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Sample records for automated controller synthesis

  1. Automated Controller Synthesis for non-Deterministic Piecewise-Affine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    interferometric measurements. Control of satellite formations presents a whole new set of challenges for spacecraft control systems requiring advances in actuation, sensing, communication, and control algorithms. Specifically having the control system duplicated onto multiple satellites increases the possibility...... of negating faults while the added number of components increases the likelihood of faults occurring. Combined with the fact that once a mission is launched it is prohibitively expensive to repair a failing component there is a good case for designing fault tolerant controllers specifically for satellite...... formations. This thesis uses a hybrid systems model of a satellite formation with possible actuator faults as a motivating example for developing an automated control synthesis method for non-deterministic piecewise-affine hybrid systems (PAHS). The method does not only open an avenue for further research...

  2. Towards Automated System Synthesis Using SCIDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Susmit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Automated synthesis of systems that are correct by construction has been a long-standing goal of computer science. Synthesis is a creative task and requires human intuition and skill. Its complete automation is currently beyond the capacity of programs that do automated reasoning. However, there is a pressing need for tools and techniques that can automate non-intuitive and error-prone synthesis tasks. This thesis proposes a novel synthesis approach to solve such tasks in the synthesis of pro...

  3. Automated synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Esposito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid-containing glycans play a major role in cell-surface interactions with external partners such as cells and viruses. Straightforward access to sialosides is required in order to study their biological functions on a molecular level. Here, automated oligosaccharide synthesis was used to facilitate the preparation of this class of biomolecules. Our strategy relies on novel sialyl α-(2→3 and α-(2→6 galactosyl imidates, which, used in combination with the automated platform, provided rapid access to a small library of conjugation-ready sialosides of biological relevance.

  4. Automated power management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. A joint effort between NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology and NASA's Office of Space Station Freedom, it strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. The initial station operation will use ground-based dispatches to perform the necessary command and control tasks. These tasks constitute planning and decision-making activities that strive to eliminate unplanned outages. We perceive an opportunity to help these dispatchers make fast and consistent on-line decisions by automating three key tasks: failure detection and diagnosis, resource scheduling, and security analysis. Expert systems will be used for the diagnostics and for the security analysis; conventional algorithms will be used for the resource scheduling.

  5. Substructural controller synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzu-Jeng; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A decentralized design procedure which combines substructural synthesis, model reduction, decentralized controller design, subcontroller synthesis, and controller reduction is proposed for the control design of flexible structures. The structure to be controlled is decomposed into several substructures, which are modeled by component mode synthesis methods. For each substructure, a subcontroller is designed by using the linear quadratic optimal control theory. Then, a controller synthesis scheme called Substructural Controller Synthesis (SCS) is used to assemble the subcontrollers into a system controller, which is to be used to control the whole structure.

  6. Automated solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides containing sialic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Hui Lai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A sialic acid glycosyl phosphate building block was designed and synthesized. This building block was used to prepare α-sialylated oligosaccharides by automated solid-phase synthesis selectively.

  7. A Toolchain for Home Automation Controller Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter H.; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Middelhede, Daniel;

    2013-01-01

    Home Automation systems provide a large number of devices to control diverse appliances. Taking advantage of this diversity to create efficient and intelligent environments requires well designed, validated, and implemented controllers. However, designing and deploying such controllers is a complex...

  8. Lutetium-177 DOTATATE Production with an Automated Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Aslani; Graeme Snowdon; Dale Bailey; Geoffrey Schembri; Elizabeth Bailey; Pavlakis Nick; Paul Roach

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) with yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu)-labelled SST analogues are now therapy option for patients who have failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. In-house production with automated PRRT synthesis systems have clear advantages over manual methods resulting in increasing use in hospital-based radiopharmacies. We report on our one year experience with an automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis system. Methods: All syn...

  9. Automated synthesis of 8-output voltage distributor using incremental evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sapargaliyev, Y; Kalganova, TG

    2010-01-01

    The automated synthesis of the analog electronic circuit, including both the topology and the numerical values for each of the circuit’s component, is recognized as a difficult problem. This problem is aggregating considerably when the size of a circuit and the number of its input/output pins increases. In this paper for the first time the method of automated synthesis of the analog electronic circuit by mean of evolution is applied to the synthesis of a multi-output circuit, namely 8-output ...

  10. Future Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume topics covered include wireless communications, advances in wireless video, wireless sensors networking, security in wireless networks, network measurement and management, hybrid and discrete-event systems, internet analytics and automation, robotic system and applications, reconfigurable automation systems, machine vision in automation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.

  11. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 2 includes best papers from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into six sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Mathematical Modeling, Analysis and Computation, Control Engineering, Reliable Networks Design, Vehicular Communications and Networking, Automation and Mechatronics.

  12. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mäde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies.

  13. Traffic Flow Control In Automated Highway Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Luis; Horowitz, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This report studies the problem of traffic control in the Automated Highway System (AHS) hierarchical architecture of the California PATH program. A link layer controller for the PATH AHS architecture is presented. It is shown that the proposed control laws stabilize the vehicular density and flow around predetermined profiles.

  14. Automated Greenhouse : Temperature and soil moisture control

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla, Daniela; Tannfelt Wu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an automated greenhouse was built with the purpose of investigating the watering system’s reliability and if a desired range of temperatures can be maintained. The microcontroller used to create the automated greenhouse was an Arduino UNO. This project utilizes two different sensors, a soil moisture sensor and a temperature sensor. The sensors are controlling the two actuators which are a heating fan and a pump. The heating fan is used to change the temperature and the pump is ...

  15. Electric power distribution, automation, protection, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2007-01-01

    * Each Chapter Provides an Introduction, Illustrative Examples, and a SummaryIntroduction to Distribution Automation Systems Historical Background Distribution System Topology and Structure Distribution Automation (DA) and Control Computational Techniques for Distribution Systems Complex Power Concepts Balanced Voltage to Neutral-Connected System Power Relationship for f Y-?-Connected System Per-Unit System Calculation of Power Losses Voltage Regulation Techniques Voltage-Sag Analysis and Calculation Equipment Modeling Components Modeling Distribution System Line Model Distribution Power Flo

  16. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  17. Toward the Automated Synthesis of Cooperative Mobile Robot Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    A current limitation in the real-world use of cooperating mobiIe robots is the difficulty in determining the proper team composition for a given robotic application. Present technology restricts the design and implementation of cooperative robot teams to the expertise of a robotics researcher, who has to develop robot teams on an application-specific basis. The objective of our research is to reduce the complexity of cooperative robotic systems through the development of a methodology that enables the automated synthesis of cooperative robot teams. We propose an approach to this problem that uses a combination of the theories of sensori-computational systems and information invariants, building on the earlier work of Donald, Rus, et al. We describe the notion of defining equivalence classes that serve as fundamental building blocks of more complex cooperative mobile robot behaviors. We postulate a methodology for framing mission requirements in terms of the goals and constraints of the problem, incorporating issues such as multi-robot interference, communication, control strategy, robot complexity, and so forth, into the mechanism. Our initial work restricts the robot application and design space to three multi-robot application domains we have previously studied and implemented: keeping formation, "mock" hazardous waste cleanup, and cooperative observation. This paper presents the foundational ideas upon which our approach to cooperative team design is based. Keywords: Cooperative behaviors, behavior synthesis, multi-robot learning

  18. Automated Synthesis of Assertion Monitors using Visual Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Gadkari, Ambar A

    2011-01-01

    Automated synthesis of monitors from high-level properties plays a significant role in assertion-based verification. We present here a methodology to synthesize assertion monitors from visual specifications given in CESC (Clocked Event Sequence Chart). CESC is a visual language designed for specifying system level interactions involving single and multiple clock domains. It has well-defined graphical and textual syntax and formal semantics based on synchronous language paradigm enabling formal analysis of specifications. In this paper we provide an overview of CESC language with few illustrative examples. The algorithm for automated synthesis of assertion monitors from CESC specifications is described. A few examples from standard bus protocols (OCP-IP and AMBA) are presented to demonstrate the application of monitor synthesis algorithm.

  19. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  20. Microcomputer control of automated TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interfacing electronics, the control algorithms and the developed programs of a 6800 microcomputer controlled automated TLD reader are described. The TL reading system is implemented with a photomultiplier tube and a charge-to-pulse converter. The gain of the TL reading system is controlled through the use of a temperature compensated LED reference light source. Automatic compensation of PM tube dark current is optional. The short term stability of TL readings is better than 3 %. (author)

  1. Control and automation, and energy system engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tai-hoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adeli, Hojjat [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Stoica, Adrian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kang, Byeong-Ho (eds.) [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    This book comprises selected papers of the International Conferences, CA and CES3 2011, held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, in December 2011. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focused on the various aspects of control and automation, and circuits, control, communication, electricity, electronics, energy, system, signal and simulation. (orig.)

  2. Semi-automated microwave assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Ljungberg

    with microwaves for SPPS has gained in popularity as it for many syntheses has provided significant improvement in terms of speed, purity, and yields, maybe especially in the synthesis of long and "difficult" peptides. Thus, precise microwave heating has emerged as one new parameter for SPPS, in addition...... to coupling reagents, resins, solvents etc. We have previously reported on microwave heating to promote a range of solid-phase reactions in SPPS. Here we present a new, flexible semi-automated instrument for the application of precise microwave heating in solid-phase synthesis. It combines a slightly modified...... Biotage Initiator microwave instrument, which is available in many laboratories, with a modified semi-automated peptide synthesizer from MultiSynTech. A custom-made reaction vessel is placed permanently in the microwave oven, thus the reactor does not have to be moved between steps. Mixing is achieved...

  3. Automation and control of off-planet oxygen production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.; Schooley, L. S.; Cellier, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the automation and control of off-planet production processes. First, a general approach to process automation and control is discussed from the viewpoint of translating human process control procedures into automated procedures. Second, the control issues for the automation and control of off-planet oxygen processes are discussed. Sensors, instruments, and components are defined and discussed in the context of off-planet applications, and the need for 'smart' components is clearly established.

  4. Toward automated beam optics control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have begun a program aiming toward automatic control of charged-particle beam optics using artificial intelligence programming techniques. In developing our prototype, we are working with LISP machines and the KEE expert system shell. Our first goal was to develop a ''mouseable'' representation of a typical beam line. This responds actively to changes entered from the mouse or keyboard, giving an updated display of the beam line itself, its optical properties, and the instrumentation and control devices as seen by the operater. We have incorporated TRANSPORT, written in Fortran but running as a callable procedure in the LISP environment, for simulation of the beam-line optics. This paper describes the experience gained in meeting our first goal and discusses plans to extend the work so that it is usable, in realtime, on an operating beam line. 11 refs

  5. Automated Voltage Control in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Granado Cardoso, L; Jacobsson, R

    2011-01-01

    LHCb is one of the 4 LHC experiments. In order to ensure the safety of the detector and to maximize efficiency, LHCb needs to coordinate its own operations, in particular the voltage configuration of the different subdetectors, according to the accelerator status. A control software has been developed for this purpose, based on the Finite State Machine toolkit and the SCADA system used for control throughout LHCb (and the other LHC experiments). This software permits to efficiently drive both the Low Voltage (LV) and High Voltage (HV) systems of the 10 different sub-detectors that constitute LHCb, setting each sub-system to the required voltage (easily configurable at run-time) based on the accelerator state. The control software is also responsible for monitoring the state of the Sub-detector voltages and adding it to the event data in the form of status-bits. Safe and yet flexible operation of the LHCb detector has been obtained and automatic actions, triggered by the state changes of the ...

  6. Large-scale automated synthesis of human functional neuroimaging data

    OpenAIRE

    Yarkoni, Tal; Poldrack, Russell A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Van Essen, David C; Wager, Tor D.

    2011-01-01

    The explosive growth of the human neuroimaging literature has led to major advances in understanding of human brain function, but has also made aggregation and synthesis of neuroimaging findings increasingly difficult. Here we describe and validate an automated brain mapping framework that uses text mining, meta-analysis and machine learning techniques to generate a large database of mappings between neural and cognitive states. We demonstrate the capacity of our approach to automatically con...

  7. MintHint: Automated Synthesis of Repair Hints

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleeswaran, Shalini; Tulsian, Varun; Kanade, Aditya; Orso, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Being able to automatically repair programs is an extremely challenging task. In this paper, we present MintHint, a novel technique for program repair that is a departure from most of today's approaches. Instead of trying to fully automate program repair, which is often an unachievable goal, MintHint performs statistical correlation analysis to identify expressions that are likely to occur in the repaired code and generates, using pattern-matching based synthesis, repair hints from these expr...

  8. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  9. Lutetium-177 DOTATATE Production with an Automated Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aslani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT with yttrium-90 (90Y and lutetium-177 (177Lu-labelled SST analogues are now therapy option for patients who have failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. In-house production with automated PRRT synthesis systems have clear advantages over manual methods resulting in increasing use in hospital-based radiopharmacies. We report on our one year experience with an automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis system.Methods: All syntheses were carried out using the Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® automated synthesis system. All materials and methods used were followed as instructed by the manufacturer of the system (Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope, Berlin, Germany. Sterile, GMP-certified, no-carrier added (NCA 177Lu was used with GMPcertifiedpeptide. An audit trail was also produced and saved by the system. The quality of the final product was assessed after each synthesis by ITLCSG and HPLC methods.Results: A total of 17 [177Lu]-DOTATATE syntheses were performed between August 2013 and December 2014. The amount of radioactive [177Lu]-DOTATATE produced by each synthesis varied between 10-40 GBq and was dependant on the number of patients being treated on a given day. Thirteen individuals received a total of 37 individual treatment administrations in this period. There were no issues and failures with the system or the synthesis cassettes. The average radiochemical purity as determined by ITLC was above 99% (99.8 ± 0.05% and the average radiochemical purity as determined by HPLC technique was above 97% (97.3 ± 1.5% for this period.Conclusions: The automated synthesis of [177Lu]-DOTATATE using Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® system is a robust, convenient and high yield approach to the radiolabelling of DOTATATE peptide benefiting from the use of NCA 177Lu and almost negligible radiation exposure of the operators.

  10. Advances in Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume  topics covered include signal and Image processing, speech and audio Processing, video processing and analysis, artificial intelligence, computing and intelligent systems, machine learning, sensor and neural networks, knowledge discovery and data mining, fuzzy mathematics and Applications, knowledge-based systems, hybrid systems modeling and design, risk analysis and management, system modeling and simulation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.

  11. The Automator: Intelligent control system monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale control system may contain several hundred thousand control points which must be monitored to ensure smooth operation. Knowledge of the current state of such a system is often implicit in the values of these points and operators must be cognizant of the state while making decisions. Repetitive operators requiring human intervention lead to fatigue, which can in turn lead to mistakes. The authors propose a tool called the Automator based on a middleware software server. This tool would provide a user-configurable engine for monitoring control points. Based on the status of these control points, a specified action could be taken. The action could range from setting another control point, to triggering an alarm, to running an executable. Often the data presented by a system is meaningless without context information from other channels. Such a tool could be configured to present interpreted information based on values of other channels. Additionally, this tool could translate numerous values in a non-friendly form (such as numbers, bits, or return codes) into meaningful strings of information. Multiple instances of this server could be run, allowing individuals or groups to configure their own Automators. The configuration of the tool will be file-based. In the future, these files could be generated by graphical design tools, allowing for rapid development of new configurations. In addition, the server will be able to explicitly maintain information about the state of the control system. This state information can be used in decision-making processes and shared with other applications. A conceptual framework and software design for the tool are presented

  12. The Automator: Intelligent Control System Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale control system may contain several hundred thousand control points which must be monitored to ensure smooth operation. Knowledge of the current state of such a system is often implicit in the values of these points and operators must be cognizant of the state while making decisions. Repetitive operators requiring human intervention lead to fatigue, which can in turn lead to mistakes. The authors propose a tool called the Automator based on a middleware software server. This tool would provide a user-configurable engine for monitoring control points. Based on the status of these control points, a specified action could be taken. The action could range from setting another control point, to triggering an alarm, to running an executable. Often the data presented by a system is meaningless without context information from other channels. Such a tool could be configured to present interpreted information based on values of other channels. Additionally, this tool could translate numerous values in a non-friendly form (such as numbers, bits, or return codes) into meaningful strings of information. Multiple instances of this server could be run, allowing individuals or groups to configure their own Automators. The configuration of the tool will be file-based. In the future, these files could be generated by graphical design tools, allowing for rapid development of new configurations. In addition, the server will be able to explicitly maintain information about the state of the control system. This state information can be used in decision-making processes and shared with other applications. A conceptual framework and software design for the tool are presented

  13. Mine hoist automation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cock, M.J.L. [CEGELEC Projects Ltd., Rugby (United Kingdom). Mining Marine and Industrial Drives Division

    1995-06-01

    In the past control systems for mine hoists have used many technologies including analogue control, relays and static logic. The dramatic advances in technology in recent years now means that all control functions can be performed using a distributed microprocessor system which minimises training, and gives superior diagnostic information, provides very high reliability. The modern distributed microprocessor system covers all the needs of a mine hoist, from advanced control through automation sequencing to safety systems and electronic speed distance protection. The safety core remains as a proven dual line relay system, but is enhanced by comprehensive first up and status monitoring. The advantages of a distributed microprocessor control system are outlined. Details are presented of the proven MWS2000 system as applied to a cycloconvertor winder, and on the range of options available, which includes the elimination of all drum driven auxiliary shafts, cam gear units and mechanical speed distance protection. Special control techniques for deep level hoisting are incorporated in the system, including `S` shaped speed control of emergency mechanical brakes to minimise rope stress. Finally, a review is given of the latest developments in control technology, and the implications for future developments in mine hoisting. 10 figs.

  14. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  15. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision robots and computer numerically controlled ('CNC') polishing machines for optical fabrication. The objective was not to assess which is superior. Rather, it was to understand for the first time their complementary properties, leading us to operate them together as a unit, integrated in hardware and software. Three key areas are reported. First is the novel use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  16. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision industrial optics. We report on how these ambitious requirements have stimulated an investigation into the synergy between robots and computer numerically controlled ('CNC') polishing machines for optical fabrication. The objective was not to assess which is superior. Rather, it was to understand for the first time their complementary properties, leading us to operate them together as a unit, integrated in hardware and software. Three key areas are reported. First is the novel use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  17. Automated Power Control for Virtualized Infrastructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文雨; 王伟平; 郭莉; 孟丹

    2014-01-01

    Power control for virtualized environments has gained much attention recently. One of the ma jor challenges is keeping underlying infrastructure in reasonably low power states and achieving service-level objectives (SLOs) of upper applications as well. Existing solutions, however, cannot effectively tackle this problem for virtualized environments. In this paper, we propose an automated power control solution for such scenarios in hope of making some progress. The major advantage of our solution is being able to precisely control the CPU frequency levels of a physical environment and the CPU power allocations among virtual machines with respect to the SLOs of multiple applications. Based on control theory and online model estimation, our solution can adapt to the variations of application power demands. Additionally, our solution can simultaneously manage the CPU power control for all virtual machines according to their dependencies at either the application-level or the infrastructure-level. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that our solution outperforms three state-of-the-art methods in terms of achieving the application SLOs with low infrastructure power consumption.

  18. AUTOMATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF PET RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexoff, D.L.

    2001-09-21

    The development of automated systems supporting the production and application of PET radiopharmaceuticals has been an important focus of researchers since the first successes of using carbon-11 (Comar et al., 1979) and fluorine-18 (Reivich et al., 1979) labeled compounds to visualize functional activity of the human brain. These initial successes of imaging the human brain soon led to applications in the human heart (Schelbert et al., 1980), and quickly radiochemists began to see the importance of automation to support PET studies in humans (Lambrecht, 1982; Langstrom et al., 1983). Driven by the necessity of controlling processes emanating high fluxes of 511 KeV photons, and by the tedium of repetitive syntheses for carrying out these human PET investigations, academic and government scientists have designed, developed and tested many useful and novel automated systems in the past twenty years. These systems, originally designed primarily by radiochemists, not only carry out effectively the tasks they were designed for, but also demonstrate significant engineering innovation in the field of laboratory automation.

  19. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  20. Automated synthesis of dependable mediators for heterogeneous interoperable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approaches to dependability and performance are challenged when systems are made up of networks of heterogeneous applications/devices, especially when operating in unpredictable open-world settings. The research community is tackling this problem and exploring means for enabling interoperability at the application level. The EU project CONNECT has developed a generic interoperability mechanism which relies on the on-the-fly synthesis of “CONNECTors”, that is software bridges that enable and adapt communication among heterogeneous devices. Dependability and Performance are relevant aspects of the system. In our previous work, we have identified generic dependability mechanisms for enhancing the dependability of CONNECTors. In this work, we introduce a set of generic strategies for automating the selection and application of an appropriate dependability mechanism. A case study based on a global monitoring system for environment and security (GMES) is used as a means for demonstrating the approach. - Highlights: • Method to automate the selection of a dependability mechanism to meet requirements. • Dependability mechanisms that allow interoperability among heterogeneous devices. • Method to find elements that must be enhanced to improve performance/dependability. • Demonstration through a case study based on the GMES EU Programme

  1. Rapid and convenient semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of arylopeptoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Boccia, Marcello Massimo; Nielsen, John;

    2014-01-01

    A facile and expedient route to the synthesis of arylopeptoid oligomers (N-alkylated aminomethyl benz-amides) using semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis is presented. The synthesis was optimized for the incorporation of side chains derived from sterically hindered or unreactive...

  2. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  3. [18F]FMeNER-D2: Reliable fully-automated synthesis for visualization of the norepinephrine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported. For visualization of NET availability and occupancy in the human brain PET imaging can be used. Therefore, selective NET-PET tracers with high affinity are required. Amongst these, [18F]FMeNER-D2 is showing the best results so far. Furthermore, a reliable fully automated radiosynthesis is a prerequisite for successful application of PET-tracers. The aim of this work was the automation of [18F]FMeNER-D2 radiolabelling for subsequent clinical use. The presented study comprises 25 automated large-scale syntheses, which were directly applied to healthy volunteers and adult patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Procedures: Synthesis of [18F]FMeNER-D2 was automated within a Nuclear Interface Module. Starting from 20–30 GBq [18F]fluoride, azeotropic drying, reaction with Br2CD2, distillation of 1-bromo-2-[18F]fluoromethane-D2 ([18F]BFM) and reaction of the pure [18F]BFM with unprotected precursor NER were optimized and completely automated. HPLC purification and SPE procedure were completed, formulation and sterile filtration were achieved on-line and full quality control was performed. Results: Purified product was obtained in a fully automated synthesis in clinical scale allowing maximum radiation safety and routine production under GMP-like manner. So far, more than 25 fully automated syntheses were successfully performed, yielding 1.0–2.5 GBq of formulated [18F]FMeNER-D2 with specific activities between 430 and 1707 GBq/μmol within 95 min total preparation time. Conclusions: A first fully automated [18F]FMeNER-D2 synthesis was established, allowing routine production of this NET-PET tracer under maximum radiation safety and standardization

  4. Automated sampling and control of gaseous simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruoguan

    2013-05-04

    In this work, we describe a method that automates the sampling and control of gaseous fluid simulations. Several recent approaches have provided techniques for artists to generate high-resolution simulations based on a low-resolution simulation. However, often in applications the overall flow in the low-resolution simulation that an animator observes and intends to preserve is composed of even lower frequencies than the low resolution itself. In such cases, attempting to match the low-resolution simulation precisely is unnecessarily restrictive. We propose a new sampling technique to efficiently capture the overall flow of a fluid simulation, at the scale of user\\'s choice, in such a way that the sampled information is sufficient to represent what is virtually perceived and no more. Thus, by applying control based on the sampled data, we ensure that in the resulting high-resolution simulation, the overall flow is matched to the low-resolution simulation and the fine details on the high resolution are preserved. The samples we obtain have both spatial and temporal continuity that allows smooth keyframe matching and direct manipulation of visible elements such as smoke density through temporal blending of samples. We demonstrate that a user can easily configure a simulation with our system to achieve desired results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Towards full automation of accelerators through computer control

    CERN Document Server

    Gamble, J; Kemp, D; Keyser, R; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Martucci, P P; Tausch, Lothar A; Vos, L

    1980-01-01

    The computer control system of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) at CERN has always laid emphasis on two particular operational aspects, the first being the reproducibility of machine conditions and the second that of giving the operators the possibility to work in terms of machine parameters such as the tune. Already certain phases of the operation are optimized by the control system, whilst others are automated with a minimum of manual intervention. The authors describe this present control system with emphasis on the existing automated facilities and the features of the control system which make it possible. It then discusses the steps needed to completely automate the operational procedure of accelerators. (7 refs).

  6. Improved automated synthesis and preliminary animal PET/CT imaging of 11C-acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study a simple and rapid automated synthetic technology of 11C-acetate (11C- AC), automated synthesis of 11C-AC was performed by carboxylation of MeMgBr/tetrahydrofuran (THF) on a polyethylene loop with 11C-CO2, followed by hydrolysis and purification on solid-phase extraction cartridges using a 11C-Choline/Methionine synthesizer made in China. A high and reproducible radiochemical yield of above 40% (decay corrected) was obtained within the whole synthesis time about 8 min from 11C-CO2. The radiochemical purity of 11C-AC was over 95%. The novel, simple and rapid on-column hydrolysis-purification procedure should adaptable to the fully automated synthesis of 11C-AC at several commercial synthesis module. 11C-AC injection produced by the automated procedure is safe and effective, and can be used for PET imaging of animals and humans. (authors)

  7. Principles of double entry bookkeeping in an automated control environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaanse, R.M.J.; Hulstijn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Developments in auditing, such as continuous auditing or compliance by design, presuppose detailed models of economic transactions, often modelled as value cycles using a money measure. Automated control environments require an automated mechanism to ensure data integrity. Data integrity is not a gi

  8. An automated Langmuir probe controller for plasma characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, A.; Juarez, A. M.; de Urquijo, J.; Muñoz, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the design, construction and test of an automated electronic controller for a Langmuir plasma probe. The novel aspect of this system lies in the isolation of the high voltage present in the discharge from the grounded reference of the controller. This controller detects currents over the range from  ±1 μA to  ±50 mA, using dynamic and automated switching of a transresistance amplifier. This automated Langmuir probe (LP) system has been successfully tested in a glow discharge in argon at 0.8 and 10 Torr.

  9. An automated synthesis module for preparation of L-3-[I-123]iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luurtsema, G; Jager, PL; Piers, A; de Hooge, MN

    2001-01-01

    L-3-[I-123]iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine (IMT) is an artificial amino acid suitable for SPECT imaging of various tumours. Manual synthesis of this radiopharmaceutical is reliable, but time-consuming and may require handling of large quantities of radioactivity. We developed an automated IMT synthesis m

  10. Automated control of mine dewatering pumps / Tinus Smith

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tinus

    2014-01-01

    Deep gold mines use a vast amount of water for various purposes. After use, the water is pumped back to the surface. This process is energy intensive. The control is traditionally done with manual interventions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of automated control on mine dewatering pumps. Automating mine dewatering pumps may hold a great number of benefits for the client. The benefits include electricity cost savings through load shifting, as well as preventative m...

  11. Automated Quality Control for Ortholmages and DEMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim; Potucková, Marketa

    2005-01-01

    The checking of geometric accurancy of orthoimages and digital elevation models (DEMs) is discussed. As a reference, an existing orthoimage and a second orthoimage derived from an overlapping aerial image, are used. The proposed automated procedures for checking the orthoimages and DEMs are based...

  12. Synthesis of many different types of organic small molecules using one automated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Ballmer, Steven G; Gillis, Eric P; Fujii, Seiko; Schmidt, Michael J; Palazzolo, Andrea M E; Lehmann, Jonathan W; Morehouse, Greg F; Burke, Martin D

    2015-03-13

    Small-molecule synthesis usually relies on procedures that are highly customized for each target. A broadly applicable automated process could greatly increase the accessibility of this class of compounds to enable investigations of their practical potential. Here we report the synthesis of 14 distinct classes of small molecules using the same fully automated process. This was achieved by strategically expanding the scope of a building block-based synthesis platform to include even C(sp3)-rich polycyclic natural product frameworks and discovering a catch-and-release chromatographic purification protocol applicable to all of the corresponding intermediates. With thousands of compatible building blocks already commercially available, many small molecules are now accessible with this platform. More broadly, these findings illuminate an actionable roadmap to a more general and automated approach for small-molecule synthesis.

  13. Control of automated system with voice commands

    OpenAIRE

    Švara, Denis

    2012-01-01

    In smart houses contemporary achievements in the fields of automation, communications, security and artificial intelligence, increase comfort and improve the quality of user's lifes. For the purpose of this thesis we developed a system for managing a smart house with voice commands via smart phone. We focused at voice commands most. We want move from communication with fingers - touches, to a more natural, human relationship - speech. We developed the entire chain of communication, by which t...

  14. Internal Control, Auditing, and the Automated Acquisitions System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1990-01-01

    Discusses issues and procedures involved in auditing the automated acquisitions system at Ohio State University Libraries. The audit process is explained, internal controls within the system are identified, general control mechanisms such as limited electronic access are discussed, and application control mechanisms that relate to specific…

  15. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system.

  16. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system. PMID:26141907

  17. Transition of Control : Automation Giving Back Control to the Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahram, T; Karwowski, W; Marek, T; Willemsen, D; Stuiver, A; Hogema, J

    2014-01-01

    The automotive domain is currently moving towards automated driver assistance applications, like automatic evasive maneuvers to avoid accidents, and even beyond assistance towards automated driving. However, in the near future these systems will only be active under certain conditions, thus still re

  18. Transition of Control: automation giving back control to the driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Stuiver, A.; Hogema, J.

    2014-01-01

    The automotive domain is currently moving towards automated driver assistance applications, like automatic evasive maneuvers to avoid accidents, and even beyond assistance towards automated driving. However, in the near future these systems will only be active under certain conditions, thus still re

  19. Controller Design Automation for Aeroservoelastic Design Optimization of Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashuri, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Zaayer, M.B.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the controller design of wind turbines with structure and aerodynamic analysis and use the final product in the design optimization process (DOP) of wind turbines. To do that, the controller design is automated and integrated with an aeroelastic simulation t

  20. Fully-automated synthesis of 16β-18F-fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone (FDHT) on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noninvasive in vivo imaging of androgen receptor (AR) levels with positron emission tomography (PET) is becoming the primary tool in prostate cancer detection and staging. Of the potential 18F-labeled PET tracers, 18F-FDHT has clinically shown to be of highest diagnostic value. We demonstrate the first automated synthesis of 18F-FDHT by adapting the conventional manual synthesis onto the fully-automated ELIXYS radiosynthesizer. Clinically-relevant amounts of 18F-FDHT were synthesized on ELIXYS in 90 min with decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 29±5% (n=7). The specific activity was 4.6 Ci/µmol (170 GBq/µmol) at end of formulation with a starting activity of 1.0 Ci (37 GBq). The formulated 18F-FDHT yielded sufficient activity for multiple patient doses and passed all quality control tests required for routine clinical use. - Highlights: • Manual radiosynthesis of 18F-FDHT was adapted for full automation on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer. • Reduction with LiAlH4 was performed at room temperature to avoid cryogenic conditions. • Formulated product passed all clinical QC tests and is suitable for clinical production. • Decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 29±5% (n=7) with a synthesis time of 90 min. • Specific activity was 4.6 Ci/µmol (170 GBq/µmol) at the end of formulation

  1. Levels of automation and user control - evaluation of a turbine automation interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    The study was performed during the annual operator training at the Studsvik nuclear power plant simulator facility in Nykoeping, Sweden. The participating operators came from the Oskarshamn 3 nuclear power plant. In the study, seven nuclear power plant turbine operators were interviewed concerning their use of the automatic turbine system. A field study approach together with a heuristic usability evaluation was made to assess how the operators are affected by use of automation in the control room setting. The purpose of the study was to examine how operator performance is affected by varying levels of automation in nuclear power plant turbine operation. The Automatic Turbine System (ATS) was evaluated to clarify how the ATS interface design supports the operators work. The results show that during manual control the operators experience loss of speed and accuracy in performing actions together with difficulty of dividing attention between performing a task and overall monitoring, as the major problems. The positive aspects of manual operations lie in increased feeling of being in control when performing actions by hand. With higher levels of automation the problems shift to issues concerning difficulty of following the automatic sequences and loosing track in procedures. As the level of automation gets higher, the need of feedback increases which means that information presentation also becomes more important. The use of the semiautomatic, step-mode is often preferred by the operators since it combines the speed and accuracy of the automation with the ability of maintaining the feeling of being in control. Further, a number of usability related concerns was found in the ATS interface. The operators especially experience the presentation of the conditions that manage the automatic sequences as difficult to perceive. (author)

  2. Levels of automation and user control - evaluation of a turbine automation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was performed during the annual operator training at the Studsvik nuclear power plant simulator facility in Nykoeping, Sweden. The participating operators came from the Oskarshamn 3 nuclear power plant. In the study, seven nuclear power plant turbine operators were interviewed concerning their use of the automatic turbine system. A field study approach together with a heuristic usability evaluation was made to assess how the operators are affected by use of automation in the control room setting. The purpose of the study was to examine how operator performance is affected by varying levels of automation in nuclear power plant turbine operation. The Automatic Turbine System (ATS) was evaluated to clarify how the ATS interface design supports the operators work. The results show that during manual control the operators experience loss of speed and accuracy in performing actions together with difficulty of dividing attention between performing a task and overall monitoring, as the major problems. The positive aspects of manual operations lie in increased feeling of being in control when performing actions by hand. With higher levels of automation the problems shift to issues concerning difficulty of following the automatic sequences and loosing track in procedures. As the level of automation gets higher, the need of feedback increases which means that information presentation also becomes more important. The use of the semiautomatic, step-mode is often preferred by the operators since it combines the speed and accuracy of the automation with the ability of maintaining the feeling of being in control. Further, a number of usability related concerns was found in the ATS interface. The operators especially experience the presentation of the conditions that manage the automatic sequences as difficult to perceive. (au)

  3. Influence factor on automated synthesis yield of 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F] fluorothymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3'-deoxy-3'-[18F] fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) was prepared from N-BOC precursor to improve the synthesis yield, chemical purity and radiochemical purity of 18F-FLT by home-made automated synthesis module. The results showed that residual water in synthesis system and the amount of precursor could affect the synthesis yield dramatically. The more the amount of precursor, the higher the synthesis yield of N-BOC. The residual water can decrease the synthesis yield. In the presence of excess base, the precursor was consumed by elimination before substitution was completed. The precursor to base was optimal in 1 to 1. The balance of semi-preparatiove HPLC Column can affect purified the final 18F-FLT product. The chemical purity of 18F-FLT could be decreased with 8% EtOH as mobile phase in semi-preparatiove HPLC. The high chemical purity, radiochemical purity and synthesis yield could be obtained by optimized the parameter of synthesis with home-made automated synthesis module. (authors)

  4. Automated radiochemical synthesis and biodistribution of [11C]l-α-acetylmethadol ([11C]LAAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-acting opioid agonists methadone and l-α-acetylmethadol (LAAM) prevent withdrawal in opioid-dependent persons. Attempts to synthesize [11C]-methadone for PET evaluation of brain disposition were unsuccessful. Owing, however, to structural and pharmacologic similarities, we aimed to develop [11C]LAAM as a PET ligand to probe the brain exposure of long-lasting opioids in humans. This manuscript describes [11C]LAAM synthesis and its biodistribution in mice. The radiochemical synthetic strategy afforded high radiochemical yield, purity and specific activity, thereby making the synthesis adaptable to automated modules. - Highlights: • Radiochemical synthesis of opioid [11C]l-α-acetylmethadol (LAAM) described for the first time. • High radiochemical yield, purity and specific activity. • Easily reproducible and adaptable synthesis to any C-11 automated modules. • [11C]LAAM utility as a PET radiopharmaceutical for assessing brain penetration

  5. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning CommercialBuilding Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-05-01

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak pricing (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a new electricity tariff design to promote demand response. This paper begins with a brief review of terminology regarding energy management and demand response, followed by a discussion of DR control strategies and a preliminary overview of a forthcoming guide on DR strategies. The final section discusses experience to date with these strategies, followed by a discussion of the peak electric demand savings from the 2005 Automated CPP program. An important concept identified in the automated DR field tests is that automated DR will be most successful if the building commissioning industry improves the operational effectiveness of building controls. Critical peak pricing and even real time pricing are important trends in electricity pricing that will require new functional tests for building commissioning.

  6. Automation and remote control at Mining 85 in Birmingham

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czauderna, N.

    1985-09-12

    Looking round the exhibition showed that more and more manufacturers and users take advantage of the new measuring, control and regulatory techniques with economic profit. Process computers and micro-computers make a general use of these techniques possible. The backbone of all automation systems is data transmission between widely distributed stations on individual machines. Here, too, it was clear that in mining multiple data transmission on the basis of highly integrated components and own microprocessors is occupying an ever more prominent place in communication techniques. BUS systems are more and more in evidence and already installed in some plants. For the purpose of this report and ease of reference to the large field automation and remote control at Minig 85 the products have been grouped under sensor, transmission and automation technologies. (orig./MOS).

  7. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is consider

  8. Dynamic one-way traffic control in automated transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, M; van der Zee, DJ

    2004-01-01

    In a project on underground freight transportation using Automated Guided Vehicles, single lanes for traffic in two directions are constructed to reduce infrastructure investment. Intelligent control rules are required to manage vehicle flows such, that collision is avoided and waiting times are min

  9. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hee; Eom, Heung Sub; Kim, Ko Ryu; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, You Rak; Lee, Soo Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot and computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor pressure vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new inspection automation system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall. According to the conceptual design studied in the first year, we developed the inspection automation system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem and a main control subsystem. And we carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup. After finishing this project successfully, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 5 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 37 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  10. Automation of the control scheme for IUAC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of the Linac control scheme is undertaken for automation with minimum human intervention during beam acceleration. Python language interface with the present control scheme is used in writing automation routines to monitor the status of the phase/amplitude lock during operation and shut-down the locking mechanism to reduce the RF power, if required. Simultaneous pulse conditioning of the resonators is made possible by using dedicated hardware interfaced and Python based client interface. Movement of the drive coupler is enabled from operation console with position read back. The manual control of the slow-tuner electronics module to bring the frequency close to reference during phase locking is interfaced with the present control scheme for remote operation. Monitoring of amplitude and absolute phase of each cavity is made possible from operation console. An alternate tuning mechanism using piezoelectric actuator and stepper motor combination has been successfully tested in the test cryostat. (author)

  11. Automated safety control by video cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefter, I.; Rothkrantz, L.; Somhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    At this moment many surveillance systems are installed in public domains to control the safety of people and properties. They are constantly watched by human operators who are easily overloaded. To support the human operators, a surveillance system model is designed that detects suspicious behaviour

  12. Automated control system for a mashing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teterin, E.; Rudnickiy, V.

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe a system for a mashing process, which is the first part of brewing beer. The mashing is a procedure where the fermentable (and some nonfermentable) sugars are extracted from malts. The program part based on LabVIEW, which is used to control NI CompactRIO. The main target of the project is to reach a predefined levels of the temperatures and maintain it during the pauses. When the necessary break time is ended the system is ready to go to the new value. The precise control of the temperatures during the breaks is one of the critical factors that define the texture and alcohol content of the beer. The system has two tanks with resistors PT'00 in both of them, heat exchanger (coil), heater and pump. The first tank has heating element in order to rise the temperature in the other one. This project has practical solution with all explanations and graphs which are proven working ability of this control system.

  13. A New Approach to an Automated Air Traffic Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patchev Dragoljub

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies areas of improvements of the air traffic control system and proposes modification of the concept of automation by using available technologies. With the proposed modification, the current Europe wide en route network structure can be modified in order to make routes more optimal. For this new route network structure, a new concept of automation will be used to manage with the air traffic. The first identified area of improvement is implementation of automation process that will enable decentralization of the air traffic control functionality to each individual aircraft and this will be achieved through automated routing of the aircrafts and CD&R (conflict detection and resolution). The FMS (flight management system) at the aircraft will make decisions for the optimal flight route based on the sensor inputs, information on selection of the routes, next hope points and flight levels, all received by ADS-B (automatic dependant surveillance-broadcast). The second area is processing the information about the deviation from the optimal route as in flight plan due to a traffic management (vectoring, level change) and taking it into consideration when further actions are undertaken. For each action, a cost factor will be calculated from the fuel burned for that action. This factor will be used to select conflict resolution protocol. The proposed concept shall increase the capacity of the network, and enable the air traff~c more efficient and more environmentally friendly while maintaining safe separation.

  14. Automated procedure execution for space vehicle autonomous control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Thomas A.; Brown, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased operational autonomy and reduced operating costs have become critical design objectives in next-generation NASA and DoD space programs. The objective is to develop a semi-automated system for intelligent spacecraft operations support. The Spacecraft Operations and Anomaly Resolution System (SOARS) is presented as a standardized, model-based architecture for performing High-Level Tasking, Status Monitoring and automated Procedure Execution Control for a variety of spacecraft. The particular focus is on the Procedure Execution Control module. A hierarchical procedure network is proposed as the fundamental means for specifying and representing arbitrary operational procedures. A separate procedure interpreter controls automatic execution of the procedure, taking into account the current status of the spacecraft as maintained in an object-oriented spacecraft model.

