Support of Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Babulak Prof., Ph.D., P.Eng., Eur.Ing., C.Eng.,

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Telecommunications and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying solid foundation for the future generation of the Ubiquitous Internet access, omnipresent web technologies and ultimate automated information cyberspace. Recent technological advancements in the areas of global mobility, wireless technologies and miniaturization are driven by the economic and social prosperity. The current state of the art in Differentiated Networks, Health Informatics, Advanced Television, Sensor Networks, MIMO Systems, and recent experiments conducted in the Quantum and Bio Computing open a new horizon for the Future Technologies. As a result, the current efforts in the research and development in the areas of Next Generation of Internet and Telecommunications Technologies promotes formation of inter-disciplinary international teams of experts, scientists, researchers and engineers to create a new generation of applications and technologies that will facilitate the fully-automated information cyberspace systems, such as Future House 2015. The speed and omnipresent accessibility to Internet providing any information at any time from anywhere will create global very complex communications infrastructures. The increased number of Internet sites worldwide will ultimately generate large number of performance bottlenecks and technical faults that may put in danger essential resources for societies world-wide such as energy supplies, national security, financial integrity, transportation logistics and ultimately human safety. The author discusses the current state of the art in the world of Telecommunications and Internet Technologies, new technological trends directions in the Internet and Automation Industries, as well as the concept of the Fully-automated Future House 2015. The paper presents a survey of current developments and future directions in Telecommunications Industry and Automation while promoting research and

  14. Prediction of patient-specific post-operative outcomes of TAVI procedure: The impact of the positioning strategy on valve performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, S; Brambilla, N; Petronio, A S; Reali, A; Bedogni, F; Auricchio, F

    2016-08-16

    Prosthesis positioning in transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures represents a crucial aspect for procedure success as demonstrated by many recent studies on this topic. Possible complications, device performance, and, consequently, also long-term durability are highly affected by the adopted prosthesis placement strategy. In the present work, we develop a computational finite element model able to predict device-specific and patient-specific replacement procedure outcomes, which may help medical operators to plan and choose the optimal implantation strategy. We focus in particular on the effects of prosthesis implantation depth and release angle. We start from a real clinical case undergoing Corevalve self-expanding device implantation. Our study confirms the crucial role of positioning in determining valve anchoring, replacement failure due to intra or para-valvular regurgitation, and post-operative device deformation.

  15. Investigation of new flow modifying endovascular image-guided interventional (EIGI) techniques in patient-specific aneurysm phantoms (PSAPs) using optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, J. R.; Rangwala, H. S.; Ionita, C. N.; Dohatcu, A. C.; Lee, J. W.; Bednarek, D. R.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Rudin, S.

    2008-03-01

    Effective minimally invasive treatment of cerebral bifurcation aneurysms is challenging due to the complex and remote vessel morphology. An evaluation of endovascular treatment in a phantom involving image-guided deployment of new asymmetric stents consisting of polyurethane patches placed to modify blood flow into the aneurysm is reported. The 3D lumen-geometry of a patient-specific basilar-artery bifurcation aneurysm was derived from a segmented computed-tomography dataset. This was used in a stereolithographic rapid-prototyping process to generate a mold which was then used to create any number of exact wax models. These models in turn were used in a lost-wax technique to create transparent elastomer patient-specific aneurysm phantoms (PSAP) for evaluating the effectiveness of asymmetric-stent deployment for flow modification. Flow was studied by recording real-time digitized video images of optical dye in the PSAP and its feeding vessel. For two asymmetric stent placements: through the basilar into the right-posterior communicating artery (RPCA) and through the basilar into the left-posterior communicating artery (LPCA), the greatest deviation of flow streamlines away from the aneurysm occurred for the RPCA stent deployment. Flow was also substantially affected by variations of inflow angle into the basilar artery, resulting in alternations in washout times as derived from time-density curves. Evaluation of flow in the PSAPs with real-time optical imaging can be used to determine new EIGI effectiveness and to validate computational-fluid-dynamic calculations for EIGI-treatment planning.

  16. SU-C-204-02: Improved Patient-Specific Optimization of the Stopping Power Calibration for Proton Therapy Planning Using a Single Proton Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, I [Lyon 1 University and CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne (France); Ludwig Maximilian University, Garching, DE (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, DE (Germany); Parodi, K [Ludwig Maximilian University, Garching, DE (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, DE (Germany); Krah, N [Heidelberg Collaboratory for Image Processing, Heidelberg, DE (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We present an improved method to calculate patient-specific calibration curves to convert X-ray computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield Unit (HU) to relative stopping powers (RSP) for proton therapy treatment planning. Methods: By optimizing the HU-RSP calibration curve, the difference between a proton radiographic image and a digitally reconstructed X-ray radiography (DRR) is minimized. The feasibility of this approach has previously been demonstrated. This scenario assumes that all discrepancies between proton radiography and DRR originate from uncertainties in the HU-RSP curve. In reality, external factors cause imperfections in the proton radiography, such as misalignment compared to the DRR and unfaithful representation of geometric structures (“blurring”). We analyze these effects based on synthetic datasets of anthropomorphic phantoms and suggest an extended optimization scheme which explicitly accounts for these effects. Performance of the method is been tested for various simulated irradiation parameters. The ultimate purpose of the optimization is to minimize uncertainties in the HU-RSP calibration curve. We therefore suggest and perform a thorough statistical treatment to quantify the accuracy of the optimized HU-RSP curve. Results: We demonstrate that without extending the optimization scheme, spatial blurring (equivalent to FWHM=3mm convolution) in the proton radiographies can cause up to 10% deviation between the optimized and the ground truth HU-RSP calibration curve. Instead, results obtained with our extended method reach 1% or better correspondence. We have further calculated gamma index maps for different acceptance levels. With DTA=0.5mm and RD=0.5%, a passing ratio of 100% is obtained with the extended method, while an optimization neglecting effects of spatial blurring only reach ∼90%. Conclusion: Our contribution underlines the potential of a single proton radiography to generate a patient-specific calibration curve and to improve