  15. Design of an Automated System for Synthesis of [18 F] FDG for PET Investigation at IFIN-HH Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Liviu Stefan; Cimpeanu, Catalina; Constantinescu, Olimpiu; Dudu, Dorin; Ionescu, Cristina; Negoita, Nicolae; Racolta, Petru Mihai; Rusen, Ion

    2009-03-01

    A novel apparatus constructed at IFIN-HH is described for automated synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 18F for use in positron emission tomography (PET) investigations. [18 F] fluoride was produced at the IFIN-HH cyclotron by irradiation of H2O enriched 97% in 18O with 13 MeV deuterons, or 8 MeV protons. The irradiated H2O was transferred (injected) into the radiochemical fully-automated processing systems which ensured the separation of 18F from H2O, the labeling with 18F, and finally purified by filtration with selective absorbants. The system is easy to operate and contains a programmable logical controller that manages the entire operation program stored in its internal memory. The computer is used to assist the operator during the different steps of synthesis and to allow visualization of the process and printing the report. The device was used for used for the production of 2-[18 F] FLUORO-2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE at the IFIN-HH cyclotron, one of the most used radiopharmaceutical in PET investigations. The synthesis module is configured so that is flexible enough to accomplish other nucleophile reactions of labeling with short lived radioisotopes.

  16. Expressive capabilities of the dialogue language in automated control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubarskiy, Yu.Ya.

    1982-09-01

    Provisions for dialogue communication between operating personnel and a computer are of utmost importance in contemporary industrial automated control systems and in automated systems of dispatcher control. The most advanced dialogue systems are the question-answer systems which enable one to communicate with the computer in a language that is close to the natural professional language of the user. This article describes a method for construction of economical question-answer systems which could be realized with the help of minicomputers, and examination of methods for providing such QAs with the expressive capabilities possessed by a natural language. These capabilities include the ambiguity of meanings of words of the input language (polysemy), some elliptic constructions (surpression), and tropeic forms (different forms of metonymy and metaphors). 9 references.

  17. Control System and Simulator of Automated Warehouse System

    OpenAIRE

    Lončar, Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Today, fo r the purpose of warehousing, companies are more and more building fully automated high-bay warehouses. In the thesis design and development of supervisory and control system is presented. Special attention was given to the user friendly user interface, which comprehends simple but informative graphical screens together with logging and notification of user in case of unusual events. For the purpose of intervention in the warehouse, a mobile panel was designed and developed in the s...

  18. AUTOMATED INFORMATION CONTROL SYSTEM OF MAGNETO LEVITATING CREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Dzenzerskyi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested the concept of construction of automated information-control system (ICS for Maglev on the basis of usage of highway mark-connecting communication wave guide line with groups of input connecting holes placed along active way structure. The excitation of wave guide line is carried out by the modulated microwave signals with the information about spatial position of Maglev, its speed, and also about parameters of propulsion system.

  19. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies

  20. Automated quality control in a file-based broadcasting workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina

    2014-04-01

    Benefit from the development of information and internet technologies, television broadcasting is transforming from inefficient tape-based production and distribution to integrated file-based workflows. However, no matter how many changes have took place, successful broadcasting still depends on the ability to deliver a consistent high quality signal to the audiences. After the transition from tape to file, traditional methods of manual quality control (QC) become inadequate, subjective, and inefficient. Based on China Central Television's full file-based workflow in the new site, this paper introduces an automated quality control test system for accurate detection of hidden troubles in media contents. It discusses the system framework and workflow control when the automated QC is added. It puts forward a QC criterion and brings forth a QC software followed this criterion. It also does some experiments on QC speed by adopting parallel processing and distributed computing. The performance of the test system shows that the adoption of automated QC can make the production effective and efficient, and help the station to achieve a competitive advantage in the media market.

  1. Security-Control Systems and Automation in Contemporary Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet Aytıs

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the developing technology, major renovations related to the security control systems and to building automation applications on contemporary buildings have appeared. The main item of the control systems is the entry system with cards and passwords and this is applied almost in all the large contemporary buildings. The entry and exit to/from the carparking is getting to be as important as the entry and exit to/from the building. Thus, specific measures to stop the security system being already perforated in the parking are needed. Warning systems with a great range of different detectors against various dangers that run connected to the mainframe computers and that turn on the system in case of danger are taken into consideration. The fact of obtaining all comfort conditions desired in the contemporary high space buildings and functioning of the first-aid systems are fully realized by computers with the help of systems that are called “Building Automation System” (BAS. All inspection, energy saving and security controls are achieved through these systems. In the buildings where building automation systems are applied, trained personel is needed to keep the system running; and the training of the residents about the system gains more and more importance.

  2. Advances in automation and control research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG DaiZhan

    2009-01-01

    Automation is the utilization of control techniques together with other Information technology to control industrial processes,reducing the need for human intervention.It plays a highly important role in social and economy as well as In daily life.Control theory is the theory of automation,and is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics,examining the behavior of dynamical systems.China has a long history of manufacturing automatic devices.In recent years,some rapid progresses in control theory have been made in China.Many new theories and new methodologies have been developed to meet the increasing demands in industry,agriculture,defense,and other social sectors.Contemporary sciences such as complexity,systems biology,quantum technologies,have also found their close links to control theories and technologies.On the other hand,control theory itself has many unsolved fundamental problems requiring further studies and investigation.This paper is to review the development and progress that have been made in all these aspects in China.Some remarks on the future development of control theory are also presented.

  3. Gallium‐68 DOTATATE Production with Automated PET Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System: A Three Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aslani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gallium‐68 (Ga‐68 is an ideal research and hospital‐based PET radioisotope. Currently, the main form of Ga‐68 radiopharmaceutical that is being synthesised in‐house is Ga‐68 conjugated with DOTA based derivatives. The development of automated synthesis systems has increased the reliability, reproducibility and safety of radiopharmaceutical productions. Here we report on our three year, 500 syntheses experience with an automated system for Ga‐68 DOTATATE. Methods: The automated synthesis system we use is divided into three parts of a servomotor modules, b single use sterile synthesis cassettes and, c a computerized system that runs the modules. An audit trail is produced by the system as a requirement for GMP production. The required reagents and chemicals are made in‐. The Germanium breakthrough is determined on a weekly basis. Production yields for each synthesis are calculated to monitor the performance and efficiency of the synthesis. The quality of the final product is assessed after each synthesis by ITLC‐SG and HPLC methods. Results: A total of 500 Ga‐68 DOTATATE syntheses (>800 patient doses were performed between March 2011 and February 2014. The average generator yield was 81.3±0.2% for 2011, 76.7±0.4% for 2012 and 75.0±0.3% for 2013. Ga‐68 DOTATATE yields for 2011, 2012, and 2013 were 81.8±0.4%, 82.2±0.4% and 87.9±0.4%, respectively. These exceed the manufacturer’s expected value of approximately 70%. Germanium breakthrough averaged 8.6×10‐6% of total activity which is well below the recommended level of 0.001%. The average ITLC‐measured radiochemical purity was above 98.5% and the average HPLC‐measured radiochemical purity was above 99.5%. Although there were some system failures during synthesis, there were only eight occasions where the patient scans needed to be rescheduled. Conclusion: In our experience the automated synthesis system performs reliably with a relatively low incident

  4. Tools for the automation of large control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara

    2005-01-01

    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit – SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting in real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and the for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  5. Tools for the Automation of Large Distributed Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara

    2005-01-01

    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit - SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting is real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  6. Automation of [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde synthesis: application to a recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1RA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Olivia; McMahon, Adam; Boutin, Herve; Grigg, Julian; Prenant, Christian

    2016-06-15

    [(18) F]Fluoroacetaldehyde is a biocompatible prosthetic group that has been implemented pre-clinically using a semi-automated remotely controlled system. Automation of radiosyntheses permits use of higher levels of [(18) F]fluoride whilst minimising radiochemist exposure and enhancing reproducibility. In order to achieve full-automation of [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde peptide radiolabelling, a customised GE Tracerlab FX-FN with fully programmed automated synthesis was developed. The automated synthesis of [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde is carried out using a commercially available precursor, with reproducible yields of 26% ± 3 (decay-corrected, n = 10) within 45 min. Fully automated radiolabelling of a protein, recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1RA), with [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde was achieved within 2 h. Radiolabelling efficiency of rhIL-1RA with [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde was confirmed using HPLC and reached 20% ± 10 (n = 5). Overall RCY of [(18) F]rhIL-1RA was 5% ± 2 (decay-corrected, n = 5) within 2 h starting from 35 to 40 GBq of [(18) F]fluoride. Specific activity measurements of 8.11-13.5 GBq/µmol were attained (n = 5), a near three-fold improvement of those achieved using the semi-automated approach. The strategy can be applied to radiolabelling a range of peptides and proteins with [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde analogous to other aldehyde-bearing prosthetic groups, yet automation of the method provides reproducibility thereby aiding translation to Good Manufacturing Practice manufacture and the transformation from pre-clinical to clinical production. PMID:27061216

  7. SERVICE ORIENTATION IN DISTRIBUTED AUTOMATION AND CONTROL SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana VOICAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study shows the feasibility ofservice-oriented architectures for industrial automation and control systems even with respect to lower, real-time dependent control functions. For that purpose, general SOA-guidelines were refined in order to cover the distribution of control functions between services and the lay-out and management of devicebased sensor, actor and control services. Particular emphasis was placed on the dynamic lease-based binding of services which on the one hand provides flexible and loose coupling of system components but on the other hand has to ensure reliable communication and cooperation. The guidelines were applied to the experimental implementation of a manufacturing cell control system using a real-time version of the Java Runtime Environment. The Device Profile for Web Services (DPWS was used as basic infrastructure technology. Test and evaluation were performed under distributed simulation of technical processes and devices

  8. Automated synthesis of photovoltaic-quality colloidal quantum dots using separate nucleation and growth stages

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2013-11-26

    As colloidal quantum dot (CQD) optoelectronic devices continue to improve, interest grows in the scaled-up and automated synthesis of high-quality materials. Unfortunately, all reports of record-performance CQD photovoltaics have been based on small-scale batch syntheses. Here we report a strategy for flow reactor synthesis of PbS CQDs and prove that it leads to solar cells having performance similar to that of comparable batch-synthesized nanoparticles. Specifically, we find that, only when using a dual-temperature-stage flow reactor synthesis reported herein, are the CQDs of sufficient quality to achieve high performance. We use a kinetic model to explain and optimize the nucleation and growth processes in the reactor. Compared to conventional single-stage flow-synthesized CQDs, we achieve superior quality nanocrystals via the optimized dual-stage reactor, with high photoluminescence quantum yield (50%) and narrow full width-half-maximum. The dual-stage flow reactor approach, with its versatility and rapid screening of multiple parameters, combined with its efficient materials utilization, offers an attractive path to automated synthesis of CQDs for photovoltaics and, more broadly, active optoelectronics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Instrumentation, control, and automation for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ángel; Durán, Freddy; Ruano, María Victoria; Ribes, Josep; Rosado, Alfredo; Seco, Aurora; Ferrer, José

    2015-01-01

    A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) demonstration plant with two commercial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration systems (PURON®, Koch Membrane Systems, PUR-PSH31) was designed and operated for urban wastewater treatment. An instrumentation, control, and automation (ICA) system was designed and implemented for proper process performance. Several single-input-single-output (SISO) feedback control loops based on conventional on-off and PID algorithms were implemented to control the following operating variables: flow-rates (influent, permeate, sludge recycling and wasting, and recycled biogas through both reactor and membrane tanks), sludge wasting volume, temperature, transmembrane pressure, and gas sparging. The proposed ICA for AnMBRs for urban wastewater treatment enables the optimization of this new technology to be achieved with a high level of process robustness towards disturbances. PMID:25635702

  10. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project intends to establish the basic technology of intelligent control and automation to be applied to the next generation nuclear plant. For that, the research status of those technologies is surveyed for various application areas at first. The characteristics and availability of those techniques such as neural network, fuzzy rule based control and reasoning, multimedia, real-time software and qualitative modelling are studied through a series of simulations and experiments. By integrating each technologies studied above, we developed a hierarchical, intelligent control system for an autonomous mobile robot as a test bed. The system is composed of several modules of software and hardware subsystems, which are implemented by use of the intelligent techniques. Through the analysis of the results and experiences, we investigated the feasibility of application of the basic technology to the next generation plant. (Author)

  11. Instrumentation, control, and automation for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ángel; Durán, Freddy; Ruano, María Victoria; Ribes, Josep; Rosado, Alfredo; Seco, Aurora; Ferrer, José

    2015-01-01

    A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) demonstration plant with two commercial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration systems (PURON®, Koch Membrane Systems, PUR-PSH31) was designed and operated for urban wastewater treatment. An instrumentation, control, and automation (ICA) system was designed and implemented for proper process performance. Several single-input-single-output (SISO) feedback control loops based on conventional on-off and PID algorithms were implemented to control the following operating variables: flow-rates (influent, permeate, sludge recycling and wasting, and recycled biogas through both reactor and membrane tanks), sludge wasting volume, temperature, transmembrane pressure, and gas sparging. The proposed ICA for AnMBRs for urban wastewater treatment enables the optimization of this new technology to be achieved with a high level of process robustness towards disturbances.

  12. Automating the control of robotic systems in unstructured environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department Energy's Office of Technology Development has sponsored the development of generic robotics technologies for application to a wide range of remote systems. Of primary interest is the development of technologies which enable faster, safer, and cheaper cleanup of hazardous waste sites than is possible using conventional human contact or remote manual approaches. The development of model-based sensor-directed robot control approaches supports these goals by developing modular control technologies which reduce the time and cost of development by allowing reuse of control system software. In addition, the use of computer models improves the safety of remote site cleanup by allowing automated errors detection and recovery while reducing the time for technology development

  13. Automated alignment method for coherence-controlled holographic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Zbynek; Slaby, Tomas; Kvasnica, Lukas; Lostak, Martin; Krizova, Aneta; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-11-01

    A coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) was developed particularly for quantitative phase imaging and measurement of live cell dynamics, which is the proper subject of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). CCHM in low-coherence mode extends DHM in the study of living cells. However, this advantage is compensated by sensitivity of the system to easily become misaligned, which is a serious hindrance to wanted performance. Therefore, it became clear that introduction of a self-correcting system is inevitable. Accordingly, we had to devise a theory of a suitable control and design an automated alignment system for CCHM. The modulus of the reconstructed holographic signal was identified as a significant variable for guiding the alignment procedures. From this, we derived the original basic realignment three-dimensional algorithm, which encompasses a unique set of procedures for automated alignment that contains processes for initial and advanced alignment as well as long-term maintenance of microscope tuning. All of these procedures were applied to a functioning microscope and the tested processes were successfully validated. Finally, in such a way, CCHM is enabled to substantially contribute to study of biology, particularly of cancer cells in vitro.

  14. Control techniques for an automated mixed traffic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.

  15. Automatic Synthesis of Robust and Optimal Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassez, Franck; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to apply recent tools for the automatic synthesis of robust and near-optimal controllers for a real industrial case study. We show how to use three different classes of models and their supporting existing tools, Uppaal-TiGA for synthesis, phaver for verification, and S...

  16. Building control automation for retirement homes :a therapeutic opportunity for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Melinda Plaza

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic opportunity for the elderly due to building control automation use in a retirement home was investigated. Previous research suggests that a basic understanding of elderly functional needs and building control automation capabilities is required Ifn order to secure the opportunity for maintaining existing elderly functional abilities. This study explores the extent to which building control automation can be applied in retirement homes. The research questions gen...

  17. Control and path prediction of an Automate Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Butdee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper a new architecture and control strategy of an AGV is proposed. It is organized as follows.The system architecture is explained in section 2. Section 3 deals with the kinematics model of the AGV path,prediction and control. Section 4 describes the experiments. The conclusion and recommendation are given insection 5.Design/methodology/approach: It is a three wheels vehicle. The front wheel is used for driving and steering theAGV and the two rear wheels are free. The steering and driving are DC motor. Two encoders are individuallyattached on the two rear wheels in order to measure the vehicle displacement and then calculate its real timeposition and orientation. The choice of positioning the encoders on the free wheels provides to the vehicle anaccurate measurement of its progression. A programmable logic control (PLC is used for motion control.Findings: In this paper, An Automate Guided Vehicle (AGV is presented. The developed algorithm is basedon memorised path and kinematics determination of the movement. The vehicle position and deviation arecalculated from rear wheels rotation measurement. The steering and driving command are determined fromthis deviation. Localization of AGV by Kaman filtering algorithm is presented. Control of AGV motion isimplemented by using PID control scheme. Displacement axis and steering axis are separated to implementthe motion control. We proposed the localization system for estimation of AGV. Position and orientation areestimated by Kalman filtering in state-space model. Position and orientation of AGV are measured and used forsimulation for localization system. We conclude that the vehicle can reach from the initial position moved alongwith generated path with accurate location. A Schneider PLC is used to implement this control. The tests reveala smooth movement and convenient deviation.Practical implications: The first prototype working, the next research steps will be development of a

  18. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  19. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    for the first time performed solid-phase copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click labeling during the automated phosphoramidite oligonucleotide synthesis followed by postsynthetic click reactions in solution. We demonstrate that our novel strategy is rapid and efficient for the preparation...... of novel oligonucleotide probes containing internally positioned xanthene and cyanine dye pairs and thus represents a significant step forward for the preparation of advanced fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the novel xanthene and cyanine labeled probes display unusual...... and very promising photophysical properties resulting from energy-transfer interactions between the fluorophores controlled by nucleic acid assembly. Potential benefits of using these novel fluorescent probes within, for example, molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy include: Considerable...

  20. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using recently established intelligent mobile robot theory and high technologies in computer science, we have designed an inspection automation system for welded parts of the reactor vessel, and we intend to establish basic technologies. The recent status of those technologies is surveyed for various application areas, and the characteristics and availability of those techniques such as intelligent mobile robot, digital computer control, intelligent user interface, realtime data processing, ultrasonic signal processing, intelligent user interface, intelligent defect recognition, are studied and examined at first. The high performance and compact size inspection system is designed, and if implemented, it is expected to be very efficient in economic point of view. In addition, the use of integrated SW system leads to the reduction of human errors. Through the analysis results and experiences, we investigated the further feasibility of basic technology applications to the various similar operation systems in NPP. (Author)

  1. Automated washing of FTA Card punches and PCR setup for reference samples using a LIMS-controlled Sias Xantus automated liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Olsen, Addie Nina; Frøslev, Tobias G.;

    2009-01-01

    We have implemented and validated automated methods for washing FTA Card punches containing buccal samples and subsequent PCR setup using a Sias Xantus automated liquid handler. The automated methods were controlled by worklists generated by our LabWare Laboratory Information Management System...

  2. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  3. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  4. 75 FR 77664 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Rock Island, Illinois. The notice was published in the Federal Register on August 13, 2010 (75 FR 49531). At the request of a... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control...

  5. On-chip automation of cell-free protein synthesis: new opportunities due to a novel reaction mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, V; Georgi, L; Blechert, M; Bergmeister, M; Zwanzig, M; Wüstenhagen, D A; Bier, F F; Jung, E; Kubick, S

    2016-01-21

    Many pharmaceuticals are proteins or their development is based on proteins. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is an innovative alternative to conventional cell based systems which enables the production of proteins with complex and even new characteristics. However, the short lifetime, low protein production and expensive reagent costs are still limitations of CFPS. Novel automated microfluidic systems might allow continuous, controllable and resource conserving CFPS. The presented microfluidic TRITT platform (TRITT for Transcription - RNA Immobilization & Transfer - Translation) addresses the individual biochemical requirements of the transcription and the translation step of CFPS in separate compartments, and combines the reaction steps by quasi-continuous transfer of RNA templates to enable automated CFPS. In detail, specific RNA templates with 5' and 3' hairpin structures for stabilization against nucleases were immobilized during in vitro transcription by newly designed and optimized hybridization oligonucleotides coupled to magnetizable particles. Transcription compatibility and reusability for immobilization of these functionalized particles was successfully proven. mRNA transfer was realized on-chip by magnetic actuated particle transfer, RNA elution and fluid flow to the in vitro translation compartment. The applicability of the microfluidic TRITT platform for the production of the cytotoxic protein Pierisin with simultaneous incorporation of a non-canonical amino acid for fluorescence labeling was demonstrated. The new reaction mode (TRITT mode) is a modified linked mode that fulfills the precondition for an automated modular reactor system. By continual transfer of new mRNA, the novel procedure overcomes problems caused by nuclease digestion and hydrolysis of mRNA during TL in standard CFPS reactions. PMID:26554896

  6. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  7. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarau, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased consider

  8. Control and Automation of Fluid Flow, Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions in Microscale Segmented Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Milad

    Flowing trains of uniformly sized bubbles/droplets (i.e., segmented flows) and the associated mass transfer enhancement over their single-phase counterparts have been studied extensively during the past fifty years. Although the scaling behaviour of segmented flow formation is increasingly well understood, the predictive adjustment of the desired flow characteristics that influence the mixing and residence times, remains a challenge. Currently, a time consuming, slow and often inconsistent manual manipulation of experimental conditions is required to address this task. In my thesis, I have overcome the above-mentioned challenges and developed an experimental strategy that for the first time provided predictive control over segmented flows in a hands-off manner. A computer-controlled platform that consisted of a real-time image processing module within an integral controller, a silicon-based microreactor and automated fluid delivery technique was designed, implemented and validated. In a first part of my thesis I utilized this approach for the automated screening of physical mass transfer and solubility characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a physical solvent at a well-defined temperature and pressure and a throughput of 12 conditions per hour. Second, by applying the segmented flow approach to a recently discovered CO2 chemical absorbent, frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs), I determined the thermodynamic characteristics of the CO2-FLP reaction. Finally, the segmented flow approach was employed for characterization and investigation of CO2-governed liquid-liquid phase separation process. The second part of my thesis utilized the segmented flow platform for the preparation and shape control of high quality colloidal nanomaterials (e.g., CdSe/CdS) via the automated control of residence times up to approximately 5 minutes. By introducing a novel oscillatory segmented flow concept, I was able to further extend the residence time limitation to 24 hours. A case study of a

  9. Automated passage control for security, cost efficiency, and convenience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new methods of passage control through automatic computer processes and electromechanical identity and surveillance devices. It is now possible for a person to be identified with objective certainty by computer without interaction of a guard or duty officer. In addition, the presence of just one person is also confirmed automatically BEFORE passage is allowed into a secured area. There can be no tailgating of intruders during a valid, authorized entry process. The advantage to the facility using this new equipment is improved security through elimination of the subjective decision process of guards who may be right on or who may be off that day. The objective decisions of the automated passage control computers determine a positive identity and passage authority, or else interdicts the passage attempt. There can be no indecision, argument, or waffling about authorization to enter. Each person's Logical Presence is known at all times, and a permanent audit trail is maintained. There is an almost immediate return on investment through the furloughing of expensive guards and inspectors at entry points

  10. Trajectory Specification for Automation of Terminal Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paielli, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    "Trajectory specification" is the explicit bounding and control of aircraft tra- jectories such that the position at each point in time is constrained to a precisely defined volume of space. The bounding space is defined by cross-track, along-track, and vertical tolerances relative to a reference trajectory that specifies position as a function of time. The tolerances are dynamic and will be based on the aircraft nav- igation capabilities and the current traffic situation. A standard language will be developed to represent these specifications and to communicate them by datalink. Assuming conformance, trajectory specification can guarantee safe separation for an arbitrary period of time even in the event of an air traffic control (ATC) sys- tem or datalink failure, hence it can help to achieve the high level of safety and reliability needed for ATC automation. As a more proactive form of ATC, it can also maximize airspace capacity and reduce the reliance on tactical backup systems during normal operation. It applies to both enroute airspace and the terminal area around airports, but this paper focuses on arrival spacing in the terminal area and presents ATC algorithms and software for achieving a specified delay of runway arrival time.

  11. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads

  12. Transitioning Resolution Responsibility between the Controller and Automation Team in Simulated NextGen Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrall, C.; Gomez, A.; Homola, J.; Hunt, S..; Martin, L.; Merccer, J.; Prevott, T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research effort on separation assurance and functional allocation in NextGen, a controller- in-the-loop study with ground-based automation was conducted at NASA Ames' Airspace Operations Laboratory in August 2012 to investigate the potential impact of introducing self-separating aircraft in progressively advanced NextGen timeframes. From this larger study, the current exploratory analysis of controller-automation interaction styles focuses on the last and most far-term time frame. Measurements were recorded that firstly verified the continued operational validity of this iteration of the ground-based functional allocation automation concept in forecast traffic densities up to 2x that of current day high altitude en-route sectors. Additionally, with greater levels of fully automated conflict detection and resolution as well as the introduction of intervention functionality, objective and subjective analyses showed a range of passive to active controller- automation interaction styles between the participants. Not only did the controllers work with the automation to meet their safety and capacity goals in the simulated future NextGen timeframe, they did so in different ways and with different attitudes of trust/use of the automation. Taken as a whole, the results showed that the prototyped controller-automation functional allocation framework was very flexible and successful overall.

  13. Robustness analysis applied to substructure controller synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Oberdoerffer, Marcelo F.; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The stability and robustness of the controlled system obtained via the substructure control synthesis (SCS) method of Su et al. (1990) were examined using a six-bay truss model, and employing an LQG control design method to obtain controllers for two separate structures. It is found that the assembled controller provides a stability in this instance. A qualitative assessment of the stability robustness of the system with controller designed with the SCS method is provided by obtaining a controller using the complete truss model and comparing the robustness of the corresponding closed-loop systems.

  14. Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation Assessment, Diagnosis and Improvement of Control Loop Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jelali, Mohieddine

    2013-01-01

    Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation provides a coherent and self-contained treatment of a group of methods and applications of burgeoning importance to the detection and solution of problems with control loops that are vital in maintaining product quality, operational safety, and efficiency of material and energy consumption in the process industries. The monograph deals with all aspects of control performance management (CPM), from controller assessment (minimum-variance-control-based and advanced methods), to detection and diagnosis of control loop problems (process non-linearities, oscillations, actuator faults), to the improvement of control performance (maintenance, re-design of loop components, automatic controller re-tuning). It provides a contribution towards the development and application of completely self-contained and automatic methodologies in the field. Moreover, within this work, many CPM tools have been developed that goes far beyond available CPM packages. Control Perform...

  15. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    OpenAIRE

    Tarau, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased considerably. In order to be able to handle the large volumes of mail, state-of-the-art post sorting centers are equipped with dedicated mail sorting machines. The throughput of a post sorting machine is def...

  16. Improved synthesis of anti-[18F]FACBC: improved preparation of labeling precursor and automated radiosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConathy, Jonathan; Voll, Ronald J; Yu, Weiping; Crowe, Ronald J; Goodman, Mark M

    2003-06-01

    The non-natural amino acid anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC) has shown promise for tumor imaging with positron emission tomography. An improved synthesis of the precursor of anti-[18F]FACBC has been devised which demonstrates high stereoselectivity and suitability for large-scale preparations. An automated radiosynthesis has been developed which provides anti-[18F]FACBC in 24% decay-corrected yield. Additionally, the major non-radioactive species present in doses of anti-[18F]FACBC has been identified as anti-1-amino-3-hydroxycyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid. Together, these results are important steps towards the routine production of anti-[18F]FACBC for human use.

  17. Design, automated synthesis and immunological evaluation of NOD2-ligand–antigen conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian M. J. H. P. Willems

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The covalent attachment of an innate immune system stimulating agent to an antigen can provide active vaccine modalities capable of eliciting a potent immune response against the incorporated antigen. Here we describe the design, automated synthesis and immunological evaluation of a set of four muramyl dipeptide–peptide antigen conjugates. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP represents a well-known ligand for the intracellular NOD2 receptor and our study shows that covalently linking an MDP-moiety to an antigenic peptide can lead to a construct that is capable of stimulating the NOD2 receptor if the ligand is attached at the anomeric center of the muramic acid. The constructs can be processed by dendritic cells (DCs and the conjugation does not adversely affect the presentation of the incorporated SIINFEKL epitope on MHC-I molecules. However, stimulation of the NOD2 receptor in DCs was not sufficient to provide a strong immunostimulatory signal.

  18. A Validity-Based Approach to Quality Control and Assurance of Automated Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Isaac I.

    2011-01-01

    Automated scoring of constructed responses is already operational in several testing programmes. However, as the methodology matures and the demand for the utilisation of constructed responses increases, the volume of automated scoring is likely to increase at a fast pace. Quality assurance and control of the scoring process will likely be more…

  19. Construction of cryptographic information protection in automated control systems for rapid reaction military forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Evseev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to realizations of military operations are analyzed. The main factors that directly affect the construction and operation of information security subsystems in prospective automated command and control military systems are described. Possible ways of the construction of cryptographic subsystems of information protection in automated operation management systems for united military force groups are investigated.

  20. The modeling of transfer of steering between automated vehicle and human driver using hybrid control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaustubh, M.; Willemsen, D.M.C.; Mazo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of autonomous driving pursue driverless technologies, whereas others foresee a gradual transition where there will be automated driving systems that share the control of the vehicle with the driver. With such advances it becomes pertinent that the developed automated systems need to be sa

  1. Automated waste canister docking and emplacement using a sensor-based intelligent controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensor-based intelligent control system is described that utilizes a multiple degree-of-freedom robotic system for the automated remote manipulation and precision docking of large payloads such as waste canisters. Computer vision and ultrasonic proximity sensing are used to control the automated precision docking of a large object with a passive target cavity. Real-time sensor processing and model-based analysis are used to control payload position to a precision of ± 0.5 millimeter

  2. Microprocessor-based integration of microfluidic control for the implementation of automated sensor monitoring and multithreaded optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, Elishai; Maor, Idan; Bavli, Danny; Shalom, Itai; Levy, Gahl; Prill, Sebastian; Jaeger, Magnus S; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic applications range from combinatorial synthesis to high throughput screening, with platforms integrating analog perfusion components, digitally controlled micro-valves and a range of sensors that demand a variety of communication protocols. Currently, discrete control units are used to regulate and monitor each component, resulting in scattered control interfaces that limit data integration and synchronization. Here, we present a microprocessor-based control unit, utilizing the MS Gadgeteer open framework that integrates all aspects of microfluidics through a high-current electronic circuit that supports and synchronizes digital and analog signals for perfusion components, pressure elements, and arbitrary sensor communication protocols using a plug-and-play interface. The control unit supports an integrated touch screen and TCP/IP interface that provides local and remote control of flow and data acquisition. To establish the ability of our control unit to integrate and synchronize complex microfluidic circuits we developed an equi-pressure combinatorial mixer. We demonstrate the generation of complex perfusion sequences, allowing the automated sampling, washing, and calibrating of an electrochemical lactate sensor continuously monitoring hepatocyte viability following exposure to the pesticide rotenone. Importantly, integration of an optical sensor allowed us to implement automated optimization protocols that require different computational challenges including: prioritized data structures in a genetic algorithm, distributed computational efforts in multiple-hill climbing searches and real-time realization of probabilistic models in simulated annealing. Our system offers a comprehensive solution for establishing optimization protocols and perfusion sequences in complex microfluidic circuits. PMID:26227212

  3. Microprocessor-based integration of microfluidic control for the implementation of automated sensor monitoring and multithreaded optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, Elishai; Maor, Idan; Bavli, Danny; Shalom, Itai; Levy, Gahl; Prill, Sebastian; Jaeger, Magnus S; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic applications range from combinatorial synthesis to high throughput screening, with platforms integrating analog perfusion components, digitally controlled micro-valves and a range of sensors that demand a variety of communication protocols. Currently, discrete control units are used to regulate and monitor each component, resulting in scattered control interfaces that limit data integration and synchronization. Here, we present a microprocessor-based control unit, utilizing the MS Gadgeteer open framework that integrates all aspects of microfluidics through a high-current electronic circuit that supports and synchronizes digital and analog signals for perfusion components, pressure elements, and arbitrary sensor communication protocols using a plug-and-play interface. The control unit supports an integrated touch screen and TCP/IP interface that provides local and remote control of flow and data acquisition. To establish the ability of our control unit to integrate and synchronize complex microfluidic circuits we developed an equi-pressure combinatorial mixer. We demonstrate the generation of complex perfusion sequences, allowing the automated sampling, washing, and calibrating of an electrochemical lactate sensor continuously monitoring hepatocyte viability following exposure to the pesticide rotenone. Importantly, integration of an optical sensor allowed us to implement automated optimization protocols that require different computational challenges including: prioritized data structures in a genetic algorithm, distributed computational efforts in multiple-hill climbing searches and real-time realization of probabilistic models in simulated annealing. Our system offers a comprehensive solution for establishing optimization protocols and perfusion sequences in complex microfluidic circuits.

  4. Acoustic Wake-Up Receivers for Home Automation Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bannoura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated home applications are to ease the use of technology and devices around the house. Most of the electronic devices, like shutters or entertainment products (Hifi, TV and even WiFi, are constantly in a standby mode, where they consume a considerable amount of energy. The standby mode is necessary to react to commands triggered by the user, but the time the device spends in a standby mode is considered long. In our work, we present a receiver that is attached to home appliances that allows the devices to be activated while they are completely turned off in order to reduce the energy consumed in the standby mode. The receiver contains a low power wake-up module that reacts to an addressable acoustic 20-kHz sound signal that controls home devices that are connected to it. The acoustic wake-up signal can be sent by any kind of speaker that is available in commercial smartphones. The smartphones will operate as transmitters to the signals. Our wake-up receiver consists of two parts: a low power passive circuit connected to a wake-up chip microcontroller and an active micro-electromechanical system (MEMS microphone that receives the acoustic signal. A duty cycle is required to reduce the power consumption of the receiver, because the signal reception occurs when the microphone is active. The current consumption was measured to be 15 μA in sleep mode and 140 μA in active mode. An average wake-up range of 10 m using a smartphone as a sender was achieved.

  5. 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 11th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2014), held in Vienna, Austria, from 1 to 3 September 2014. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in the application of informatics to Control, Automation and Robotics. Four simultaneous tracks will be held, covering Intelligent Control Systems, Optimization, Robotics, Automation, Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modelling and Control, and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management. Informatics applications are pervasive in many areas of Control, Automation and Robotics. ICINCO 2014 received 301 submissions, from 49 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 20% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, ba...

  6. 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Madani, Kurosh; Gusikhin, Oleg; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2015), held in Colmar, France, from 21 to 23 July 2015. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in the application of informatics to Control, Automation and Robotics. Four simultaneous tracks will be held, covering Intelligent Control Systems, Optimization, Robotics, Automation, Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modelling and Control, and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management. Informatics applications are pervasive in many areas of Control, Automation and Robotics. ICINCO 2015 received 214 submissions, from 42 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 14% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based ...

  7. Synthesis water level control by fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Berk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper focuses on evolving of two types fuzzy and classical PID liquid level controller and examining whether they are better able to handle modelling uncertainties. A two stage strategy is employed to design the synthesis fuzzy and classical PID controller with the process of the first and second order and implements disorder (quadratic function.Design/methodology/approach: The synthesis of fuzzy and classical PID liquid level controller was realized with the HP laptop 6830s Compaq NA779ES, software Matlab/Simulink 2008b, FIS (Fuzzy Inference System soft logical tool, input-output unit 500 Dragon Rider and ultrasonic sensor. Using the simulation program Matlab/Simulink/FIS we simulate the operation of fuzzy and classical controller in the liquid level regulating cycle and made a comparison between fuzzy and classical controller functioning.Findings: From the responses to step fuzzy and classical controller for first-order process shows that the actual value of the controlled variable takes the value one. Fuzzy and classical PID controller does not allow control derogation, which is also inappropriate for fuzzy and classical control cycle with incorporating disturbance. Classical PID controller in the first-order process provides short-term regulation, such as fuzzy PID controller. In fuzzy control cycle with fuzzy PID controller and incorporating disturbance in the process of second-order the control cycle is stable and at certain predetermined parameters (integral gain a control does not allow deviations.Research limitations/implications: In future research, the robustness of the fuzzy logic controller will be investigated in more details.Practical implications: Using fuzzy liquid level controller can reduce power consumption by 25%. Originality/value: Fuzzy logic controller is useful in applications of nonlinear static characteristic, where classical methods with usually classical PID controllers cannot be a satisfactory outcome

  8. Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) for ISS Flight Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) intended for use by International Space Station (ISS) ground controllers to increase the...

  9. INTEGRATION OF INFORMATIONAL COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES SMK: AUTOMATION OF THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE TECHNICAL CONTROL DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pavlenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that automation of some functions of control department allows to record defects, reclamations and failures of technology, to make the necessary reporting forms and quality certificates for production.

  10. Development of an automated multi-stage modal synthesis system for NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, D. N.; Hoesly, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mode synthesis development to be scheduled in the NASTRAN multi-level substructuring system for general dynamics applications is described. The method combines the better features of several state of the art mode synthesis techniques, yet is general enough to provide for any arbitrary combination of boundary degrees of freedom and normal mode boundary conditions. Normal modes or complex eigenvectors may be used in the definition of a structure component which may be combined with other components of any type. Combination structures fabricated from component modes may be processed as normal substructures, including further multi-stage mode synthesis reductions. Included are discussions of the user control of the system and advantages in actual application.

  11. Odor control in swine buildings: recycle flush vs. automated scraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...

  12. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation project includes reduction of the risk associated with the integration of new, beneficial software techniques. Demonstrations of this software to baseline engineering and test personnel will show the benefits of these techniques. The advanced software will be integrated into ground testing and ground support facilities, familiarizing its usage by key personnel.

  13. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven K. Logan

    2012-08-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its

  14. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working situations were too different

  15. Automated synthesis of n.c.a. [18F]FDOPA via nucleophilic aromatic substitution with [18F]fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved, automated synthesis of [18F]FDOPA including four synthetic steps (fluorination, reductive iodination, alkylation and hydrolysis) is reported with each step optimized individually. In a home-made automatic synthesizer, 9064±3076 MBq of [18F]FDOPA were produced within 120 min from EOB (n=5). Radiochemical purity and enantiomeric excess were both ≥95%. Specific activity was ca. 50 GBq/μmol at EOS. This automatically operable synthesis is well suited for the multi-patient-dose routine production of n.c.a. [18F]FDOPA.

  16. Automated design synthesis of robotic/human workcells for improved manufacturing system design in hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Joshua M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-12

    Manufacturing tasks that are deemed too hazardous for workers require the use of automation, robotics, and/or other remote handling tools. The associated hazards may be radiological or nonradiological, and based on the characteristics of the environment and processing, a design may necessitate robotic labor, human labor, or both. There are also other factors such as cost, ergonomics, maintenance, and efficiency that also effect task allocation and other design choices. Handling the tradeoffs of these factors can be complex, and lack of experience can be an issue when trying to determine if and what feasible automation/robotics options exist. To address this problem, we utilize common engineering design approaches adapted more for manufacturing system design in hazardous environments. We limit our scope to the conceptual and embodiment design stages, specifically a computational algorithm for concept generation and early design evaluation. In regard to concept generation, we first develop the functional model or function structure for the process, using the common 'verb-noun' format for describing function. A common language or functional basis for manufacturing was developed and utilized to formalize function descriptions and guide rules for function decomposition. Potential components for embodiment are also grouped in terms of this functional language and are stored in a database. The properties of each component are given as quantitative and qualitative criteria. Operators are also rated for task-relevant criteria which are used to address task compatibility. Through the gathering of process requirements/constraints, construction of the component database, and development of the manufacturing basis and rule set, design knowledge is stored and available for computer use. Thus, once the higher level process functions are defined, the computer can automate the synthesis of new design concepts through alternating steps of embodiment and function structure

  17. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-14

    Double-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing fluorophores interacting by energy-transfer mechanisms are essential for modern bioanalysis, molecular diagnostics, and in vivo imaging techniques. Although bright xanthene and cyanine dyes are gaining increased prominence within these fields, little attention has thus far been paid to probes containing these dyes internally attached, a fact which is mainly due to the quite challenging synthesis of such oligonucleotide probes. Herein, by using 2'-O-propargyl uridine phosphoramidite and a series of xanthenes and cyanine azide derivatives, we have for the first time performed solid-phase copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click labeling during the automated phosphoramidite oligonucleotide synthesis followed by postsynthetic click reactions in solution. We demonstrate that our novel strategy is rapid and efficient for the preparation of novel oligonucleotide probes containing internally positioned xanthene and cyanine dye pairs and thus represents a significant step forward for the preparation of advanced fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the novel xanthene and cyanine labeled probes display unusual and very promising photophysical properties resulting from energy-transfer interactions between the fluorophores controlled by nucleic acid assembly. Potential benefits of using these novel fluorescent probes within, for example, molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy include: Considerable Stokes shifts (40-110 nm), quenched fluorescence of single-stranded probes accompanied by up to 7.7-fold light-up effect of emission upon target DNA/RNA binding, remarkable sensitivity to single-nucleotide mismatches, generally high fluorescence brightness values (FB up to 26), and hence low limit of target detection values (LOD down to <5 nM).

  18. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzon Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  19. Instrumentation, control and automation in wastewater - from London 1973 to Narbonne 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, G.; Carlsson, B.; Comas, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Key developments of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) applications in wastewater systems during the past 40 years are highlighted in this paper. From the first ICA conference in 1973 through to today there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the processes, instrumen......Key developments of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) applications in wastewater systems during the past 40 years are highlighted in this paper. From the first ICA conference in 1973 through to today there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the processes......, instrumentation, computer systems and control theory. However, many developments have not been addressed here, such as sewer control, drinking water treatment and water distribution control. It is hoped that this review can stimulate new attempts to more effectively apply control and automation in water systems...