  17. WE-E-17A-07: Patient-Specific Mathematical Neuro-Oncology: Biologically-Informed Radiation Therapy and Imaging Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, K; Corwin, D [Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Rockne, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a method of generating patient-specific, biologically-guided radiation therapy (RT) plans and to quantify and predict response to RT in glioblastoma. We investigate the biological correlates and imaging physics driving T2-MRI based response to radiation therapy using an MRI simulator. Methods: We have integrated a patient-specific biomathematical model of glioblastoma proliferation, invasion and radiotherapy with a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm for intensity-modulated RT optimization to construct individualized, biologically-guided plans. Patient-individualized simulations of the standard-of-care and optimized plans are compared in terms of several biological metrics quantified on MRI. An extension of the PI model is used to investigate the role of angiogenesis and its correlates in glioma response to therapy with the Proliferation-Invasion-Hypoxia- Necrosis-Angiogenesis model (PIHNA). The PIHNA model is used with a brain tissue phantom to predict tumor-induced vasogenic edema, tumor and tissue density that is used in a multi-compartmental MRI signal equation for generation of simulated T2- weighted MRIs. Results: Applying a novel metric of treatment response (Days Gained) to the patient-individualized simulation results predicted that the optimized RT plans would have a significant impact on delaying tumor progression, with Days Gained increases from 21% to 105%. For the T2- MRI simulations, initial validation tests compared average simulated T2 values for white matter, tumor, and peripheral edema to values cited in the literature. Simulated results closely match the characteristic T2 value for each tissue. Conclusion: Patient-individualized simulations using the combination of a biomathematical model with an optimization algorithm for RT generated biologically-guided doses that decreased normal tissue dose and increased therapeutic ratio with the potential to improve survival outcomes for treatment of glioblastoma. Simulated T2-MRI

  18. SU-D-213-04: Accounting for Volume Averaging and Material Composition Effects in An Ionization Chamber Array for Patient Specific QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugal, M; McDonald, D; Jacqmin, D; Koch, N; Ellis, A; Peng, J; Ashenafi, M; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study explores novel methods to address two significant challenges affecting measurement of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) with IBA’s Matrixx Evolution™ ionization chamber array. First, dose calculation algorithms often struggle to accurately determine dose to the chamber array due to CT artifact and algorithm limitations. Second, finite chamber size and volume averaging effects cause additional deviation from the calculated dose. Methods: QA measurements were taken with the Matrixx positioned on the treatment table in a solid-water Multi-Cube™ phantom. To reduce the effect of CT artifact, the Matrixx CT image set was masked with appropriate materials and densities. Individual ionization chambers were masked as air, while the high-z electronic backplane and remaining solid-water material were masked as aluminum and water, respectively. Dose calculation was done using Varian’s Acuros XB™ (V11) algorithm, which is capable of predicting dose more accurately in non-biologic materials due to its consideration of each material’s atomic properties. Finally, the exported TPS dose was processed using an in-house algorithm (MATLAB) to assign the volume averaged TPS dose to each element of a corresponding 2-D matrix. This matrix was used for comparison with the measured dose. Square fields at regularly-spaced gantry angles, as well as selected patient plans were analyzed. Results: Analyzed plans showed improved agreement, with the average gamma passing rate increasing from 94 to 98%. Correction factors necessary for chamber angular dependence were reduced by 67% compared to factors measured previously, indicating that previously measured factors corrected for dose calculation errors in addition to true chamber angular dependence. Conclusion: By comparing volume averaged dose, calculated with a capable dose engine, on a phantom masked with correct materials and densities, QA results obtained with the Matrixx Evolution™ can be significantly

  19. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sen, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  20. SU-D-213-04: Accounting for Volume Averaging and Material Composition Effects in An Ionization Chamber Array for Patient Specific QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study explores novel methods to address two significant challenges affecting measurement of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) with IBA’s Matrixx Evolution™ ionization chamber array. First, dose calculation algorithms often struggle to accurately determine dose to the chamber array due to CT artifact and algorithm limitations. Second, finite chamber size and volume averaging effects cause additional deviation from the calculated dose. Methods: QA measurements were taken with the Matrixx positioned on the treatment table in a solid-water Multi-Cube™ phantom. To reduce the effect of CT artifact, the Matrixx CT image set was masked with appropriate materials and densities. Individual ionization chambers were masked as air, while the high-z electronic backplane and remaining solid-water material were masked as aluminum and water, respectively. Dose calculation was done using Varian’s Acuros XB™ (V11) algorithm, which is capable of predicting dose more accurately in non-biologic materials due to its consideration of each material’s atomic properties. Finally, the exported TPS dose was processed using an in-house algorithm (MATLAB) to assign the volume averaged TPS dose to each element of a corresponding 2-D matrix. This matrix was used for comparison with the measured dose. Square fields at regularly-spaced gantry angles, as well as selected patient plans were analyzed. Results: Analyzed plans showed improved agreement, with the average gamma passing rate increasing from 94 to 98%. Correction factors necessary for chamber angular dependence were reduced by 67% compared to factors measured previously, indicating that previously measured factors corrected for dose calculation errors in addition to true chamber angular dependence. Conclusion: By comparing volume averaged dose, calculated with a capable dose engine, on a phantom masked with correct materials and densities, QA results obtained with the Matrixx Evolution™ can be significantly

  1. Patient-specific minimum-dose imaging protocols for statistical image reconstruction in C-arm cone-beam CT using correlated noise injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A. S.; Stayman, J. W.; Otake, Y.; Khanna, A. J.; Gallia, G. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: A new method for accurately portraying the impact of low-dose imaging techniques in C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) is presented and validated, allowing identification of minimum-dose protocols suitable to a given imaging task on a patient-specific basis in scenarios that require repeat intraoperative scans. Method: To accurately simulate lower-dose techniques and account for object-dependent noise levels (x-ray quantum noise and detector electronics noise) and correlations (detector blur), noise of the proper magnitude and correlation was injected into the projections from an initial CBCT acquired at the beginning of a procedure. The resulting noisy projections were then reconstructed to yield low-dose preview (LDP) images that accurately depict the image quality at any level of reduced dose in both filtered backprojection and statistical image reconstruction. Validation studies were conducted on a mobile C-arm, with the noise injection method applied to images of an anthropomorphic head phantom and cadaveric torso across a range of lower-dose techniques. Results: Comparison of preview and real CBCT images across a full range of techniques demonstrated accurate noise magnitude (within ~5%) and correlation (matching noise-power spectrum, NPS). Other image quality characteristics (e.g., spatial resolution, contrast, and artifacts associated with beam hardening and scatter) were also realistically presented at all levels of dose and across reconstruction methods, including statistical reconstruction. Conclusion: Generating low-dose preview images for a broad range of protocols gives a useful method to select minimum-dose techniques that accounts for complex factors of imaging task, patient-specific anatomy, and observer preference. The ability to accurately simulate the influence of low-dose acquisition in statistical reconstruction provides an especially valuable means of identifying low-dose limits in a manner that does not rely on a model for the nonlinear

  2. X chromosome-linked CNVs in male infertility: discovery of overall duplication load and recurrent, patient-specific gains with potential clinical relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Chianese

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving several thousand genes, only a minority of which have been studied in infertile men. In a previous study, we identified a number of Copy Number Variants (CNVs by high-resolution array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH analysis of the X chromosome, including 16 patient-specific X chromosome-linked gains. Of these, five gains (DUP1A, DUP5, DUP20, DUP26 and DUP40 were selected for further analysis to evaluate their clinical significance.The copy number state of the five selected loci was analyzed by quantitative-PCR on a total of 276 idiopathic infertile patients and 327 controls in a conventional case-control setting (199 subjects belonged to the previous a-CGH study. For one interesting locus (intersecting DUP1A additional 338 subjects were analyzed.All gains were confirmed as patient-specific and the difference in duplication load between patients and controls is significant (p = 1.65 × 10(-4. Two of the CNVs are private variants, whereas 3 are found recurrently in patients and none of the controls. These CNVs include, or are in close proximity to, genes with testis-specific expression. DUP1A, mapping to the PAR1, is found at the highest frequency (1.4% that was significantly different from controls (0% (p = 0.047 after Bonferroni correction. Two mechanisms are proposed by which DUP1A may cause spermatogenic failure: i by affecting the correct regulation of a gene with potential role in spermatogenesis; ii by disturbing recombination between PAR1 regions during meiosis. This study allowed the identification of novel spermatogenesis candidate genes linked to the 5 CNVs and the discovery of the first recurrent, X-linked gain with potential clinical relevance.

  3. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for (99m)Tc-hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr(3)-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. (99m)Tc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of (99m)hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  4. TH-C-BRD-05: Reducing Proton Beam Range Uncertainty with Patient-Specific CT HU to RSP Calibrations Based On Single-Detector Proton Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolan, P [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sharp, G; Testa, M; Lu, H-M [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bentefour, E [Ion Beam Applications (IBA), Louvain la Neuve (Belgium); Royle, G [University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Beam range uncertainty in proton treatment comes primarily from converting the patient's X-ray CT (xCT) dataset to relative stopping power (RSP). Current practices use a single curve for this conversion, produced by a stoichiometric calibration based on tissue composition data for average, healthy, adult humans, but not for the individual in question. Proton radiographs produce water-equivalent path length (WEPL) maps, dependent on the RSP of tissues within the specific patient. This work investigates the use of such WEPL maps to optimize patient-specific calibration curves for reducing beam range uncertainty. Methods: The optimization procedure works on the principle of minimizing the difference between the known WEPL map, obtained from a proton radiograph, and a digitally-reconstructed WEPL map (DRWM) through an RSP dataset, by altering the calibration curve that is used to convert the xCT into an RSP dataset. DRWMs were produced with Plastimatch, an in-house developed software, and an optimization procedure was implemented in Matlab. Tests were made on a range of systems including simulated datasets with computed WEPL maps and phantoms (anthropomorphic and real biological tissue) with WEPL maps measured by single detector proton radiography. Results: For the simulated datasets, the optimizer showed excellent results. It was able to either completely eradicate or significantly reduce the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) in the WEPL for the homogeneous phantoms (to zero for individual materials or from 1.5% to 0.2% for the simultaneous optimization of multiple materials). For the heterogeneous phantom the RMSE was reduced from 1.9% to 0.3%. Conclusion: An optimization procedure has been designed to produce patient-specific calibration curves. Test results on a range of systems with different complexities and sizes have been promising for accurate beam range control in patients. This project was funded equally by the Engineering and Physical Sciences