  20. Automated Solution-Phase Synthesis of Insect Glycans to Probe the Binding Affinity of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shu-Lun; Linz, Lucas B; Bonning, Bryony C; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2015-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV)--a plant RNA virus transmitted exclusively by aphids--causes disease in multiple food crops. However, the aphid-virus interactions required for disease transmission are poorly understood. For virus transmission, PEMV binds to a heavily glycosylated receptor aminopeptidase N in the pea aphid gut and is transcytosed across the gut epithelium into the aphid body cavity prior to release in saliva as the aphid feeds. To investigate the role of glycans in PEMV-aphid interactions and explore the possibility of viral control through blocking a glycan interaction, we synthesized insect N-glycan terminal trimannosides by automated solution-phase synthesis. The route features a mannose building block with C-5 ester enforcing a β-linkage, which also provides a site for subsequent chain extension. The resulting insect N-glycan terminal trimannosides with fluorous tags were used in a fluorous microarray to analyze binding with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled PEMV; however, no specific binding between the insect glycan and PEMV was detected. To confirm these microarray results, we removed the fluorous tag from the trimannosides for isothermal titration calorimetry studies with unlabeled PEMV. The ITC studies confirmed the microarray results and suggested that this particular glycan-PEMV interaction is not involved in virus uptake and transport through the aphid. PMID:26457763

  1. Automated Solution-Phase Synthesis of Insect Glycans to Probe the Binding Affinity of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shu-Lun; Linz, Lucas B; Bonning, Bryony C; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2015-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV)--a plant RNA virus transmitted exclusively by aphids--causes disease in multiple food crops. However, the aphid-virus interactions required for disease transmission are poorly understood. For virus transmission, PEMV binds to a heavily glycosylated receptor aminopeptidase N in the pea aphid gut and is transcytosed across the gut epithelium into the aphid body cavity prior to release in saliva as the aphid feeds. To investigate the role of glycans in PEMV-aphid interactions and explore the possibility of viral control through blocking a glycan interaction, we synthesized insect N-glycan terminal trimannosides by automated solution-phase synthesis. The route features a mannose building block with C-5 ester enforcing a β-linkage, which also provides a site for subsequent chain extension. The resulting insect N-glycan terminal trimannosides with fluorous tags were used in a fluorous microarray to analyze binding with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled PEMV; however, no specific binding between the insect glycan and PEMV was detected. To confirm these microarray results, we removed the fluorous tag from the trimannosides for isothermal titration calorimetry studies with unlabeled PEMV. The ITC studies confirmed the microarray results and suggested that this particular glycan-PEMV interaction is not involved in virus uptake and transport through the aphid.

  2. Controlled synthesis of single-crystalline graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xueshen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the controlled synthesis of single-crystalline graphene on the back side of copper foil using CH4 as the precursor. The influence of growth time and the pressure ratio of CH4/H2 on the structure of graphene are examined. An optimized polymer-assisted method is used to transfer the synthesized graphene onto a SiO2/Si substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the graphene.

  3. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Design and Development of a Simple Low-cost Touchscreen to Control Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muntasir Rahman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human and computer interaction has been developed into a wide and sophisticated field. Earlier automating electrical devices were absolutely mechanical. But with the invention of computer system, many computer researchers have tried to create computer based intelligent systems to accomplish many of their functionalities. Touchscreen controlled home automation system is one of them. These fascinating efforts to create intelligent systems are to provide human being a more convenient life. Moreover, it would accelerate the working speed of users. This paper concentrates primarily on experimental experiences on home automation system with a low-cost touchscreen technology. The proposed system provide an environment in which user can give commands by touching desired position on the touchscreen to automate the control of electrical devices. The interfacing circuit is designed using electronic components available in local market to keep the cost at low level.

  5. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen;

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications...... and markedly improve patient quality of life. An artificial pancreas consists of portable devices for glucose sensing and insulin delivery which are controlled by an algorithm residing on a computer. The technology is still under development and currently no artificial pancreas is commercially available....... This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research....

  6. Modelling of the enzymatic kinetically controlled synthesis of cephalexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Fretz, C.B.; Bruin, de V.H.; Berendsen, W.; Moody, H.M.; Roos, E.C.; Roon, van J.L.; Kroon, P.J.; Strubel, M.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Tramper, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the influence of diffusion limitation on enzymatic kinetically controlled cephalexin synthesis from phenylglycine amide and 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporinic acid (7-ADCA) was investigated systematically. It was found that if diffusion limitation occurred, both the synthesis/hydrolysis r

  7. Intelligent Control Mechanism of Part Picking Operations of Automated Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chwen-Tzeng; Su

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the part picking operations of a ut omated warehouse. It assumed the demand of picking orders of automated warehouse are dynamic generated. Once the picking orders of certain period of time are kn own, it is necessary to decide an efficient order picking sequence and routing t o minimize the total travel distance to complete those orders. Assumed there are n i items to be picked in order O i. Each item in the picking ord er is located in different locations in the warehouse. Since i...

  8. Fully automated synthesis of [(18) F]fluoro-dihydrotestosterone ([(18) F]FDHT) using the FlexLab module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Lewis, Jason S; Young, Kenneth; Morris, Michael J; Weickhardt, Andrew; Davis, Ian D; Scott, Andrew M

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer using F-18 FDHT is becoming increasingly popular. With the radiolabelling precursor now commercially available, developing a fully automated synthesis of [(18) F] FDHT is important. We have fully automated the synthesis of F-18 FDHT using the iPhase FlexLab module using only commercially available components. Total synthesis time was 90 min, radiochemical yields were 25-33% (n = 11). Radiochemical purity of the final formulation was > 99% and specific activity was > 18.5 GBq/µmol for all batches. This method can be up-scaled as desired, thus making it possible to study multiple patients in a day. Furthermore, our procedure uses 4 mg of precursor only and is therefore cost-effective. The synthesis has now been validated at Austin Health and is currently used for [(18) F]FDHT studies in patients. We believe that this method can easily adapted by other modules to further widen the availability of [(18) F]FDHT.

  9. Automated synthesis of novel cell death imaging tracer 18F-FPDuramycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The noninvasive imaging of cell death plays an important role in the evaluation of degenerative diseases and detection of tumor treatments. Duramycin, a peptide with 19-amino acid, is produced by Streptoverticillium cinnamoneus. It binds specifically to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a novel molecular target for cell death. Purpose: The aim is to develop a synthetic method to label duramycin using 18F ion. The automated synthesis was carried out by multi-step procedure on the modified PET-MF-2V-IT-I synthesizer. Methods: Firstly, the prosthetic group of 4-nitrophenyl 2-[18F]fluoropropionate (18F-NFP) was automatically synthesized by a convenient three-step procedure. Secondly, 18F-FPDuramycin was synthesized by conjunction of 18F-NFP with duramycin, which was purified by a solid-phase extraction cartridge. Orthogonal test was performed to confirm the suitable reaction conditions (solvent, base and temperature). Results: The radiochemical yields of 18F-NFP were (25±5)% (n=10, decay-uncorrected) based on[18F]fluoride in 80 min. 18F-FPDuramycin was obtained with yield of (70±3)% (n=8, decay-uncorrected) based on 18F-NFP within 20 min. The radiochemical purity of 18F-FPDuramycin was greater than 99% and the specific activity was greater than (23.7±13.7) GBq·μmol-1 (n=10). Conclusion: 18F-FPDuramycin injection is easy to be prepared with 'two-pot reaction' and is a promising radiotracer used for the clinical and scientific study on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. (authors)

  10. Automated optimal glycaemic control using a physiology based pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic model

    OpenAIRE

    Schaller, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    After decades of research, Automated Glucose Control (AGC) is still out of reach for everyday control of blood glucose. The inter- and intra-individual variability of glucose dynamics largely arising from variability in insulin absorption, distribution, and action, and related physiological lag-times remain a core problem in the development of suitable control algorithms. Over the years, model predictive control (MPC) has established itself as the gold standard in AGC systems in research. Mod...

  11. Synchronous Control Method and Realization of Automated Pharmacy Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Quan

    Firstly, the control method of elevator's synchronous motion is provided, the synchronous control structure of double servo motor based on PMAC is accomplished. Secondly, synchronous control program of elevator is implemented by using PMAC linear interpolation motion model and position error compensation method. Finally, the PID parameters of servo motor were adjusted. The experiment proves the control method has high stability and reliability.

  12. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  13. Automated robust control system design for variable speed drives

    OpenAIRE

    Okaeme, Nnamdi

    2008-01-01

    Traditional PI controllers have been largely employed for the control of industrial variable speed drives due to the design ease and performance satisfaction they provide but, the problem is that these controllers do not always provide robust performance under variable loads. Existing solutions present themselves as complex control strategies that demand specialist expertise for their implementation. As a direct consequence, these factors have limited their adoption for the industrial control...

  14. Rapid access to compound libraries through flow technology: fully automated synthesis of a 3-aminoindolizine library via orthogonal diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Paul P; James, Keith

    2012-10-01

    A novel methodology for the synthesis of druglike heterocycle libraries has been developed through the use of flow reactor technology. The strategy employs orthogonal modification of a heterocyclic core, which is generated in situ, and was used to construct both a 25-membered library of druglike 3-aminoindolizines, and selected examples of a 100-member virtual library. This general protocol allows a broad range of acylation, alkylation and sulfonamidation reactions to be performed in conjunction with a tandem Sonogashira coupling/cycloisomerization sequence. All three synthetic steps were conducted under full automation in the flow reactor, with no handling or isolation of intermediates, to afford the desired products in good yields. This fully automated, multistep flow approach opens the way to highly efficient generation of druglike heterocyclic systems as part of a lead discovery strategy or within a lead optimization program.

  15. Application of the Domestic C-11 Multifunction Module in the Automated Synthesis of 11C-acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shu-qiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestic C-11 multifunction module was used to establish a simple, rapid, efficient synthetic technology for the fully automated synthesis of11C-acetate. Methyl magnesium bromide Grignard (0.1 mL of 1.5 mol/L was used as a precursor to react with the 11C-CO2 in the Loop ring to produce intermediate acetyl bromide. The intermediate was first hydrolysis by acetic, and then purified, elution, and hydrochloric with acid. Then, the unreacted 11C-CO2 was removed by nitrogen. Finally, the product was neutralized with sodium phosphate and purified with sterile filtration membrane. The total synthesis time was about 10 minutes. The synthesis yield of 11C-acetate was (58.5±6.7% (decay corrected, and the radiochemical purity was more than 99%. The residual solvents were analyzed by gas chromatography. Analysis results indicated that concentration of the acetonitrile and acetone were (0.007±0.002% and (0.005±0.002%, respectively. The whole synthesis process was automatically completed, and the operation was simple and flexible with high synthesis efficiency and radiochemical purity, it was suitable for clinical performance of PET.

  16. Design features of an automated entry control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of an entry control system designed to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. Control independent of variable human factors is stressed, but security force action is required for assessment and response as a result of an alarm. A design based on a distributed processing capability is utilized. Flexibility and generality are emphasized in an effort to maximize applicability to the entry-control problem faced by nuclear facilities upgrading security as a result of the Safeguards Program

  17. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Product and Producton Development (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working

  18. Planning and control of automated material handling systems: The merge module

    OpenAIRE

    Haneyah, Sameh; Hurink, Johann; Schutten, Marco; Zijm, Henk; Schuur, Peter; Hu, Bo; Morasch, Karl; Stefan PICKL; Siegle, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We address the field of internal logistics, embodied in Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs), which are complex installations employed in sectors such as Baggage Handling, Physical Distribution, and Parcel & Postal. We work on designing an integral planning and real-time control architecture, and a set of generic algorithms for AMHSs. Planning and control of these systems need to be robust, and to yield close-to-optimal system performance. Currently, planning and control of AMHSs is hi...

  19. Control of critical data flows : Automated monitoring of insurance data

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    EU insurance companies work on implementing the Solvency II directive, which calls for stronger focus on data quality and information controls. Information controls are procedures that can validate data at rest and data in motion to detect errors and anomalies. In this master thesis a case study was carried out at AMF, a Swedish pension insurance company, to identify and investigate their critical data flows and the controls performed in the respective flows. A purpose of this project is to h...

  20. Modeling and simulation of control system for electron beam machine (EBM) using programmable automation controller (PAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EBM electronic model is designed to simulate the control system of the Nissin EBM, which is located at Block 43, MINT complex of Jalan Dengkil with maximum output of 3 MeV, 30 mA using a Programmable Automation Controllers (PAC). This model operates likes a real EBM system where all the start-up, interlocking and stopping procedures are fully followed. It also involves formulating the mathematical models to relate certain output with the input parameters using data from actual operation on EB machine. The simulation involves a set of PAC system consisting of the digital and analogue input/output modules. The program code is written using Labview software (real-time version) on a PC and then downloaded into the PAC stand-alone memory. All the 23 interlocking signals required by the EB machine are manually controlled by mechanical switches and represented by LEDs. The EB parameters are manually controlled by potentiometers and displayed on analogue and digital meters. All these signals are then interfaced to the PC via a wifi wireless communication built-in at the PAC controller. The program is developed in accordance to the specifications and requirement of the original real EB system and displays them on the panel of the model and also on the PC monitor. All possible chances from human errors, hardware and software malfunctions, including the worst-case conditions will be tested, evaluated and modified. We hope that the performance of our model complies the requirements of operating the EB machine. It also hopes that this electronic model can replace the original PC interfacing being utilized in the Nissin EBM in the near future. The system can also be used to study the fault tolerance analysis and automatic re-configuration for advanced control of the EB system. (Author)

  1. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. Of primary interest to the OTD is the development of technologies which result in faster, safer, and cheaper cleanup of hazardous waste sites than possible using conventional approaches. The objective of the GISC development project is to support these goals by developing a modular robotics control approach which reduces the time and cost of development by allowing reuse of control system software and uses computer models to improve the safety of remote site cleanup while reducing the time and life cycle costs

  2. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict resol

  3. Generic Planning and Control of Automated Material Handling Systems: Practical Requirements Versus Existing Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, Sameh; Zijm, Henk; Schutten, Marco; Schuur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling, distrib

  4. Planning and control of automated material handling systems: The merge module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, Sameh; Hurink, Johann; Schutten, Marco; Zijm, Henk; Schuur, Peter; Hu, Bo; Morasch, Karl; Pickl, Stefan; Siegle, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We address the field of internal logistics, embodied in Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs), which are complex installations employed in sectors such as Baggage Handling, Physical Distribution, and Parcel & Postal. We work on designing an integral planning and real-time control architecture,

  5. Value sensitive design of automated workload distribution support for traffic control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of automated support for workload distribution in traffic control teams on human values such as security, autonomy and privacy. The paper describes a workshop in which the support system's stakeholders, their values, and the effects of the support system on these value

  6. 76 FR 81986 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 49531). The notice was amended on December 7, 2010 to include several on-site leased worker firms. The amended notice was published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77664-77665... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control...

  7. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative spra

  8. Knowledge based support for multiagent control and automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support in multiagent based control and diagnosis. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model for reasoning about control situations. The proposed mechanism have been used...

  9. Building control. Technical systems in buildings: Automation and management; 2. ed.; Building control. Technische Gebaeudesysteme: Automation und Bewirtschaftung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, H.R. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Gebaeudetechnik - Automation; Baenninger, M. [Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft, Zurich (Switzerland); Bieler, P. [ROM (Rud. Otto Meyer), Duesseldorf (Germany); Brettschneider, J.P. [PIA, Hanau (Germany); Damnig, A. [IBM Deutschland GmbH, Boeblingen (Germany); Fassbender, H.W. [Honeywell GmbH, Maintal (Germany); Friedrichs, K. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Architektur; Gauchel, J. [WIBc Objektorientierte Systeme fuer Gebaeudeplanung und -management, Karlsruhe (Germany); Hegewald, B. [Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie e.V. (ZVEI), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)]|[Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Kaelin, W. [Ingenieurbuero Werner Kaelin, Schwyz (Switzerland); Lezius, A. [Staefa Control System GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Markert, H. [MW Software GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Oehler, A. [Fachhochschule Reutlingen (Germany); Otto, J. [IEP Ingenieurbuero Dr. Ellrich und Partner, Muenchen (Germany); Puettmer, M. Jr. [Goetz GmbH, Fellbach (Germany); Rohrbacher, H. [ABB Stotz Kontakt, Heidelberg (Germany); Schuerdt, K. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Gebaeudetechnik; Vogt, D. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Wittling, J. [Canzler Ingenieure GmbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Cost-optimized management, business management and maintenance of buildings all rely on electronic data processing. Technical and administrative systems must be projected for `lean buildings`, i.e. with easy operability and high economic efficiency. This book presents an easy-to-read, interdisciplinary and practical introduction to the following issues: Data processing in projecting and operation - ecological concepts for refrigeration and external walls - facility management, alarm systems and automation - communication technology, open communication and networks - building systems engineering and installation bus - energy management - operators` experience - standards and regulations (European standards, the new VDI 3814 information list) - construction law and legal regulations (e.g. building products, CE certificates, electromagnetic compatibility, environmental liability, software licensing legislation). (orig.) 260 figs., 161 refs. [Deutsch] Kostenoptimiertes Management, Betriebswirtschaft und Instandhaltung von Gebaeuden ist ohne EDV nicht mehr denkbar. Technische und administrative Systeme muessen im Hinblick auf Bedienbarkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit geplant werden. Ziel sind `Lean-Buildings`. Dieses Buch behandelt kurzweilig, interdisziplinaer und praxisnah - EDV-Einsatz beim Planen und Betreiben - oekologische Kuehl- und Fassadenkonzepte - Facility Management, Gefahrenmeldetechnik, Gebaeudeautomation - Kommunikationstechnik, offene Kommunikation und Netzwerke - Gebaeudesystemtechnik und Installationsbus - Energiemanagement - Betreiber-Erfahrungen - Normen und Richtlinien (Stand der Europa-Normung, neue VDI 3814 Informationsliste) - Baurecht und Gesetz (z.B.: Bauprodukte, CE-Zeichen, elektromagnetische Vertraeglichkeit, Umwelt-Haftungsgesetz, Software-Lizenzrecht). (orig.)

  10. IEPLC Framework, Automated Communication in a Heterogeneous Control System Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Locci, F

    2014-01-01

    In CERN accelerators control system several components are essential such as: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), PCI Extensions for Instrumentation (PXI), and other micro-controller families. Together with their weaknesses and their strength points they typically present custom communication protocols and it is therefore difficult to federate them into the control system using a single communication strategy. Furthermore this dependency to the physical device interfaces and protocols makes most of the code not reusable and the replacement of old technology a difficult problem. The purpose of IEPLC ([1]) is to mitigate the communication issues given by this heterogeneity; it proposes a framework to define communication interfaces in a hardware independent manner. In addition it automatically generates all the resources needed on master side (typically represented by a FEC: Front-End Computer) and slave side (typically represented by the controller) to implement a common and generic Ethernet communication. Th...

  11. Development of advanced fermentor control applications for use in an industrial automation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Ryan; Tamminana, Krishna; Boyd, John; Sasaki, Gen; Toda, Alex; Haskell, Sid; Danbe, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    We present a software platform developed by Genentech and MathWorks Consulting Group that allows arbitrary MATLAB (MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.) functions to perform supervisory control of process equipment (in this case, fermentors) via the OLE for process control (OPC) communication protocol, under the direction of an industrial automation layer. The software features automated synchronization and deployment of server control code and has been proven to be tolerant of OPC communication interruptions. Since deployment in the spring of 2010, this software has successfully performed supervisory control of more than 700 microbial fermentations in the Genentech pilot plant and has enabled significant reductions in the time required to develop and implement novel control strategies (months reduced to days). The software is available for download at the MathWorks File Exchange Web site at http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/36866.

  12. Automated assay data processing and quality control: A review and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated data processing and quality control of assays offers not only increased speed but also a more thorough and statistically rigorous analysis of results. This review outlines the motivations, statistical definitions, and mathematical methods pertinent to assay data processing. The presentation concentrates on basic concepts rather than specific mathematical formulae. The numerous automated calibration procedures are discussed and summarized in tabular form. A comprehensive view of data processing is offered which includes much more than simple calibration and interpolation. A small number of calculator and computer programs which provide an acceptably detailed statistical analysis of assays are recommended. Finally, possible future developments in hardware and software are discussed. (author)

  13. A Domain-specific Framework for Automated Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    elaborate safety mechanisms in order to keep the risk at the same low level that has been established for European railways until today. The challenge is further increased by the demand for shorter time-to-market periods and higher competition among suppliers of the railway domain; both factors resulting in...... a demand for a higher degree of automation for the development verification, validation and test phases of projects, without impairing the thoroughness of safety-related quality measures and certification activities. Motivated by these considerations, this presentation describes an approach for...... automated construction and verification of railway control systems....

  14. Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness: A review of the empirical evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de Joost C.F.; Happee, Riender; Martens, Marieke H.; Stanton, Neville A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC), a driver assistance system that controls longitudinal motion, has been introduced in consumer cars in 1995. A next milestone is highly automated driving (HAD), a system that automates both longitudinal and lateral motion. We investigated the effects of ACC and HAD on d

  15. Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness : A review of the empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, J.C.F. de; Happee, R.; Martens, M.H.; Stanton, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC), a driver assistance system that controls longitudinal motion, has been introduced in consumer cars in 1995. A next milestone is highly automated driving (HAD), a system that automates both longitudinal and lateral motion. We investigated the effects of ACC and HAD on d

  16. Automated Synthesis of a Library of Triazolated 1,2,5-Thiadiazepane 1,1-Dioxides via a Double aza-Michael Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qin; Javed, Salim; Hill, David; Ullah, Farman; Bi, Danse; Porubsky, Patrick; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Lushington, Gerald H.; Santini, Conrad; Organ, Michael G.; Hanson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a 96-member library of triazolated 1,2,5-thiadiazepane 1,1-dioxides was performed on a Chemspeed Accelerator (SLT-100) automated parallel synthesis platform, culminating in the successful preparation of 94 out of 96 possible products. The key step, a one-pot, sequential elimination, double-aza-Michael reaction, and [3+2] Huisgen cycloaddition pathway has been automated and utilized in the production of two sets of triazolated sultam products. PMID:22853708

  17. Automation and control trends in the upstream sector of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plucenio, Agustinho; Pagano, Daniel J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Automacao, Controle e Instrumentacao para a Industria do Petroleo e Gas, PRH-34

    2004-07-01

    The need to continuously improve the aspects of Health, Safety and Environment to operators, installation's security, optimization of oil reservoir recovery in wells operating with different artificial lift methods, subject to different secondary recovery techniques, has motivated the development of technologies in the automation and control for the upstream sector of the oil industry. While the application of control and automation techniques is well established in the downstream sector of the oil industry that is not the case in the downstream sector. One tendency in this sector is the utilization of control via Field bus Networks. This technology uses equipment that communicate with each other in a two wire digital network and can be programmed to execute function blocks algorithms designed to perform a designed control strategy. The most noticeable benefits are the improvements in the process performance and the equipment reusability and interoperability. Proprietary solutions can be replaced by systems composed of equipment supplied by different manufacturers connected in the same network. These equipment operate according to a strategy designed by automation and control engineers under the supervision of professionals working in computer terminals located in different company departments. Other gains are a better understanding about the industry processes, application of optimization techniques, fault detection, equipment maintenance follow-up, and improved operators working conditions and workers qualification. Other tendencies are: permanent well monitoring. Either with installation of down hole sensors based on fiber grating sensors or surface sensors using embedded electronic processors. Developments of instrumentation technology for low cost multiphase flow measurements. Application of control techniques for flow regime control and optimization of reservoir recovery through better identification, optimization and Model Based Predictive Control

  18. 3rd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    2012-01-01

    Session 2 includes 110 papers selected from 2011 3rd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (CAR 2011), held on December 24-25, 2011, Shenzhen, China.   As we all know, the ever growing technology in robotics and automation will help build a better human society. This session will provide a unique opportunity for the academic and industrial communities to address new challenges, share solutions, and discuss research directions for the future. Robotics research emphasizes intelligence and adaptability to cope with unstructured environments. Automation research emphasizes efficiency, productivity, quality, and reliability, focusing on systems that operate autonomously. The main focus of this session is on the autonomous acquisition of semantic information in intelligent robots and systems, as well as the use of semantic knowledge to guide further acquisition of information.

  19. FUZZY CONTROLLED AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE MAIN COAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵良杉; 叶景楼; 付华

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy control scheme is presented according to the coal quantity in the main coal bunker, this method has a good dynamic response characteristic and is suited for complex nonlinear systems. The designation of self-adopting fuzzy controller, the working principle and functions of this system are also proposed, with the hardware and the main flow diagram of this system introduced in this paper.

  20. Plug-in electric vehicles automated charging control

    OpenAIRE

    Dallinger, David; Kohrs, Robert; Mierau, Michael; Marwitz, Simon; Wesche, Julius

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how plug-in electric vehicles can be managed to balance the fluctuation of renewable electricity sources. In this context, different control strategies are introduced. To investigate indirect control via electricity tariffs, an electricity market analysis is conducted of a system with a high share of generation from renewable electricity sources. The analysis uses driving data collected from battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in a research project which means tha...

  1. Monitoring and Control of the Automated Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugonnet, C.; D'Hoine, S.

    The objective of this paper is to present succinctly the architecture of the heart of the ATV Control Centre: the Monitoring and Control developed by CS for the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA). At the moment, the Monitoring and Control is in the development phase, a first real time version will be delivered to CNES in July 2003, then a second version will be delivered in October including off line capabilities. The following paper introduces the high level specifications and the main driving performance criteria of the monitoring and control system in order to successfully operate these complex ATV space vehicles from the first flight planned in 2004. It presents the approach taken by CS and CNES in order to meet this challenge in a very short time. ATV-CC Monitoring and Control system is based on the reuse of flight proven components that are integrated in a software bus based architecture. The paper particularly shows the advantages of using new computer technologies in operational system: use of Object Oriented technologies from specification, design (UML) to development (C++, Java, PLSQL), use of a CORBA Object Request Broker for the exchange of messages and some centralised services, use of Java for the development of an ergonomic and standardised (for all functions of the M&C) Graphical User Interface and the extensive use of XML for data exchanges.

  2. The LHCb Experiment Control System: On the path to full automation

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Garnier, JC; Frank, M; Cardoso, L; Schwemmer, R; Neufeld, N; Jost, B; Jacobsson, R; Callot, O; Franek, B

    2011-01-01

    LHCb is a large experiment at the LHC accelerator. The experiment control system is in charge of the configuration, control and monitoring of the different subdetectors and of all areas of the online system. The building blocks of the control system are based on the PVSS SCADA System complemented by a control Framework developed in common for the 4 LHC experiments. This framework includes an "expert system" like tool called SMI++ which is used for the system automation. The experiment's operations are now almost completely automated, driven by a top-level object called Big-Brother, which pilots all the experiment's standard procedures and the most common error-recovery procedures. The architecture, tools and mechanisms used for the implementation as well as some operational examples will be described.

  3. Design Patterns for and Automation of Federation State Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, R.E.J.; Ufer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The suitability of or choice for a particular design pattern for federation execution state control depends on several factors, such as the degree in which legacy applications can support particular patterns and the complexity of the federation. For small federations that involve only a handful of f

  4. Development and Testing Of The iCACC Intersection Controller For Automated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zohdy, Ismail Hisham

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that vehicle connectivity technology matures and connected vehicles hit the market, many of the running vehicles will be equipped with highly sophisticated sensors and communication hardware. Along with the goal of eliminating human distracted driving and increasing vehicle automation, it is necessary to develop novel intersection control strategies. Accordingly, the research presented in this dissertation develops an innovative system that controls the movement of vehicles using coo...

  5. Automated system of control and diagnostics of cast-steel defects in the mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, S. V.; Usoltsev, A. A.; Skopich, D. V.; Fatyanova, E. A.; Dolgopolov, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    To solve the problem of efficient control over technological process in the foundry the mathematical model is required, that would connect the the input and output parameters of the object. To collect the data on cast-steels defects an automated system was developed that greatly simplifies the process of technical control and allows the problem of process parameters optimization to be solved using the criterion of defects minimization in the cast- steels.

  6. Partitioning,Automation and Error Recovery in the Control and Monitoring System of an LHC Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Gaspar

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Controls Project(JCOP)is a collaboration between CERN and the four LHC experiments to find and implement common solutions for their control and monitoring systems.As part of this project and Architecture Working Group was set up in order to study the requirements and devise an architectural model that would suit the four experiments.Many issues were studied by this working group:Alarm handling,Access Control,Hierarchical Control,etc.This paper will report on the specific issue of hierarchical control and in particular partitioning,automation and error recovery.

  7. Nondestructive assay technology and automated ''real-time'' materials control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant advances in nondestructive assay techniques and instrumentation now enable rapid, accurate and direct in-plant measurement of nuclear material on a continuous or ''real-time'' basis as it progresses through a nuclear facility. A variety of passive and active assay instruments are required for the broad range of materials measurement problems encountered by safeguards inspectors and facility operators in various types of nuclear plants. Representative NDA techniques and instruments are presented and reviewed with special attention to their assay capabilities and areas of applicability in the nuclear fuel cycle. An advanced system of materials control - called ''DYMAC'', for Dynamic Materials Control - is presently under development by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration; the DYMAC program integrates new nondestructive assay instrumentation and modern data-processing methods, with the overall objective of demonstrating a workable, cost-effective system of stringent safeguards and materials control in various generic types of facilities found in the nuclear fuel cycle. Throughout the program, emphasis will be placed on devloping practical solutions to generic measurement problems so that resulting techniques and instrumentation will have widespread utility. Projected levels of safeguards assurance, together with other vital - and cost-sensitive - plant operational factors such as process and quality control, criticality safety and waste management are examined in an evaluation of the impact of future advanced materials control systems on overall plant operations, efficiency and productivity. The task of implementing effective and stringent safeguards includes the transfer of new safeguards technology to the nuclear industry. Clearly the training of inspectors (both IAEA and national), plant people, etc., in the effective use of new NDA equipment is of paramount importance; thus in the United States, the Energy Research and Development

  8. Early Validation of Automation Plant Control Software using Simulation Based on Assumption Modeling and Validation Use Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Brandstetter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In automation plants, technical processes must be conducted in a way that products, substances, or services are produced reliably, with sufficient quality and with minimal strain on resources. A key driver in conducting these processes is the automation plant’s control software, which controls the technical plant components and thereby affects the physical, chemical, and mechanical processes that take place in automation plants. To this end, the control software of an automation plant must adhere to strict process requirements arising from the technical processes, and from the physical plant design. Currently, the validation of the control software often starts late in the engineering process in many cases – once the automation plant is almost completely constructed. However, as widely acknowledged, the later the control software of the automation plant is validated, the higher the effort for correcting revealed defects is, which can lead to serious budget overruns and project delays. In this article we propose an approach that allows the early validation of automation control software against the technical plant processes and assumptions about the physical plant design by means of simulation. We demonstrate the application of our approach on the example of an actual plant project from the automation industry and present it’s technical implementation

  9. Development of an integrated spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for automated proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Peter Z.; Spencer, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation process of a highly automated Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for a small satellite on-orbit inspection application, enabling proximity operations without human-in-the-loop interaction. The paper focuses on the integration and testing of Guidance, Navigation, & Control software and the development of decision logic to address the question of how such a system can be effectively implemented for full automation. This process is unique because a multitude of operational scenarios must be considered and a set of complex interactions between subsystem algorithms must be defined to achieve the automation goal. The Prox-1 mission is currently under development within the Space Systems Design Laboratory at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The mission involves the characterization of new small satellite component technologies, deployment of the LightSail 3U CubeSat, entering into a trailing orbit relative to LightSail using ground-in-the-loop commands, and demonstration of automated proximity operations through formation flight and natural motion circumnavigation maneuvers. Operations such as these may be utilized for many scenarios including on-orbit inspection, refueling, repair, construction, reconnaissance, docking, and debris mitigation activities. Prox-1 uses onboard sensors and imaging instruments to perform Guidance, Navigation, & Control operations during on-orbit inspection of LightSail. Navigation filters perform relative orbit determination based on images of the target spacecraft, and guidance algorithms conduct automated maneuver planning. A slew and tracking controller sends attitude actuation commands to a set of control moment gyroscopes, and other controllers manage desaturation, detumble, thruster firing, and target acquisition/recovery. All Guidance, Navigation, & Control algorithms are developed in a MATLAB/Simulink six degree-of-freedom simulation environment and are integrated using

  10. Synthesis of dissipative output feedback controllers. Application to mechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannessen, Erling Aarsand

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents new results on the synthesis of linear controllers with passivity, or more general, dissipativity properties. These methods may be applied to obtain more accurate control over mechanical systems and in the control of chemical processes that involve dissipative subsystems. The thesis presents two different approaches for synthesis of dissipative controllers: (1) A method that exploits the Riccati equation solution to the state space formulation of the H{sub {infinity}} control problem is investigated, illustrated by synthesising a controller for damping of flexible modes in a beam. (2) A more general method for dissipative control synthesis is developed that retains the well-known techniques of loop-shaping and frequency weighting in H{sub {infinity}}. A method is also presented for controller synthesis directly from frequency response data. 82 refs., 34 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Waste utilization for the controlled synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work uses biomolecules in waste and medicinally important materials for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Orange and potato peel, eggshell, papaya leaf and calendula flower extracts have varied biomolecules, which exert a significant, control on the in situ synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite particles. The biomimetic synthesis of inorganic particles using known matrices is already well established, however, there are only a few reports using compound extracts. The synthesized nanocomposite has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies. Role of varied biomolecules in controlled inorganic synthesis may have tremendous technological impact.

  12. Waste utilization for the controlled synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayar, Suprabha, E-mail: Suprabha.nayar@gmail.com [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India); Guha, Avijit [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)

    2009-05-05

    This work uses biomolecules in waste and medicinally important materials for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Orange and potato peel, eggshell, papaya leaf and calendula flower extracts have varied biomolecules, which exert a significant, control on the in situ synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite particles. The biomimetic synthesis of inorganic particles using known matrices is already well established, however, there are only a few reports using compound extracts. The synthesized nanocomposite has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies. Role of varied biomolecules in controlled inorganic synthesis may have tremendous technological impact.

  13. Biosensors and Automation for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, M A

    2011-01-01

    Bioprocess monitoring and control is a complex task that needs rapid and reliable methods which are adaptable to continuous analysis. Process monitoring during fermentation is widely applicable in the field of pharmaceutical, food and beverages and wastewater treatment. The ability to monitor has direct relevance in improving performance, quality, productivity, and yield of the process. In fact, the complexity of the bioprocesses requires almost real time insight into the dynamic process for ...

  14. Automated quality control for genome wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Sally R.; Fardo, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides details on the necessary steps to assess and control data in genome wide association studies (GWAS) using genotype information on a large number of genetic markers for large number of individuals. Due to varied study designs and genotyping platforms between multiple sites/projects as well as potential genotyping errors, it is important to ensure high quality data. Scripts and directions are provided to facilitate others in this process.

  15. Logic control law design for automated manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien, Henry; Zamaï, Éric; Jacomino, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    To respond rapidly to the highly volatile market, the reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) have brought forward challenging issues. First of all there is a need to build a formal model of a manufacturing configuration. Second it has to be rather easy to derive the models associated to the manufacturing configuration changes (reconfiguration) from such an initial model. An off-line method of rapid design of an optimal logic control law (configuration) based on Petri net (PN) is presented...

  16. AUTOMATED DYE LASER CALIBRATION USING MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL AND OPTOGALVANIC DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, J

    1983-01-01

    A nitrogen pumped, grazing incidence dye laser has been designed with a fully dedicated microprocessor controller. One of the primary tasks of the processor is to determine the dye laser output wavelength and to maintain the correct wavelength while scanning. For this purpose, a fraction of the laser output is diverted to a small neon glow discharge lamp which is monitored for resonant opto-galvanic responses associated with atomic neon. As the laser is tuned, the responses are correlated wit...

  17. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote systems are needed to accomplish many tasks, such as the cleanup of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive, and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. In addition, hazardous operations, which in the past have been completed by technicians, are under scrutiny because of the high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. Traditional remote operations have, unfortunately, proven to also have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered human operators. However, recent advances in the integration of sensors and computing into the control of remotely operated equipment has shown great promise for reducing the cost of remote systems by providing faster and safer remote systems. The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the generic intelligent system controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. The GISC employs a highly modular architecture employing distributed real-time computing resources for speed and efficiency of computation. Currently, the graphics interface of GISC has been implemented on a Unix-based Silicon Graphics computer using commercial animation graphics software modified for real-time updating from sensory systems. A first implementation of GISC has been completed and is currently in use at Hanford, Washington, as part of the underground storage tank robotics technology development program

  18. UNICOS CPC6: Automated Code Generation for Process Control Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Prieto Barreiro, I

    2011-01-01

    The Continuous Process Control package (CPC) is one of the components of the CERN Unified Industrial Control System framework (UNICOS) [1]. As a part of this framework, UNICOS-CPC provides a well defined library of device types, amethodology and a set of tools to design and implement industrial control applications. The new CPC version uses the software factory UNICOS Application Builder (UAB) [2] to develop CPC applications. The CPC component is composed of several platform oriented plugins PLCs and SCADA) describing the structure and the format of the generated code. It uses a resource package where both, the library of device types and the generated file syntax, are defined. The UAB core is the generic part of this software, it discovers and calls dynamically the different plug-ins and provides the required common services. In this paper the UNICOS CPC6 package is introduced. It is composed of several plug-ins: the Instance generator and the Logic generator for both, Siemens and Schneider PLCs, the SCADA g...

  19. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) advanced automation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.; Carnes, Ray

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) Advanced Automation Project is to influence the design of the initial and evolutionary Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) ECLSS toward a man-made closed environment in which minimal flight and ground manpower is needed. Another objective includes capturing ECLSS design and development knowledge future missions. Our approach has been to (1) analyze the SSFP ECLSS, (2) envision as our goal a fully automated evolutionary environmental control system - an augmentation of the baseline, and (3) document the advanced software systems, hooks, and scars which will be necessary to achieve this goal. From this analysis, prototype software is being developed, and will be tested using air and water recovery simulations and hardware subsystems. In addition, the advanced software is being designed, developed, and tested using automation software management plan and lifecycle tools. Automated knowledge acquisition, engineering, verification and testing tools are being used to develop the software. In this way, we can capture ECLSS development knowledge for future use develop more robust and complex software, provide feedback to the knowledge based system tool community, and ensure proper visibility of our efforts.

  20. Automated quality control for genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Sally R; Fardo, David W

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides details on the necessary steps to assess and control data in genome wide association studies (GWAS) using genotype information on a large number of genetic markers for large number of individuals. Due to varied study designs and genotyping platforms between multiple sites/projects as well as potential genotyping errors, it is important to ensure high quality data. Scripts and directions are provided to facilitate others in this process. PMID:27635224

  1. 9th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Alain; Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh

    2014-01-01

    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the Ninth International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2012), held in Rome, Italy, from 28 to 31 July 2012. The conference was organized in four simultaneous tracks: Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization, Robotics and Automation, Systems Modeling, Signal Processing and Control and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management.   ICINCO 2012 received 360 paper submissions, from 58 countries in all continents. From these, after a blind review process, only 40 were accepted as full papers, of which 20 were selected for inclusion in this book, based on the classifications provided by the Program Committee. The selected papers reflect the interdisciplinary nature of the conference as well as the logic equilibrium between the four abovementioned tracks. The diversity of topics is an important feature of this conference, enabling an overall perception of several important scientific and...

  2. Method and System for Protection of Automated Control Systems for “Smart Buildings”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Mikhaylov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is related to system and method for protection of an automated control system (ACS against un-authorized devices connected to the ACS via wired or wireless channels that substantially obviates the disadvantages of the related art. The protection system monitors the signals spreading in the network analyzing the performance of the network for malicious code or hidden connections of attacker. The system is developed specifically for this purpose and it can protect the industrial control systems more effectively than standard anti-virus programs. Specific anti-virus software installed on a central server of the automated control system protects it from software-based attacks both from internal and external offenders. The system comprises a plurality of bus protection devices of different types, including any of a twisted-pair protection device, a power lines protection device, On-Board Diagnostics signal protocol protection device, and a wireless protection device.

  3. Development of a finite state machine for the automated operation of the LLRF control at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entry of digital signal processors in modern control systems not only allows for extended diagnostics compared to analog systems but also for sophisticated and tricky extensions of the control algorithms. With modern DSP- and FPGA-technology, the processing speed of digital systems is no longer inferior to analog systems in many applications. A higher degree of digitalization leads to an increased complexity of the systems and hence to higher requirements on their operators. The focus of research and development in the field of high frequency control has changed in the last few years and moved towards the direction of software development and complexity management. In the presented thesis, a frame for an automation concept of modern high frequency control systems is developed. The developed automation is based on the concept of finite state machines (FSM), which is established in industry for years. A flexible framework was developed, in which procedures communicate using standardized interfaces and can be exchanged easily. With that, the developer of high frequency control components as well as the operator on shift shall be empowered to improve and adapt the automation to changed conditions without special programming skills required. Along the automation concept a number of algorithms addressing various problems were developed which satisfy the needs of modern high frequency control systems. Among the developed and successfully tested algorithms are the calibration of incident and reflected wave of resonators without antennas, the fast adaptive compensation of repetitive errors, the robust estimation of the phase advance in the control loop and the latency adjustment for the rejection of instabilities caused by passband modes. During the development of the resonator theory, high value was set on the usability of the equation in algorithms for high frequency control. The usage of the common nomenclature of control theory emphasizes the underlying mathematical

  4. Development of a finite state machine for the automates operation of the LLRF control at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, A.