  5. Computational replication of the patient-specific stenting procedure for coronary artery bifurcations: From OCT and CT imaging to structural and hemodynamics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiastra, Claudio; Wu, Wei; Dickerhoff, Benjamin; Aleiou, Ali; Dubini, Gabriele; Otake, Hiromasa; Migliavacca, Francesco; LaDisa, John F

    2016-07-26

    The optimal stenting technique for coronary artery bifurcations is still debated. With additional advances computational simulations can soon be used to compare stent designs or strategies based on verified structural and hemodynamics results in order to identify the optimal solution for each individual's anatomy. In this study, patient-specific simulations of stent deployment were performed for 2 cases to replicate the complete procedure conducted by interventional cardiologists. Subsequent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were conducted to quantify hemodynamic quantities linked to restenosis. Patient-specific pre-operative models of coronary bifurcations were reconstructed from CT angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Plaque location and composition were estimated from OCT and assigned to models, and structural simulations were performed in Abaqus. Artery geometries after virtual stent expansion of Xience Prime or Nobori stents created in SolidWorks were compared to post-operative geometry from OCT and CT before being extracted and used for CFD simulations in SimVascular. Inflow boundary conditions based on body surface area, and downstream vascular resistances and capacitances were applied at branches to mimic physiology. Artery geometries obtained after virtual expansion were in good agreement with those reconstructed from patient images. Quantitative comparison of the distance between reconstructed and post-stent geometries revealed a maximum difference in area of 20.4%. Adverse indices of wall shear stress were more pronounced for thicker Nobori stents in both patients. These findings verify structural analyses of stent expansion, introduce a workflow to combine software packages for solid and fluid mechanics analysis, and underscore important stent design features from prior idealized studies. The proposed approach may ultimately be useful in determining an optimal choice of stent and position for each patient. PMID:26655589

  6. Computational replication of the patient-specific stenting procedure for coronary artery bifurcations: From OCT and CT imaging to structural and hemodynamics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiastra, Claudio; Wu, Wei; Dickerhoff, Benjamin; Aleiou, Ali; Dubini, Gabriele; Otake, Hiromasa; Migliavacca, Francesco; LaDisa, John F

    2016-07-26

    The optimal stenting technique for coronary artery bifurcations is still debated. With additional advances computational simulations can soon be used to compare stent designs or strategies based on verified structural and hemodynamics results in order to identify the optimal solution for each individual's anatomy. In this study, patient-specific simulations of stent deployment were performed for 2 cases to replicate the complete procedure conducted by interventional cardiologists. Subsequent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were conducted to quantify hemodynamic quantities linked to restenosis. Patient-specific pre-operative models of coronary bifurcations were reconstructed from CT angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Plaque location and composition were estimated from OCT and assigned to models, and structural simulations were performed in Abaqus. Artery geometries after virtual stent expansion of Xience Prime or Nobori stents created in SolidWorks were compared to post-operative geometry from OCT and CT before being extracted and used for CFD simulations in SimVascular. Inflow boundary conditions based on body surface area, and downstream vascular resistances and capacitances were applied at branches to mimic physiology. Artery geometries obtained after virtual expansion were in good agreement with those reconstructed from patient images. Quantitative comparison of the distance between reconstructed and post-stent geometries revealed a maximum difference in area of 20.4%. Adverse indices of wall shear stress were more pronounced for thicker Nobori stents in both patients. These findings verify structural analyses of stent expansion, introduce a workflow to combine software packages for solid and fluid mechanics analysis, and underscore important stent design features from prior idealized studies. The proposed approach may ultimately be useful in determining an optimal choice of stent and position for each patient.

  7. Improving Access to Archival Collections with Automated Entity Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Banerjee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and diversity of archival resources make constructing rich metadata records time consuming and expensive, which in turn limits access to these valuable materials. However, significant automation of the metadata creation process would dramatically reduce the cost of providing access points, improve access to individual resources, and establish connections between resources that would otherwise remain unknown. Using a case study at Oregon Health & Science University as a lens to examine the conceptual and technical challenges associated with automated extraction of access points, we discuss using publically accessible API’s to extract entities (i.e. people, places, concepts, etc. from digital and digitized objects. We describe why Linked Open Data is not well suited for a use case such as ours. We conclude with recommendations about how this method can be used in archives as well as for other library applications.

  8. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Christina H.; Pettibone, Kristianna G.; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in “important” research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research. PMID:26989272

  9. Automated techniques for quality assurance of radiological image modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, David J.; Atkins, Frank B.; Dyer, Stephen M.

    1991-05-01

    This paper will attempt to identify many of the important issues for quality assurance (QA) of radiological modalities. It is of course to be realized that QA can span many aspects of the diagnostic decision making process. These issues range from physical image performance levels to and through the diagnostic decision of the radiologist. We will use as a model for automated approaches a program we have developed to work with computed tomography (CT) images. In an attempt to unburden the user, and in an effort to facilitate the performance of QA, we have been studying automated approaches. The ultimate utility of the system is its ability to render in a safe and efficacious manner, decisions that are accurate, sensitive, specific and which are possible within the economic constraints of modern health care delivery.

  10. Laboratory automation and LIMS in forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of laboratory automation and LIMS in a forensic laboratory enables the laboratory, to standardize sample processing. Automated liquid handlers can increase throughput and eliminate manual repetitive pipetting operations, known to result in occupational injuries to the technical staff....... Furthermore, implementation of automated liquid handlers reduces the risk of sample misplacement. A LIMS can efficiently control the sample flow through the laboratory and manage the results of the conducted tests for each sample. Integration of automated liquid handlers with a LIMS provides the laboratory...... with the tools required for setting up automated production lines of complex laboratory processes and monitoring the whole process and the results. Combined, this enables processing of a large number of samples. Selection of the best automated solution for an individual laboratory should be based on user...

  11. Modern trends in automation of industrial complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Svjatnyj, Vladimir A.; Brovkina, Daniella Yu.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study of the transition of manufacturing to a new stage of its development due to the introduction of the latest computer technologies, that have become common in the service sector, into the automation process. One of the characteristic features of the development of modern industry is the integration of the achievements of the theory and practice of automation, information technology, robotics and "human–automated object" systems. "Industry 4.0" was designed a...

  12. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing,...

  13. Smart Home Automation with Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Linux users can now control their homes remotely! Are you a Linux user who has ever wanted to turn on the lights in your house, or open and close the curtains, while away on holiday? Want to be able to play the same music in every room, controlled from your laptop or mobile phone? Do you want to do these things without an expensive off-the-shelf kit? In Beginning Linux Home Automation, Steven Goodwin will show you how a house can be fully controlled by its occupants, all using open source software. From appliances to kettles to curtains, control your home remotely! What you'll learn* Control a

  14. Ball Bearing Stacking Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeequerrahman S . Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is an effort to introduce the concept of automation in small scale industries and or small workshops that are involved in the manufacturing of small objects such as nuts, bolts and ball bearing in this case. This an electromechanical system which includes certain mechanical parts that involves one base stand on which one vertical metallic frame is mounted and hinged to this vertical stand is an in humanized effort seems inadequate in this era making necessary the use of Electronics, Computer in the manufacturing processes leading to the concept of Automated Manufacturing System (AMS.The ball bearing stack automation is an effort in this regard. In our project we go for stack automation for any object for example a ball bearing, be that is still a manual system there. It will be microcontroller based project control system equipped with microcontroller 89C51 from any manufacturer like Atmel or Philips. This could have been easily implemented if a PLC could be used for manufacturing the staking unit but I adopted the microcontroller based system so that some more modification in the system can be effected at will as to use the same hardware .Although a very small object i.e. ball bearig or small nut and fixture will be tried to be stacked, the system with more precision and more power handling capacity could be built for various requirements of the industry. For increasing more control capacity, we can use another module of this series. When the bearing is ready, it will be sent for packing. This is sensed by an inductive sensor. The output will be proceeds by PLC and microcontroller card which will be driving the assembly in order to put it into pads or flaps. This project will also count the total number of bearings to be packed and will display it on a LCD for real time reference and a provision is made using a higher level language using hyper terminal of the computer

  15. Robotium automated testing for Android

    CERN Document Server

    Zadgaonkar, Hrushikesh

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step, example-oriented tutorial aimed at illustrating the various test scenarios and automation capabilities of Robotium.If you are an Android developer who is learning how to create test cases to test their application, and are looking to get a good grounding in different features in Robotium, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you have some experience in Android development, as well be familiar with the Android test framework, as Robotium is a wrapper to Android test framework.

  16. AUTOMATED TESTING OF OPC SERVERS

    CERN Document Server

    Farnham, B

    2011-01-01

    CERN relies on OPC Server implementations from 3rd party device vendors to provide a software interface to their respective hardware. Each time a vendor releases a new OPC Server version it is regression tested internally to verify that existing functionality has not been inadvertently broken during the process of adding new features. In addition bugs and problems must be communicated to the vendors in a reliable and portable way. This presentation covers the automated test approach used at CERN to cover both cases: Scripts are written in a domain specific language specifically created for describing OPC tests and executed by a custom software engine driving the OPC Server implementation.

  17. Automated Orientation of Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Methods for automated orientation of aerial images are presented. They are based on the use of templates, which are derived from existing databases, and area-based matching. The characteristics of available database information and the accuracy requirements for map compilation and orthoimage...... production are discussed on the example of Denmark. Details on the developed methods for interior and exterior orientation are described. Practical examples like the measurement of réseau images, updating of topographic databases and renewal of orthoimages are used to prove the feasibility of the developed...