    2007-07-15

    The entry of digital signal processors in modern control systems not only allows for extended diagnostics compared to analog systems but also for sophisticated and tricky extensions of the control algorithms. With modern DSP- and FPGA-technology, the processing speed of digital systems is no longer inferior to analog systems in many applications. A higher degree of digitalization leads to an increased complexity of the systems and hence to higher requirements on their operators. The focus of research and development in the field of high frequency control has changed in the last few years and moved towards the direction of software development and complexity management. In the presented thesis, a frame for an automation concept of modern high frequency control systems is developed. The developed automation is based on the concept of finite state machines (FSM), which is established in industry for years. A flexible framework was developed, in which procedures communicate using standardized interfaces and can be exchanged easily. With that, the developer of high frequency control components as well as the operator on shift shall be empowered to improve and adapt the automation to changed conditions without special programming skills required. Along the automation concept a number of algorithms addressing various problems were developed which satisfy the needs of modern high frequency control systems. Among the developed and successfully tested algorithms are the calibration of incident and reflected wave of resonators without antennas, the fast adaptive compensation of repetitive errors, the robust estimation of the phase advance in the control loop and the latency adjustment for the rejection of instabilities caused by passband modes. During the development of the resonator theory, high value was set on the usability of the equation in algorithms for high frequency control. The usage of the common nomenclature of control theory emphasizes the underlying mathematical

  5. Trust in automation. Part II. Experimental studies of trust and human intervention in a process control simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, B M; Moray, N

    1996-03-01

    Two experiments are reported which examined operators' trust in and use of the automation in a simulated supervisory process control task. Tests of the integrated model of human trust in machines proposed by Muir (1994) showed that models of interpersonal trust capture some important aspects of the nature and dynamics of human-machine trust. Results showed that operators' subjective ratings of trust in the automation were based mainly upon their perception of its competence. Trust was significantly reduced by any sign of incompetence in the automation, even one which had no effect on overall system performance. Operators' trust changed very little with experience, with a few notable exceptions. Distrust in one function of an automatic component spread to reduce trust in another function of the same component, but did not generalize to another independent automatic component in the same system, or to other systems. There was high positive correlation between operators' trust in and use of the automation; operators used automation they trusted and rejected automation they distrusted, preferring to do the control task manually. There was an inverse relationship between trust and monitoring of the automation. These results suggest that operators' subjective ratings of trust and the properties of the automation which determine their trust, can be used to predict and optimize the dynamic allocation of functions in automated systems. PMID:8849495

  6. Metal-Organic Framework Synthesis System Based on Fuzzy Predictive Control via Network Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to construct metal-organic framework (MOF synthesis heating systems based on fuzzy method for monitoring and automatic control. In this study, the temperature sensing module for measurements sensed values that it through a wireless ZigBee chips and wired DAQ device for real-time data transmission. Because MOF synthesis, often due to different modes of heating or heating instability caused by its nucleation and crystal growth rate, is an important influence, leading to different crystallinity, the use of fuzzy theory to predict the temperature parameter and instant heating MOF synthesis parameters can be adjusted to improve the accuracy of the system. The research system to RS-232 interface module for infrared emission control packets issued and automated control of the furnace through the infrared receiver module. This study is based on a terminal interface window of Visual Basic programming and LabView graphical diagram for control system design. Finally, this research, through a number of experiments to validate the use of fuzzy system development methods and networks, can improve the accuracy of the reaction efficiency MOF sensing and control the heating system.

  7. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P., E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: sprenger@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  8. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  9. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project. Phase 1: Application evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a Freedom Station distributed system with inherent applicability to advanced automation primarily due to the comparatively large reaction times of its subsystem processes. This allows longer contemplation times in which to form a more intelligent control strategy and to detect or prevent faults. The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation Project is to reduce the flight and ground manpower needed to support the initial and evolutionary ECLS system. The approach is to search out and make apparent those processes in the baseline system which are in need of more automatic control and fault detection strategies, to influence the ECLSS design by suggesting software hooks and hardware scars which will allow easy adaptation to advanced algorithms, and to develop complex software prototypes which fit into the ECLSS software architecture and will be shown in an ECLSS hardware testbed to increase the autonomy of the system. Covered here are the preliminary investigation and evaluation process, aimed at searching the ECLSS for candidate functions for automation and providing a software hooks and hardware scars analysis. This analysis shows changes needed in the baselined system for easy accommodation of knowledge-based or other complex implementations which, when integrated in flight or ground sustaining engineering architectures, will produce a more autonomous and fault tolerant Environmental Control and Life Support System.

  10. Statistical modeling of bowing control applied to violin sound synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Maestre E.; Blaauw M.; Bonada J.; Guaus E.; Perez A.

    2010-01-01

    Excitation-continuous music instrument control patterns are often not explicitly represented in current sound synthesis techniques when applied to automatic performance. Both physical model-based and sample-based synthesis paradigms would benefit from a flexible and accurate instrument control model, enabling the improvement of naturalness and realism. We present a framework for modeling bowing control parameters in violin performance. Nearly non-intrusive sensing techniques allow fo...

  11. Experience with applying the automated control system to maintenance at the Bohunice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automated system of maintenance control at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice uses experience gained with the maintenance of the A-1 nuclear power plant. With regard to the range of work operations, maintenance includes inspection, routine repair, overhaul of equipment and replacement. Also observed is the classification of equipment according to whether it may be repaired without reactor shutdown or whether the reactor will have to be shut down. At present the maintenance of the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant is being processed by an automated control system into five year variable plans of repairs, annual and monthly plans of repairs, plans of shut-downs and a schedule of unit shutdowns. The repair plan includes over 6000 items. (Z.M.)

  12. Complex Event Processing Approach To Automated Monitoring Of Particle Accelerator And Its Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Grzegorczyk; Vito Baggiolini; Krzysztof Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a software component for automated monitoring and diagnostic information analysis of a particle accelerator and its control system. The information that is analyzed can be seen as streams of events. A Complex Event Processing (CEP) approach to event processing was selected. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to continuously query data coming from several streams. The presented software component is based on Esper, the most...

  13. Generic planning and control of automated material handling systems : practical requirements versus existing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Haneyah, Sameh; Zijm, Henk; Schutten, Marco; Schuur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling, distribution, and parcel & postal. Research in these sectors is heavily motivated by a collaboration between the authors and a major global company supplying AMHSs. The paper analyzes requirements from pr...

  14. Assessment Study on Sensors and Automation in the Industries of the Future. Reports on Industrial Controls, Information Processing, Automation, and Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Bonnie [Adventium Labs; Boddy, Mark [Adventium Labs; Doyle, Frank [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Jamshidi, Mo [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ogunnaike, Tunde [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This report presents the results of an expert study to identify research opportunities for Sensors & Automation, a sub-program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). The research opportunities are prioritized by realizable energy savings. The study encompasses the technology areas of industrial controls, information processing, automation, and robotics. These areas have been central areas of focus of many Industries of the Future (IOF) technology roadmaps. This report identifies opportunities for energy savings as a direct result of advances in these areas and also recognizes indirect means of achieving energy savings, such as product quality improvement, productivity improvement, and reduction of recycle.

  15. Automated quality control methods for sensor data: a novel observatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available National and international networks and observatories of terrestrial-based sensors are emerging rapidly. As such, there is demand for a standardized approach to data quality control, as well as interoperability of data among sensor networks. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON has begun constructing their first terrestrial observing sites with 60 locations expected to be distributed across the US by 2017. This will result in over 14 000 automated sensors recording more than > 100 Tb of data per year. These data are then used to create other datasets and subsequent "higher-level" data products. In anticipation of this challenge, an overall data quality assurance plan has been developed and the first suite of data quality control measures defined. This data-driven approach focuses on automated methods for defining a suite of plausibility test parameter thresholds. Specifically, these plausibility tests scrutinize data range, persistence, and stochasticity on each measurement type by employing a suite of binary checks. The statistical basis for each of these tests is developed and the methods for calculating test parameter thresholds are explored here. While these tests have been used elsewhere, we apply them in a novel approach by calculating their relevant test parameter thresholds. Finally, implementing automated quality control is demonstrated with preliminary data from a NEON prototype site.

  16. Automated quality control methods for sensor data: a novel observatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available National and international networks and observatories of terrestrial-based sensors are emerging rapidly. As such, there is demand for a standardized approach to data quality control, as well as interoperability of data among sensor networks. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON has begun constructing their first terrestrial observing sites, with 60 locations expected to be distributed across the US by 2017. This will result in over 14 000 automated sensors recording more than > 100 Tb of data per year. These data are then used to create other datasets and subsequent "higher-level" data products. In anticipation of this challenge, an overall data quality assurance plan has been developed and the first suite of data quality control measures defined. This data-driven approach focuses on automated methods for defining a suite of plausibility test parameter thresholds. Specifically, these plausibility tests scrutinize the data range and variance of each measurement type by employing a suite of binary checks. The statistical basis for each of these tests is developed, and the methods for calculating test parameter thresholds are explored here. While these tests have been used elsewhere, we apply them in a novel approach by calculating their relevant test parameter thresholds. Finally, implementing automated quality control is demonstrated with preliminary data from a NEON prototype site.

  17. Improved synthesis of anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC: improved preparation of labeling precursor and automated radiosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConathy, Jonathan; Voll, Ronald J.; Yu Weiping; Crowe, Ronald J.; Goodman, Mark M. E-mail: mgoodma@emory.edu

    2003-06-01

    The non-natural amino acid anti-1-amino-3-[{sup 18}F]fluorocyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC) has shown promise for tumor imaging with positron emission tomography. An improved synthesis of the precursor of anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC has been devised which demonstrates high stereoselectivity and suitability for large-scale preparations. An automated radiosynthesis has been developed which provides anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC in 24% decay-corrected yield. Additionally, the major non-radioactive species present in doses of anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC has been identified as anti-1-amino-3-hydroxycyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid. Together, these results are important steps towards the routine production of anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC for human use.

  18. Automated blind control to maximize the benefits of daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, So Young; Yeo, Myoung Souk; Kim, Kwang Woo [Department of Architecture, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2010-06-15

    Venetian blinds are a common type of shading device and are increasingly operated automatically to overcome the limitations of manual operation. Automated blinds need to be controlled to maximize benefits of daylight in the point of occupant comfort and energy consumption. However, the previous control methods are focused on minimizing negative impacts of daylight, so they might fail to maximize positive impacts of daylight. They may often overpredict a blind's position, resulting in the undesirable blockage of daylight. In this paper, we propose a new control method for automated venetian blinds to maximize occupant comfort. The proposed control method can not only protect occupants from direct solar glare but also maximize daylight penetration into buildings based on occupants' preferences on daylight. The proposed control method is designed to allow the occupants to define the zone they want protected from direct sunlight. It can control the blinds to protect only the defined zone; therefore, more daylight can be introduced to the other areas, excluding the predetermined zone. A control method for the case of one blind with one zone was developed and then extended for the case of multiple blinds with multiple zones. (author)

  19. Automated synthesis of both the topology and numerical parameters for seven patented optical lens systems using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W.; Al-Sakran, Sameer H.; Koza, John R.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes how genetic programming was used as an automated invention machine to synthesize both the topology and numerical parameters for seven previously patented optical lens systems, including one aspherical system and one issued in the 21st-century. Two of the evolved optical lens systems infringe the claims of the patents and the others are novel solutions that satisfy the design goals stated in the patent. The automatic synthesis was done "from scratch"--that is, without starting from a pre-existing good design and without pre-specifying the number of lenses, the topological layout of the lenses, or the numerical parameters of the lenses. Genetic programming is a form of evolutionary computation used to automatically solve problems. It starts from a high-level statement of what needs to be done and progressively breeds a population of candidate individuals over many generations using the principle of Darwinian natural selection and genetic recombination. The paper describes how genetic programming created eyepieces that duplicated the functionality of seven previously patented lens systems. The seven designs were created in a substantially similar and routine way, suggesting that the use of genetic programming in the automated design of both the topology and numerical parameters for optical lens systems may have widespread utility.

  20. Development of an automated modular system for the synthesis of [11C]acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felicini, Chiara; Någren, Kjell; Berton, Andrea;

    2010-01-01

    Carboxylation reactions offer a straightforward method for the synthesis of carbon-11 labelled carboxylic acids. Among these, the preparation of carbon-11 (C)-acetate is receiving increasing attention because of diagnostic applications in oncology in addition to its well-established use as a prob...... for myocardial oxidative metabolism. Although a number of dedicated modules are commercially available, the development of the synthesis on flexible platforms would be beneficial to widen the number of tracers, in particular for preclinical assessment and testing....

  1. Digital Coal Mine Integrated Automation System Based on ControlNet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-yun; ZHANG Shen; ZUO Wei-ran

    2007-01-01

    A three-layer model for digital communication in a mine is proposed. Two basic platforms are discussed: A uniform transmission network and a uniform data warehouse. An actual, ControlNet based, transmission network platform suitable for the Jining No.3 coal mine is presented. This network is an information superhighway intended to integrate all existing and new automation subsystems. Its standard interface can be used with future subsystems. The network, data structure and management decision-making all employ this uniform hardware and software. This effectively avoids the problems of system and information islands seen in traditional mine-automation systems. The construction of the network provides a stable foundation for digital communication in the Jining No.3 coal mine.

  2. Validation of the process control system of an automated large scale manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H; Kremers, H; Karrer, T; Traut, R H

    1998-02-01

    The validation procedure for the process control system of a plant for the large scale production of human albumin from plasma fractions is described. A validation master plan is developed, defining the system and elements to be validated, the interfaces with other systems with the validation limits, a general validation concept and supporting documentation. Based on this master plan, the validation protocols are developed. For the validation, the system is subdivided into a field level, which is the equipment part, and an automation level. The automation level is further subdivided into sections according to the different software modules. Based on a risk categorization of the modules, the qualification activities are defined. The test scripts for the different qualification levels (installation, operational and performance qualification) are developed according to a previously performed risk analysis.

  3. Review of 18F-FDG Synthesis and Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, S.

    2006-01-01

    This review article covers a concise account on fludeoxyglucose (18F–FDG) synthesis and quality control procedures with emphasis on practical synthesis Currently, 18F–FDG is the most successful PET radiopharmaceutical so far. The advancement in synthesis and quality control of 18F–FDG, together with its approval by the US FDA and the availability of reimbursement, are probably the main reasons for the flourish of clinical PET over the last 20 years. 18F–FDG can be synthesised by either electr...

  4. Methodology and planning for a microprocessor-oriented real time controller design automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matelan, M.N.; Smith, R.J. II

    1976-11-04

    A methodology for reducing the complexity of designing dedicated real-time control systems is developed. It is shown that three areas are amenable to automation: the selection and configuration of hardware, the production of software, and the adaptation of a monitor to maintain real-time integrity of the entire system. The concept of hardware binding is introduced, and it is shown that delaying the point in the design cycle where hardware is functionally bound allows a new approach to machine independence. Concepts which allow expression of repetitive control situations are described, and a realization-independent language (CSDL), based on these concepts, is defined. Methods for automatically selecting a time-wise correct monitor are classified, and techniques for specifying the realization capabilities of digital processors are discussed. These concepts and techniques are brought together in a design automation system for the production of a complete controller design from a behavioral description. An example description is traced through the CSD System; a software listing and hardware configuration document for an actual microprocessor (the Intel 8080) is produced. This research provides a structured description of the control system design process, and allows a unified perspective in the realization of controllers for applications previously considered to be unrelated. The concepts developed define a new direction in the production of real-time control systems. 9 figures, 4 tables.

  5. An automated microcomputer-controlled system for neutron activation and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) system has been constructed at the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). Its pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an Apple IIe computer, linked in turn to an MS-DOS-compatible microcomputer which controls data acquisition. Custom software has been created for these computers and for off-line spectral analysis using programs that incorporate either peak boundary or Gaussian peak fitting methods of analysis. This system provides the gamut of INAA techniques for the analyst. The design and performance of the hardware and software are discussed. (orig.)

  6. An automated microcomputer-controlled system for neutron activation and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward, J.B.; Bennett, L.G.I. (Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). SLOWPOKE-2 Facility Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering); Beeley, P.A. (Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). SLOWPOKE-2 Facility Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry); Anderson, A.; Burbidge, G.A. (Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). SLOWPOKE-2 Facility Nordion International, Inc., Kanata, ON (Canada))

    1990-12-20

    An automated instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) system has been constructed at the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). Its pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an Apple IIe computer, linked in turn to an MS-DOS-compatible microcomputer which controls data acquisition. Custom software has been created for these computers and for off-line spectral analysis using programs that incorporate either peak boundary or Gaussian peak fitting methods of analysis. This system provides the gamut of INAA techniques for the analyst. The design and performance of the hardware and software are discussed. (orig.).

  7. μ Synthesis Method for Robust Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    μ synthesis method for robust control of uncertain nonlinear systems is propored, which is based on feedback linearization. First, nonlinear systems are linearized as controllable linear systems by I/O linearization,such that uncertain nonlinear systems are expressed as the linear fractional transformations (LFTs) on the generalized linearized plants and uncertainty.Then,linear robust controllers are obtained for the LFTs usingμsynthesis method based on H∞ optimization.Finally,the nonlinear robust controllers are constructed by combining the linear robust controllers and the nonlinear feedback.An example is given to illustrate the design.

  8. Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness: A review of the empirical evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, de, R.J.; Happee, Riender; Martens, Marieke H.; Stanton, Neville A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC), a driver assistance system that controls longitudinal motion, has been introduced in consumer cars in 1995. A next milestone is highly automated driving (HAD), a system that automates both longitudinal and lateral motion. We investigated the effects of ACC and HAD on drivers’ workload and situation awareness through a meta-analysis and narrative review of simulator and on-road studies. Based on a total of 32 studies, the unweighted mean self-reported workload wa...

  9. Automated Synthesis of 18F Analogue of Paclitaxel (PAC): [18F]Paclitaxel (FPAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalen, Joseph D.; Hirsch, Jerry I.; Kurdziel, Karen A.; Eckelman, William C; Kiesewetter, Dale O.

    2006-01-01

    A positron-emitting paclitaxel (PAC) derivative could allow in-vivo measurement of multidrug resistance in tumors and, therefore, predict a potential chemotherapeutic benefit to patients. [18F]Paclitaxel was produced using a 2-reaction vessel automated synthesizer followed by HPLC purification. Optimized reaction conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 21.2 ± 9.6% at end of bombardment, radiochemical purity > 99%, and specific activity of 159 ± 43 GBq/μmol. [18F]Paclitaxel activities o...

  10. Automated Cross-Platform Code Synthesis from Web-Based Programming Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Byalik, Antuan

    2015-01-01

    For maximal market penetration, popular mobile applications are typically supported on all major platforms, including Android and iOS. Despite the vast differences in the look-and-feel of major mobile platforms, applications running on these platforms in essence provide the same core functionality. As an application is maintained and evolved, programmers need to replicate the resulting changes on all the supported platforms, a tedious and error-prone programming process. Commercial automated ...

  11. Illuminance-based slat angle selection model for automated control of split blinds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jia; Olbina, Svetlana [Rinker School of Building Construction, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-5703 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Venetian blinds play an important role in controlling daylight in buildings. Automated blinds overcome some limitations of manual blinds; however, the existing automated systems mainly control the direct solar radiation and glare and cannot be used for controlling innovative blind systems such as split blinds. This research developed an Illuminance-based Slat Angle Selection (ISAS) model that predicts the optimum slat angles of split blinds to achieve the designed indoor illuminance. The model was constructed based on a series of multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). The illuminance values at the sensor points used to develop the ANNs were obtained by the software EnergyPlus trademark. The weather determinants (such as horizontal illuminance and sun angles) were used as the input variables for the ANNs. The illuminance level at a sensor point was the output variable for the ANNs. The ISAS model was validated by evaluating the errors in the calculation of the: 1) illuminance and 2) optimum slat angles. The validation results showed that the power of the ISAS model to predict illuminance was 94.7% while its power to calculate the optimum slat angles was 98.5%. For about 90% of time in the year, the illuminance percentage errors were less than 10%, and the percentage errors in calculating the optimum slat angles were less than 5%. This research offers a new approach for the automated control of split blinds and a guide for future research to utilize the adaptive nature of ANNs to develop a more practical and applicable blind control system. (author)

  12. PMAC-based Tracking Control System for 8-axis Automated Tape-laying Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lin; Li Yong; Wen Liwei; Xiao Jun

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a computer numerical control (CNC)-based open hardware architecture system to realize the special functions of automated tape-laying (ATL) in a numerical control system. It associates a programmable multi-axis controller (PMAC) as the motion control unit with programmable numerical controllers (PCL-725, PCL-730) for on-off control. To bring about synchronized movements of the main 5-axis tape-laying head system and the 3-axis ultrasonic tape-cutting sub-system, the tracking-control method associated with time-based mode attributed to PMAC is applied in different cases. In addition, with the goal of realizing real-time tasks in the software system such as synchronizing motion control and on-off control, the real-time Win 2000 system is adopted. As a device driver for PMAC and PCL, a user graphical interface and a numerical control program interpretation module are also designed. This system is helpful to solve complicated problems in designing numerical controls for ATL such as ensuring high requirements for precise machine control and synchronization of motion control and on-off control.

  13. Development of an Automated Decision-Making Tool for Supervisory Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) Research and Development Program of the US Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular AdvSMR plants. This research activity advances the state of the art by incorporating real-time, probabilistic-based decision-making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides background information on the state of the art of automated decision-making, including the description of existing methodologies. It then presents a description of a generalized decision-making framework, upon which the supervisory control decision-making algorithm is based. The probabilistic portion of automated decision-making is demonstrated through a simple hydraulic loop example.

  14. 几种车辆纵向控制器的性能比较%Performance Comparison of Automated Vehicle Controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The design of intelligent vehicle control system is an important part of AHS (Automated highway systems).This paper addresses the problem of longitudinal control of a vehicles platoon and pressents the comparison of several control algorthms of vehicle longitudinal control system,Simlation of the appopriate platoon performance if presented.

  15. Generalized H2 Control Synthesis for Periodic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    solvability of $H_2$ suboptimal control are stated. An algorithm for state feedback control synthesis is provided. The findings are applied for the attitude control of a satellite equipped with electro-magnetic coils, which comprises a very attractive means of attitude corrections for small low...

  16. Research on the H∞ Controller Synthesis for Maglev Suspension System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The performances of a single-magnet model, which is the simplified model of Maglev suspension, are analyzed. The H∞ controller synthesized for the single-magnet model is presented. The synthesis results show that the control performance and robustness performance are satisfactory and the application of the H∞ controller to Maglev suspension is feasible and effective.

  17. AUTOMATED CONTROL SIMULATION OF PROFESSIONAL SKILLS FORMATION FOR PRODUCTION SYSTEM OPERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Fayzrakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter.We propose a mathematical model of the automated control of the professional skills formation for the trainee through exercises using computer training complex. Its distinctive features are: automatic receipt of the integral quality index of exercising on the basis of certain indicators of quality assessment in terms of trainee’s estimation fuzziness in the performance of exercises for each such indicator at different points in time; automatic gradual introduction of each quality indicator, tips and warnings in the process of repeated exercise performing in order to acquire quickly the ability of self-trained quality of their work; automatic control of the dynamics of the gradual forming of skills during repeated exercising. Method. The study used the basics of control theory, the fuzzy-set theory, analytic hierarchy process, mathematical modeling of iterative learning, modeling using Petri nets. Main Results. We have developed an original mathematical model of the automated control of the process of formation of professional skills for the future operators of industrial processes in the performance of practical exercises with the use of the computer training complex. Practical Significance. The proposed mathematical model and appropriate methodology can be applied to create computer-aided training of operators of different processes.

  18. Wireless Controlled Methods via Voice and Internet (e-mail for Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Ramlee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless Home Automation System (HAS that mainly performed by computer. The system is designed with several control methods in order to control the target electrical appliances. This various control methods implemented to fulfill the needs of users at home even at outside. The computer application is designed in Microsoft Windows OS that integrated with speech recognition voice control by using Microsoft Speech Application Programming Interface (SAPI. The voice control method provides more convenience especially to the blind and paralyzed users at home. This system is designed to perform short distance control by using wireless Bluetooth technology and long distance control by using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP email control method. The short distance control is considered as the control that performed inside the house. Moreover, the long distance control can be performed at everywhere by devices that installed with browser or email application, and also with the internet access. The system intended to control electrical appliances at home with relatively low cost design, user-friendly interface and ease of installation.

  19. Quality-Driven Synthesis and Optimization of Embedded Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Samii, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses several synthesis and optimization issues for embedded control systems. Examples of such systems are automotive and avionics systems in which physical processes are controlled by embedded computers through sensor and actuator interfaces. The execution of multiple control applications, spanning several computation and communication components, leads to a complex temporal behavior that affects control quality. The relationship between system timing and control quality is a...

  20. Automated system for acquisition and image processing for the control and monitoring boned nopal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano, E.; de Posada, E.; Arronte, M.; Ponce, L.; Flores, T.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a system for acquisition and image processing to control the removal of thorns nopal vegetable (Opuntia ficus indica) in an automated machine that uses pulses of a laser of Nd: YAG. The areolas, areas where thorns grow on the bark of the Nopal, are located applying segmentation algorithms to the images obtained by a CCD. Once the position of the areolas is known, coordinates are sent to a motors system that controls the laser to interact with all areolas and remove the thorns of the nopal. The electronic system comprises a video decoder, memory for image and software storage, and digital signal processor for system control. The firmware programmed tasks on acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation, recognition and interpretation of the areolas. This system achievement identifying areolas and generating table of coordinates of them, which will be send the motor galvo system that controls the laser for removal

  1. Automated synthesis of {sup 18}F analogue of paclitaxel (PAC): [{sup 18}F]Paclitaxel (FPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalen, Joseph D. [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: jdkalen@vcu.edu; Hirsch, Jerry I. [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Kurdziel, Karen A. [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Eckelman, William C. [Molecular Tracer, LLC, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kiesewetter, Dale O. [Positron Emission Tomography Radiochemistry Group, NIBIB, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    A positron-emitting paclitaxel (PAC) derivative could allow in vivo measurement of multidrug resistance in tumors and, therefore, predict a potential chemotherapeutic benefit to patients. [{sup 18}F]Paclitaxel was produced using a 2-reaction vessel automated synthesizer followed by HPLC purification. Optimized reaction conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 21.2+/-9.6% at end of bombardment, radiochemical purity >99%, and specific activity of 159+/-43GBq/{mu}mol. [{sup 18}F]Paclitaxel activities of 1.33+/-0.729GBq (n=7) were obtained in sterile, pyrogen-free solution for IV administration.

  2. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  3. Control of Ribosome Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Meyenburg, K. von; Måløe, O.;

    1977-01-01

    The rate of ribosome synthesis and accumulation in Escherichia coli during the transition after an energy source shift-down was analyzed. The shift was imposed on cultures of stringent and relaxed strains growing in glucose minimal medium by the addition of the glucose analogue {alpha...

  4. Design of a Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Girault, Alain

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of the hybrid control of autonomous vehicles driving on automated highways. Vehicles are autonomous, so they do not communicate with each other nor with the infrastructure. Two problems have to be dealt with: A vehicle driving in a single-lane highway must never collide with its leading vehicle; and a vehicle entering the highway at a designated entry junction mustb e able to merge from the merging lane to the main lane, again without any collision. To sol...

  5. Real world instrumentation with Python automated data acquisition and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to develop your own applications to monitor or control instrumentation hardware. Whether you need to acquire data from a device or automate its functions, this practical book shows you how to use Python's rapid development capabilities to build interfaces that include everything from software to wiring. You get step-by-step instructions, clear examples, and hands-on tips for interfacing a PC to a variety of devices. Use the book's hardware survey to identify the interface type for your particular device, and then follow detailed examples to develop an interface with Python and C. O

  6. Quality Control in Automated Manufacturing Processes – Combined Features for Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuhlenkötter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In production processes the use of image processing systems is widespread. Hardware solutions and cameras respectively are available for nearly every application. One important challenge of image processing systems is the development and selection of appropriate algorithms and software solutions in order to realise ambitious quality control for production processes. This article characterises the development of innovative software by combining features for an automatic defect classification on product surfaces. The artificial intelligent method Support Vector Machine (SVM is used to execute the classification task according to the combined features. This software is one crucial element for the automation of a manually operated production process. 

  7. An Automated Laboratory Laser Heating Arrangement for Materials Synthesis at High Temperatures and High Pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, N; Bindu, R; Kumar, N R Sanjay; Sekar, M; Shekar, N V Chandra; Sahu, P Ch

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the automation of a laser heating arrangement for synthesizing and studying materials at high pressures (up to ~ 1 Mbar) and high temperatures (up to ~ 5000 K). In this arrangement, a diamond anvil high-pressure cell (DAC) containing a microscopic sample of typical diameter ~50-100 micrometer, is mounted on a precision X-Y nanomotor stage that forms part of an IR laser heating optical assembly. Automation of this stage has been accomplished using a LabVIEW virtual instrument program to manipulate the X and Y stages using nanopositioning systems. This has a major feature of enabling a rastered heating of the sample over a user-defined circular area, without any operator intervention in addition to a virtual joystick to position the sample with respect to the laser spot. This auto-rastering feature has the advantage of offering uniform exposure of a circular area of the sample to the incident heating laser beam apart from drastic reduction in scan time compared to a manual scan. The diamete...

  8. Complex Event Processing Approach To Automated Monitoring Of Particle Accelerator And Its Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Grzegorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and implementation of a software component for automated monitoring and diagnostic information analysis of a particle accelerator and its control system. The information that is analyzed can be seen as streams of events. A Complex Event Processing (CEP approach to event processing was selected. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to continuously query data coming from several streams. The presented software component is based on Esper, the most popular open-source implementation of CEP. As a test bed, the control system of the accelerator complex located at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, was chosen. The complex includes the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful accelerator. The main contribution to knowledge is by showing that the CEP approach can successfully address many of the challenges associated with automated monitoring of the accelerator and its control system that were previously unsolved. Test results, performance analysis, and a proposal for further works are also presented.

  9. Knowledge-Based Aircraft Automation: Managers Guide on the use of Artificial Intelligence for Aircraft Automation and Verification and Validation Approach for a Neural-Based Flight Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Ron

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this report was to integrate the powerful tools of artificial intelligence into the traditional process of software development. To maintain the US aerospace competitive advantage, traditional aerospace and software engineers need to more easily incorporate the technology of artificial intelligence into the advanced aerospace systems being designed today. The future goal was to transition artificial intelligence from an emerging technology to a standard technology that is considered early in the life cycle process to develop state-of-the-art aircraft automation systems. This report addressed the future goal in two ways. First, it provided a matrix that identified typical aircraft automation applications conducive to various artificial intelligence methods. The purpose of this matrix was to provide top-level guidance to managers contemplating the possible use of artificial intelligence in the development of aircraft automation. Second, the report provided a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the traditional process of software development. The matrix was developed by organizing the discipline of artificial intelligence into the following six methods: logical, object representation-based, distributed, uncertainty management, temporal and neurocomputing. Next, a study of existing aircraft automation applications that have been conducive to artificial intelligence implementation resulted in the following five categories: pilot-vehicle interface, system status and diagnosis, situation assessment, automatic flight planning, and aircraft flight control. The resulting matrix provided management guidance to understand artificial intelligence as it applied to aircraft automation. The approach taken to develop a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the software engineering life cycle was to start with the existing software quality assurance standards and to change these standards to include neural network

  10. Rudder-Roll Damping Controller Design using Mu Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, C.; Blanke, M.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of rudder roll damping control is very sensitive to uncertainty in ship dynamic parameters. In this paper, an H-infinity controller is designed using mu synthesis and an uncertainty model for roll and yaw that was identified earlier from experiments at sea. The properties...

  11. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    between the Earth´s magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. The magnetic attitude control is intrinsically periodic due to cyclic variation of the geomagnetic field in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2 operator norm....... A linear matrix inequality-based algorithm is proposed for attitude control synthesis. Simulation results are provided, showing the prospect of the concept for onboard implementation....

  12. Rockwell Automation PLC-5 Lands Stennis Space Center with a Reliable, Flexible Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Ever since the first rocket was launched, people have been infatuated with the vast and unchartered frontier of space. Whether it's visiting a space center or watching a shuttle launch, people are waiting to see what will be discovered next. And even though orbiting the Earth or taking soil samples form the Moon now seems effortless, decades worth of behind-the-scenes work have helped the U.S. space program get to this point. Even today, NASA must take every precaution to ensure equipment is up to the endeavor of setting foot on the moon. As part of the initial push to put the first man on the moon, NASA established the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi in 1961 for space engine propulsion system development. Today, Stennis has three major test complexes where engine and component testing is carried out and integrated into full motion systems for space shuttles and vehicles as well as secondary testing facilities. With different products being tested throughout the facilities, Stennis was in need of an automation system that could link the operations. By integrating a control system based on a Rockwell Automation's flexible and reliable PLC-5 controller, Stennis was able to implement projects more efficiently and focus its efforts on getting the next generation of products ready for space.

  13. Architectures and design patterns for functional design of logic control and diagnostics in industrial automation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Recently in most of the industrial automation process an ever increasing degree of automation has been observed. This increasing is motivated by the higher requirement of systems with great performance in terms of quality of products/services generated, productivity, efficiency and low costs in the design, realization and maintenance. This trend in the growth of complex automation systems is rapidly spreading over automated manufacturing systems (AMS), where the integration of the mechanic...

  14. Autonomous space systems control incorporating automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazinan, A H; Shakhesi, S

    2016-05-01

    The research attempts to deal with the autonomous space systems incorporating new automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties. The main subject behind the investigation is to realize the high-resolution small amplitude orbital maneuvers via the first control strategy. And subsequently to realize the large amplitude orbital maneuvers via the second control strategy, as well. There is a trajectory optimization to provide the three-axis referenced commends for the aforementioned overactuated autonomous space system to be able to transfer from the initial orbit to its final ones, in finite burn, as long as the uncertainties of key parameters of the system such as the thrust vector, the center of the gravity, the moments of the inertia and so on are taken into real consideration. The strategies performances are finally considered through a series of experiments and a number of benchmarks to be tangibly verified. PMID:26895709

  15. 10th International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected papers from the tenth “International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics” (ICINCO 2013), held in Reykjavík, Iceland, from 29 to 31 July 2013. The conference was organized in four simultaneous tracks: “Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization”, “Robotics and Automation”, “Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modeling and Control” and “Industrial Engineering, Production and Management”. The book is based on the same structure. ICINCO 2013 received 255 paper submissions from 50 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee only 30% were published and presented orally. A further refinement was made after the conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality, so that this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of ICINCO 2013.

  16. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  17. Automated Generation of Formal Models from ST Control Programs for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Blech, J-O; Gonzalez Suarez, V

    2014-01-01

    In large industrial control systems such as the ones installed at CERN, one of the main issues is the ability to verify the correct behaviour of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) programs. While manual and automated testing can achieve good results, some obvious problems remain unsolved such as the difficulty to check safety or liveness properties. This paper proposes a general methodology and a tool to verify PLC programs by automatically generating formal models for different model checkers out of ST code. The proposed methodology defines an automata-based formalism used as intermediate model (IM) to transform PLC programs written in ST language into different formal models for verification purposes. A tool based on Xtext has been implemented that automatically generates models for the NuSMV and UPPAAL model checkers and the BIP framework.

  18. A Study on Automated Context-aware Access Control Model Using Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bokman; Jang, Hyokyung; Choi, Euiin

    Applications in context-aware computing environment will be connected wireless network and various devices. According to, recklessness access of information resource can make trouble of system. So, access authority management is very important issue both information resource and adapt to system through founding security policy of needed system. But, existing security model is easy of approach to resource through simply user ID and password. This model has a problem that is not concerned about user's environment information. In this paper, propose model of automated context-aware access control using ontology that can more efficiently control about resource through inference and judgment of context information that collect user's information and user's environment context information in order to ontology modeling.

  19. Automated system for controlling authorization, identification, and entry into nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated access control system developed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is described. This system enables the facility management to control who has access to sensitive areas at specific times, control the authority to grant access to individuals with cross-checks and verification, and provide positive identification of personnel obtaining entry, as well as an auditable record of all entry events. The individual seeking access enters his memorized identification number into a key pad in the entry booth. Positive verification of the identity claimed is obtained by a voice verification system which compares the sample response obtained at the time of entry with the individual's voice print reference file. The identified user is then issued a temporary proximity card key which will activate the door entry controls into authorized areas. The computerized system provides real-time entry inventory of personnel and controls individual area and personnel authorizations on a need-to-enter basis. The system was installed in 1979 and has been operated on a developmental basis since that time. The system controls access to an industrial area which has a total of fourteen separate and individually controlled subareas containing a combined total of twenty-four doors. Approximately five-hundred people are currently enrolled and using the system. Extended tests requiring 100% participation by employees are currently in progress

  20. Automated control for coal handling operations at Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendzian, T.N. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Chesterton, IN (United States). Burns Harbor Div.

    1997-12-31

    The Burns Harbor coal handling operation processes 7,200 tons of coal per day to supply two 82 oven, six meter batteries. The operations in coal handling are subdivided into three separate sections: the coal field and stacker reclaimer operation, the crushing and storage of coal, and the coal blending operation. In 1996 a supervisory system was developed and installed to fully automate all the operations and equipment in the coal handling unit, add additional instrumentation and logic controls to prevent coal contamination, and improve data collection and logging. The supervisory system is operated from a computer based workstation and is based on a distributed control philosophy utilizing programmable logic controllers, set point controllers, and man-machine interface displays. The previous control system for the coal handling operation consisted of a switchboard from which an operator controller the set up and running of the conveyor systems and equipment to stack, reclaim, and blend coal. The new supervisory system was installed in parallel with the original control system to safeguard continued operation during the system installation and commissioning. The original system still exists and can be operated in even of failure of the supervisory system.

  1. A computer-controlled automated test system for fatigue and fracture testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-controlled system consisting of a servohydraulic test machine, an in-house designed test controller, and a desktop computer has been developed for performing automated fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth testing both in the laboratory and in hot cells for remote testing of irradiated specimens. Both unloading compliance and dc-potential drop can be used to monitor crack growth. The test controller includes a dc-current supply programmer, a function generator for driving the servohydraulic test machine to required test outputs, five measurement channels (each consisting of low-pass filter, track/hold amplifier, and 16-bit analog-to-digital converter), and digital logic for various control and data multiplexing functions. The test controller connects to the computer via a 16-bit wide photo-isolated bidirectional bus. The computer, a Hewlett-Packard series 200/300, inputs specimen and test parameters from the operator, configures the test controller, stores test data from the test controller in memory, does preliminary analysis during the test, and records sensor calibrations, specimen and test parameters, and test data on flexible diskette for later recall and analysis with measured initial and final crack length information. During the test, the operator can change test parameters as necessary. 24 refs., 6 figs

  2. A method for automated control of belt velocity changes with an instrumented treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel-Lipsker, Jacob W; Hahn, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Increased practice difficulty during asymmetrical split-belt treadmill rehabilitation has been shown to improve gait outcomes during retention and transfer tests. However, research in this area has been limited by manual treadmill operation. In the case of variable practice, which requires stride-by-stride changes to treadmill belt velocities, the treadmill control must be automated. This paper presents a method for automation of asymmetrical split-belt treadmill walking, and evaluates how well this method performs with regards to timing of gait events. One participant walked asymmetrically for 100 strides, where the non-dominant limb was driven at their self-selected walking speed, while the other limb was driven randomly on a stride-by-stride basis. In the control loop, the key factors to insure that the treadmill belt had accelerated to its new velocity safely during the swing phase were the sampling rate of the A/D converter, processing time within the controller software, and acceleration of the treadmill belt. The combination of these three factors resulted in a total control loop time during each swing phase that satisfied these requirements with a factor of safety that was greater than 4. Further, a polynomial fit indicated that belt acceleration was the largest contributor to changes in this total time. This approach appears to be safe and reliable for stride-by-stride adjustment of treadmill belt speed, making it suitable for future asymmetrical split-belt walking studies. Further, it can be incorporated into virtual reality rehabilitation paradigms that utilize split-belt treadmill walking. PMID:26654110

  3. Effects of Granular Control on Customers’ Perspective and Behavior with Automated Demand Response Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetrit, Oren; Kim, Joyce; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-08-01

    Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is expected to close the loop between buildings and the grid by providing machine-to-machine communications to curtail loads without the need for human intervention. Hence, it can offer more reliable and repeatable demand response results to the grid than the manual approach and make demand response participation a hassle-free experience for customers. However, many building operators misunderstand Auto-DR and are afraid of losing control over their building operation. To ease the transition from manual to Auto-DR, we designed and implemented granular control of Auto-DR systems so that building operators could modify or opt out of individual load-shed strategies whenever they wanted. This paper reports the research findings from this effort demonstrated through a field study in large commercial buildings located in New York City. We focused on (1) understanding how providing granular control affects building operators’ perspective on Auto-DR, and (2) evaluating the usefulness of granular control by examining their interaction with the Auto-DR user interface during test events. Through trend log analysis, interviews, and surveys, we found that: (1) the opt-out capability during Auto-DR events can remove the feeling of being forced into load curtailments and increase their willingness to adopt Auto-DR; (2) being able to modify individual load-shed strategies allows flexible Auto-DR participation that meets the building’s changing operational requirements; (3) a clear display of automation strategies helps building operators easily identify how Auto-DR is functioning and can build trust in Auto-DR systems.

  4. Automated Internet-based pain coping skills training to manage osteoarthritis pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Christine; Porter, Laura S; Somers, Tamara J; McKee, Daphne C; DeVellis, Robert F; Smith, Meredith; Winkel, Gary; Ahern, David K; Goldman, Roberta; Stiller, Jamie L; Mariani, Cara; Patterson, Carol; Jordan, Joanne M; Caldwell, David S; Keefe, Francis J

    2015-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) places a significant burden on worldwide public health because of the large and growing number of people affected by OA and its associated pain and disability. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based intervention targeting OA pain and disability. To reduce barriers that currently limit access to PCST, we developed an 8-week, automated, Internet-based PCST program called PainCOACH and evaluated its potential efficacy and acceptability in a small-scale, 2-arm randomized controlled feasibility trial. Participants were 113 men and women with clinically confirmed hip or knee OA and associated pain. They were randomized to a group completing PainCOACH or an assessment-only control group. Osteoarthritis pain, pain-related interference with functioning, pain-related anxiety, self-efficacy for pain management, and positive and negative affect were measured before intervention, midway through the intervention, and after intervention. Findings indicated high acceptability and adherence: 91% of participants randomized to complete PainCOACH finished all 8 modules over 8 to 10 weeks. Linear mixed models showed that, after treatment, women who received the PainCOACH intervention reported significantly lower pain than that in women in the control group (Cohen d = 0.33). Intervention effects could not be tested in men because of their low pain and small sample size. Additionally, both men and women demonstrated increases in self-efficacy from baseline to after intervention compared with the control group (d = 0.43). Smaller effects were observed for pain-related anxiety (d = 0.20), pain-related interference with functioning (d = 0.13), negative affect (d = 0.10), and positive affect (d = 0.24). Findings underscore the value of continuing to develop an automated Internet-based approach to disseminate this empirically supported intervention.