  18. Automated bone segmentation from dental CBCT images using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Liao, Shu; Li, Gang [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Chen, Ken Chung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Stomatology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan 70403 (China); Shen, Steve G. F.; Yan, Jin [Department of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery and Science, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University College of Medicine, Shanghai, China 200011 (China); Lee, Philip K. M.; Chow, Ben [Hong Kong Dental Implant and Maxillofacial Centre, Hong Kong, China 999077 (China); Liu, Nancy X. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China 100050 (China); Xia, James J. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Surgery (Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery), Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery and Science, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University College of Medicine, Shanghai, China 200011 (China); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly utilized imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformities. Accurate segmentation of CBCT image is an essential step to generate three-dimensional (3D) models for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with CMF deformities. However, due to the poor image quality, including very low signal-to-noise ratio and the widespread image artifacts such as noise, beam hardening, and inhomogeneity, it is challenging to segment the CBCT images. In this paper, the authors present a new automatic segmentation method to address these problems. Methods: To segment CBCT images, the authors propose a new method for fully automated CBCT segmentation by using patch-based sparse representation to (1) segment bony structures from the soft tissues and (2) further separate the mandible from the maxilla. Specifically, a region-specific registration strategy is first proposed to warp all the atlases to the current testing subject and then a sparse-based label propagation strategy is employed to estimate a patient-specific atlas from all aligned atlases. Finally, the patient-specific atlas is integrated into amaximum a posteriori probability-based convex segmentation framework for accurate segmentation. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on a dataset with 15 CBCT images. The effectiveness of the proposed region-specific registration strategy and patient-specific atlas has been validated by comparing with the traditional registration strategy and population-based atlas. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the best segmentation accuracy by comparison with other state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Conclusions: The authors have proposed a new CBCT segmentation method by using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization, which can achieve considerably accurate segmentation results in CBCT

  19. Automated bone segmentation from dental CBCT images using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly utilized imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformities. Accurate segmentation of CBCT image is an essential step to generate three-dimensional (3D) models for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with CMF deformities. However, due to the poor image quality, including very low signal-to-noise ratio and the widespread image artifacts such as noise, beam hardening, and inhomogeneity, it is challenging to segment the CBCT images. In this paper, the authors present a new automatic segmentation method to address these problems. Methods: To segment CBCT images, the authors propose a new method for fully automated CBCT segmentation by using patch-based sparse representation to (1) segment bony structures from the soft tissues and (2) further separate the mandible from the maxilla. Specifically, a region-specific registration strategy is first proposed to warp all the atlases to the current testing subject and then a sparse-based label propagation strategy is employed to estimate a patient-specific atlas from all aligned atlases. Finally, the patient-specific atlas is integrated into amaximum a posteriori probability-based convex segmentation framework for accurate segmentation. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on a dataset with 15 CBCT images. The effectiveness of the proposed region-specific registration strategy and patient-specific atlas has been validated by comparing with the traditional registration strategy and population-based atlas. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the best segmentation accuracy by comparison with other state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Conclusions: The authors have proposed a new CBCT segmentation method by using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization, which can achieve considerably accurate segmentation results in CBCT

  20. 78 FR 44142 - Modification of Two National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Automation Program (NCAP) test called the Document Image System (DIS) test. See 77 FR 20835. The DIS test... Automation Program Test of Automated Manifest Capabilities for Ocean and Rail Carriers: 76 FR 42721 (July 19... (SE test). See 76 FR 69755. The SE test established new entry capability to simplify the entry...

  1. Massachusetts Library Automation Survey: A Directory of Automated Operations in Massachusetts Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Eileen; Nijenberg, Caroline

    This directory is designed to provide information on automated systems and/or equipment used in libraries to provide a tool for planning future automation in the context of interlibrary cooperation considerations, and to inform the library and information community of the state of the art of automation in Massachusetts libraries. The main body is…

  2. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  3. Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini spacecraft s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software outputs, tables, plots, and images used by mission scientists for observation planning. Each time the nominal mission trajectory was altered or tweaked, a new Tour Atlas had to be regenerated manually. In the early phases of Cassini s Equinox Mission planning, an a priori estimate suggested that mission tour designers would develop approximately 30 candidate tours within a short period of time. So that Cassini scientists could properly analyze the science opportunities in each candidate tour quickly and thoroughly so that the optimal series of orbits for science return could be selected, a separate Tour Atlas was required for each trajectory. The task of manually generating the number of trajectory analyses in the allotted time would have been impossible, so the entire task was automated using code written in five different programming languages. This software automates the generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas database. It performs with one UNIX command what previously took a day or two of human labor.

  4. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  5. TH-C-12A-01: Develop a Patient-Specific QA Program for Radiation Therapy with On-Board MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This work describes development of the first patient-specific quality assurance (QA) program for magnetic resonance imaging guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT). Methods: The program consisted of following components: 1) multipoint ionization chamber (IC) measurement using a 15 cm3 cubic phantom, 2) 2D stacked radiographic film dosimetry using a 30×30×20 cm3 phantom with multiple inserted ICs, 3) 3D ArcCHECK measurement with a centrally inserted IC, 4) machine delivery file verification, 5) 3D Monte-Carlo dose re-calculation with machine delivery file and phantom CT, 6) 2-head mode delivery validation in case of a malfunctioning head, and 7) independent beam-on time calculation for non-IMRT fields. Both ADCL calibrated ICs and ArcCHECK were MRI compatible. Experimental data were analyzed for the first 10 patients treated at our institution. Results: The customized phantoms allowed measuring multiple points with ICs in one delivery. Absolute IC measurements were all within 3% in all phantom geometry/shape/material combinations. Despite known uncertainty associated with film dosimetry, passing rates greater than 90% were achieved in both absolute and composite modes using TG-129 criteria. Due to the simultaneous irradiation by three radiation sources, ArcCHECK was used as a 3D relative dosimeter with angular and energy dependences uncorrected. 95–100% passing rates were obtained and the centrally inserted IC measurement assured that the overall dose normalization was within 3%. Machine delivery file verification and MC recalculated dose to the phantom results showed 98–100% passing rates, providing opportunity of moving from gamma passing rates to patient DVHbased QA metrics. Same results were obtained for the 2-head delivery mode. Manual beam-on time calculation for non-IMRT fields showed better than 5% agreement. Conclusion: We have successfully developed the first MRIGRT patient specific QA program by adopting experimental and computational dosimetry

  6. Automatic identification of organ/tissue regions in CT image data for the implementation of patient specific phantoms for treatment planning in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard Blaine

    In vivo targeted radiotherapy has the potential to be an effective treatment for many types of cancer. Agents which show preferred uptake by cancerous tissue are labeled with radio-nuclides and administered to the patient. The preferred uptake by the cancerous tissue allows for the delivery of therapeutically effective radiation absorbed doses to tumors, while sparing normal tissue. Accurate absorbed dose estimation for targeted radiotherapy would be of great clinical value in a patient's treatment planning. One of the problems with calculating absorbed dose involves the use of geometric mathematical models of the human body for the simulation of the radiation transport. Since many patients differ markedly from these models, errors in the absorbed dose estimation procedure result from using these models. Patient specific models developed using individual patient's anatomical structure would greatly enhance the accuracy of dosimetry calculations. Patient specific anatomy data is available from CT or MRI images, but the very time consuming process of manual organ and tissue identification limits its practicality for routine clinical use. This study uses a statistical classifier to automatically identify organs and tissues from CT image data. In this study, image ``slices'' from thirty- five different subjects at approximately the same anatomical position are used to ``train'' the statistical classifier. Multi-dimensional probability distributions of image characteristics, such as location and intensity, are generated from the training images. Statistical classification rules are then used to identify organs and tissues in five previously unseen images. A variety of pre-processing and post-processing techniques are then employed to enhance the classification procedure. This study demonstrated the promise of statistical classifiers for solving segmentation problems involving human anatomy where there is an underlying pattern of structure. Despite the poor quality of

  7. Patient-specific geometrical modeling of orthopedic structures with high efficiency and accuracy for finite element modeling and 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huajun; Xiang, Chunling; Zeng, Canjun; Ouyang, Hanbin; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-12-01

    We improved the geometrical modeling procedure for fast and accurate reconstruction of orthopedic structures. This procedure consists of medical image segmentation, three-dimensional geometrical reconstruction, and assignment of material properties. The patient-specific orthopedic structures reconstructed by this improved procedure can be used in the virtual surgical planning, 3D printing of real orthopedic structures and finite element analysis. A conventional modeling consists of: image segmentation, geometrical reconstruction, mesh generation, and assignment of material properties. The present study modified the conventional method to enhance software operating procedures. Patient's CT images of different bones were acquired and subsequently reconstructed to give models. The reconstruction procedures were three-dimensional image segmentation, modification of the edge length and quantity of meshes, and the assignment of material properties according to the intensity of gravy value. We compared the performance of our procedures to the conventional procedures modeling in terms of software operating time, success rate and mesh quality. Our proposed framework has the following improvements in the geometrical modeling: (1) processing time: (femur: 87.16 ± 5.90 %; pelvis: 80.16 ± 7.67 %; thoracic vertebra: 17.81 ± 4.36 %; P < 0.05); (2) least volume reduction (femur: 0.26 ± 0.06 %; pelvis: 0.70 ± 0.47, thoracic vertebra: 3.70 ± 1.75 %; P < 0.01) and (3) mesh quality in terms of aspect ratio (femur: 8.00 ± 7.38 %; pelvis: 17.70 ± 9.82 %; thoracic vertebra: 13.93 ± 9.79 %; P < 0.05) and maximum angle (femur: 4.90 ± 5.28 %; pelvis: 17.20 ± 19.29 %; thoracic vertebra: 3.86 ± 3.82 %; P < 0.05). Our proposed patient-specific geometrical modeling requires less operating time and workload, but the orthopedic structures were generated at a higher rate of success as compared with the conventional method. It is expected to benefit the surgical planning of orthopedic

  8. Do You Automate? Saving Time and Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    An automated workforce management strategy can help schools save jobs, improve the job satisfaction of teachers and staff, and free up precious budget dollars for investments in critical learning resources. Automated workforce management systems can help schools control labor costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve employee satisfaction.…

  9. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  10. How to assess sustainability in automated manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how sustainability in automation can be assessed. The assessment method is illustrated using a case study of a robot. Three aspects of sustainability assessment in automation are identified. Firstly, we consider automation as part of a larger system that fulfi......The aim of this paper is to describe how sustainability in automation can be assessed. The assessment method is illustrated using a case study of a robot. Three aspects of sustainability assessment in automation are identified. Firstly, we consider automation as part of a larger system......, (sustainability) specifications move top-down, which helps avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting. From these three aspects, sustainable automation is defined as automation that contributes to products that fulfill a market demand in a more sustainable way. The case study presents the carbon footprints...... of a robot, a production cell, a production line and the final product. The case study results illustrate that, depending on the actor and the level he/she acts at, sustainability and the actions that can be taken to contribute to a more sustainable product are perceived differently: even though the robot...