  5. Automated radiochemical synthesis of [{sup 18}F]FBEM: A thiol reactive synthon for radiofluorination of peptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesewetter, Dale O., E-mail: dk7k@nih.go [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Building 10, Room 1C401, MSC 1180, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Jacobson, Orit; Lang Lixin; Chen Xiaoyuan [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Building 10, Room 1C401, MSC 1180, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The automated radiochemical synthesis of N-[2-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzamido)ethyl]maleimide ([{sup 18}F]FBEM, IUPAC name: N-maleoylethyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzamide), a prosthetic group for radiolabeling the free sulfhydryl groups of peptides and proteins, is herein described. 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoic acid was first prepared by nucleophilic displacement of a trimethylammonium moiety on a pentamethylbenzyl benzoate ester with [{sup 18}F]fluoride. In the second step the ester was cleaved under acidic conditions. Finally, 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoic acid was coupled to N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide using diethylcyanophosphate and diisopropylethyl amine. Following high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, [{sup 18}F]FBEM was obtained in 17.3{+-}7.1% yield (not decay corrected) in approximately 95 min. Isolation from the HPLC eluate and preparation for subsequent use, which was conducted manually, required an additional 10-15 min. The measured specific activity for three batches was 181.3, 251.6, and 351.5 GBq/ {mu}mol at the end of bombardment (EOB).

  6. Performance of an Automated System for Control of Traffic in Terminal Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoleris, Tasos; Erzberger, Heinz; Paielli, Russell A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of a system that performs automated conflict resolution and arrival scheduling for aircraft in the terminal airspace around major airports. Such a system has the potential to perform separation assurance and arrival sequencing tasks that are currently handled manually by human controllers. The performance of the system is tested against several simulated traffic scenarios that are characterized by the rate at which air traffic is metered into the terminal airspace. For each traffic scenario, the levels of performance that are examined include: number of conflicts predicted to occur, types of resolution maneuver used to resolve predicted conflicts, and the amount of delay for all flights. The simulation results indicate that the percentage of arrivals that required a maneuver that changes the flight's horizontal route ranged between 11% and 15% in all traffic scenarios. That finding has certain implications if this automated system were to be implemented simply as a decision support tool. It is also found that arrival delay due to purely wake vortex separation requirements on final approach constituted only between 29% and 35% of total arrival delay, while the remaining major portion of it is mainly due to delay back propagation effects.

  7. A Closed-Loop Proportional-Integral (PI) Control Software for Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-23

    A closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control software is provided for fully mechanically controlled automated electron microscopic tomography. The software is developed based on Gatan DigitalMicrograph�, and is compatible with Zeiss LIBRA� 120 transmission electron microscope. However, it can be expanded to other TEM instrument with modification. The software consists of a graphical user interface, a digital PI controller, an image analyzing unit, and other drive units (i.e.: image acquire unit and goniometer drive unit). During a tomography data collection process, the image analyzing unit analyzes both the accumulated shift and defocus value of the latest acquired image, and provides the results to the digital PI controller. The digital PI control compares the results with the preset values and determines the optimum adjustments of the goniometer. The goniometer drive unit adjusts the spatial position of the specimen according to the instructions given by the digital PI controller for the next tilt angle and image acquisition. The goniometer drive unit achieves high precision positioning by using a backlash elimination method. The major benefits of the software are: 1) the goniometer drive unit keeps pre-aligned/optimized beam conditions unchanged and achieves position tracking solely through mechanical control; 2) the image analyzing unit relies on only historical data and therefore does not require additional images/exposures; 3) the PI controller enables the system to dynamically track the imaging target with extremely low system error.

  8. Redevelopment and reliability study of simultaneously uranium and thorium analysis automation control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: This project is to refurbish the Instrumental Delayed Neutron Activation Analysis System for Simultaneously Determination of Uranium and Thorium namely PAUTS. PAUTS use nuclear techniques for the quantitative determination of Uranium-235 (U-235) and Thorium-232 (Th-232)radionuclides contents in the samples. It consists of three main automation procedures namely Control sample handling, Data Acquisition for neutron counting, and data handling and analysis program. The automation control technology for this project is based on a personal computer (PC), Ethernet communication support, programmable automation control (PAC) module CFP 2220, infrared photo sensors and LabVIEW software package. The analysis samples capsule was placed in transfers containers or rabbit and will be transfer using fast pneumatic sample handling for activation by irradiate it to neutron in the reactor core. Both radionuclides as a fission product will decay and emit the delayed neutron which are count using the nuclear counting electronics module. Studies on the reliability of fast pneumatic sample handling using the statistical method shows that 95 % confidence level had been reach. Results shows the mean transfer time of the sample from the loader to the reactor core is 3251 ± 210 ms, while the mean transfer time of the samples from the core to the counter chamber is 3264 ± 407 ms. The overall system reliability has been verified using analysis of calibration standard material with known quantity of uranium and thorium IAEA-S17, the IAEA-ThO2 and the IAEA-S14 method. At the moment nuclear counting electronic based on 4 units neutron detector and the results were in line with the previous experiment. Results shows that the content of U and Th is in the average of 19:35 ppm and 432.25 ppm respectively compared with the known quantity of the sample is 29.0 ppm and 460 ppm. Studies on the effects pneumatic sample handling to the irradiation time parameter indicated that the previous

  9. Automated Synthesis of 18F-Fluoropropoxytryptophan for Amino Acid Transporter System Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hong Shih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was to develop a cGMP grade of [18F]fluoropropoxytryptophan (18F-FTP to assess tryptophan transporters using an automated synthesizer. Methods. Tosylpropoxytryptophan (Ts-TP was reacted with K18F/kryptofix complex. After column purification, solvent evaporation, and hydrolysis, the identity and purity of the product were validated by radio-TLC (1M-ammonium acetate : methanol = 4 : 1 and HPLC (C-18 column, methanol : water = 7 : 3 analyses. In vitro cellular uptake of 18F-FTP and 18F-FDG was performed in human prostate cancer cells. PET imaging studies were performed with 18F-FTP and 18F-FDG in prostate and small cell lung tumor-bearing mice (3.7 MBq/mouse, iv. Results. Radio-TLC and HPLC analyses of 18F-FTP showed that the Rf and Rt values were 0.9 and 9 min, respectively. Radiochemical purity was >99%. The radiochemical yield was 37.7% (EOS 90 min, decay corrected. Cellular uptake of 18F-FTP and 18F-FDG showed enhanced uptake as a function of incubation time. PET imaging studies showed that 18F-FTP had less tumor uptake than 18F-FDG in prostate cancer model. However, 18F-FTP had more uptake than 18F-FDG in small cell lung cancer model. Conclusion. 18F-FTP could be synthesized with high radiochemical yield. Assessment of upregulated transporters activity by 18F-FTP may provide potential applications in differential diagnosis and prediction of early treatment response.

  10. Automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme for a class of real complicated systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shahi; A H Mazinan

    2015-02-01

    A class of real complicated systems, including chemical reactions, biological systems, information processing, laser systems, electrical circuits, information exchange, brain activities modelling, secure communication and other related ones can be presented through nonlinear and non-identical hyper-chaotic systems. The main goal of the present investigation is to synchronize two non-identical hyperchaotic master/slave systems, which are given as the models of the complicated systems, based on the realization of an efficient automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme. In the research presented here, the mentioned systems need to be dealt with through the proposed control scheme, since two non-identical systems are completely synchronized. In one such case, the whole of the chosen states of the master and slave systems should be coincided after a few time steps, as long as the effect of the external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters could truly be ignored. Due to the fact that the investigated hyper-chaotic systems have taken into consideration as the representation of a number of complicated processes under mentioned external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters, the traditional control approaches cannot actually be realized, in satisfactory manners.With this purpose, the proposed control scheme has been designed to cope with synchronization error, in a reasonable amount of time, in order to drive applicable hyper-chaotic systems. Consequently, the performance of the proposed control scheme is considered and verified through the numerical simulations.

  11. Application of flexible multibody modelling for control synthesis in mechatronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Dijk, van J.; Brouwer, D.M.; Jonker, J.B.; Samin, J.C.; Fisette, P.

    2011-01-01

    The models used in the conceptual phase of the mechatronic design should not be too complicated, yet they should capture the dominant system behaviour. This includes the computation of natural frequencies and mode shapes in a relevant frequency range. For the control system synthesis the low frequen

  12. Multivariable quadratic synthesis of an advanced turbofan engine controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoff, R. L.; Hall, W. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A digital controller for an advanced turbofan engine utilizing multivariate feedback is described. The theoretical background of locally linearized control synthesis is reviewed briefly. The application of linear quadratic regulator techniques to the practical control problem is presented. The design procedure has been applied to the F100 turbofan engine, and details of the structure of this system are explained. Selected results from simulations of the engine and controller are utilized to illustrate the operation of the system. It is shown that the general multivariable design procedure will produce practical and implementable controllers for modern, high-performance turbine engines.

  13. Autopilot Control Synthesis for Path Tracking Maneuvers of Underwater Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sam-Sang YOU; Hyeung-Sik CHOI; Hwan-Seong KIM; Han-Il PARK

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the robust control synthesis of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for general path following maneuvers. First, we present maneuvering kinematics and vehicle dynamics in a unified framework. Based on H loop-shaping procedure, the 2-DOF autopilot controller has been presented to enhance stability and path tracking.By use of model reduction, the high-order control system is reduced to one with reasonable order, and further the scaled low-order controller has been analyzed in both the frequency and the time domains. Finally, it is shown that the autopilot control system provides robust performance and stability against prescribed levels of uncertainty.

  14. Optimal Control and Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Urban Traffic Intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue J. [Boston University; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Cassandras, Christos G. [Boston University

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of coordinating online a continuous flow of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) crossing two adjacent intersections in an urban area. We present a decentralized optimal control framework whose solution yields for each vehicle the optimal acceleration/deceleration at any time in the sense of minimizing fuel consumption. The solu- tion, when it exists, allows the vehicles to cross the intersections without the use of traffic lights, without creating congestion on the connecting road, and under the hard safety constraint of collision avoidance. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation considering two intersections located in downtown Boston, and it is shown that coordination of CAVs can reduce significantly both fuel consumption and travel time.

  15. Automation and Control Learning Environment with Mixed Reality Remote Experiments Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico M. Schaf

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to the use of remotely web-based experiments to improve the learning process of automation and control systems theory courses. An architecture combining virtual learning environments, remote experiments, students guide and experiments analysis is proposed based on a wide state of art study. The validation of the architecture uses state of art technologies and new simple developed programs to implement the case studies presented. All implementations presented use an internet accessible virtual learning environment providing educational resources, guides and learning material to create a distance learning course associated with the remote mixed reality experiment. This work is part of the RExNet consortium, supported by the European Alfa project.

  16. Sfm_georef: Automating image measurement of ground control points for SfM-based projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mike R.

    2016-04-01

    Deriving accurate DEM and orthomosaic image products from UAV surveys generally involves the use of multiple ground control points (GCPs). Here, we demonstrate the automated collection of GCP image measurements for SfM-MVS processed projects, using sfm_georef software (James & Robson, 2012; http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm). Sfm_georef was originally written to provide geo-referencing procedures for SfM-MVS projects. It has now been upgraded with a 3-D patch-based matching routine suitable for automating GCP image measurement in both aerial and ground-based (oblique) projects, with the aim of reducing the time required for accurate geo-referencing. Sfm_georef is compatible with a range of SfM-MVS software and imports the relevant files that describe the image network, including camera models and tie points. 3-D survey measurements of ground control are then provided, either for natural features or artificial targets distributed over the project area. Automated GCP image measurement is manually initiated through identifying a GCP position in an image by mouse click; the GCP is then represented by a square planar patch in 3-D, textured from the image and oriented parallel to the local topographic surface (as defined by the 3-D positions of nearby tie points). Other images are then automatically examined by projecting the patch into the images (to account for differences in viewing geometry) and carrying out a sub-pixel normalised cross-correlation search in the local area. With two or more observations of a GCP, its 3-D co-ordinates are then derived by ray intersection. With the 3-D positions of three or more GCPs identified, an initial geo-referencing transform can be derived to relate the SfM-MVS co-ordinate system to that of the GCPs. Then, if GCPs are symmetric and identical, image texture from one representative GCP can be used to search automatically for all others throughout the image set. Finally, the GCP observations can be

  17. The use of numerical technology for protection, control and automation - a concept description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the regulation of network companies of today there is a great focus on supplier reliability and the demands on the use of existing networks increase. Protection, control and automation (PCA) have a central role both with respect to supplier reliability and network utilization. The supplier reliability is also dependent on the installed equipment and the chosen conditions. This also applies to the use of the network that largely depend on the operational margins. This implies that the network company costs will depend on disruptions, maintenance and investments and would be influenced by the chosen protection, control and automation solutions. In the report the concept or the ideas for the use of information from numerical technology in connection with maintenance and handling of supply reliability are described. In operation the focus is on supply reliability and handling of operation disruptions through 1) prevention of faults and avoid disruptions and 2) reduce the consequences of operation disruptions. Examples show that costs in the central network could be reduced with about 60 %. In a selection of regional and distribution networks the costs could be reduced with about 70 %. The maintenance of the primary plant and the PCA equipment may be implemented based on systems and risk considerations. A consequence analysis with respect to economy, availability in the system, the system conditions, the equipment condition and consequences for customers is included. Examples show that the methodology is at best when applied to networks with little redundancy and that the method is applicable in new constructions or refinancing. It is then believed that the network (technical solutions) may be simplified and that necessary security may be obtained at risk based maintenance more than by a high degree of redundancy

  18. AutoSyn:A new approach to automated synthesis of composite web services with correctness guarantee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAI JinPeng; DENG Ting; LI XianXian; DU ZongXia; GUO HuiPeng

    2009-01-01

    How to compose existing web services automatically and to guarantee the correctness of the design (e.g.freeness of deadlock and unspecified reception,and temporal constraints) is an important and challenging problem in web services.Most existing approaches require a detailed specification of the desired behaviors of a composite service beforehand and then perform certain formal verification to guarantee the correctness of the design,which makes the composition process both complex and time-consuming.In this paper,we propose a novel approach,referred to as AutoSyn to compose web services,where the correctness is guaranteed in the synthesis process.For a given set of services,a composite service is automatically constructed based on L* algorithm,which guarantees that the composite service is the most general way of coordinating services so that the correctness is ensured.We show the soundness and completeness of our solution and give a set of optimization techniques for reducing the time consumption.We have implemented a prototype system of AutoSyn and evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of AutoSyn through an experimental study.

  19. The Development of the Control System for the Automated Patrol Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Paul Wilfrid

    A Baker-Nunn Satellite Tracking Camera has been modified to undertake contemporary astronomical survey and patrol projects. The f/1 camera now has a CCD at the focus with a field of 1.2 by 0.9 degrees, with a pixel resolution of 9 arc seconds. The mount has been reconfigured into an equatorial, with new bearings and a friction drive on the right ascension axis. The camera is now called the Automated Patrol Telescope (A.P.T.). This thesis describes the servo control system which was developed to control the motion of the telescope. A digital servo control system was developed incorporating three 6502 microprocessors. Two digital controllers were constructed which interface to a host Apple IIe. Each controller drives a D.C. printed armature motor which is coupled to the axes of the telescope mount through reduction gears. The position and velocity of the telescope are sensed through an incremental encoder on the shaft of each motor. The thesis describes the development of the control algorithm and its performance. Nonlinear friction within the drive mechanism led to the implementation of a velocity PID control algorithm with gain scheduling. The control system is responsible for pointing, tracking and autoguiding the telescope. Each utility can be initiated through the Apple IIe keyboard or remotely via a GPIB link. The results of an initial pointing test are presented. The pointing algorithm compensates for the effects introduced by the nonperpendicularities between the axes of the mount, polar misalignment, and atmospheric refraction. Modelling of the telescope and mount improved the pointing accuracy from 746 to 168 arc second. The thesis discusses possible causes as to why further improvement was not achieved. The tracking and autoguiding responses of the telescope are presented. The tracking accuracy during autoguiding is 0.22 arc seconds. A systematic error of 0.56 arc seconds is also present. The source of this systematic error is explained and a solution is

  20. Automated synthesis and PET evaluation of both enantiomers of [18F]FMISO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: [18F]FMISO, the widely used positron emission tomography (PET) hypoxia tracer, is a chiral compound clinically used as a racemic mixture. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the individual (R)- and the (S)- enantiomers of [18F]FMISO and compare their PET imaging characteristics. Methods: The radiosynthesis of enantiopure (R)- and (S)-[18F]FMISO was based on Co(salen) (N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediaminocobalt) -mediated opening of enantiopure epoxides with [18F]HF. The uptake and clearance of the individual [18F]FMISO antipodes were investigated using micro-PET/CT imaging performed on mice bearing FaDu tumors. Image-derived biodistribution was obtained from micro-PET/CT scans performed at 1 and 3 hours post injection (p.i.). In addition, the uptake patterns of each enantiomer were observed using two-hour dynamic micro-PET/CT scans, and the time-activity curves from different organs were compared. Results: The individual (R)- and (S)-[18F]FMISO enantiomers were synthesized in one step with high enantiomeric excess (ee) > 99% and radiochemical purity > 97% using custom-made automation module. The dynamic micro-PET/CT scanning revealed a faster initial uptake of the (R)-[18F]FMISO enantiomer in tumor and muscle tissues, however the difference became progressively smaller with time. The tumor-to-muscle (T/M) and tumor-to-liver (T/L) ratios remained nearly identical for the (R)- and (S)-forms at all time points. The micro-PET/CT imaging at 1 and 3 hours p.i. did not show any significant enantioselective tissue uptake. Conclusions: Although the (R)-enantiomer of [18F]FMISO demonstrated a somewhat faster initial tumor and muscle uptake no significant enantioselective tissue uptake was observed at later time points. The T/M- and T/L- ratios for the (R)- and (S)-forms were the same within the experimental error at all times. Therefore, the use of enantiopure [18F]FMISO is unlikely to present any practical clinical

  1. Control synthesis for polynomial nonlinear systems and application in attitude control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-fei TONG; Hui ZHANG; You-xian SUN

    2008-01-01

    A method for positive polynomial validation based on polynomial decomposition is proposed to deal with control synthesis problems. Detailed algorithms for decomposition are given which mainly consider how to convert coefficients of a polynomial to a matrix with free variables. Then, the positivity of a polynomial is checked by the decomposed matrix with semidefinite programming solvers. A nonlinear control law is presented for single input polynomial systems based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. The control synthesis method is advanced to multi-input systems further. An application in attitude control is finally presented. The proposed control law achieves effective performance as illustrated by the numerical example.

  2. Issues in Developing Open Source Licensing Tool for Controllers in the Context of BA (Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ujval

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years building owners, Managers and consulting engineers from the different Manufacturers/Vendors have become the increasingly frustrated by incompatibilities and limited Mechanism for the integration of building automation and control systems(BAS[1] because a site may have BAS equipment from multiple manufacturers in the field . A controller comes with different functionalities. Some of the functionalities will be locked down by the manufactures. There are times when site engineer need to lock or unlock the particular functionality of the controllers, called licensing. As Controllers are part of BAS, there are at present three issues in Developing open source licensing tool, and they mainly concentrate on BAS integration. They are Integration between BAS and existing Enterprise applications, integration of widely used open protocol standards (e.g. BACnet or LonTalk, and integration of subsystems (HVAC systems, fire safety systems, life safety, lighting systems [11] of BAS [14]. Though today many solutions are available, Integration of diverse and heterogeneous BAS systems is a challenge. The paper describes the issues in developing open source licensing tool and how to overcome these issues

  3. Fully automated synthesis of (phosphopeptide arrays in microtiter plate wells provides efficient access to protein tyrosine kinase characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein David J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic peptides have played a useful role in studies of protein kinase substrates and interaction domains. Synthetic peptide arrays and libraries, in particular, have accelerated the process. Several factors have hindered or limited the applicability of various techniques, such as the need for deconvolution of combinatorial libraries, the inability or impracticality of achieving full automation using two-dimensional or pin solid phases, the lack of convenient interfacing with standard analytical platforms, or the difficulty of compartmentalization of a planar surface when contact between assay components needs to be avoided. This paper describes a process for synthesis of peptides and phosphopeptides on microtiter plate wells that overcomes previous limitations and demonstrates utility in determination of the epitope of an autophosphorylation site phospho-motif antibody and utility in substrate utilization assays of the protein tyrosine kinase, p60c-src. Results The overall reproducibility of phospho-peptide synthesis and multiplexed EGF receptor (EGFR autophosphorylation site (pY1173 antibody ELISA (9H2 was within 5.5 to 8.0%. Mass spectrometric analyses of the released (phosphopeptides showed homogeneous peaks of the expected molecular weights. An overlapping peptide array of the complete EGFR cytoplasmic sequence revealed a high redundancy of 9H2 reactive sites. The eight reactive phospopeptides were structurally related and interestingly, the most conserved antibody reactive peptide motif coincided with a subset of other known EGFR autophosphorylation and SH2 binding motifs and an EGFR optimal substrate motif. Finally, peptides based on known substrate specificities of c-src and related enzymes were synthesized in microtiter plate array format and were phosphorylated by c-Src with the predicted specificities. The level of phosphorylation was proportional to c-Src concentration with sensitivities below 0.1 Units of

  4. Modelling of Fuzzy Control Modes for the Automated Pumping Station of the Oil and Gas Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdatullin, A.; Muravyova, E.; Sharipov, M.

    2016-06-01

    An attempt has been made to explain to the scientific and technical establishment the fact that the fuzzy controllers with input/output parameters represented by the set of precise terms of automate control objects, which operative algorithm is verbally presented as a unique experience of experts in the domain, in simpler way, with higher speed, slighter error and less costs as compared with the standard fuzzy controllers.

  5. Software fault tree analysis of an automated control system device written in Ada

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Mathias William.

    1995-01-01

    Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) is a technique used to analyze software for faults that could lead to hazardous conditions in systems which contain software components. Previous thesis works have developed three Ada-based, semi-automated software analysis tools, the Automated Code Translation Tool (ACm) an Ada statement template generator, the Fault Tree Editor (Fm) a graphical fault tree editor, and the Fault Isolator (Fl) an automated software fault tree isolator. These previous works d...

  6. Tools for automating spacecraft ground systems: The Intelligent Command and Control (ICC) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, A. William; Mclean, David

    1996-01-01

    The practical application of scripting languages and World Wide Web tools to the support of spacecraft ground system automation, is reported on. The mission activities and the automation tools used at the Goddard Space Flight Center (MD) are reviewed. The use of the Tool Command Language (TCL) and the Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) scripting tools for automating mission operations is discussed together with the application of different tools for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory ground system.

  7. Integrating Prognostics in Automated Contingency Management Strategies for Advanced Aircraft Controls Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated Contingency Management (ACM) is an emerging and game-changing area of engineering and scientific research that integrates prognostics and health...

  8. The Automated Alert System for the Hospital Infection Control and the Safety of Medical Staff Based on EMR Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eunmi

    2016-01-01

    This report is about planning, developing, and implementing the automated alert system for the Hospital infection control and the safety of medical staffs about information on patients exposed to infection based on EMR Data in a tertiary hospital in Korea. PMID:27332375

  9. Model-Driven Development of Automation and Control Applications: Modeling and Simulation of Control Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Vepsäläinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope and responsibilities of control applications are increasing due to, for example, the emergence of industrial internet. To meet the challenge, model-driven development techniques have been in active research in the application domain. Simulations that have been traditionally used in the domain, however, have not yet been sufficiently integrated to model-driven control application development. In this paper, a model-driven development process that includes support for design-time simulations is complemented with support for simulating sequential control functions. The approach is implemented with open source tools and demonstrated by creating and simulating a control system model in closed-loop with a large and complex model of a paper industry process.

  10. Interoperability for Space Mission Monitor and Control: Applying Technologies from Manufacturing Automation and Process Control Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.

  11. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.

  12. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light. PMID:27050040

  13. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management. PMID:27225553

  14. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light.

  15. Classification Trees for Quality Control Processes in Automated Constructed Response Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David M.; Hone, Anne S.; Miller, Susan; Bejar, Isaac I.

    As the automated scoring of constructed responses reaches operational status, the issue of monitoring the scoring process becomes a primary concern, particularly when the goal is to have automated scoring operate completely unassisted by humans. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination and data for 326 cases with both human…

  16. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  17. Robust parameter design for automatically controlled systems and nanostructure synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar

    2007-12-01

    This research focuses on developing comprehensive frameworks for developing robust parameter design methodology for dynamic systems with automatic control and for synthesis of nanostructures. In many automatically controlled dynamic processes, the optimal feedback control law depends on the parameter design solution and vice versa and therefore an integrated approach is necessary. A parameter design methodology in the presence of feedback control is developed for processes of long duration under the assumption that experimental noise factors are uncorrelated over time. Systems that follow a pure-gain dynamic model are considered and the best proportional-integral and minimum mean squared error control strategies are developed by using robust parameter design. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulated example and a case study in a urea packing plant. This idea is also extended to cases with on-line noise factors. The possibility of integrating feedforward control with a minimum mean squared error feedback control scheme is explored. To meet the needs of large scale synthesis of nanostructures, it is critical to systematically find experimental conditions under which the desired nanostructures are synthesized reproducibly, at large quantity and with controlled morphology. The first part of the research in this area focuses on modeling and optimization of existing experimental data. Through a rigorous statistical analysis of experimental data, models linking the probabilities of obtaining specific morphologies to the process variables are developed. A new iterative algorithm for fitting a Multinomial GLM is proposed and used. The optimum process conditions, which maximize the above probabilities and make the synthesis process less sensitive to variations of process variables around set values, are derived from the fitted models using Monte-Carlo simulations. The second part of the research deals with development of an experimental design methodology, tailor

  18. A Multi-core Heterogeneous Programmable Automation Controller System of Construction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guoqing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two main issues, high cost and interrupt response delay for current PACs (programmable automation controllers which are using high frequency single-chip microprocessors and commercial RTOS (real-time operating system working by switching the tasks and interrupts. To solve these problems, a new low-cost multi-core heterogeneous PAC structure was proposed. Based on the traditional front-end of interrupt service without interrupt switching delay and the division & deployment of multi real-time tasks. We implemented a new programming language Engineer C including its syntax, compiler and an integrated development environment, which can dynamically divide the multi tasks and deploy the division to single low-cost microcontroller, then built the hardware prototype, which consists of a digital signal board, an analog signal board and a motion control board, every board has its microcontroller and communicates each other by an enhanced SPI bus. Testing results show the hardware prototype and IDE can be provided as a low-cost PAC solution for construction machine.

  19. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  20. On the synthesis of the pilot optimal control model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study continues some work of the authors, this time performing a synthesis of optimal control model of the human pilot in systems with input delay, by removing the Padé or Hess approximations characterizing the pilot structural central nervous block and their introduction as a pure delay block. On the one hand, the method ensures a better accuracy of synthesis and on the other hand is advantageous with respect to general results to date for time delay systems since: a the optimal control law is given explicitly and b the Riccati equations for the gain matrices do not contain any time advanced or delayed arguments. The approach is stimulated by recent works of M. Basin and his collaborators.

  1. Control Synthesis of Two-Mass Electromechanical Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Opeiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a cascade control synthesis for a two-mass electromechanical object. A cascade synthesis allows to determine a quick action of an electric drive speed regulation loop which is necessary for control of the specified mechanical part. A small parameter method is used in the paper. Calculative expressions for relations of loop frequency characteristics have been obtained in the paper. The paper presents a calculative example with the results of the system mathematical simulation.A synthesized system is characterized by robustness because variations in object parameters are acceptable if conditions of the system accessory to the given sets are observed.The proposed method can be applied if an own frequency of elastic vibrations is not very large in comparison with the characteristic frequency of the synthesized system.

  2. Automated Quality Control Methods for Sensor Data: A Novel Observatory Approach at the National Ecological Observatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. R.; Loescher, H.

    2013-05-01

    National and international networks and observatories of terrestrial-based sensors are emerging rapidly. As such, there is demand for a standardized approach to data quality control, as well as interoperability of data among sensor networks. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has begun constructing their first terrestrial observing sites with 60 locations expected to be distributed across the US by 2017. This will result in over 14 000 automated sensors recording more than >100 Tb of data per year. These data are then used to create other datasets and subsequent "higherlevel" data products. In anticipation of this challenge, an overall data quality assurance plan has been developed and the first suite of data quality control measures defined. This data-driven approach focuses on automated methods for defining a suite of plausibility test parameter thresholds. Specifically, these plausibility tests scrutinize data range, persistence, and stochasticity on each measurement type by employing a suite of binary checks. The statistical basis for each of these tests is developed and the methods for calculating test parameter thresholds are explored here. While these tests have been used elsewhere, we apply them in a novel approach by calculating their relevant test parameter thresholds. Finally, implementing automated quality control is demonstrated with preliminary data from a NEON prototype site. Results focus on novel approaches that advance the quality control techniques that have been historically employed in other networks (DOE-ARM, AmeriFlux, USDA ARS, OK Mesonet) to new state-of-the-art functionality. These automated and semi-automated approaches are also used to inform automated problem tracking to efficiently deploy field staff. Ultimately, NEON will define its own standards for QA/QC and maintenance by building upon these existing frameworks. The overarching philosophy relies on attaining the highest levels of accuracy, precision, and operational

  3. Synthesis of optimal digital controller of flocculant dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Pismenskiy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The task of automatic process control of the slime water thickening and flotation tailings clarification is the stabilization of thicken product density within the given range and keeping up the solids content in the overflow not above the permissible level with minimum use of the flocculants. In existing systems for automatic control the flocculant dosing is carried out according to the solids content in the device input (the principle of open-loop control. This leads to the excess consumption of the flocculants and increase the dispersion density of the overflow. To perform the synthesis of the optimal digital controller in order to minimize the deviations from the master control and ensure the specified quality of the transition process. Over controlling value should not exceed 5 %. To perform the system operation modeling in order to determine the quality of transient processes. Methodology. Synthesis of the optimal digital controller is based on the method of dynamic programming. Findings. A mathematical model of the object control is represented in the normal form of Cauchy and further in the form of differential equations. The optimum period of quantization as the function from specified error of control and the output coordinate change is calculated. The differential equation of Bellman is obtained and the condition for minimization of the quality functional. Bellman function is represented as a quadratic form from the variables of the system condition. In order to limit possible control, the weight coefficients of the functional are calculated based on maximum permitted values of the system condition variables and the control actions during the transient process. Practical value. Using the modeling of ACS of the flocculant dosing it was established that the over controlling amount is 3.5%, the transient process life 5.6 sec, the transient process is aperiodical, non-static control, which meets the requirements imposed on the

  4. Synthesis of porous gold nanoshells by controlled transmetallation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattabi, Manjunatha, E-mail: manjupattabi@yahoo.com; M, Krishnaprabha [Department of Materials Science, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Aqueous synthesis of porous gold nanoshells in one step is carried out through controlled transmetallation (TM) reaction using a naturally available egg shell membrane (ESM) as a barrier between the sacrificial silver particles (AgNPs) and the gold precursor solution (HAuCl{sub 4}). The formation of porous gold nanoshells via TM reaction is inferred from UV-Vis spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies.

  5. Reduction as a Transition Controller for Sound Synthesis Events

    OpenAIRE

    Bresson, Jean; Foulon, Raphaël; Stroppa, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We present an application of reduction and higher-order functions in a recent computer-aided composition project. Our objective is the generation of control data for the Chant sound synthesizer using OpenMusic (OM), a domain-specific visual programming environment based on Common Lisp. The system we present allows to compose sounds by combining synthesis events in sequences. After the definition of the compositional primitives determining these events, we handle their sequencing, transitions ...

  6. Controlling Silver Nanoparticle Size and Morphology with Photostimulated Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, A K; Langlois, R; Loth, M; Schmitz, R; Taft, G; Tanke, R S; Wruck, A

    2005-01-01

    Photo-induced synthesis and control over the size and shape of colloidal silver nanoparticles is investigated in contrast to photo-stimulated aggregation of small nanoparticles into large fractal-type structures. The feasibility of light-driven nanoengineering which enables manipulation of the sizes and shapes of the isolated nanoparticles is studied by varying the amount and type of the stabilizing agent and the type of optical irradiation.

  7. Size Controlled Synthesis of Starch Nanoparticles by a Microemulsion Method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Controllable particles sizes of starch nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation in water-in-oil microemulsion approach. Microemulsion method offers the advantages of ultralow interfacial tension, large interfacial area, and being thermodynamically stable and affords monodispersed nanoparticles. The synthesis parameters such as stirring rates, ratios of oil/cosurfactant, oil phases, cosurfactants, and ratios of water/oil were found to affect the mean particle size of starch nanoparti...

  8. Microfluidic Reactors for the Controlled Synthesis of Monodisperse Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Emine Yegan

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention in the past few decades due to their unique, size-dependent properties. In order to use these nanoparticles in devices or sensors effectively, it is important to maintain uniform properties throughout the system; therefore nanoparticles need to have uniform sizes - or monodisperse. In order to achieve monodispersity, an extreme control over the reaction conditions is required during their synthesis. These reaction conditions such as temperature,...

  9. Synthesis of porous gold nanoshells by controlled transmetallation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattabi, Manjunatha; M, Krishnaprabha

    2015-06-01

    Aqueous synthesis of porous gold nanoshells in one step is carried out through controlled transmetallation (TM) reaction using a naturally available egg shell membrane (ESM) as a barrier between the sacrificial silver particles (AgNPs) and the gold precursor solution (HAuCl4). The formation of porous gold nanoshells via TM reaction is inferred from UV-Vis spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies.

  10. Efficient assessment of modified nucleoside stability under conditions of automated oligonucleotide synthesis: characterization of the oxidation and oxidative desulfurization of 2-thiouridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacka, E

    2001-01-01

    In order to efficiently assess the chemical stability of modified nucleosides to the reagents and conditions of automated oligonucleotide synthesis, we designed, developed and tested a scheme in which the modified nucleoside, directly attached to a solid support, is exposed to the cyclic chemistry of the instrument. Stability of 2-thiouridine against different oxidizers was investigated. Tertbutyl hydroperoxide (1 M) in anhydrous acetonitrile was a more effective oxidizer for the incorporation of 2-thiouridine into oligonucleotide chains than the same oxidizer in methylene chloride. Carbon tetrachloride/water in the presence of a basic catalyst was superior in maintaining the thiocarbonyl function, but its utility for RNA synthesis has yet to be fully tested, whereas 2-phenylsulfonyloxaziridine was a very efficient reagent for oxidative desulfurization of 2-thiouridine. PMID:11720000

  11. Towards an Improved Pilot-Vehicle Interface for Highly Automated Aircraft: Evaluation of the Haptic Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Paul; Goodrich, Kenneth; Williams, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The control automation and interaction paradigm (e.g., manual, autopilot, flight management system) used on virtually all large highly automated aircraft has long been an exemplar of breakdowns in human factors and human-centered design. An alternative paradigm is the Haptic Flight Control System (HFCS) that is part of NASA Langley Research Center s Naturalistic Flight Deck Concept. The HFCS uses only stick and throttle for easily and intuitively controlling the actual flight of the aircraft without losing any of the efficiency and operational benefits of the current paradigm. Initial prototypes of the HFCS are being evaluated and this paper describes one such evaluation. In this evaluation we examined claims regarding improved situation awareness, appropriate workload, graceful degradation, and improved pilot acceptance. Twenty-four instrument-rated pilots were instructed to plan and fly four different flights in a fictitious airspace using a moderate fidelity desktop simulation. Three different flight control paradigms were tested: Manual control, Full Automation control, and a simplified version of the HFCS. Dependent variables included both subjective (questionnaire) and objective (SAGAT) measures of situation awareness, workload (NASA-TLX), secondary task performance, time to recognize automation failures, and pilot preference (questionnaire). The results showed a statistically significant advantage for the HFCS in a number of measures. Results that were not statistically significant still favored the HFCS. The results suggest that the HFCS does offer an attractive and viable alternative to the tactical components of today s FMS/autopilot control system. The paper describes further studies that are planned to continue to evaluate the HFCS.

  12. Automatic controller to water plants Acionador automático para irrigar plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Medici

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the massive demand of water for plant irrigation, there are few devices being used in the automation of this process in agriculture. This work evaluates a simple controller to water plants automatically that can be set up with low cost commercial materials, which are large-scale produced. This controller is composed by a ceramic capsule used in common domestic water filters; a plastic tube around 1.5 m long, and a pressostate used in domestic washing machines. The capsule and the pressostate are connected through the tube so that all parts are filled with water. The ceramic capsule is the sensor of the controller and has to be placed into the plant substrate. The pressostate has to be placed below the sensor and the lower it is, the higher is the water tension to start the irrigation, since the lower is the pressostate the higher is the water column above it and, therefore, the higher is the tension inside the ceramic cup to pull up the water column. The controller was evaluated in the control of drip irrigation for small containers filled with commercial organic substrate or soil. Linear regressions explained the relationship between the position of pressostate and the maximum water tension in the commercial substrate (p A despeito da enorme demanda por água na irrigação de plantas, existem poucos aparelhos para automação deste processo sendo usados na agricultura. Avaliou-se um acionador automático para irrigação, o qual pode ser confeccionado com materiais comerciais de baixo custo, pois são produzidos em larga escala. Este acionador é composto por uma cápsula cerâmica usada em filtros de água domésticos; um tubo plástico com cerca de um metro e meio de comprimento e um pressostato de máquinas de lavar roupas domésticas. A cápsula e o pressostato são conectados pelo tubo de forma que todo o espaço interno seja preenchido com água. A cápsula é o sensor do acionador e deve ser posicionada dentro do substrato das

  13. Microstructure synthesis control of biological polyhydroxyalkanoates with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Erik Norman

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA's) are a class of biologically produced polymers, or plastic, that is synthesized by various microorganisms. PHA's are made from biorenewable resources and are fully biodegradable and biocompatible, making them an environmentally friendly green polymer. A method of incorporating polymer microstructure into the PHA synthesized in Ralstonia eutropha was developed. These microstructures were synthesized with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the polymer domains. To synthesize the PHB V copolymer, the additional presence of valerate was required. To control valerate substrate additions to the bioreactor, an off-gas mass spectrometry (MS) feedback control system was developed. Important process information including the cell physiology, growth kinetics, and product formation kinetics in the bioreactor was obtained with MS and used to control microstructure synthesis. The two polymer microstructures synthesized were core-shell granules and block copolymers. Block copolymers control the structure of the individual polymer chains while core-shell granules control the organization of many polymer chains. Both these microstructures result in properties unattainable by blending the two polymers together. The core-shell structures were synthesized with controlled domain thickness based on a developed model. Different block copolymers compositions were synthesized by varying the switching time of the substrate pulses responsible for block copolymer synthesis. The block copolymers were tested to determine their chemical properties and cast into films to determine the materials properties. These block copolymer films possessed new properties not achieved by copolymers or blends of the two polymers.

  14. Modernization of existing power plants. Progress in automation and process control/observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous power plants are now getting on in years, and their owners have to face the question 'New plant or upgrade job ?'. Experience in the past few years has shown that in many cases modernization/upgrading of existing plants is a more favorable option than building a complete new power plant. Advantages like lower capital investment costs and avoidance of licensing risks for new plants constitute important motives for choosing the upgrade option in numerous power plants modernization projects. The defined objective here is to ensure the units' operating capability for another 20 to 25 years, sometimes supplemented by meticulous compliance with current environmental impact legislation. Another cogent argument emerges from automation engineering advances in modern-day control systems which make an effective contribution to meeting upgrading objective like: equipment/material -friendly operation, extended useful lifetime, enhanced plant reliability, enhanced plant availability, improved plant efficiency, optimized staffing levels, enhanced cost-effectiveness, compliance with today's international standards. In this context special attention is paid to the economical aspects and to the increase of plant availability. (author). 6 figs

  15. Research in automation, risk analysis, control rooms and organisational factors; applications to plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is qualitatively different as compared with many other technologies. The differences are connected to factors such as very long time spans, the need for broad and deep knowledge, a large accident potential and political controversies. Before a country can enter a nuclear power programme it is important that these issues are understood and acted upon. The paper describes the nuclear power programme in Finland from the view of a technical support organisation with a special emphasis on automation, risk analysis, control rooms and organisational factors. It is argued that research and development are important components in maintaining nuclear knowledge in a country. Research at VTT within the four areas mentioned is described in more detail to illustrate some important issues that have to be resolved on a medium term to ensure a continuing success of nuclear power. A conclusion of the paper is that major stakeholders in nuclear power in a country have to co-operate on a neutral platform. Research can serve as an ideal platform for such co-operation. (author)

  16. High concentration (2500 suns), high throughput, automated flash tester with calibrated color balance and intensity control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludowise, Michael; Taylor, Sean; Lucow, Ewelina; Chan, Hing

    2008-08-01

    SolFocus has designed and built a flexible and adaptable solar flash tester capable of reaching in excess of 2500x suns flux using a commercially available Xenon flash and power supply. Using calibrated isotype cells and photodetectors, the intensity and color balance of the flash are controlled through software algorithms that compensate for tube aging and thermal drift. The data acquisition system dynamically normalizes each of the 1600 I-V data pairs to the lamp intensity during each flash. Up to 32 cells can be measured simultaneously, with a flash re-cycle time of 3 seconds. The dynamic current range is 100μA to 10A over 0 to 5V. Test ranges are limited by user input through a modern GUI screen. The system is mated to a commercially available probe station tester which allows automated testing of up to 150mm diameter wafers, and is capable of testing a 4000 cell wafer in less than 8 minutes. The core software and optical components are easily adaptable to receiver and full panel testing as well. Data on the calibration and performance of the flash tester, the dynamic range achieved in test, and throughputs obtained during operation are presented.

  17. Current status in automating inspection work for quality control; Hinshitsu kanri no tame no kensa no jidoka no genjo; Current status in automating inspection work for quality control; Hinshitsu kanri no tame no kensa no jidoka no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-23

    An investigation was carried out on the current status in automating inspection works for quality control. An automation investigation expertise committee was established in January 1991, which has held eleven meetings before the committee was terminated in December 1993 and reported examples in a variety of fields. A large number of measuring methods was related to image processing, and other methods included mechanical, electromagnetic and acoustic measurements. Subject industrial fields were as diverse as steel and iron, automobile, electrical parts and mechanical parts industries. The following matters were disclosed as the obtained common recognition: visual inspections may be replaced by using cameras to a considerably high extent, but measurements that depend on other five human senses are difficult of automation; automating the inspections requires quantification of inspection criteria as well as simultaneous and real-time processing of multiple inspection items; important is how to carry out sensing of sensory values, and assurance of reproducibility and stability of measurements; cost reduction is also a problem; and introduction is required in application of fuzzy and neural networks and genetic algorithms. 45 refs., 130 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. Optimal placement of active elements in control augmented structural synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, A. E.; Jin, I. M.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for structural/control synthesis is presented in which the optimal location of active members is treated in terms of (0,1) variables. Structural member sizes, control gains and (0,1) placement variables are treated simultaneously as design variables. Optimization is carried out by generating and solving a sequence of explicit approximate problems using a branch and bound strategy. Intermediate design variable and intermediate response quantity concepts are used to enhance the quality of the approximate design problems. Numerical results for example problems are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the design procedure set forth.

  19. Size Controlled Synthesis of Transition Metal Nanoparticles for Catalytic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Esparza, Angel

    2011-07-07

    Catalysis offers cleaner and more efficient chemical reactions for environmental scientists. More than 90% of industrial processes are performed with a catalyst involved, however research it is still required to improve the catalyst materials. The purpose of this work is to contribute with the development of catalysts synthesis with two different approaches. First, the precise size control of non-noble metals nanoparticles. Second, a new one-pot synthesis method based on a microemulsion system was developed to synthesize size-controlled metal nanoparticles in oxide supports. The one-pot method represents a simple approach to synthesize both support and immobilized nanometer-sized non-noble metal nanoparticles in the same reaction system. Narrow size distribution nickel, cobalt, iron and cobalt-nickel nanoparticles were obtained. High metal dispersions are attainable regardless the metal or support used in the synthesis. Thus, the methodology is adaptable and robust. The sizecontrolled supported metal nanoparticles offer the opportunity to study size effects and metal-support interactions on different catalytic reactions with different sets of metals and supports.

  20. Controlled synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Gouder, Thomas; Courtois, Eglantine; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2013-04-22

    Very little is known about the size and shape effects on the properties of actinide compounds. As a consequence, the controlled synthesis of well-defined actinide-based nanocrystals constitutes a fundamental step before studying their corresponding properties. In this paper, we report on the non-aqueous surfactant-assisted synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nanocrystals. The final characteristics of thorium and uranium oxide nanocrystals can be easily tuned by controlling a few experimental parameters such as the nature of the actinide precursor and the composition of the organic system (e.g., the chemical nature of the surfactants and their relative concentrations). Additionally, the influence of these parameters on the outcome of the synthesis is highly dependent on the nature of the actinide element (thorium versus uranium). By using optimised experimental conditions, monodisperse isotropic uranium oxide nanocrystals with different sizes (4.5 and 10.7 nm) as well as branched nanocrystals (overall size ca. 5 nm), nanodots (ca. 4 nm) and nanorods (with ultra-small diameters of 1 nm) of thorium oxide were synthesised.

  1. Controlled synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very little is known about the size and shape effects on the properties of actinide compounds. As a consequence, the controlled synthesis of well-defined actinide-based nano-crystals constitutes a fundamental step before studying their corresponding properties. In this paper, we report on the non-aqueous surfactant-assisted synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals. The final characteristics of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals can be easily tuned by controlling a few experimental parameters such as the nature of the actinide precursor and the composition of the organic system (e.g., the chemical nature of the surfactants and their relative concentrations). Additionally, the influence of these parameters on the outcome of the synthesis is highly dependent on the nature of the actinide element (thorium versus uranium). By using optimised experimental conditions, monodisperse isotropic uranium oxide nano-crystals with different sizes (4.5 and 10.7 nm) as well as branched nano-crystals (overall size ca. 5 nm), nano-dots (ca. 4 nm) and nano-rods (with ultra-small diameters of 1 nm) of thorium oxide were synthesised. (authors)

  2. Substrate-Controlled Asymmetric Total Synthesis and Structure Revision of (-)-Bisezakyne A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Iljin; Lee, Dongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsu

    2016-09-01

    The first asymmetric total synthesis and subsequent structure revision of (-)-bisezakyne A, a Laurencia C15 acetogenin from Alpysia oculifera, has been accomplished. Our substrate-controlled synthesis of this oxolane natural product features a highly stereoselective "protecting-group-dependent" intramolecular amide enolate alkylation strategy for the synthesis of the key 9,10-trans-9,12-cis-10-hydroxytetrahydrofuran intermediate through "nonchelate" control. In addition, our synthesis determined the absolute configuration of the halogenated marine natural product. PMID:27551943

  3. ASPEN: A Framework for Automated Planning and Scheduling of Spacecraft Control and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, David; Fukunaga, Alex S.; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ASPEN (Automated Planning/Scheduling Environment), a modular, reconfigurable application framework which is capable of supporting a wide variety of planning and scheduling applications.

  4. Microfluidic Reactors for the Controlled Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emine Yegan

    Nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention in the past few decades due to their unique, size-dependent properties. In order to use these nanoparticles in devices or sensors effectively, it is important to maintain uniform properties throughout the system; therefore nanoparticles need to have uniform sizes -- or monodisperse. In order to achieve monodispersity, an extreme control over the reaction conditions is required during their synthesis. These reaction conditions such as temperature, concentration of reagents, residence times, etc. affect the structure of nanoparticles dramatically; therefore when the conditions vary locally in the reaction vessel, different sized nanoparticles form, causing polydispersity. In widely-used batch wise synthesis techniques, large sized reaction vessels are used to mix and heat reagents. In these types of systems, it is very hard to avoid thermal gradients and to achieve rapid mixing times as well as to control residence times. Also it is not possible to make rapid changes in the reaction parameters during the synthesis. The other drawback of conventional methods is that it is not possible to separate the nucleation of nanoparticles from their growth; this leads to combined nucleation and growth and subsequently results in polydisperse size distributions. Microfluidics is an alternative method by which the limitations of conventional techniques can be addressed. Due to the small size, it is possible to control temperature and concentration of reagents precisely as well as to make rapid changes in mixing ratios of reagents or temperature of the reaction zones. There have been several microfluidic reactors -- (microreactors) in literature that were designed to improve the size distribution of nanoparticles. In this work, two novel microfluidic systems were developed for achieving controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The first microreactor was made out of a chemically robust polymer, polyurethane, and it was used for low

  5. GCE Data Toolbox for MATLAB - a software framework for automating environmental data processing, quality control and documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W.; Chamblee, J.; Cary, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental scientists are under increasing pressure from funding agencies and journal publishers to release quality-controlled data in a timely manner, as well as to produce comprehensive metadata for submitting data to long-term archives (e.g. DataONE, Dryad and BCO-DMO). At the same time, the volume of digital data that researchers collect and manage is increasing rapidly due to advances in high frequency electronic data collection from flux towers, instrumented moorings and sensor networks. However, few pre-built software tools are available to meet these data management needs, and those tools that do exist typically focus on part of the data management lifecycle or one class of data. The GCE Data Toolbox has proven to be both a generalized and effective software solution for environmental data management in the Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTER). This open source MATLAB software library, developed by the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER program, integrates metadata capture, creation and management with data processing, quality control and analysis to support the entire data lifecycle. Raw data can be imported directly from common data logger formats (e.g. SeaBird, Campbell Scientific, YSI, Hobo), as well as delimited text files, MATLAB files and relational database queries. Basic metadata are derived from the data source itself (e.g. parsed from file headers) and by value inspection, and then augmented using editable metadata templates containing boilerplate documentation, attribute descriptors, code definitions and quality control rules. Data and metadata content, quality control rules and qualifier flags are then managed together in a robust data structure that supports database functionality and ensures data validity throughout processing. A growing suite of metadata-aware editing, quality control, analysis and synthesis tools are provided with the software to support managing data using graphical forms and command-line functions, as well as

  6. The protein quality control system manages plant defence compound synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; González-Guzmán, Miguel; De Geyter, Nathan; Lippens, Saskia; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Marhavý, Peter; Kremer, Anna; Morreel, Kris; Guérin, Christopher J; Tava, Aldo; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Thevelein, Johan M; Campos, Narciso; Goormachtig, Sofie; Goossens, Alain

    2013-12-01

    Jasmonates are ubiquitous oxylipin-derived phytohormones that are essential in the regulation of many development, growth and defence processes. Across the plant kingdom, jasmonates act as elicitors of the production of bioactive secondary metabolites that serve in defence against attackers. Knowledge of the conserved jasmonate perception and early signalling machineries is increasing, but the downstream mechanisms that regulate defence metabolism remain largely unknown. Here we show that, in the legume Medicago truncatula, jasmonate recruits the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) quality control system to manage the production of triterpene saponins, widespread bioactive compounds that share a biogenic origin with sterols. An ERAD-type RING membrane-anchor E3 ubiquitin ligase is co-expressed with saponin synthesis enzymes to control the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the supply of the ubiquitous terpene precursor isopentenyl diphosphate. Thus, unrestrained bioactive saponin accumulation is prevented and plant development and integrity secured. This control apparatus is equivalent to the ERAD system that regulates sterol synthesis in yeasts and mammals but that uses distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases, of the HMGR degradation 1 (HRD1) type, to direct destruction of HMGR. Hence, the general principles for the management of sterol and triterpene saponin biosynthesis are conserved across eukaryotes but can be controlled by divergent regulatory cues. PMID:24213631

  7. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xinlei Liu; Zhentong Liu; Liming Zhu; Hongwen He

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs) for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric ma...

  8. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm3 of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V50) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose–volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V50 (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm3), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm3 of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p 50 using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold 50. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  9. Use of the TACL [Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic] system at CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] for control of the Cryogenic Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A logic-based control software system, called Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic (TACL), is under development at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA. The first version of the software was placed in service in November, 1987 for control of cryogenics during the first superconducting RF cavity tests at CEBAF. In August, 1988 the control system was installed at the Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) at CEBAF. CTF generated liquid helium in September, 1988 and is now in full operation for the current round of cavity tests. TACL is providing a powerful and flexible controls environment for the operation of CTF. 3 refs

  10. Size Controlled Synthesis of Starch Nanoparticles by a Microemulsion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Fun Chin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controllable particles sizes of starch nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation in water-in-oil microemulsion approach. Microemulsion method offers the advantages of ultralow interfacial tension, large interfacial area, and being thermodynamically stable and affords monodispersed nanoparticles. The synthesis parameters such as stirring rates, ratios of oil/cosurfactant, oil phases, cosurfactants, and ratios of water/oil were found to affect the mean particle size of starch nanoparticles. Starch nanoparticles with mean particles sizes of 109 nm were synthesized by direct nanoprecipitation method, whereas by using precipitation in microemulsion approach, starch nanoparticles with smaller mean particles sizes of 83 nm were obtained.

  11. Controllable Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Boron Nitride Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongling; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Tsang, Siu Hon; Zhen, Xu; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2015-12-22

    Boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs), as a new member of heavy metal-free quantum dots, have aroused great interest in fundamental research and practical application due to their unique physical/chemical properties. However, it is still a challenge to controllably synthesize high-quality BNQDs with high quantum yield (QY), uniform size and strong fluorescent. In this work, BNQDs have been successfully fabricated by the liquid exfoliation and the subsequent solvothermal process with respect to its facileness and easy large scale up. Importantly, BNQDs with high-quality can be controllably obtained by adjusting the synthetic parameters involved in the solvothermal process including filling factor, synthesis temperature, and duration time. Encouragingly, the as-prepared BNQDs possess strong blue luminescence with QY as high as 19.5%, which can be attributed to the synergetic effect of size, surface chemistry and edge defects. In addition, this strategy presented here provides a new reference for the controllable synthesis of other heavy metal-free QDs. Furthermore, the as-prepared BNQDs are non-toxic to cells and exhibit nanosecond-scaled lifetimes, suggesting they have great potential biological and optoelectronic applications. PMID:26574683

  12. Global sensitivity analysis in control-augmented structural synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloebaum, Christina L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach to structural/control design is proposed in which variables in both the passive (structural) and active (control) disciplines of an optimization process are changed simultaneously. The global sensitivity equation (GSE) method of Sobieszczanski-Sobieski (1988) is used to obtain the behavior sensitivity derivatives necessary for the linear approximations used in the parallel multidisciplinary synthesis problem. The GSE allows for the decoupling of large systems into smaller subsystems and thus makes it possible to determine the local sensitivities of each subsystem's outputs to its inputs and parameters. The advantages in using the GSE method are demonstrated using a finite-element representation of a truss structure equipped with active lateral displacement controllers, which is undergoing forced vibration.

  13. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  14. Automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs) through aggressive space mapping (ASM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selga, Jordi; Rodríguez, Ana; Orellana, Marco; Boria, Vicente; Martín, Ferran

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the application of space mapping optimization to the automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs). These structures are of interest for the implementation of resonant-type metamaterial transmission lines and for the design of planar microwave circuits based on such complementary resonators. The paper presents a method to generate the layouts of CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded microstrip lines from the elements of their equivalent circuit models. Using the so-called aggressive space mapping, a specific implementation that uses quasi-Newton type iteration, we have developed synthesis algorithms that are able to provide the topology of these CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded lines in few steps. The most relevant aspect, however, is that this synthesis process is completely automatic, i.e., it does not require any action from the designers, other than initiating the algorithm. Moreover, this technique can be translated to other electrically small planar elements described by lumped element equivalent circuit models.

  15. Discrete-time minimal control synthesis adaptive algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Bernardo, M.; di Gennaro, F.; Olm, J. M.; Santini, S.

    2010-12-01

    This article proposes a discrete-time Minimal Control Synthesis (MCS) algorithm for a class of single-input single-output discrete-time systems written in controllable canonical form. As it happens with the continuous-time MCS strategy, the algorithm arises from the family of hyperstability-based discrete-time model reference adaptive controllers introduced in (Landau, Y. (1979), Adaptive Control: The Model Reference Approach, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.) and is able to ensure tracking of the states of a given reference model with minimal knowledge about the plant. The control design shows robustness to parameter uncertainties, slow parameter variation and matched disturbances. Furthermore, it is proved that the proposed discrete-time MCS algorithm can be used to control discretised continuous-time plants with the same performance features. Contrary to previous discrete-time implementations of the continuous-time MCS algorithm, here a formal proof of asymptotic stability is given for generic n-dimensional plants in controllable canonical form. The theoretical approach is validated by means of simulation results.

  16. Automated radiochemical processing for clinical PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Siemens RDS 112, an automated radiochemical production and delivery system designed to support a clinical PET program, consists of an 11 MeV, proton only, negative ion cyclotron, a shield, a computer, and targetry and chemical processing modules to produce radiochemicals used in PET imaging. The principal clinical PET tracers are [18F]FDG, [13N]ammonia and [15O]water. Automated synthesis of [18F]FDG is achieved using the Chemistry Process Control Unit (CPCU), a general purpose valve-and-tubing device that emulates manual processes while allowing for competent operator intervention. Using function-based command file software, this pressure-driven synthesis system carries out chemical processing procedures by timing only, without process-based feedback. To date, nine CPCUs have installed at seven institutions resulting in 1,200+ syntheses of [18F]FDG, with an average yield of 55% (EOB)

  17. Towards automation of control software: a review of challenges in mechatronic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Cabrera, A.A.; Foeken, M.J.; Tekin, O.A.; Woestenenk, K.; Erden, M.S.; De Schutter, B.; Tooren, M.J.L.; Babuska, R.; Houten, van F.J.A.M.; Tomiyama, T.

    2010-01-01

    Development of mechatronic systems requires collaboration among experts from different design domains. In this paper the authors identify a set of challenges related to the design of mechatronic systems. The challenges are mostly related to integration of design and analysis tools, and automation of

  18. Automation of controller's management by train work on the byelorussian ferrous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Erofeev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The description of the automated system of working out of the look-ahead train schedule is resulted. Appointment, structure and system structure are considered. Requirements to the entrance information are established. Procedures of automatic construction and dispatching updatings of the look-ahead train schedule are regulated

  19. 78 FR 56541 - Concept Release on Risk Controls and System Safeguards for Automated Trading Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... participants, including an expanded range of potential trading strategies, and a surge in the speed, precision and tools ] available to execute such strategies. In addition to these benefits, however, automated... New York Stock Exchange (``NYSE''), causing price swings in nearly 150 securities and costing the...

  20. Modeling pilot interaction with automated digital avionics systems: Guidance and control algorithms for contour and nap-of-the-Earth flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1990-01-01

    A collection of technical papers are presented that cover modeling pilot interaction with automated digital avionics systems and guidance and control algorithms for contour and nap-of-the-earth flight. The titles of the papers presented are as follows: (1) Automation effects in a multiloop manual control system; (2) A qualitative model of human interaction with complex dynamic systems; (3) Generalized predictive control of dynamic systems; (4) An application of generalized predictive control to rotorcraft terrain-following flight; (5) Self-tuning generalized predictive control applied to terrain-following flight; and (6) Precise flight path control using a predictive algorithm.

  1. Multiobjective controller synthesis via eigenstructure assignment with state feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Lam, James

    2016-10-01

    A general parameter scheme for multiobjective controller synthesis via eigenstructure assignment with state feedback is proposed. The scheme provides total pole configurability, that is, pole assignment constraints, partial pole assignment constraints, generalised regional pole assignment constraints can be dealt with simultaneously without introducing essential conservatism. The scheme is derived from the pole assignment approach using Sylvester equations, and the parameter space is the Cartesian product of some subspaces characterising the free parameters. Under the scheme, the controller design problems are formulated as nonlinear optimisation problems with both objectives and constraints being differentiable and can be solved by derivative-based nonlinear programming technique. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM WITHIN MEDICALECONOMIC PREFERENTIAL DRUGS PRESCRIPTION CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshkarov A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are about 575 thousand of citizens in the Krasnodar Region that are entitled to a preferential medical maintenance in accordance with the Federal Law of 17.07.1999 (№178-FZ "On state social assistance." About 120 thousand of preferential prescriptions for 150 thousand of medicines are serviced per month. In order to make the drugs prescription process based exceptionally on real medical indications in accordance with modern concepts of medical service quality it is necessary to plan the medical-economic drugs prescription validity control (MEC. The work proposes the analysis and synthesis method of decision support system (DSS modules for automation the selection of drugs prescription and medicinal maintenance cases, concerning the federal benefit recipients, while performing the MEC. DSS allows medical experts to estimate the efficiency of federal funds costs, that are spent on the preferential medicinal maintenance, moreover, it can serve as a basis for future purchases planning, as well as to correct and improve the efficiency of medical prescriptions. The DSS was developed in accordance with the approved procedure of information exchange in the Krasnodar Region; it involves the integration with existing systems. Furthermore, as the federal register of persons, entitled to the state social assistance, has common formats among all the Russian Federation subjects, the developed system can be easily adapted in other regions

  3. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  4. Synthesis and quality control of [{sup 18}F] fluorothymidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas C.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Priscilla F.; Faria, Tiago, E-mail: ltcn@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a technique that allows early diagnosis of various diseases by detecting metabolic changes of cells, in addition to being a noninvasive technique. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging is [{sup 18}F] Fludesoxiglucose ({sup 18}FDG), which is a marker of glucose metabolism and has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis and staging of various cancers. However, some carcinomas do not have high glucose consumption, besides {sup 18}FDG possess high urinary excretion rate interfering with the detection of tumors in pelvis and high uptake in brain and in inflammation, reducing the contrast tumor / background. The radiotracer 3'-fluoro-L-3'-deoxythymidine ({sup 18}FLT) is an analogue of thymidine used as an alternative to {sup 18}FDG for detecting tumors with high proliferation rate. The aim of this work was to develop [{sup 18}F] Fluorothymidine synthesis and quality control at the Radiopharmaceuticals Research and Production Facility of CDTN/CNEN. The synthesis was adapted from that used to {sup 18}FDG, based on the methodologies described in related papers. Radiochemical purity and impurities levels were determined by HPLC, RTLC and GC techniques. Total synthesis time was 35 minutes and the radiochemical yield in the end of bombardment (EOB) was 7%, with a radiochemical purity of about 93%. Radionuclidic identity and purity, pH, residual solvents, radiochemical and chemical purity were evaluated according to analytical methods described on the literature and on the United States Pharmacopeia (USP 32). Residual levels of Stavudine, Thymine and Thymidine were found and are under toxicological investigation in order to establish a maximum amount allowed in the final product. (author)

  5. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Brnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with

  6. GMP-compliant automated synthesis of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 (Florbetapir F 18) for imaging {beta}-amyloid plaques in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, C.-H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.-J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Weng, C.-C. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I.-T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ting, Y.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Yen, T.-C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Jan, T.-R. [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Skovronsky, Daniel [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, M.-P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wey, S.-P., E-mail: spwey@mail.cgu.edu.t [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-15

    We report herein the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant automated synthesis of {sup 18}F-labeled styrylpyridine, AV-45 (Florbetapir), a novel tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) plaques in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. [{sup 18}F]AV-45 was prepared in 105 min using a tosylate precursor with Sumitomo modules for radiosynthesis under GMP-compliant conditions. The overall yield was 25.4{+-}7.7% with a final radiochemical purity of 95.3{+-}2.2% (n=19). The specific activity of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 reached as high as 470{+-}135 TBq/mmol (n=19). The present studies show that [{sup 18}F]AV-45 can be manufactured under GMP-compliant conditions and could be widely available for routine clinical use.

  7. A fully automated two-step synthesis of an {sup 18}F-labelled tyrosine kinase inhibitor for EGFR kinase activity imaging in tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobus, D.; Giesen, Y.; Ullrich, R.; Backes, H. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zuelch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Neumaier, B. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zuelch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)], E-mail: bernd.neumaier@nf.mpg.de

    2009-11-15

    Radiolabelled epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors potentially facilitate the assessment of EGFR overexpression in tumors. Since elaborate multi-step radiosyntheses are required for {sup 18}F-labelling of EGFR-specific anilinoquinazolines we report on the development of a two-step click labelling approach that was adapted to a fully automated synthesis module. 6-(4-N,N-Dimethylaminocrotonyl)amido-4-(3-chloro-4-fluoro)phenylamino-7-{l_brace}3- [4-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-2,3,4-triazol-1-yl]propoxy{r_brace}quinazoline ([{sup 18}F]6) was synthesized via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethylazide ([{sup 18}F]4) and the alkyne modified anilinoquinazoline precursor 5. PET images of PC9 tumor xenograft using the novel biomarker showed promising results to visualize EGFR overexpression.

  8. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  9. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanocrystals with Controlled Crystal- and Micro-structures from Titanium Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto Kobayashi; Hideki Kato; Masato Kakihana

    2013-01-01

    Selective synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) polymorphs including anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) by solvothermal treatment of water-soluble titanium complexes is described with a special focus on their morphological control. The utilization of water-soluble titanium complexes as a raw material allowed us to employ various additives in the synthesis of TiO2. As a result, the selective synthesis of the polymorphs, as well as diverse morphological control, was achieved.

  10. The Regulatory Networks That Control Clostridium difficile Toxin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Peltier, Johann; Dupuy, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic clostridia cause many human and animal diseases, which typically arise as a consequence of the production of potent exotoxins. Among the enterotoxic clostridia, Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of nosocomial intestinal infections in adults with a compromised gut microbiota caused by antibiotic treatment. The symptoms of C. difficile infection are essentially caused by the production of two exotoxins: TcdA and TcdB. Moreover, for severe forms of disease, the spectrum of diseases caused by C. difficile has also been correlated to the levels of toxins that are produced during host infection. This observation strengthened the idea that the regulation of toxin synthesis is an important part of C. difficile pathogenesis. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the regulators and sigma factors that have been reported to control toxin gene expression in response to several environmental signals and stresses, including the availability of certain carbon sources and amino acids, or to signaling molecules, such as the autoinducing peptides of quorum sensing systems. The overlapping regulation of key metabolic pathways and toxin synthesis strongly suggests that toxin production is a complex response that is triggered by bacteria in response to particular states of nutrient availability during infection. PMID:27187475

  11. The Regulatory Networks That Control Clostridium difficile Toxin Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Peltier, Johann; Dupuy, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic clostridia cause many human and animal diseases, which typically arise as a consequence of the production of potent exotoxins. Among the enterotoxic clostridia, Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of nosocomial intestinal infections in adults with a compromised gut microbiota caused by antibiotic treatment. The symptoms of C. difficile infection are essentially caused by the production of two exotoxins: TcdA and TcdB. Moreover, for severe forms of disease, the spectrum of diseases caused by C. difficile has also been correlated to the levels of toxins that are produced during host infection. This observation strengthened the idea that the regulation of toxin synthesis is an important part of C. difficile pathogenesis. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the regulators and sigma factors that have been reported to control toxin gene expression in response to several environmental signals and stresses, including the availability of certain carbon sources and amino acids, or to signaling molecules, such as the autoinducing peptides of quorum sensing systems. The overlapping regulation of key metabolic pathways and toxin synthesis strongly suggests that toxin production is a complex response that is triggered by bacteria in response to particular states of nutrient availability during infection. PMID:27187475

  12. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  13. Dibujo automático de planos complejos: control de posiciones ocupadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Historico, Jesús

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available The computerized design of building structures at a level of an almost total automation give rise to a great number of problems of various kinds that have to be solved. Out of these problems the author has chosen a topic that is of special interest because of its general field of application and because it is different from the previous topics dealing with automatic dimensioning of structures.El diseño computarizado de estructuras de edificación a un nivel de automatismo prácticamente del cien por cien, exige la resolución de múltiples problemas de variada índole. De entre ellos, el autor selecciona un tema de especial interés, por su aplicabilidad genérica y por apartarse de los temas ya clásicos en el dimensionamiento automático de estructuras.

  14. Highly Automated Arrival Management and Control System Suitable for Early NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation of previously published work conducted in the development of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system. Included are concept and technical descriptions of the TAPSS system and results from human in the loop simulations conducted at Ames Research Center. The Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing system has demonstrated through research and extensive high-fidelity simulation studies to have benefits in airport arrival throughput, supporting efficient arrival descents, and enabling mixed aircraft navigation capability operations during periods of high congestion. NASA is currently porting the TAPSS system into the FAA TBFM and STARS system prototypes to ensure its ability to operate in the FAA automation Infrastructure. NASA ATM Demonstration Project is using the the TAPSS technologies to provide the ground-based automation tools to enable airborne Interval Management (IM) capabilities. NASA and the FAA have initiated a Research Transition Team to enable potential TAPSS and IM Technology Transfer.

  15. Control and automation system for coal transport and thermoelectric power plant feeding facilities at Dagang Plant, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savio, A.; Ruga, A.M.

    1986-12-01

    The Dagang Plant in China represents a typical example of a coal rail transport system. During the design of any plant attention should be focussed on the efficency and reliability of the control systems to ensure its smooth running. The reliability of a coal transportation system feeding a power plant aims at the following two main objectives to minimise the waiting time of the incoming transport facilities to guarantee utmost boiler feeding to prevent any interruption of electric power production. The paper describes the measures taken to meet these requirements at the Dagang plant, the functions of the Dagang plant, the control and automation system, main control system software and main control system hardware.

  16. Synthesis of Au nanowires with controlled morphological and structural characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurvinder, E-mail: gurvinder.singh@ntnu.no [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Bandyopadhyay, Sulalit; Volden, Sondre; Andreassen, Jens-Petter [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Glomm, Wilhelm R., E-mail: Wilhelm.Glomm@sintef.no [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Biotechnology and Nanomedicine Sector, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of metal nanowires. • Control over structural and morphological characteristics via seed type nanoparticle. • Growth via surfactant or surface diffusion process. • Structural and surface characterization. - Abstract: A growth of one-dimensional noble metal nanostructure with controlled structural characteristic has been under intense investigation as the physical properties, for example, mechanical and electrical properties highly depend on the crystallinity of the nanostructure. Herein, we report a seed-mediated growth of gold nanowires with controlled structural and morphological characteristics, which can easily be varied by selecting appropriate seed nanoparticles, either spherical or rod type in aqueous solution at room temperature. The growth of nanowires was monitored by characterizing the samples at different time period during the reaction, and our observations suggest that growth occurs from seeds rapidly growing along one-dimension followed by surfactant induced fusion or welding and surface diffusion. The aspect ratio and morphology of these NWs can be tuned by CTAB concentration, pH and temperature of the growth solution. We show that the aspect ratio and morphology of these NWs can be tuned by the surfactant concentration, pH and temperature of the growth solution. Electron microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic techniques were employed for investigating structural and surface characteristics of nanowires. This approach can possibly help to synthesize nanowires of other metals with controlled crystalline behaviour which is highly essential for understanding their properties and practical applications in nanoelectronics, optical devices, catalysis, and sensors.

  17. REMOTE SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF SYSTEM-DYNAMIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Masloboev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The general line of research is concerned with development of information technologies and computer simulation tools for management information and analytical support of complex semistructured systems. Regional socio-economic systems are consideredas a representative of this system type. Investigation is carried out within the bounds of development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safety until 2020 in the Murmansk region, specifically under engineering of high end information infrastructure for innovation and security control problem-solving of regional development. Research methodology consists of system dynamics modeling method, distributed information system engineering technologies, pattern-based modeling and design techniques. The work deals with development of toolkit for decision-making information support problem-solving in the field of innovation security management of regional economics. For that purpose a system-dynamic models suite of innovation process standard components and information technology for remote formation and control of innovation business simulation models under research have been developed. Designed toolkit provides innovation security index dynamics forecasting and innovation business effectiveness of regional economics. Information technology is implemented within the bounds of thin client architecture and is intended for simulation models design process automation of complex systems. Technology implementation software tools provide pattern-based system-dynamic models distributed formation and simulation control of innovation processes. The technology provides availability and reusability index enhancement of information support facilities in application to innovation process simulation at the expense of distributed access to innovation business simulation modeling tools and model synthesis by the reusable components, simulating standard elements of innovation

  18. Flexible aircraft dynamic modeling for dynamic analysis and control synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    The linearization and simplification of a nonlinear, literal model for flexible aircraft is highlighted. Areas of model fidelity that are critical if the model is to be used for control system synthesis are developed and several simplification techniques that can deliver the necessary model fidelity are discussed. These techniques include both numerical and analytical approaches. An analytical approach, based on first-order sensitivity theory is shown to lead not only to excellent numerical results, but also to closed-form analytical expressions for key system dynamic properties such as the pole/zero factors of the vehicle transfer-function matrix. The analytical results are expressed in terms of vehicle mass properties, vibrational characteristics, and rigid-body and aeroelastic stability derivatives, thus leading to the underlying causes for critical dynamic characteristics.

  19. Control synthesis of linear distributed parameter switched systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leping Bao; Shumin Fei; Lin Chai

    2015-01-01

    The control synthesis for switched systems is extended to distributed parameter switched systems in Hilbert space. Based on semigroup and operator theory, by means of multiple Lyapunov method incorporated average dwel time approach, sufficient con-ditions are derived in terms of linear operator inequalities frame-work for distributed parameter switched systems. Being applied to one dimensional heat propagation switched systems, these lin-ear operator inequalities are reduced to linear matrix inequalities subsequently. In particular, the state feedback gain matrices and the switching law are designed, and the state decay estimate is explicitly given whose decay coefficient completely depends on the system’s parameter and the boundary condition. Final y, two numerical examples are given to il ustrate the proposed method.

  20. Sonochemical synthesis of silica particles and their size control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Bonghwan

    2016-09-01

    Using an ultrasound-assisted sol-gel method, we successfully synthesized very uniformly shaped, monodisperse, and size-controlled spherical silica particles from a mixture of ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of ammonia as catalyst, at room temperature. The diameters of the silica particles were distributed in the range from 40 to 400 nm; their morphology was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The silica particle size could be adjusted by choosing suitable concentrations of ammonium hydroxide and water, which in turn determined the nucleation and growth rates of the particles during the reaction. This sonochemical-based silica synthesis offers an alternative way to produce spherical silica particles in a relatively short reaction time. Thus, we suggest that this simple, low-cost, and efficient method of preparing uniform silica particles of various sizes will have practical and wide-ranging industrial applicability.

  1. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T.;

    2011-01-01

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method......PIV-method was further verified by comparing it with our previously published particle tracking method. Using the μPIV platform we present a series of high-resolution measurements of the acoustophoretic velocity field as a function of the driving frequency, the driving voltage, and the resonator temperature. Finally, we...

  2. Personalización automática de interfaces de usuario para el control domótico accesible

    OpenAIRE

    Alvargonzález, Marta; Sáinz de Salces, Fausto; Gutiérrez Dueñas, José Antonio; Casacuberta, Judit; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco; Cabo Díez, Miguel; Madrid Sánchez, Jaisiel

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta un prototipo para el control domótico accesible, desarrollado en el contexto del proyecto INREDIS, en su plataforma del entorno del hogar digital. Este prototipo habilita nuevos canales de interacción entre los usuarios y los diferentes dispositivos y servicios tecnológicos presentes en el hogar. El sistema desarrollado permite la personalización automática de las interfaces de acceso a la funcionalidad e información de dichos servicios según las necesidades y pre...

  3. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Liu Feifei [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fyles, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.fyles@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  4. Automated IBM PC/XT/AT based measurement and control system for the DRON-3M X-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated IBM PC/XT/AT based measurement and control system for the DRON-3M X-ray diffractometer is decribed. The system permits carrying out of real time diffractometer control automatic X-spectra measurement and data acquisition, as well as experimental information computing and representation. The electronic of the system consists of a CAMAC crate with analog and power modules, and a control and measurement organization module, performed as a single bord in the standard of PC electronics. The system provides X-spectra acquisition with volume up to 4K in the angle range from 100 to 160 degrees with a resolution of 0.01 degree, a dead time less than 1mks and an exposition time from tenths of a second to dozens of minutes. 3 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Demo abstract: Flexhouse-2-an open source building automation platform with a focus on flexible control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Svendsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    distributed energy resources (DER) has been a strong focus of smart grid research in recent years. These resources include building-integrated generation such as photovoltaics, loads capable of demand response (DR) and local energy storage. A large portion of these resources will be installed......, an open-source implementation of a building automation system which has been designed with a strong focus on enabling the integration of the building into a smart power system and dedicated support for the requirements of an R&D environment. We will demonstrate the need for such a platform, discuss...

  6. An advanced automation system for operation of Sao Paulo pumping stations from TRANSPETRO Master Control Center - CNCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio; Barreto, Camila Maria Benevenuto [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Since 2000 the operations of the TRANSPETRO pumping stations in the state of Sao Paulo region began to be transferred from local control centers located at the transfer and storage terminals to the National Operational Control Center (CNCO) of TRANSPETRO, located at the headquarters of the company, in Rio de Janeiro. The proposed paper aims to presenting an overview of the automation system that was developed to enable such pumping stations to be operated from CNCO in a reliable and secure manner, focusing on tools that offer an embedded system alarms completely free of false alarms with automatic determining of the root cause, and also automatic and advanced diagnoses of problems caused by failures of hardware, human error and abnormal conditions of the process, providing the CNCO SCADA system of accurate and quality information that help operators to make decisions. The referred automation system was integrated for the first time to CNCO SCADA system in 2000, for pipeline pumps of Osvat (Sao Sebastiao - Vale do Paraiba pipeline) station at the Sao Sebastiao Terminal - northern coast of Sao Paulo region. (author)

  7. Una revisión sobre el control automático de la altura de corte en cosechadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Zulys Leyva Rafull

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de sistemas de control automático para posicionar los mecanismos de corte es indicado para mejorar la eficiencia de las cosechadoras. También son consideradas como ventajas, la reducción de la fatiga del operador y la disminución de los daños ocasionados en los mecanismos de la máquina, consecuentes del enterramiento y de la presencia de materia extraña en su interior. Numerosas investigaciones se han realizado con el propósito de dotar a las cosechadoras con este tipo de sistema en su órgano inferior. Los sistemas proyectados han usando diversos tipos de sensores, controladores y sistemas de actuación. El presente trabajo pretende hacer una revisión sobre algunos de los sistemas de control automático de altura de corte que han sido propuestos desde la década de los años 60 del siglo pasado

  8. Model Predictive Control Synthesis Approach of Electrode Regulator System for Electric Arc Furnace%Model Predictive Control Synthesis Approach of Electrode Regulator System for Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; MAO Zhi-zhong; WANG Yan; YUAN Ping; JIA Ming-xing

    2011-01-01

    In electric are furnace smelting, electrode regulator system is a key link. A good electrode control algorithm will reduce energy consumption effectively and shorten smelting time greatly. The offline design online synthesis model predictive control algorithm is proposed for electrode regulator system with input and output constraints. On the offline computation, the continuum of terminal constraint sets will be constructed. On the online synthesis, the time-varying terminal constraint sets will be adopted and at least one free control variable will be introduced to solve the min-max optimization control problem. Then Lyapunov method will be adopted to analyze closed-loop system stability. Simulation and field trial results show that the proposed offline design online synthesis model predictive control method is effective.

  9. Automation for Air Traffic Control: The Rise of a New Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The current debate over the concept of Free Flight has renewed interest in automated conflict detection and resolution in the enroute airspace. An essential requirement for effective conflict detection is accurate prediction of trajectories. Trajectory prediction is, however, an inexact process which accumulates errors that grow in proportion to the length of the prediction time interval. Using a model of prediction errors for the trajectory predictor incorporated in the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), a computationally fast algorithm for computing conflict probability has been derived. Furthermore, a method of conflict resolution has been formulated that minimizes the average cost of resolution, when cost is defined as the increment in airline operating costs incurred in flying the resolution maneuver. The method optimizes the trade off between early resolution at lower maneuver costs but higher prediction error on the one hand and late resolution with higher maneuver costs but lower prediction errors on the other. The method determines both the time to initiate the resolution maneuver as well as the characteristics of the resolution trajectory so as to minimize the cost of the resolution. Several computational examples relevant to the design of a conflict probe that can support user-preferred trajectories in the enroute airspace will be presented.

  10. Development and Applications of a Prototypic SCALE Control Module for Automated Burnup Credit Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration of the depletion phenomena and isotopic uncertainties in burnup-credit criticality analysis places an increasing reliance on computational tools and significantly increases the overall complexity of the calculations. An automated analysis and data management capability is essential for practical implementation of large-scale burnup credit analyses that can be performed in a reasonable amount of time. STARBUCS is a new prototypic analysis sequence being developed for the SCALE code system to perform automated criticality calculations of spent fuel systems employing burnup credit. STARBUCS is designed to help analyze the dominant burnup credit phenomena including spatial burnup gradients and isotopic uncertainties. A search capability also allows STARBUCS to iterate to determine the spent fuel parameters (e.g., enrichment and burnup combinations) that result in a desired keff for a storage configuration. Although STARBUCS was developed to address the analysis needs for spent fuel transport and storage systems, it provides sufficient flexibility to allow virtually any configuration of spent fuel to be analyzed, such as storage pools and reprocessing operations. STARBUCS has been used extensively at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study burnup credit phenomena in support of the NRC Research program

  11. Synthesis and quality control of [(18) F]T807 for tau PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Daniel P; Ravert, Hayden T; Dannals, Robert F

    2016-08-01

    The detailed synthesis and quality control of [(18) F]T807, radiotracer for tau protein aggregate imaging, are described. The radiotracer synthesis was accomplished in an average of 48 min with an average specific activity at end-of-synthesis of over 4.4 TBq/µmole (120 Ci/µmole) and an average radiochemical yield of 32%. Compliance with all standard US Pharmacopeia Chapter acceptance tests was observed. PMID:27427174

  12. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  13. An Integrated Solution for both Monitoring and Controlling for Automization Using Wireless Sensor Networks: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gnana Seelan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature monitoring plays a major role in controlling it according to its varied conditions. Thisprocess is common in all critical areas like data centre, server rooms, grid rooms and other datacommunication equipped rooms. This is mandatory for each organization/industry to impart suchprocess, as most of the critical data would be in data centre along with their network infrastructure whichhaving various electronic, electrical and mechanical devices are involved for data transmissions. Thesedevices are very much depend on the environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, humidity etc.,and also emit heat in the form of thermal energy when they are in functional. To overcome these heats,the server/data centre room(s would be engaged with multiple (distributed air-conditioning (ac systemsto provide cooling environment and maintain the temperature level of the room. The proposed paper isthe study of automization of monitoring and controlling temperature as per desired requirements withwsn network

  14. Shape-controlled continuous synthesis of metal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Victor; Smith, Christopher D.; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2016-03-01

    A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a thickness of 1.5 nm; and Pt nanocubes with a 5.6 nm edge length, all in a synthesis time as low as 150 s.A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a

  15. Uncertainty Modeling for Structural Control Analysis and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mark E.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1996-01-01

    The development of an accurate model of uncertainties for the control of structures that undergo a change in operational environment, based solely on modeling and experimentation in the original environment is studied. The application used throughout this work is the development of an on-orbit uncertainty model based on ground modeling and experimentation. A ground based uncertainty model consisting of mean errors and bounds on critical structural parameters is developed. The uncertainty model is created using multiple data sets to observe all relevant uncertainties in the system. The Discrete Extended Kalman Filter is used as an identification/parameter estimation method for each data set, in addition to providing a covariance matrix which aids in the development of the uncertainty model. Once ground based modal uncertainties have been developed, they are localized to specific degrees of freedom in the form of mass and stiffness uncertainties. Two techniques are presented: a matrix method which develops the mass and stiffness uncertainties in a mathematical manner; and a sensitivity method which assumes a form for the mass and stiffness uncertainties in macroelements and scaling factors. This form allows the derivation of mass and stiffness uncertainties in a more physical manner. The mass and stiffness uncertainties of the ground based system are then mapped onto the on-orbit system, and projected to create an analogous on-orbit uncertainty model in the form of mean errors and bounds on critical parameters. The Middeck Active Control Experiment is introduced as experimental verification for the localization and projection methods developed. In addition, closed loop results from on-orbit operations of the experiment verify the use of the uncertainty model for control analysis and synthesis in space.