  11. Ecological Automation Design, Extending Work Domain Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelink, M.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In high–risk domains like aviation, medicine and nuclear power plant control, automation has enabled new capabilities, increased the economy of operation and has greatly contributed to safety. However, automation increases the number of couplings in a system, which can inadvertently lead to more com

  12. Workflow Automation: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge management has proven to be a sustainable competitive advantage for many organizations. Knowledge management systems are abundant, with multiple functionalities. The literature reinforces the use of workflow automation with knowledge management systems to benefit organizations; however, it was not known if process automation yielded…

  13. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  14. Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive automation has been proposed as a solution to current problems of human-automation interaction. Past research has shown the potential of this advanced form of automation to enhance pilot engagement and lower cognitive workload. However, there have been concerns voiced regarding issues, such as automation surprises, associated with the use of adaptive automation. This study examined the use of psychophysiological self-regulation training with adaptive automation that may help pilots deal with these problems through the enhancement of cognitive resource management skills. Eighteen participants were assigned to 3 groups (self-regulation training, false feedback, and control) and performed resource management, monitoring, and tracking tasks from the Multiple Attribute Task Battery. The tracking task was cycled between 3 levels of task difficulty (automatic, adaptive aiding, manual) on the basis of the electroencephalogram-derived engagement index. The other two tasks remained in automatic mode that had a single automation failure. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  15. Investing in the Future: Automation Marketplace 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    In a year where the general economy presented enormous challenges, libraries continued to make investments in automation, especially in products that help improve what and how they deliver to their end users. Access to electronic content remains a key driver. In response to anticipated needs for new approaches to library automation, many companies…

  16. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  17. Wireless energizing system for an automated implantable sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Biswaranjan; Nayak, Praveen P.; Kar, Durga P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Laxmi P.

    2016-07-01

    The wireless drive of an automated implantable electronic sensor has been explored for health monitoring applications. The proposed system comprises of an automated biomedical sensing system which is energized through resonant inductive coupling. The implantable sensor unit is able to monitor the body temperature parameter and sends back the corresponding telemetry data wirelessly to the data recoding unit. It has been observed that the wireless power delivery system is capable of energizing the automated biomedical implantable electronic sensor placed over a distance of 3 cm from the power transmitter with an energy transfer efficiency of 26% at the operating resonant frequency of 562 kHz. This proposed method ensures real-time monitoring of different human body temperatures around the clock. The monitored temperature data have been compared with a calibrated temperature measurement system to ascertain the accuracy of the proposed system. The investigated technique can also be useful for monitoring other body parameters such as blood pressure, bladder pressure, and physiological signals of the patient in vivo using various implantable sensors.

  18. Wireless energizing system for an automated implantable sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Biswaranjan; Nayak, Praveen P; Kar, Durga P; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Laxmi P

    2016-07-01

    The wireless drive of an automated implantable electronic sensor has been explored for health monitoring applications. The proposed system comprises of an automated biomedical sensing system which is energized through resonant inductive coupling. The implantable sensor unit is able to monitor the body temperature parameter and sends back the corresponding telemetry data wirelessly to the data recoding unit. It has been observed that the wireless power delivery system is capable of energizing the automated biomedical implantable electronic sensor placed over a distance of 3 cm from the power transmitter with an energy transfer efficiency of 26% at the operating resonant frequency of 562 kHz. This proposed method ensures real-time monitoring of different human body temperatures around the clock. The monitored temperature data have been compared with a calibrated temperature measurement system to ascertain the accuracy of the proposed system. The investigated technique can also be useful for monitoring other body parameters such as blood pressure, bladder pressure, and physiological signals of the patient in vivo using various implantable sensors. PMID:27475582

  19. Laboratory automation: trajectory, technology, and tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, R S; Whalen, S A

    2000-05-01

    Laboratory automation is in its infancy, following a path parallel to the development of laboratory information systems in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Changes on the horizon in healthcare and clinical laboratory service that affect the delivery of laboratory results include the increasing age of the population in North America, the implementation of the Balanced Budget Act (1997), and the creation of disease management companies. Major technology drivers include outcomes optimization and phenotypically targeted drugs. Constant cost pressures in the clinical laboratory have forced diagnostic manufacturers into less than optimal profitability states. Laboratory automation can be a tool for the improvement of laboratory services and may decrease costs. The key to improvement of laboratory services is implementation of the correct automation technology. The design of this technology should be driven by required functionality. Automation design issues should be centered on the understanding of the laboratory and its relationship to healthcare delivery and the business and operational processes in the clinical laboratory. Automation design philosophy has evolved from a hardware-based approach to a software-based approach. Process control software to support repeat testing, reflex testing, and transportation management, and overall computer-integrated manufacturing approaches to laboratory automation implementation are rapidly expanding areas. It is clear that hardware and software are functionally interdependent and that the interface between the laboratory automation system and the laboratory information system is a key component. The cost-effectiveness of automation solutions suggested by vendors, however, has been difficult to evaluate because the number of automation installations are few and the precision with which operational data have been collected to determine payback is suboptimal. The trend in automation has moved from total laboratory automation to a

  20. Future Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume topics covered include wireless communications, advances in wireless video, wireless sensors networking, security in wireless networks, network measurement and management, hybrid and discrete-event systems, internet analytics and automation, robotic system and applications, reconfigurable automation systems, machine vision in automation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.