  16. A controlled trial of automated classification of negation from clinical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruth William

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of negation in electronic health records is essential if we are to understand the computable meaning of the records: Our objective is to compare the accuracy of an automated mechanism for assignment of Negation to clinical concepts within a compositional expression with Human Assigned Negation. Also to perform a failure analysis to identify the causes of poorly identified negation (i.e. Missed Conceptual Representation, Inaccurate Conceptual Representation, Missed Negation, Inaccurate identification of Negation. Methods 41 Clinical Documents (Medical Evaluations; sometimes outside of Mayo these are referred to as History and Physical Examinations were parsed using the Mayo Vocabulary Server Parsing Engine. SNOMED-CT™ was used to provide concept coverage for the clinical concepts in the record. These records resulted in identification of Concepts and textual clues to Negation. These records were reviewed by an independent medical terminologist, and the results were tallied in a spreadsheet. Where questions on the review arose Internal Medicine Faculty were employed to make a final determination. Results SNOMED-CT was used to provide concept coverage of the 14,792 Concepts in 41 Health Records from John's Hopkins University. Of these, 1,823 Concepts were identified as negative by Human review. The sensitivity (Recall of the assignment of negation was 97.2% (p Conclusion Automated assignment of negation to concepts identified in health records based on review of the text is feasible and practical. Lexical assignment of negation is a good test of true Negativity as judged by the high sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio of the test. SNOMED-CT had overall coverage of 88.7% of the concepts being negated.

  17. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-06-01

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects.

  18. Automated Control of the Organic and Inorganic Composition of Aloe vera Extracts Using (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Randel, Gabriele; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2016-09-01

    Recent classification of Aloe vera whole-leaf extract by the International Agency for Research and Cancer as a possible carcinogen to humans as well as the continuous adulteration of A. vera's authentic material have generated renewed interest in controlling A. vera. The existing NMR spectroscopic method for the analysis of A. vera, which is based on a routine developed at Spectral Service, was extended. Apart from aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, whole-leaf material (WLM), acetic acid, fumaric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate, the quantification of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and fructose is possible with the addition of a Cs-EDTA solution to sample. The proposed methodology was automated, which includes phasing, baseline-correction, deconvolution (based on the Lorentzian function), integration, quantification, and reporting. The NMR method was applied to 41 A. vera preparations in the form of liquid A. vera juice and solid A. vera powder. The advantages of the new NMR methodology over the previous method were discussed. Correlation between the new and standard NMR methodologies was significant for aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and WLM (P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.99). NMR was found to be suitable for the automated simultaneous quantitative determination of 13 parameters in A. vera. PMID:27413027

  19. 28. Zvenigorod conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theses of reports, presented at the 28th Conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis (Zvenigorod, 19-23 February 2001) are published. 246 reports were heard at the following sections: magnetic confinement, theory and experiments; inertial thermonuclear synthesis; plasma processes and physics of gas-discharge plasma; physical bases of plasma technologies. 17 reports had the summarizing character

  20. Controlled synthesis of ferromagnetic MnSe x particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junjie; Li, Chao; Chen, Duo; Kang, Shishou; Liu, Guolei; Yu, Shuyun; Han, Guangbing; Mei, Liangmo

    2016-10-01

    The MnSe x (x = 1,2) nanoparticles were synthesized under hydrothermal condition, by reaction of the reduced selenium and Mn2+ ion in the presence of hydrazine and acetic acid. By precisely controlling the pH value of the solution, a series of MnSe x particles were synthesized. The structure and morphology of as-prepared particles were examined with x-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average sizes of as-prepared particles varied from nanoscale to microscale with pH value increase. Furthermore, the nucleation and growth mechanism associated with pH values were discussed, which can be applied to the hydrothermal synthesis of metal chalcogenide in general. Finally, the optical and magnetic properties of as-prepared particles were measured. All as-made particles exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with low coercivity and remanence at room temperature. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921502), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474184 and 11627805), the 111 Project (Grant No. B13029), and the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University, China.

  1. Safe and Efficacious Use of Automated Bolus Advisors in Individuals Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injection (MDI) Therapy: Lessons Learned From the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Barnard, Katharine; Hinnen, Deborah A

    2015-03-20

    Numerous studies have shown that use of integrated automated bolus advisors (BAs) provides significant benefits to individuals using insulin pump devices, including improved glycemic control and greater treatment satisfaction. Within the past few years, BA devices have been developed specifically for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy; however, many clinicians who treat these individuals may be unfamiliar with insulin pump therapy and, thus, BA use. Findings from the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) revealed that BA use can be efficacious and clinically meaningful in MDI therapy, and that most patients are willing and able to use this technology appropriately when adequate clinical support is provided. The purpose of this article is to review key learnings from ABACUS and provide practical advice for initiating BA use and monitoring therapy.

  2. Statistical issues in randomised controlled trials: a narrative synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bolaji; Emmanuel; Egbewale

    2015-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials(RCTs) are gold standard in the evaluation of treatment efficacy in medical investigations, only if well designed and implemented. Till date, distorted views and misapplications of statistical procedures involved in RCTs are still in practice. Hence, clarification of concepts and acceptable practices related to certain statistical issues involved in the design, conduct and reporting of randomised controlled trials is needed. This narrative synthesis aimed at providing succinct but clear information on the concepts and practices of selected statistical issues in RCTs to inform correct applications. The use of tests of significance is no longer acceptable as means to compare baseline similarity between treatment groups and in determining which covariate(s) should be included in the model for adjustment. Distribution of baseline attributes simply presented in tabular form is however, rather preferred. Regarding covariate selection, such approach that makes use of information on the degree of correlation between the covariate(s) and the outcome variable is more in tandem with statistical principle(s) than that based on tests of significance. Stratification and minimisation are not alternatives to covariate adjusted analysis; in fact they establish the need for one. Intention-totreat is the preferred approach for the evaluation of primary outcome measures and researchers have responsibility to report whether or not the procedure was followed. A major use of results from subgroup analysis is to generate hypothesis for future clinical trials. Since RCTs are gold standard in the comparison of medical interventions, researchers cannot afford the practices of distorted allocation or statistical procedures in this all important experimental design method.

  3. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  4. Experiencia Praktikum con máquinas eléctricas y control automático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael González Curiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Praktikum project is an innovative experience carried out at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV with 17-years-old students that have taken a course of Technology in the High School period. Students are chosen from all the Valencia region attending to their marks in their first year of High School. This note explains the activities carried out in the frame of this program in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales of the UPV. During a week, a student was guided by the university professors of this department in the fields of maintenance and calculation of electrical machines and domestic electrical installations. The automated control of them was also introduced to the student.

  5. Control system analysis and synthesis for a six degree-of-freedom universal Force-Reflecting Hand Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlykken, M.; Turner, T.

    1980-01-01

    A six degree-of-freedom joystick with feedback motors, called the Force-Reflecting Hand Controller (FRHC) is used as control input for the human operator in a teleoperator system. The geometric and dynamic properties of the FRHC are entirely different from those of the manipulator being controlled. The paper discusses the analysis and synthesis of the control loop between the FRHC and the robot arm and examines the necessary position and force transformations. The controller is implemented through a dedicated minicomputer.

  6. Radical-initiated controlled synthesis of homo- and copolymers based on acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, D. F.; Grishin, I. D.

    2015-07-01

    Data on the controlled synthesis of polyacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile copolymers with other (meth)acrylic and vinyl monomers upon radical initiation and metal complex catalysis are analyzed. Primary attention is given to the use of metal complexes for the synthesis of acrylonitrile-based (co)polymers with defined molecular weight and polydispersity in living mode by atom transfer radical polymerization. The prospects for using known methods of controlled synthesis of macromolecules for the preparation of acrylonitrile homo- and copolymers as carbon fibre precursors are estimated. The major array of published data analyzed in the review refers to the last decade. The bibliography includes 175 references.

  7. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  8. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  9. AUTOMATING THE CONFIGURATION OF THE CONTROLS SYSTEMS OF THE LHC EXPERIMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Calheiros, F; Varela, F

    2007-01-01

    The supervisory layer of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments is based on the Prozeßvisualisierungs- und Steuerungsystem (PVSS) [1] and the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP) Framework (FW) [2]. This controls framework includes a Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit, which allows to operate the control systems according to a well-defined set of states and commands. During the FSM transitions of the detectors, it is required to re-configure parts of the control systems. All configuration parameters of the devices integrated into the control system are stored in the so-called configuration database. In this paper the JCOP FW FSM-Configuration database tool is presented. This tool ensures the availability of all required configuration data, for a given type of run of the experiment, in the PVSS sub-detector control applications. The chosen implementation strategy is discussed in the paper. The approach enables the standalone operation of different partitions of the detectors simultaneously while ensuring indepe...

  10. Automated System for Control of the Vacuum Diagnostic System for the TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the monitoring and remote control systems belonging to the high vacuum systems of the TJ-II diagnostics. These systems are part of each diagnostic and their control has been integrated into the automata that carries out this task. All the controllers are connected through a Profibus network, so as to interchange data between themselves as well as between the general system of TJ-II. (Author)

  11. The Total Synthesis Problem of linear multivariable control. II - Unity feedback and the design morphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, M. K.; Antsaklis, P. J.; Gejji, R. R.; Wyman, B. F.; Peczkowski, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Zames (1981) has observed that there is, in general, no 'separation principle' to guarantee optimality of a division between control law design and filtering of plant uncertainty. Peczkowski and Sain (1978) have solved a model matching problem using transfer functions. Taking into consideration this investigation, Peczkowski et al. (1979) proposed the Total Synthesis Problem (TSP), wherein both the command/output-response and command/control-response are to be synthesized, subject to the plant constraint. The TSP concept can be subdivided into a Nominal Design Problem (NDP), which is not dependent upon specific controller structures, and a Feedback Synthesis Problem (FSP), which is. Gejji (1980) found that NDP was characterized in terms of the plant structural matrices and a single, 'good' transfer function matrix. Sain et al. (1981) have extended this NDP work. The present investigation is concerned with a study of FSP for the unity feedback case. NDP, together with feedback synthesis, is understood as a Total Synthesis Problem.

  12. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity. PMID:26722804

  13. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-07

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  14. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively. PMID:27271840

  15. Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogou, Chrysovalantou; Ipsakis, Dimitris; Elmasides, Costas; Stergiopoulos, Fotis; Papadopoulou, Simira; Seferlis, Panos; Voutetakis, Spyros

    The design of the automation system and the implemented operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system in Greece are fully analyzed in the present study. A photovoltaic array and three wind generators serve as the system main power sources and meet a predefined load demand. A lead-acid accumulator is used to compensate the inherent power fluctuations (excess or shortage) and to regulate the overall system operation, based on a developed power management strategy. Hydrogen is produced by using system excess power in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and is further stored in pressurized cylinders for subsequent use in a PEM fuel cell in cases of power shortage. A diesel generator complements the integrated system and is employed only in emergency cases, such as subsystems failure. The performance of the automatic control system is evaluated through the real-time operation of the power system where data from the various subsystems are recorded and analyzed using a supervised data acquisition unit. Various network protocols were used to integrate the system devices into one central control system managing in this way to compensate for the differences between chemical and electrical subunits. One of the main advantages is the ability of process monitoring from distance where users can perform changes to system principal variables. Furthermore, the performance of the implemented power management strategy is evaluated through simulated scenarios by including a case study analysis on system abilities to meet higher than expected electrical load demands.

  16. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  17. Control of a Wheelchair in an Indoor Environment Based on a Brain-Computer Interface and Automated Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing; Yan, Yongyong; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shaoyu; Yu, Tianyou; Gu, Zhenghui

    2016-01-01

    The concept of controlling a wheelchair using brain signals is promising. However, the continuous control of a wheelchair based on unstable and noisy electroencephalogram signals is unreliable and generates a significant mental burden for the user. A feasible solution is to integrate a brain-computer interface (BCI) with automated navigation techniques. This paper presents a brain-controlled intelligent wheelchair with the capability of automatic navigation. Using an autonomous navigation system, candidate destinations and waypoints are automatically generated based on the existing environment. The user selects a destination using a motor imagery (MI)-based or P300-based BCI. According to the determined destination, the navigation system plans a short and safe path and navigates the wheelchair to the destination. During the movement of the wheelchair, the user can issue a stop command with the BCI. Using our system, the mental burden of the user can be substantially alleviated. Furthermore, our system can adapt to changes in the environment. Two experiments based on MI and P300 were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our system.

  18. MODAL SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR NORM COMPUTATION OF H∞ DECENTRALIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wan-xie(钟万勰); WU Zhi-gang(吴志刚); GAO Qiang(高强); A.Y.T.Leung(梁以德); F.W.Williams

    2004-01-01

    When using H ∞ techniques to design decentralized controllers for large systems,the whole system is divided into subsystems, which are analysed using H∞ control theory before being recombined. An analogy was established with substructural analysis in structural mechanics, in which H ∞ decentralized control theory corresponds to substructural modal synthesis theory so that the optimal H ∞ norm of the whole system corresponds to the fundamental vibration frequency of the whole structure. Hence, modal synthesis methodology and the extended Wittrick-Williams algorithm were transplanted from structural mechanics to compute the optimal H∞ norm of the control system. The orthogonality and the expansion theorem of eigenfunctions of the subsystems H∞ control are presented in part (Ⅰ)of the paper. The modal synthesis method for computation of the optimal H ∞ norm of decentralized control systems and numerical examples are presented in part (Ⅱ).

  19. MODAL SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR NORM COMPUTATION OF H ∞ DECENTRALIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS ( Ⅰ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wan-xie(钟万勰); WU Zhi-gang(吴志刚); GAO Qiang(高强); A.Y.T.Leung(梁以德); F.W.Williams

    2004-01-01

    When using H ∞ techniques to design decentralized controllers for large systems,the whole system is divided into subsystems, which are analysed using H ∞ control theory before being recombined. An analogy was established with substructural analysis in structural mechanics, in which H∞ decentralized control theory corresponds to substructural modal synthesis theory so that the optimal H∞ norm of the whole system corresponds to the fundamental vibration frequency of the whole structure. Hence, modal synthesis methodology and the extended Wittrick-Williams algorithm were transplanted from structural mechanics to compute the optimal H ∞ norm of the control system. The orthogonality and the expansion theorem of eigenfunctions of the subsystems H∞ control are presented in part ( Ⅰ ) of the paper. The modal synthesis method for computation of the optimal H∞ norm of decentralized control systems and numerical examples are presented in part ( Ⅱ ).

  20. Knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent control and automation in electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Nordstrom, Lars; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    for reasoning about control situations. The proposed mechanism has been used in different scenarios of electric power distribution system protection and control. Results show that agents can use local models of their environment and coordinate with other agents to analyze and understand a disturbance situation...

  1. Nonlinear control synthesis for electrical power systems using controllable series capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjarekar, N.S.; Banavar, Ravi N. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Systems and Control Engineering

    2012-07-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector g(x) in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stabilizing controllers for power systems, where the CSC dynamics are included as a first order system. Next, we consider a different control methodology, immersion and invariance (I and I), to synthesize an asymptotically stabilizing control law for the SMIB system with a CSC. The CSC is described by a first order system. As a generalization of I and I, we incorporate the power balance algebraic constraints in the load bus to the SMIB swing equation, and extend the design philosophy to a class of differential algebraic systems. The proposed result is then demonstrated on another example: a two-machine system with two load buses and a CSC. The controller performances are validated through simulations for all cases.

  2. Automation of an X-ray diffractometer using a manually preset control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements of lattice parameters of beta silicon carbide nuclear reactor temperature monitors at Dounreay were formerly carried out using an X-ray diffractometer connected to a simple step scan control system with an analysis time of 8 hours per specimen. A system is described whereby the step scan throughout of the X-ray diffractometer is increased by using an automatic sample charger and additional control electronics, allowing round-the-clock analysis. The original system which used Harwell 2000 series electronic units has been expanded to include an AERE designed goniometer control unit, a Philips sample changer with control unit, and a Honeywell chart recorder. The integrated circuit logic used, interconnections of modules, and operating instructions are given in appendices. (UK)

  3. Discrete events simulation of a route with traffic lights through automated control in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Teixeira Baptista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the integration and communication in real-time of a discrete event simulation model with an automatic control system. The simulation model of an intersection with roads having traffic lights was built in the Arena environment. The integration and communication have been made via network, and the control system was operated by a programmable logic controller. Scenarios were simulated for the free, regular and congested traffic situations. The results showed the average number of vehicles that entered in the system and that were retained and also the total average time of the crossing of the vehicles on the road. In general, the model allowed evaluating the behavior of the traffic in each of the ways and the commands from the controller to activation and deactivation of the traffic lights.

  4. Automation of a cryogenic facility by commercial process-control computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To insure that Brookhaven's superconducting magnets are reliable and their field quality meets accelerator requirements, each magnet is pre-tested at operating conditions after construction. MAGCOOL, the production magnet test facility, was designed to perform these tests, having the capacity to test ten magnets per five day week. This paper describes the control aspects of MAGCOOL and the advantages afforded the designers by the implementation of a commercial process control computer system

  5. Sistema de control automático de plataformas de crecimiento de algas en el espacio

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Mota, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This final degree work has been done with the aim to study and build a system capable of automatically controlling algae growth platforms. It is a land simulation of an ECLSS "Environmental Control and Life Support System". The study of algae as a species to be incorporated into closed bioregenerative systems for space missions is interesting. Because thanks to their photosynthetic and filtering properties they can generate food and other vital substances to the space crew, in addition to reg...

  6. Automated Quality Control of in Situ Soil Moisture from the North American Soil Moisture Database Using NLDAS-2 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, M. B.; Xia, Y.; Ford, T.; Wu, Y.; Quiring, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD) was initiated in 2011 to provide support for developing climate forecasting tools, calibrating land surface models and validating satellite-derived soil moisture algorithms. The NASMD has collected data from over 30 soil moisture observation networks providing millions of in situ soil moisture observations in all 50 states as well as Canada and Mexico. It is recognized that the quality of measured soil moisture in NASMD is highly variable due to the diversity of climatological conditions, land cover, soil texture, and topographies of the stations and differences in measurement devices (e.g., sensors) and installation. It is also recognized that error, inaccuracy and imprecision in the data set can have significant impacts on practical operations and scientific studies. Therefore, developing an appropriate quality control procedure is essential to ensure the data is of the best quality. In this study, an automated quality control approach is developed using the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) Noah soil porosity, soil temperature, and fraction of liquid and total soil moisture to flag erroneous and/or spurious measurements. Overall results show that this approach is able to flag unreasonable values when the soil is partially frozen. A validation example using NLDAS-2 multiple model soil moisture products at the 20 cm soil layer showed that the quality control procedure had a significant positive impact in Alabama, North Carolina, and West Texas. It had a greater impact in colder regions, particularly during spring and autumn. Over 433 NASMD stations have been quality controlled using the methodology proposed in this study, and the algorithm will be implemented to control data quality from the other ~1,200 NASMD stations in the near future.

  7. Nonlinear Control Synthesis for Electrical Power Systems Using Controllable Series Capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Manjarekar, N S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector $g(x)$ in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stab...

  8. Automated boundary interaction force control of micromanipulators with in situ applications to microsurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Jalili, Nader

    2012-12-01

    Most recent works on miniature tasks are concentrated on developing tools to take advantage of the visual servoing feedback to control the ultra-small interaction forces. This paper spans an extensive platform for automatic controlling of boundary interaction forces with high precision in the level of micro/nano-Newton with extensive micro/nanoengineering applications such as the microsurgery. To this end, a comprehensive piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) model considering the shear deformation and rotary inertia effects treating as the distributed-parameters model along with the Hertzian contact force is presented. The purpose of considering the Hertzian contact force model is to investigate the dynamic response of the interaction force between the microcantilever's tip and the specimen. Afterward, a control platform is introduced to automatically manipulate the PMC to follow an ideal micro/nano-interaction force. By using the integrated PMC with the micromanipulator and a digital signal processor, an intuitive programming code is written to incorporate the micromanipulator and the controller in a real-time framework. To calibrate and verify the induced voltage in the PMC, a self-sensing experiment on the piezoelectric microcantilever is carried out to warrant the calibration procedure. Some experiments are established to affirm the validity of the proposed control for the autonomous real-time tasks on the boundary interaction force control. Unlike the conventional research studies, the measured force here contributes as the feedback source in contrast to the vision feedback while force sensors possess more precision, productivity and small size. This technique has several potential applications listed but not limited to the micro/nanomanipulation, developing artificial biological systems (e.g., fabricating hydrogel for the scaffold), and medicine such as microsurgery. As a result, using the proposed platform, we are able to manipulate and control the boundary

  9. Daylight and luminaire control in a perimeter zone using an automated venetian blind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, B.; Tzempelikos, A.; Athienitis, A. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering]|[Concordia University Solar Buildings Research Network, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Many commercial buildings with glazed facades require solar shading devices to protect occupants from direct glare. In this study, the light transmittance of a window-venetian blind system was modelled in order to measure controlled system performance and reductions in electric lighting power consumption. The system used a control algorithm designed to maximize the transmittance of daylight into the occupied space. Slat angles were positioned to a cut-off angle as a function of slat geometry, so that direct luminance could not pass through the venetian blind. Blind control was carried out only when exterior solar radiation levels exceeded a certain threshold. An experiment to validate the system was conducted at a university building in Montreal. The venetian blind covered the entire glazing unit, and was actuated by a 24 VDC powered motor which spooled the strings joining the slats. Measurements were taken with photometric sensors placed on the exterior and interior of the facade. The blind was controlled using solid state relays of a data acquisition and control unit. The ratio of interior illuminance to exterior illuminance was used for the diffuse transmittance of the glazing. A simplified radiosity model was used to simulate the transmittance of the venetian blinds. Exterior diffuse vertical illuminance and direct normal beam illuminance were estimated using a Clear Sky model. A dimmable fluorescent luminaire with an integrated photocell was also installed in the test area in order to measure corresponding reduction in power consumption. The model showed good agreement with the experimental study. It was concluded that the model-based control can be implemented so that the blind angle is positioned to allow the minimum required daylight transmittance, while reducing solar heat gains by maintaining the blinds at higher tilt angles. By using the blind control to maximize daylight transmittance, energy consumption due to artificial lighting was reduced by 67 per

  10. Personlike intelligent systems architectures for robotic shared control and automated operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Aucoin, Paschal J., Jr.; Ossorio, Peter G.

    1992-11-01

    There are many types of tasks in space where operations with robotics can play a significant role, including: (1) Tasks that are dangerous, boring, fatiguing for persons [extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers]; (2) Tasks where a division of labor between EVA crewmembers and robotic equipment is desirable. Current notions involve a succession of robotic capabilities: (1) Teleoperations (where the robotic system is controlled remotely to the level of maneuvers); (2) Telerobotics [where the robotic system can carry out a set of maneuvers on its own, with full-time monitoring from an EVA or intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmember]; (3) Supervised autonomy (with control and monitoring functions on the part of persons provided on a less intense basis) with occasional traded control or shared control. Of these, only the first can be considered state of the art for space applications. In considering how to achieve shared control and autonomous capability, there is a tendency to invoke terms like `cognition,' `perception,' `learning,' etc., thereby constituting wish lists of `what is needed.' By way of contrast, the thrust of this paper is to outline an approach whereby robotic systems become as `person-like' as possible to achieve needed capabilities. This approach makes use of formulations in the Person Concept, pioneered by one of the present authors, Dr. Peter G. Ossorio. These include: (1) The state of affairs (SA) system; (2) The intentional action (IA) system.

  11. Automated optogenetic feedback control for precise and robust regulation of gene expression and cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Rullan, Marc; Aoki, Stephanie K; Buchmann, Peter; Khammash, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic control of gene expression can have far-reaching implications for biotechnological applications and biological discovery. Thanks to the advantages of light, optogenetics has emerged as an ideal technology for this task. Current state-of-the-art methods for optical expression control fail to combine precision with repeatability and cannot withstand changing operating culture conditions. Here, we present a novel fully automatic experimental platform for the robust and precise long-term optogenetic regulation of protein production in liquid Escherichia coli cultures. Using a computer-controlled light-responsive two-component system, we accurately track prescribed dynamic green fluorescent protein expression profiles through the application of feedback control, and show that the system adapts to global perturbations such as nutrient and temperature changes. We demonstrate the efficacy and potential utility of our approach by placing a key metabolic enzyme under optogenetic control, thus enabling dynamic regulation of the culture growth rate with potential applications in bacterial physiology studies and biotechnology. PMID:27562138

  12. Automated optogenetic feedback control for precise and robust regulation of gene expression and cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Rullan, Marc; Aoki, Stephanie K.; Buchmann, Peter; Khammash, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic control of gene expression can have far-reaching implications for biotechnological applications and biological discovery. Thanks to the advantages of light, optogenetics has emerged as an ideal technology for this task. Current state-of-the-art methods for optical expression control fail to combine precision with repeatability and cannot withstand changing operating culture conditions. Here, we present a novel fully automatic experimental platform for the robust and precise long-term optogenetic regulation of protein production in liquid Escherichia coli cultures. Using a computer-controlled light-responsive two-component system, we accurately track prescribed dynamic green fluorescent protein expression profiles through the application of feedback control, and show that the system adapts to global perturbations such as nutrient and temperature changes. We demonstrate the efficacy and potential utility of our approach by placing a key metabolic enzyme under optogenetic control, thus enabling dynamic regulation of the culture growth rate with potential applications in bacterial physiology studies and biotechnology. PMID:27562138

  13. Controller Strategies for Automation Tool Use under Varying Levels of Trajectory Prediction Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Susan; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Martin, Lynne; Bienert, Nancy; Cabrall, Christopher; Hunt, Sarah; Homola, Jeffrey; Kraut, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to examine the effects of varying levels of trajectory prediction uncertainty on air traffic controller workload and performance, as well as how strategies and the use of decision support tools change in response. This paper focuses on the strategies employed by two controllers from separate teams who worked in parallel but independently under identical conditions (airspace, arrival traffic, tools) with the goal of ensuring schedule conformance and safe separation for a dense arrival flow in en route airspace. Despite differences in strategy and methods, both controllers achieved high levels of schedule conformance and safe separation. Overall, results show that trajectory uncertainties introduced by wind and aircraft performance prediction errors do not affect the controllers' ability to manage traffic. Controller strategies were fairly robust to changes in error, though strategies were affected by the amount of delay to absorb (scheduled time of arrival minus estimated time of arrival). Using the results and observations, this paper proposes an ability to dynamically customize the display of information including delay time based on observed error to better accommodate different strategies and objectives.

  14. Monitoring and Control of a Continuous Grignard Reaction for the Synthesis of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using Inline NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Nielsen, Jesper; Jønch Pedersen, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Inline near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor a continuous synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) intermediate by a Grignard alkylation reaction. The reaction between a ketone substrate and allylmagnesium chloride may form significant impurities with excess...... to the stoichiometric ratio, leading the path to full process automation. The feedback control loop relies on NIR transmission measurements performed in a flow cell where, in contrast to labor-intensive offline HPLC analytical methods, the whole reaction product can be scanned in real time without sample dilution...... information about its dynamic behavior. This information is very useful for process control design, assessment of analytical tools and definition of sampling times. In this work, a systematic procedure for chemometric model building is followed, after which a discussion is made on some of the potential...

  15. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  16. Lactide Synthesis and Chirality Control for Polylactic acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wouwe, Pieter; Dusselier, Michiel; Vanleeuw, Evelien; Sels, Bert

    2016-05-10

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a very promising biodegradable, renewable, and biocompatible polymer. Aside from its production, its application field is also increasing, with use not only in commodity applications but also as durables and in biomedicine. In the current PLA production scheme, the most expensive part is not the polymerization itself but obtaining the building blocks lactic acid (LA) and lactide, the actual cyclic monomer for polymerization. Although the synthesis of LA and the polymerization have been studied systematically, reports of lactide synthesis are scarce. Most lactide synthesis methods are described in patent literature, and current energy-intensive, aselective industrial processes are based on archaic scientific literature. This Review, therefore, highlights new methods with a technical comparison and description of the different approaches. Water-removal methodologies are compared, as this is a crucial factor in PLA production. Apart from the synthesis of lactide, this Review also emphasizes the use of chemically produced racemic lactic acid (esters) as a starting point in the PLA production scheme. Stereochemically tailored PLA can be produced according to such a strategy, giving access to various polymer properties.

  17. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  18. Generic planning and control of automated material handling systems : practical requirements versus existing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, J.M.J.; Schuur, P.C.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem to design a generic planning and control architecture for utomated material handling systems (AMHSs). We illustrate the relevance of this research direction, and then address three different market sectors where AMHSs are used, i.e., baggage handling, distribution, a

  19. Application of dielectric soil moisture sensors for real-time automated irrigation control

    OpenAIRE

    Kuyper, M.; Balendonck, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this article the irrigation control system to be developed in the running Waterman project is outlined. Also, the following process monitoring considerations are discussed: what soil moisture state to measure, calibration for soil water content, and the temperature dependence of soil dielectric constant and bulk electrical conductivity (EC).

  20. A review of mechanical move sprinkler irrigation control and automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic sensors, equipment controls, and communication protocols have been developed to meet the growing interest in site-specific irrigation using center pivot and lateral move irrigation systems. Onboard and field-distributed sensors can collect data necessary for real-time irrigation manageme...

  1. STUDIES OF THE CONDITIONS OF THE INTERVAL SPEED CONTROL ROLLING UNHOOK ON AUTOMATED SLIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kozachenko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research of braking mode optimization under uncertainty of information about rolling down cuts and inaccurate realization of control actions by retarder positions is presented in the paper. The probability criterion for evaluation of conditions of sorting cuts is proposed.

  2. Multi-Temperature Zone, Droplet-based Microreactor for Increased Temperature Control in Nanoparticle Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Erdem, E. Yegân

    2013-12-12

    Microreactors are an emerging technology for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The Multi-Temperature zone Microreactor (MTM) described in this work utilizes thermally isolated heated and cooled regions for the purpose of separating nucleation and growth processes as well as to provide a platform for a systematic study on the effect of reaction conditions on nanoparticle synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Automated synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA, and the synthesis and characterization of {sup nat}Ga-AMBA and [{sup 67}Ga]Ga-AMBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagnolini, Aldo; Chen Jianqing; Ramos, Kimberly; Marie Skedzielewski, Tina; Lantry, Laura E.; Nunn, Adrian D.; Swenson, Rolf E. [Ernst Felder Laboratories, Bracco Research USA Inc., 305 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Linder, Karen E., E-mail: karen.e.linder@gmail.co [Ernst Felder Laboratories, Bracco Research USA Inc., 305 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Ga-AMBA (Ga-DO3A-CH{sub 2}CO-G-[4-aminobenzoyl]-QWAVGHLM-NH{sub 2}) is a bombesin-like agonist with high affinity for gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRP-R). Syntheses for {sup nat}Ga-AMBA, [{sup 67}Ga]Ga-AMBA and [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA were developed. The preparation of HPLC-purified and Sep-Pak purified [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA were fully automated, using the built-in radiodetector of the Tracerlab FX F-N synthesizer to monitor fractionated {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generator elution and purification. The total synthesis time, including the fractional elution of the generator, was 20 min for Sep-Pak purified material and 40 min for HPLC-purified [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA. Both [{sup 67}Ga]Ga-AMBA and [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-AMBA showed comparable high affinity for GRP-R in the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in vitro (k{sub D}=0.46{+-}0.07; 0.44{+-}0.08 nM), high internalization (78; 77%) and low efflux from cells at 2 h (2.4{+-}0.7; 2.9{+-}1.8%). Biodistribution results in PC-3 tumor-bearing male nude mice showed comparable uptake for [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-, [{sup 111}In]In-, [{sup 67}Ga]Ga- and [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA.

  4. Self Assistive Technology for Disabled People – Voice Controlled Wheel Chair and Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Puviarasi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of an innovative and low cost self-assistive technology that is used to facilitate the control of a wheelchair and home appliances by using advanced voice commands of the disabled people. This proposed system will provide an alternative to the physically challenged people with quadriplegics who is permanently unable to move their limbs (but who is able to speak and hear and elderly people in controlling the motion of the wheelchair and home appliances using their voices to lead an independent, confident and enjoyable life. The performance of this microcontroller based and voice integrated design is evaluated in terms of accuracy and velocity in various environments. The results show that it could be part of an assistive technology for the disabled persons without any third person’s assistance.

  5. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  6. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  7. Automated process control monitor for 0.18-um technology and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Bryan; Riley, Trina; Schulz, Bernd; Singh, Bhanwar

    2000-06-01

    Currently, most production fabs use critical dimension (CD) measurements as their primary means for process control in printing lines, spaces and contacts. Historically, this has been adequate to control the lithography and etch processes and produce reasonable yields. However, as the industry moves from 0.25 micrometer manufacturing to 0.18 micrometer and beyond, it is becoming increasingly obvious that CD measurements alone do not provide enough information about the printed structures. As the geometry shrinks, slight changes in the shape and profile can significantly affect the electrical characteristics of the circuit while maintaining the same CD value. In this paper, we will describe a method which, in conjunction with the CD measurements, better characterizes the circuit structures and therefore provides valuable feedback about the process. This method compares stored image and linescan information of a 'golden' (correctly processed) structure to that of the structure being measured. Based on the collected data, it is possible to distinguish between different profiles and determine if a process shift has occurred, even when the measured CD remains within specification. The correlation score therefore provides an additional constraint that better defines the true process window and provides an additional flag for process problems. Without this information, the process used may not be truly optimized, or a shift may occur that is not detected in a timely manner, resulting in the loss of yield and revenue. This data collection has been implemented in production on a local interconnect lithography process. Before the correlation information was available, it was very difficult to detect the scumming within the LI trench, in which it was a time consuming and labor intensive procedure to identify problem lots. The correlation scores, collected automatically and concurrently with the CD measurement, allowed tracking through the SPC chart and the automatic flagging

  8. Thermodynamically controlled synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. Equilibrium concentrations and side-chains properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Nierstrasz, V.A.; Kroon, P.J.; Bosma, B.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Beeftink, H.H.; Tramper, J.

    1999-01-01

    For the enzymatic synthesis of the antibiotic cephalexin, an activated acyl donor is generally used as one of the substrates (kinetically controlled approach); however, the thermodynamically controlled approach might be of interest since there is no need for activation of the acyl donor and less was

  9. The importance of control considerations for heat exchanger network synthesis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost optimization in the synthesis decision tree often leads to a reduced degree of freedom which degrades the process’s ability to reject disturbances as a consequence of low controllability. In fact, Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs obtained by traditional synthesis procedures that ignore controllability aspects must be evaluated in this context a posteriori. The aim of this work was to develop a procedure that includes RGA and SVD measures of controllability, which are solely based on steady state information, thereby freeing the synthesis procedure of the cumbersome dynamic analysis. When a structure is defined during a traditional HEN synthesis procedure, a degree of freedom analysis is approached as a simulation problem. Next, an optimization is performed, since new variables are usually added to increase the degree of freedom of the HEN in order to render it controllable. A key point in the proposed procedure is the inference of controllability based on the proposed controllability measures, which also provide a control scheme by pairing controlled and manipulated variables during the process design. A HEN reported in the literature is used to illustrate the proposed procedure. The steady state simulator Aspen Plus and the dynamic simulator Aspen Dynamics (Aspentech, Inc. were employed.

  10. Automated experimental complex for research and control of detonation stream at particle spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Eskov, A. V.; Yakovlev, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    The opportunity of application of image input system to PC on the basis of PZS with electronic shutter and exposition time 35,5 mks in structure of complex of optical control of particle spraying detonation stream characteristics on installation «Katun-M» has been shown. The results of inspection of particle speeds by the length of their tracks on image, dynamics of gas fuse formation at the initial moment of stream occurrence on section of installation shaft and root angle of the stream are ...

  11. Control automático de un exoesqueleto de marcha para pacientes con discapacidad motora

    OpenAIRE

    Arcos Legarda, Willington Jaime

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es desarrollar una estrategia de control multivariable para el movimiento de un exoesqueleto de marcha. El propósito del exoesqueleto es asistir la caminata de un sujeto con discapacidad motora. En este trabajo se modela la dinámica multicuerpos del sistema sujeto exoesqueleto. El modelo de la dinámica multicuerpos es construido en SimMechanics de Matlab. El modelado y la simulación de la caminata incluye dos fases de operación: apoyo simple y apoyo doble. La d...

  12. Standardization of automated industrial test equipment for mass production of control systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090663; Dai, Iosifina Panagiota; Oleniuk, Patryk Wojciech; Todd, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. They must be designed to achieve a high Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and hardware reliability must be ensured by board level testing before hardware is assembled and installed. In this framework, the National Instrument PCI extension for Instrumentation (PXI) was chosen as standard platform for the development of testers. This paper reports on the design strategy and approach used focusing on the tester hardware, firmware and software development.

  13. Digitartic: bi-manual gestural control of articulation in performative singing synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Feugère, Lionel; D'Alessandro, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    ISSN 2220-4806. International audience Digitartic, a system for bi-manual gestural control of Vowel- Consonant-Vowel performative singing synthesis is presented. This system is an extension of a real-time gesture-controlled vowel singing instrument developed in the Max MSP language. In addition to pitch, vowels and voice strength controls, Digitartic is designed for gestural control of articulation parameters, including various places and manners of articulation. The phases of articulat...

  14. Controlled synthesis of fluorescent silica nanoparticles inside microfluidic droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Wacker, Josias Basil; Lignos, Ioannis; Parashar, Virendra Kumar; Gijs, Martinus

    2012-01-01

    We study the droplet-based synthesis of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (50–350 nm size) in a microfluidic chip. Fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC) dye is first chemically linked to aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) in ethanol and this reaction product is subsequently mixed with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to yield a fluorescent silicon alkoxide precursor solution. The latter reacts with an aqueous ethanol–ammonia hydrolysing mixture inside droplets, forming fluorescent silica nanoparti...

  15. Protein kinase D activity controls endothelial nitric oxide synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Sánchez-Ruiloba, Lucía; Gómez-Parrizas, Mónica; Zaragoza, Carlos; Iglesias, Teresa; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates key functions of the endothelium, such as angiogenesis or vessel repair in processes involving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. One of the effector kinases that become activated in endothelial cells upon VEGF treatment is protein kinase D (PKD). Here, we show that PKD phosphorylates eNOS, leading to its activation and a concomitant increase in NO synthesis. Using mass spectrometry, we show that the purified active kinase ...

  16. Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis: The Origin, Control, and Amplification of Chirality

    OpenAIRE

    Delden, Richard A. van; Feringa, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    One of the fundamental and intriguing aspects of life is the homochirality of the essential molecules. From the early days of stereochemistry, the origin of chirality in biological systems has been a challenge to the chemical sciences and numerous theories and experiments have been reported. Despite the great progress in asymmetric synthesis, there are only a few genuine absolute asymmetric syntheses known today. Novel approaches based on the interplay of molecular biology, organic chemistry,...

  17. Automated, Miniaturized and Integrated Quality Control-on-Chip (QC-on-a-Chip for Advanced Cell Therapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWartmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The combination of microfabrication-based technologies with cell biology has laid the foundation for the development of advanced in vitro diagnostic systems capable of evaluating cell cultures under defined, reproducible and standardizable measurement conditions. In the present review we describe recent lab-on-a-chip developments for cell analysis and how these methodologies could improve standard quality control in the field of manufacturing cell-based vaccines for clinical purposes. We highlight in particular the regulatory requirements for advanced cell therapy applications using as an example dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines to describe the tangible advantages of microfluidic devices that overcome most of the challenges associated with automation, miniaturization and integration of cell-based assays. As its main advantage lab-on-a-chip technology allows for precise regulation of culturing conditions, while simultaneously monitoring cell relevant parameters using embedded sensory systems. State-of-the-art lab-on-a-chip platforms for in vitro assessment of cell cultures and their potential future applications for cell therapies and cancer immunotherapy are discussed in the present review.

  18. Automated, Miniaturized and Integrated Quality Control-on-Chip (QC-on-a-Chip) for Advanced Cell Therapy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartmann, David; Rothbauer, Mario; Kuten, Olga; Barresi, Caterina; Visus, Carmen; Felzmann, Thomas; Ertl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The combination of microfabrication-based technologies with cell biology has laid the foundation for the development of advanced in vitro diagnostic systems capable of evaluating cell cultures under defined, reproducible and standardizable measurement conditions. In the present review we describe recent lab-on-a-chip developments for cell analysis and how these methodologies could improve standard quality control in the field of manufacturing cell-based vaccines for clinical purposes. We highlight in particular the regulatory requirements for advanced cell therapy applications using as an example dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines to describe the tangible advantages of microfluidic devices that overcome most of the challenges associated with automation, miniaturization and integration of cell-based assays. As its main advantage lab-on-a-chip technology allows for precise regulation of culturing conditions, while simultaneously monitoring cell relevant parameters using embedded sensory systems. State-of-the-art lab-on-a-chip platforms for in vitro assessment of cell cultures and their potential future applications for cell therapies and cancer immunotherapy are discussed in the present review.

  19. Synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozhaev, I. V.; Gayvoronskiy, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are often used for performing scientific, emergency or other types of missions under harsh conditions and environments, which can have non-stable, variable parameters. So, the problem of developing autonomous underwater vehicle motion control systems, capable of operating properly in random environments, is highly relevant. The paper is dedicated to the synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system, capable of keeping an underwater vehicle stable during a translation at different angles of attack. In order to synthesize the PID-controller, two problems were solved: a new method of synthesizing a robust controller was developed and a mathematical model of an underwater vehicle motion process was derived. The newly developed mathematical model structure is simpler than others due to acceptance of some of the system parameters as interval ones. The synthesis method is based on a system poles allocation approach and allows providing the necessary transient process quality in a considered system.

  20. Proceedings of the third International Federation of Automatic Control symposium on automation in mining, mineral and metal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, J.; Polis, M. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-four papers covering many aspects of automation in mining, mineral and metal processing are presented. Opening and concluding remarks are also given. Fourteen papers are individually abstracted.

  1. Compositional Synthesis of Controllers from Scenario-Based Assume-Guarantee Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenyer, Joel; Kindler, Ekkart

    2013-01-01

    avoid flaws in the product or costly iterations during its development. We propose to use Modal Sequence Diagrams (MSDs), a formal, yet intuitive formalism for specifying the interaction of a system with its environment, and developed a formal synthesis approach that allows us to detect inconsistencies...... and even to automatically synthesize controllers from MSD specifications. The technique is suited for specifications of technical systems with real-time constraints and environment assumptions. However, synthesis is computationally expensive. In order to employ synthesis also for larger specifications......, we present, in this paper, a novel assume-guarantee-style compositional synthesis technique for MSD specifications. We provide evaluation results underlining the benefit of our approach and formally justify its correctness....

  2. Control De Un Vehículo Guiado Automáticamente (AGV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pedroza Reyes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo principal el aporte de un algoritmo de cálculo de trayectorias para un vehículo autónomo guiado. El cálculo se hace partiendo de parámetros capturados en un computador, los cuales son enviados al sistema de control para calcular una ruta libre de colisiones, que aproveche el espacio disponible, para proveer de movimientos suaves al vehículo. El algoritmo desarrollado está basado en la construcción de curvas paramétricas tipo Hermite y su implementación se llevó a cabo en un microcontrolador dsPIC30F en lenguaje C modificado. Además se ha realizado un prototipo a escala, con el cual se realizaron pruebas que permitieron dar fe del buen funcionamiento del algoritmo, aún y cuando es susceptible de muchas mejoras, entre ellas, el desarrollo de un prototipo más eficiente o una comunicación inalámbrica, para mejorar las condiciones de simulación.

  3. Automated remote control of fuel supply section for the coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudin, O.V.; Maidan, B.V.; Tsymbal, A.A. [JSC Khabarovskenergo, Khabarovsk (Russian Federation). Heat and Power Plant No. 3

    1996-05-01

    Approximately 6,000 miles east of Moscow, lays the city of Khabarovsk. This city`s coal-fired Power Plant 3 supplies electricity, heat and hot water to approximately 250,000 customers. Plant 3 has three units with a combined turbine capacity of 540 MW, (3 {times} 180) electrical and 780 (3 {times} 260) Gkal an hour thermal capacity with steam productivity of 2010 (3 {times} 670) tons per hour at 540 C. Coal fired thermal electric power plants rely on the equipment of the fuel supply section. The mechanism of the fuel supply section includes: conveyor belts, hammer crushers, guiding devices, dumping devices, systems for dust neutralizing, iron separators, metal detectors and other devices. As a rule, the fuel path in the power plant has three main directions: from the railroad car unloading terminal to the coal warehouse; from the coal warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, and the railroad car unloading terminal to the acceptance bunkers of power units. The fuel supply section always has a reserve and is capable of uninterruptible fuel supply during routine maintenance and/or repair work. This flexibility requires a large number of fuel traffic routes, some of which operate simultaneously with the feeding of coal from the warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, or in cases when rapid filling of the bunkers is needed, two fuel supply routes operate at the same time. The remote control of the fuel handling system at Power Plant 3 is described.

  4. Application of an automation system and a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the optimal operation of a membrane adsorption hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P J; Vigneswaran, S; Ngo, H H; Nguyen, H T; Ben-Aim, R

    2006-01-01

    The application of automation and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to municipal water and wastewater treatment plants is rapidly increasing. However, the application of these systems is less frequent in the research and development phases of emerging treatment technologies used in these industries. This study involved the implementation of automation and a SCADA system to the submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system for use in a semi-pilot scale research project. An incremental approach was used in the development of the automation and SCADA systems, leading to the development of two new control systems. The first system developed involved closed loop control of the backwash initiation, based upon a pressure increase, leading to productivity improvements as the backwash is only activated when required, not at a fixed time. This system resulted in a 40% reduction in the number of backwashes required and also enabled optimised operations under unsteady concentrations of wastewater. The second system developed involved closed loop control of the backwash duration, whereby the backwash was terminated when the pressure reached a steady state. This system resulted in a reduction of the duration of the backwash of up to 25% and enabled optimised operations as the foulant build-up within the reactor increased. PMID:16722068

  5. Fusion of multi-sensory saliency maps for automated perception and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.

    2009-05-01

    In many real-world situations and applications that involve humans or machines (e.g., situation awareness, scene understanding, driver distraction, workload reduction, assembly, robotics, etc.) multiple sensory modalities (e.g., vision, auditory, touch, etc.) are used. The incoming sensory information can overwhelm processing capabilities of both humans and machines. An approach for estimating what is most important in our sensory environment (bottom-up or goal-driven) and using that as a basis for workload reduction or taking an action could be of great benefit in applications involving humans, machines or human-machine interactions. In this paper, we describe a novel approach for determining high saliency stimuli in multi-modal sensory environments, e.g., vision, sound, touch, etc. In such environments, the high saliency stimuli could be a visual object, a sound source, a touch event, etc. The high saliency stimuli are important and should be attended to from perception, cognition or/and action perspective. The system accomplishes this by the fusion of saliency maps from multiple sensory modalities (e.g., visual and auditory) into a single, fused multimodal saliency map that is represented in a common, higher-level coordinate system. This paper describes the computational model and method for generating multi-modal or fused saliency map. The fused saliency map can be used to determine primary and secondary foci of attention as well as for active control of a hardware/device. Such a computational model of fused saliency map would be immensely useful for a machine-based or robot-based application in a multi-sensory environment. We describe the approach, system and present preliminary results on a real-robotic platform.

  6. Enantioselective synthesis of both (-)-(R)-and (+)-(S)-angustureine controlled by enzymatic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Gaspar, E-mail: gaspardm@qui.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Qumica; Diaz, Marisa A.N. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Reis, Marco A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-09-15

    The present study describes a new synthesis of (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)-angustureine enantiomers, as well as of racemate ({+-})-angustureine, from a racemic {beta}-amino ester controlled by kinetic enzymatic resolution. This strategy allowed to incorporate the basic skeleton, as well as to control the single stereocenter at carbon 2 in both enantiomers. The sequence of five steps starting from the chiral {beta}-amino ester and sodium carboxylate for the synthesis of both alkaloids achieved overall yields of 80 and 44%, respectively, and produced excellent enantiomeric excesses (95 and 96%, respectively) with no protection of functional groups in any of the steps. (author)

  7. Research in automation, risk analysis, control rooms and organisational factors; Applications to plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . The infrastructure should include a functioning legislative environment, a good educational system, support for research and development, and a businesslike regulatory regime. If a good operational environment is available, the nuclear utilities, can control the other preconditions for their success, such as high ambitions, good international contacts, plant autonomy, enough staff, a motivational climate, safety culture, etc

  8. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  9. Formal ESL Synthesis for Control-Intensive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Dossis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the massive complexity of contemporary embedded applications and integrated systems, long effort has been invested in high-level synthesis (HLS and electronic system level (ESL methodologies to automatically produce correct implementations from high-level, abstract, and executable specifications written in program code. If the HLS transformations that are applied on the source code are formal, then the generated implementation is correct-by-construction. The focus in this work is on application-specific design, which can deliver optimal, and customized implementations, as opposed to platform or IP-based design, which is bound by the limits and constraints of the preexisting architecture. This work surveys and reviews past and current research in the area of ESL and HLS. Then, a prototype HLS compiler tool that has been developed by the author is presented, which utilizes compiler-generators and logic programming to turn the synthesis into a formal process. The scheduler PARCS and the formal compilation of the system are tested with a number of benchmarks and real-world applications. This demonstrates the usability and applicability of the presented method.

  10. ReACP: A Semi-Automated Framework for Reverse-engineering and Testing of Access Control Policies of Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Ha Thanh; Nguyen, Duy Cu; Briand, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    This technical report details our a semi-automated framework for the reverse-engineering and testing of access control (AC) policies for web-based applications. In practice, AC specifications are often missing or poorly documented, leading to AC vulnerabilities. Our goal is to learn and recover AC policies from implementation, and assess them to find AC issues. Built on top of a suite of security tools, our framework automatically explores a system under test, mines domain input specification...

  11. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  12. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting

  13. Automated phantom assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated phantom assay system developed for assaying phantoms spiked with minute quantities of radionuclides. The system includes a computer-controlled linear-translation table that positions the phantom at exact distances from a spectrometer. A multichannel analyzer (MCA) interfaces with a computer to collect gamma spectral data. Signals transmitted between the controller and MCA synchronize data collection and phantom positioning. Measured data are then stored on disk for subsequent analysis. The automated system allows continuous unattended operation and ensures reproducible results

  14. Automated gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  15. Model-driven design using IEC 61499 a synchronous approach for embedded and automation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yoong, Li Hsien; Bhatti, Zeeshan E; Kuo, Matthew M Y

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a novel approach for the design of embedded systems and industrial automation systems, using a unified model-driven approach that is applicable in both domains.  The authors illustrate their methodology, using the IEC 61499 standard as the main vehicle for specification, verification, static timing analysis and automated code synthesis.  The well-known synchronous approach is used as the main vehicle for defining an unambiguous semantics that ensures determinism and deadlock freedom. The proposed approach also ensures very efficient implementations either on small-scale embedded devices or on industry-scale programmable automation controllers (PACs). It can be used for both centralized and distributed implementations. Significantly, the proposed approach can be used without the need for any run-time support. This approach, for the first time, blurs the gap between embedded systems and automation systems and can be applied in wide-ranging applications in automotive, robotics, and industri...

  16. Fuzzy control systems with time-delay and stochastic perturbation analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ligang; Shi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on fuzzy control systems. It presents solutions to a series of problems with new approaches for the analysis and synthesis of fuzzy time-delay systems and fuzzy stochastic systems, including stability analysis and stabilization, dynamic output feedback control, robust filter design, and model approximation. A set of newly developed techniques such as fuzzy Lyapunov function approach, delay-partitioning, reciprocally convex, cone complementary linearization approach are presented. Fuzzy Control Systems with Time-Delay and Stochastic Perturbation: Analysis and Synthesis is a comprehensive reference for researcher and practitioners working in control engineering, system sciences and applied mathematics, and is also a useful source of information for senior undergraduates and graduates in these areas. The readers will benefit from some new concepts, new models and new methodologies with practical significance in control engineering and si...

  17. Oil whip instability control using μ-synthesis technique on a magnetic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bernd; Araujo Perini, Efrain; Lucchesi Cavalca, Katia; Fiori de Castro, Helio; Rinderknecht, Stephan

    2013-02-01

    Rotating machines have a wide application range and since those machines have high trust levels, several rotor vibrations control methods are investigated in order to avoid sudden cracks, improve rotor performance or even to reach higher operation speeds by controlling some instabilities, critical speeds resonances or oil whip effect. Rotor instabilities are associated to the operation speed and can have structural or dynamic sources from the shaft, bearings and foundation or even from an actuator external force. This work focuses on a strategy that uses the μ-synthesis control technique to attenuate the oil whip instability effect of flexible hydrodynamically supported rotors and allows the rotor to operate in higher speeds. For the identified rotor model and the synthesized controller applied on a magnetic actuator, the control system stability and performance specifications are analyzed with regard to the model uncertainties and μ-synthesis controlled vibration levels are compared to PID controller in vertical and horizontal directions. The performance specifications within the μ-synthesis are optimized to suppress unbalance vibration and, in order to contribute to industrial acceptance, the controller design is presented as a strategy which focuses on a design at reduced effort.

  18. Controlled synthesis of the tricontinuous mesoporous material IBN-9 and its carbon and platinum derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2011-08-23

    Controlled synthesis of mesoporous materials with ultracomplicated pore configurations is of great importance for both fundamental research of nanostructures and the development of novel applications. IBN-9, which is the only tricontinuous mesoporous silica with three sets of interpenetrating three-dimensional channel systems, appears to be an excellent model mesophase for such study. The extensive study of synthesis space diagrams proves mesophase transition among the cylindrical MCM-41, tricontinuous IBN-9 and bicontinuous MCM-48, and also allows a more precise control of phase-pure synthesis. On the other hand, rational design of structure-directing agents offers a possibility to extend the synthesis conditions of IBN-9, as well as tailor its pore size. Moreover, an unprecedented helical structure consisting of twisted 3-fold interwoven mesoporous channels is reported here for the first time. The unique tricontinuous mesostructure of IBN-9 has been well-replicated by other functional materials (e.g., carbon and platinum) via a "hard- templating" synthesis route. The obtained carbon material possesses large surface area (∼1900 m2/g), high pore volume (1.56 cm 3/g), and remarkable gas adsorption capability at both cryogenic temperatures and room temperature. The platinum material has an ordered mesostructure composed of highly oriented nanocrystals. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  20. pH-controllable synthesis of unique nanostructured tungsten oxide aerogel and its sensitive glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang-Qiang; Xu, Maowen; Bao, Shu-Juan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-03-01

    This work presents a controllable synthesis of nanowire-networked tungsten oxide aerogels, which was performed by varying the pH in a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted hydrothermal process. An enzyme-tungsten oxide aerogel co-modified electrode shows high activity and selectivity toward glucose oxidation, thus holding great promise for applications in bioelectronics.

  1. TECHNICAL AND ENERGY PARAMETERS IMPROVEMENT OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES THROUGH THE INTRODUCTION OF AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS OF A DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Today the issue, connected with diesel traction remains relevant for the majority of industrial enterprises and Ukrainian railways and diesel engine continues to be the subject of extensive research and improvements. Despite the intensive process of electrification, which accompanies Railway Transport of Ukraine the last few years, diesel traction continues to play an important role both in the main and in the industrial railway traction rolling stock. Anyway, all kinds of maneuvering and chores are for locomotives, they are improved and upgraded relentlessly and hourly. This paper is focused on finding the opportunities to improve technical and energy parameters of diesels due to the development of modern control method of the fuel equipment in the diesel engine. Methodology. The proposed method increases the power of locomotives diesel engines in the range of crankshaft rotation (from idle running to maximum one. It was based on approach of mixture ignition timing up to the top «dead» center of piston position. Findings. The paper provides a brief historical background of research in the area of operating cycle in the internal combustion engine (ICE. The factors affecting the process of mixing and its quality were analyzed. The requirements for fuel feed system in to the cylinder and the «weak points» of the process were presented. A variant of the modification the fuel pump drive, which allows approaching to the regulation of fuel feed system from the other hand and to improve it was proposed. Represents a variant of embodiment of the complex system with specification of mechanical features and control circuits. The algorithm of the system operation was presented and its impact on the performance of diesel was made. Originality. The angle regulating system of fuel supply allows automating the process of fuel injection advance angle into the cylinder. Practical value. At implementation the angle regulating system of fuel supply

  2. Synthesis of digital control systems for nuclear reactors, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate a closed-loop digital control system to regulate a reactor during commanded changes of power level, making use of the optimal control and trajectories derived in the previous paper. Simple application of this optimal control scheme alone would not permit satisfactory control of the reactor, on account of various external disturbances that would affect the control in actual practice. This difficulty has been overcome by linearizing the system equations around the optimal control and trajectories derived as above, and thereto applying modern control theory. The feedback control system is first examined for a case where all requisite state variables are accessible. Then for the case where not all state variables are thus accessible, a method is devised for estimating the inaccessible variables. The estimates are obtained by detecting the accessible state variables a given number of times during each control stage, using the generalized inverse. A closed-loop system is constituted by incorporating this method of estimation into the feedback circuit. The resulting system is shown to provide amply satisfactory performance in terms of response time and the accuracy. (auth.)

  3. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part I: Modeling and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a work on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The study is performed from the perspective of giving a unitary control method to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. To illustrate the proposed HVAC control technique, in this first part it is considered as benchmark problem a single thermal space HVAC system. The construction of the mathematical model is performed only with a view to obtain a framework of HVAC intelligent control validation by numerical simulations. The latter will be reported in a second part of the study.

  4. Synthesis of structural/control systems robust with respect to design variable tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented for the synthesis of control augmented structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a robust noncollocated direct output feedback control system. The control system is robust in the sense that it can tolerate manufacturing and realization errors. The robust control system is synthesized using a constraint buffering technique in conjunction with the approximation concepts approach to system synthesis. All of the design constraints on the system, including the dynamic stability, are buffered by a nonlinear quantity that is a function of acceptable tolerances on the design variables and the sensitivity of the constraints to changes in these design variables. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method presented are given.

  5. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  6. Low-authority control synthesis for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrun, J. N.; Margulies, G.

    1982-01-01

    The control of vibrations of large space structures by distributed sensors and actuators is studied. A procedure is developed for calculating the feedback loop gains required to achieve specified amounts of damping. For moderate damping (Low Authority Control) the procedure is purely algebraic, but it can be applied iteratively when larger amounts of damping are required and is generalized for arbitrary time invariant systems.

  7. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system

  8. H∞ Synthesis Method for Control of Non-linear Flexible Joint Models

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Patrik; Pipeleers, Goele; Helmersson, Anders; Norrlöf, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    An H∞ synthesis method for control of a flexible joint, with non-linear spring characteristic, is proposed. The first step of the synthesis method is to extend the joint model with an uncertainty description of the stiffness parameter. In the second step, a non-linear optimisation problem, based on nominal performance and robust stability requirements, has to be solved. Using the Lyapunov shaping paradigm and a change of variables, the non-linear optimisation problem can be rewritten as a con...

  9. MATHEMATICAL MODELING, AUTOMATION AND CONTROL OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF SORBITOL TO SORBOSE IN THE VITAMIN C PRODUCTION PROCESS I. MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonomi A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, the Biotechnology and the Control Systems Groups of IPT started developing a system for the control and automation of fermentation processes, applied to the oxidation of sorbitol to sorbose by the bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans, the microbial step of the vitamin C production process, that was chosen as a case study. Initially, a thirteen-parameter model was fitted to represent the batch operation of the system utilizing a nonlinear regression analysis, the flexible polyhedron method. Based on these results, a model for the continuous process (with the same kinetic equations was constructed and its optimum operating point obtained

  10. SAT-based Distributed Reactive Control Protocol Synthesis for Boolean Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Yunus Emre; Ozay, Necmiye

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the synthesis of distributed reactive control protocols for a Boolean network in a distributed manner. We start with a directed acyclic graph representing a network of Boolean subsystems and a global contract, given as an assumption-guarantee pair. Assumption captures the environment behavior, and guarantee is the requirements to be satisfied by the system. Local assumption-guarantee contracts, together with local control protocols ensuring these local contracts, are comp...

  11. Protein kinase D activity controls endothelial nitric oxide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Sánchez-Ruiloba, Lucía; Gómez-Parrizas, Mónica; Zaragoza, Carlos; Iglesias, Teresa; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio

    2014-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates key functions of the endothelium, such as angiogenesis or vessel repair in processes involving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. One of the effector kinases that become activated in endothelial cells upon VEGF treatment is protein kinase D (PKD). Here, we show that PKD phosphorylates eNOS, leading to its activation and a concomitant increase in NO synthesis. Using mass spectrometry, we show that the purified active kinase specifically phosphorylates recombinant eNOS on Ser1179. Treatment of endothelial cells with VEGF or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) activates PKD and increases eNOS Ser1179 phosphorylation. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of PKD and gene silencing of both PKD1 and PKD2 abrogate VEGF signaling, resulting in a clear diminished migration of endothelial cells in a wound healing assay. Finally, inhibition of PKD in mice results in an almost complete disappearance of the VEGF-induced vasodilatation, as monitored through determination of the diameter of the carotid artery. Hence, our data indicate that PKD is a new regulatory kinase of eNOS in endothelial cells whose activity orchestrates mammalian vascular tone. PMID:24928905

  12. Controlled synthesis of gold nanostars by using a zwitterionic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Alberto; Cabrini, Elisa; Donà, Alice; Falqui, Andrea; Diaz-Fernandez, Yuri; Milanese, Chiara; Taglietti, Angelo; Pallavicini, Piersandro

    2012-07-23

    By replacing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the zwitterionic lauryl sulfobetaine (LSB) surfactant in the classical seed-growth synthesis, monocrystalline gold nanostars (m-NS) and pentatwinned gold asymmetric nanostars (a-NS) were obtained instead of nanorods. The main product under all synthetic conditions was a-NS, which have branches with high aspect ratios (AR), thus leading to LSPR absorptions in the 750-1150 nm range. The percentage of m-NS versus a-NS, the aspect ratio of the a-NS branches, and consequently the position of their LSPR absorption can be finely tuned simply by regulating the concentration of reductant, the concentration of surfactant, or the concentration of the "catalytic" Ag(+) cation. The m-NS have instead shorter and larger branches, the AR of which is poorly influenced by synthetic conditions and displays an LSPR positioned around 700 nm. A growth mechanism that involves the direct contact of the sulfate moiety of LSB on the surface of the nano-object is proposed, thereby implying preferential coating of the {111} Au faces with weak interactions. Consistent with this, we also observed the straightforward complete displacement of the LSB surfactant from the surface of the nanostars. This was obtained by the simple addition of thiols in aqueous solution to yield extremely stable coated a-NS and m-NS that are resistant to highly acidic, basic, and in similar to in vivo conditions. PMID:22736477

  13. Precise docking control in unmanned aircraft vehicle automated aerial refueling%无人机自动空中加油精确对接控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伦; 杜熠; 盖文东

    2011-01-01

    The control scheme and strategy for unmanned aircraft vehicle automated aerial refueling were proposed based on analysis of the vortex effect of tank and the free oscillation of drogue.The improved reference trajectory generator and trajectory tracking controller for receiver were used for automated aerial refueling precise docking control.The linear quadratic regulator method was used to design the trajectory tracking controller,and all kinds of disturbance were considered.The results of simulation show this guidance control method has the capacity for speeding up system response and restraining disturbance;Furthermore,it meets the requirement of automated aerial refueling.%针对无人机自动空中加油对接段的精确控制问题,提出了无人机自动空中加油的控制方案和策略,并在分析加油机尾涡干扰和加油锥套自由摆动及其对受油机影响的基础上,设计了适用于自动空中加油精确对接控制的受油机参考轨迹发生器和轨迹跟踪控制器.轨迹跟踪控制器采用线性二次型调节器方法,并充分考虑了加油过程中各种干扰的影响.仿真结果表明,该导引控制方法具有良好的快速性和抗干扰能力,可以满足空中加油的任务要求.

  14. Incremental Temporal Logic Synthesis of Control Policies for Robots Interacting with Dynamic Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wongpiromsarn, Tichakorn; Belta, Calin; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    We consider the synthesis of control policies from temporal logic specifications for robots that interact with multiple dynamic environment agents. Each environment agent is modeled by a Markov chain whereas the robot is modeled by a finite transition system (in the deterministic case) or Markov decision process (in the stochastic case). Existing results in probabilistic verification are adapted to solve the synthesis problem. To partially address the state explosion issue, we propose an incremental approach where only a small subset of environment agents is incorporated in the synthesis procedure initially and more agents are successively added until we hit the constraints on computational resources. Our algorithm runs in an anytime fashion where the probability that the robot satisfies its specification increases as the algorithm progresses.

  15. Automation and control in industrial installations. Its application in pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washeries etc. Automatizacion y control en instalaciones industriales. Su aplicacion en centrales de lecho fluido a presion, lavaderos de carbon etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Tarifa, R. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the automation and electronic control systems, based on the most advanced technologies on the market. The most recent techniques concerning industrial plant supervision and the processing of information obtained from the above mentioned systems are discussed. Intraplant communications between the control systems and the supervision computers as well as communications among cascade computers are described. These studies are applied to specific cases of pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washing plants, coal yards, etc.

  16. Controlling Synthesis of Nanostructured Silver Aggregates by Light

    CERN Document Server

    Brummer, J; Loth, M; Popov, A K; Schmitz, R; Taft, G; Tanke, R; Wruck, A

    2004-01-01

    The possibilities for control over the size and properties of silver nanoaggregates with incoherent and laser light are investigated. The applications in nanoengineering and for giant enhancement of optical processes at nanoscale are discussed.

  17. H∞ controller synthesis of piecewise discrete time linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang FENG

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an H∞ controller design method for piecewise discrete time linear systems based on a piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function. It is shown that the resulting closed loop system is globally stable with guaranteed H∞ perfomance and the controller can be obtained by solvng a set of bilinear matrix inequalities. It has been shown that piecewise quadratic Lyapnnov functions are less conservative than the global quadratic Lyapunov functions. A simulation example is also given to illustrate the advantage of the proposed approach.

  18. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  19. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  20. Building Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  1. 略谈PLC在自动化控制领域中的应用%Brief Probe of Application of PLC in the Field of Automation Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜旭玲

    2015-01-01

    As the computer equipment in modern industrial production, the stewardship function is particularly outstanding, it has irreplaceable role in the field of automation control. PLC into the field of industrial automation control, the key is switch value controlling, analog confirmation, process monitoring and motion controlling, etc. Special attention should be paid to do a good job in controlling design and system commissioning in actual application, optimizing and maintaining appropriate working environment, preventing all sorts of interference.%作为工业生产现代化的计算机设备,PLC的自动化引领功能特别突出,它在自动化控制领域,具有不可替代的作用。工业生产自动化控制领域引入PLC,重点是开关量控制、模拟量确认、过程控制和运动控制等,实际应用时特别要注意做好控制设计和系统调试,优化、保持适度工作环境,预防各种干扰。

  2. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  3. Size-controlled synthesis of biodegradable nanocarriers for targeted and controlled cancer drug delivery using salting out cation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madasamy Hari Balakrishanan; Mariappan Rajan

    2016-02-01

    Research for synthesis of size-controlled carriers is currently challenging one. In this research paper, a method for size-controlled synthesis of biodegradable nanocarriers is proposed and described. Salting out method is suitable for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for the encapsulation on carriers. This synthetic method is based on polylactic acid (PLA) and non-ionic carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) composed by CaCl2 as salting out agent. This method permits size-controlled synthesis of particles between 50 and 400 nm simply by varying the concentration of salting out agents. We have prepared cisplatin (CDDP)-loaded PLA-CMC nanocarriers by salting out method, with varying salting out agent (CaCl2) concentrations as 0.05, 0.2, 0.35 and 0.5 M. The nanocarriers were characterized for their size, surface charge and morphology by atomic force microscope, zeta potential analyser and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro drug-releasing behaviour of the nanocarriers were investigated. The cytotoxicity effect of nanocarriers and drug-loaded nanocarriers was tested against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  4. The application of finite automate theory in automatic control%有穷自动机理论在自动化控制方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习仲坚; 巫明

    2012-01-01

    有穷自动机是一种关于系统状态变迁与时间关系的数学模型,20世纪40年代和50年代分别由McCulloch、Pitts和Moore等建立了自动机模型,经过半世纪多的发展,它已经成为一门完善的离散数学理论分支,广泛应用于形式语言、数字电路、计算机编译程序和操作系统等各个方面.自动机分为确定性(DFA)和非确定性两种(NFA),NFA可通过闭包算法转变为DFA,本文将探讨DFA在自动化控制方面的应用.%Finite automation is a mathematical model of the system state changes with the time automation model by McCulloch Pitts and Moore in the 1940s and 1950s,after half a century of development ,it has become branch of discrete mathematics theory .widely used in formal language ,all aspects of digital circuits .computer complier and operating system Automata Divided into deterministic(DFA) and non-deterministic(NFA), NFA by closure algorithm change for the DFA ,the article will explore the application of DFA in the automation control.

  5. Optimal Distributed Controller Synthesis for Chain Structures: Applications to Vehicle Formations

    CERN Document Server

    Khorsand, Omid; Gattami, Ather

    2012-01-01

    We consider optimal distributed controller synthesis for an interconnected system subject to communication constraints, in linear quadratic settings. Motivated by the problem of finite heavy duty vehicle platooning, we study systems composed of interconnected subsystems over a chain graph. By decomposing the system into orthogonal modes, the cost function can be separated into individual components. Thereby, derivation of the optimal controllers in state-space follows immediately. The optimal controllers are evaluated under the practical setting of heavy duty vehicle platooning with communication constraints. It is shown that the performance can be significantly improved by adding a few communication links. The results show that the proposed optimal distributed controller performs almost as well as the centralized linear quadratic Gaussian controller and outperforms a suboptimal controller in terms of control input. Furthermore, the control input energy can be reduced significantly with the proposed controlle...

  6. Optimal quantum circuit synthesis from Controlled-U gates

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Sastry, S; Whaley, K B; Zhang, Jun; Vala, Jiri; Sastry, Shankar

    2003-01-01

    From a geometric approach, we derive the minimum number of applications needed for an arbitrary Controlled-Unitary gate to construct a universal quantum circuit. A new analytic construction procedure is presented and shown to be either optimal or close to optimal. This result can be extended to improve the efficiency of universal quantum circuit construction from any entangling gate. Specifically, for both the Controlled-NOT and Double-CNOT gates, we develop simple analytic ways to construct universal quantum circuits with three applications, which is the least possible.

  7. Funnel Equations and Multivalued Integration Problems for Control Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzhanski, A.B.; Nikonov, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper indicates a sequence of evolutionary "funnel equations" with set-valued solutions which are crucial for the construction of respective feed-back control strategies along the schemes introduced by N.N. Krasovskii. The integration of these funnel equations leads to a sequence of multivalued integrals that generalize some of those introduced earlier (Auman's integral, the Convolution integral, Pontryagin's Alternated integral).

  8. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  9. Design and Implementation of Pumping Station Automation Control System%泵站自动化控制系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金法

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the universal pump station at home and abroad have built the status of automation and control systems,especially in Shenzhen City, Shenzhen City Water Authority under the Water Works Project Management Office Dongjiang the first phase of the actual status of the three pumping stations, combines with intelligent process equipment development trend, proposes the establishment of a measurement, control, control integration, automation system design principles.Moreover, it describes the implemention of automatic control system of common pumping stations by the principle.%通过分析国内外已建通用型泵站自动化控制系统的现状,特别是深圳市水务局下属的深圳市东江水源工程管理处第一期的三个泵站的实际现况,结合工艺设备智能化的发展趋势,提出了建立一套测、控、管一体化自动化系统的设计原则,并利用该原则阐述常见泵站自动化控制系统的实现.

  10. Manual of process automation. On-line control systems for devices in the process technology. 3. tot. rev. and enl. ed.; Handbuch der Prozessautomatisierung. Prozessleittechnik fuer verfahrenstechnische Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, U.; Frueh, K.F. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    This is a reference manual for engineers who need answers to automation problems in chemical engineering. Some new current subjects have been introduced to complement the information. The following chapters are new or have been rewritten by new authors: Internet and intranet technologies; Outline of process-related functions; Control systems in industrial applications; Problems and solutions; Model-based predicative control (MPC); Report archive analysis; Control Loop Performance Monitoring (CPM); Automation structures; Explosion protection; Remote-I/O; Integration of intelligent field equipment in PLS; Weighing and filling techniques; Safety; Maintenance - structures and strategies. The other chapters have been revised and updated as well. (orig.) [German] Das grundsaetzliche Konzept des Handbuchs ist unveraendert: Es dient als Nachschlagewerk fuer Ingenieure, die sich in verschiedenen Taetigkeitsbereichen mit Fragen der Automatisierung verfahrenstechnischer Anlagen auseinandersetzen muessen. Einige Themen wurden neu aufgenommen - wegen ihrer Aktualitaet und zur Abrundung des Themenspektrums. Folgende Kapitel sind voellig neu oder mit neuen Autoren wesentlich erweitert: Internet-/Intranettechnologien; Uebersicht ueber prozessnahe Funktionen; Industrielle Regelung: Probleme und Problemloesungen; Modellgestuetzte praediktive Regelung (MPC); Meldearchivanalyse; Control Loop Performance Monitoring (CPM); Automatisierungsstrukturen; Explosionsschutz; Remote-I/O; Integration intelligenter Feldgeraete in PLS; Waege- und Abfuelltechnik; Anlagensicherheit; Ganzheitliche Instandhaltung - Strukturen und Strategien. Die uebrigen Kapitel wurden aktualisiert und teilweise auch wesentlich ueberarbeitet. (orig.)

  11. Biopolymer colloids for controlling and templating inorganic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Preiss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and biopolymer colloids can act as controlling agents and templates not only in many processes in nature, but also in a wide range of synthetic approaches. Inorganic materials can be either synthesized ex situ and later incorporated into a biopolymer structuring matrix or grown in situ in the presence of biopolymers. In this review, we focus mainly on the latter case and distinguish between the following possibilities: (i biopolymers as controlling agents of nucleation and growth of inorganic materials; (ii biopolymers as supports, either as molecular supports or as carrier particles acting as cores of core–shell structures; and (iii so-called “soft templates”, which include on one hand stabilized droplets, micelles, and vesicles, and on the other hand continuous scaffolds generated by gelling biopolymers.

  12. Feedback control logic synthesis for non safe Petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    Dideban, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of forbidden states of non safe Petri Net (PN) modelling discrete events systems. To prevent the forbidden states, it is possible to use conditions or predicates associated with transitions. Generally, there are many forbidden states, thus many complex conditions are associated with the transitions. A new idea for computing predicates in non safe Petri nets will be presented. Using this method, we can construct a maximally permissive controller if it exists.

  13. A Phosphorylated Pseudokinase Complex Controls Cell Wall Synthesis in Mycobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Christine L.; Papavinasasundaram, Kadamba G.; Blair, Sloane R.; Baer, Christina E.; Falick, Arnold M.; King, David S.; Griffin, Jennifer E.; Venghatakrishnan, Harene; Zukauskas, Andrew; Wei, Jun-Rong; Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Crick, Dean C.; Rubin, Eric J.; Sassetti, Christopher M.; Alber, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Prokaryotic cell wall biosynthesis is coordinated with cell growth and division, but the mechanisms regulating this dynamic process remain obscure. Here, we describe a phosphorylation-dependent regulatory complex that controls peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We found that PknB, a PG-responsive Ser-Thr protein kinase (STPK), initiates complex assembly by phosphorylating a kinase-like domain in the essential PG biosynthetic protein, MviN. This domain was structura...

  14. Polythiophene: Synthesis in aqueous medium and controllable morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU RuoChen; LIU ZhengPing

    2009-01-01

    Various morphologies of polythiophene have been designed and successfully prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous medium. The morphologies of polythiophene could be controlled in ribbons, fibers and spherical particles by changing the concentrations of reductant, oxidant and phase transfer catalyst. The structure, thermal stability and the conductivity have been characterized, and a mechanism for the transformation of the morphology of polythiophene has been proposed.

  15. Use of expert system and data analysis technologies in automation of error detection, diagnosis and recovery for ATLAS Trigger-DAQ Controls framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Magnoni, L; Lehmann Miotto, G

    2012-01-01

    Trigger and DAQ (Data AQuisition) System of the ATLAS experiment on LHC at CERN is a very complex distributed computing system, composed of O(10000) applications running on a farm of commodity CPUs. The system is being designed and developed by dozens of software engineers and physicists since end of 1990's and it will be maintained in operational mode during the lifetime of the experiment. The TDAQ system is controlled by the Controls framework, which includes a set of software components and tools used for system configuration, distributed processes handling, synchronization of Run Control state transitions etc. The huge flow of operational monitoring data produced is constantly monitored by operators and experts in order to detect problems or misbehaviour. Given the scale of the system and the rates of data to be analyzed, the automation of the Controls framework functionality in the areas of operational monitoring, system verification, error detection and recovery is a strong requirement. The paper descri...

  16. Synthesis of thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier for controlled sorafenib delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarinasab, Amir; Ahmad Panahi, Homayon; Faramarzi, Mehdi; Farjadian, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Allyl glycidyl ether/N-isopropylacrylamide-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a substrate for radical copolymerization of allyl glycidyl ether and N-isopropylacrylamide. Chitosan was coupled with the prepared nanoparticles by opening the epoxy ring of the allyl glycidyl ether. The thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier (TSMNC) obtained can be applied as a potent drug carrier. The TSMNC structure was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, vibrating sample magnetometer, and elemental analysis. Its morphology and size were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of employing the TSMNC for adsorption and in vitro controlled release of the chemotherapeutic agent sorafenib was tested. The effect of the adsorption parameters of pH, temperature, and loading time of sorafenib onto TSMNC was evaluated. The adsorption data was fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the relevant parameters derived. The drug release profile indicated that 88% of the adsorbed drug was released within 35h at 45°C and drug release was Fickian diffusion-controlled. The results confirmed that the TSMNC has a high adsorption capacity at low temperature and good controlled release in a slow rate at a high temperature and could be developed for further application as a drug nanocarrier. PMID:27287097

  17. Supervisory system of automation and control applied to a petroleum drilling rig; Sistema supervisorio de automacao e controle aplicado a uma sonda de perfuracao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Jose Luiz Arias; Nakagawa, Edson Y. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1998-12-31

    This work describes a data acquisition and control (DAC) system developed and installed at an experimental well with the purpose of conducting welbore hydraulics tests related to well control and drilling operations with mul;tiphase fluids (aerated fluids and foam). One of the motivating forces for developing this system was the project Offshore Drilling with Light-Weight Fluids, a Joint Industry Project (JIP) conducted by PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES), with the objective of developing technolohy for deep water drilling with aerated fluids and foam. The other participants of this project are British Petroleum, Mobil, Amerada Hess, Air Drilling Services and Wellmasters. This DAC system gathers the experience gained by PETROBRAS on wellboreengineering, instrumentation and automation along the last few years. Using the best in well instrumentation, the system was designed to collect all the surface data, including pressures and temperatures in all lines and liquid and gas flow rates both at well injection and return points. Besides of these, pressures and temperatures inside the well are collected with seven real-time GRC P-T sensors. Also, pressure, temperature, mixture desnity, mixture flow rate and volumetric gas fraction are monitored with a production logging unit that can be placed at any point along the drill-string. regarding the injection system, the data from the cryogenic and liquid (gas and liquid flow rates, pressure, temperature and mixture quality) are read and stored by another system and sent to the supervisory system that collects all data. Finally, the separation system, at the return from the well have all the relevant data collected (separator pressure, temperature, liquid level, liquid and gas flow rates) and control valves actuated by the system for liquid level and pressure maintenance. The supervisory system collects, processes, displays, records, and plots the data in real-time. Using the concept of virtual instrumentation the software

  18. Reliability Analysis of Electrical Automation Control Equipment%电气自动化控制设备的可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晖

    2015-01-01

    自动化控制的电气设备的可靠程度在生产与日常生活中占据着举足轻重的地位,只有不断提升相关技术提高控制设备的电气自动化可靠程度,在实际操作中发生故障的概率才会越来越少,人们的生命以及财产安全才能更好地得到保障。目前,我国电气自动化控制设备进行可靠性测试主要有以下几种方法:试验室测试、保证试验和现场测试,文章最后列出了可靠性的影响因素以及可靠性的提高途径。%The reliability of electrical automation control equipment plays a very important role in production and eve-ryday life.In order that the probability of failure in the actual operation will occur less and less and everyone's life and property safety are protected, we must constantly improve related technologies to improve the reliability of electrical automation control equipment.At present, China's electrical automation control equipment’ s reliability tests are taken in the following ways:laboratory test, assurance test and spot test.Finally the paper lists the factors affecting the reli-ability and the means to improve reliability.

  19. Structured singular value synthesis based steam generator water level controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An uncertainty kinetic model for valve position of feed water to steam generator water level plant was built which can express parameter perturbation and unmodeled dynamic due to operation condition change of steam generator and feed water pump. Robust controller was designed based on structured singular value synthesis method. Robust stability of the water control system can be guaranteed under parameter perturbation and unmodeled dynamic, and robust performance can be acquired via suitable performance weight function. Simulation results show that good control performances are obtained under all combinations of steam generator operation condition and feed water pump operation condition. (authors)

  20. Controllable synthesis of rice-shape Alq3 nanoparticles with single crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wanfeng; Fan, Jihui; Song, Hui; Jiang, Feng; Yuan, Huimin; Wei, Zhixian; Ji, Ziwu; Pang, Zhiyong; Han, Shenghao

    2016-10-01

    We report the controllable growth of rice-shape nanoparticles of Alq3 by an extremely facile self-assembly approach. Possible mechanisms have been proposed to interpret the formation and controlled process of the single crystal nanoparticles. The field-emission performances (turn-on field 7 V μm-1, maximum current density 2.9 mA cm-2) indicate the potential application on miniaturized nano-optoelectronics devices of Alq3-based. This facile method can potentially be used for the controlled synthesis of other functional complexes and organic nanostructures.