WorldWideScience

Sample records for automated controller synthesis

  1. Automated Controller Synthesis for non-Deterministic Piecewise-Affine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    formations. This thesis uses a hybrid systems model of a satellite formation with possible actuator faults as a motivating example for developing an automated control synthesis method for non-deterministic piecewise-affine hybrid systems (PAHS). The method does not only open an avenue for further research......To further advance space based science the need for ever more precise measurement techniques increases. One of the most promising new ideas are satellite formations where accurate spatial control of multiple spacecraft can be used to create very large virtual apertures or very sensitive...... interferometric measurements. Control of satellite formations presents a whole new set of challenges for spacecraft control systems requiring advances in actuation, sensing, communication, and control algorithms. Specifically having the control system duplicated onto multiple satellites increases the possibility...

  2. Automated synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Esposito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid-containing glycans play a major role in cell-surface interactions with external partners such as cells and viruses. Straightforward access to sialosides is required in order to study their biological functions on a molecular level. Here, automated oligosaccharide synthesis was used to facilitate the preparation of this class of biomolecules. Our strategy relies on novel sialyl α-(2→3 and α-(2→6 galactosyl imidates, which, used in combination with the automated platform, provided rapid access to a small library of conjugation-ready sialosides of biological relevance.

  3. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  4. Efficient automated one-step synthesis of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethylcholine for clinical imaging: optimized reaction conditions and improved quality controls of different synthetic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asti, Mattia [Nuclear Medicine Department, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Reggio Emilia (Italy)], E-mail: asti.mattia@asmn.re.it; Farioli, Daniela; Iori, Michele; Guidotti, Claudio; Versari, Annibale; Salvo, Diana [Nuclear Medicine Department, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline analogues, such as 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethylcholine ({sup 18}FECH), have suggested to be a new class of choline derivatives highly useful for the imaging of prostate and brain tumours. In fact, tumour cells with enhanced proliferation rate usually exhibit an improved choline uptake due to the increased membrane phospholipids biosynthesis. The aim of this study was the development of a high yielding synthesis of {sup 18}FECH. The possibility of shortening the synthesis time by reacting all the reagents in a convenient and rapid one-step reaction was specially considered. Methods: {sup 18}FECH was synthesized by reacting [{sup 18}F]fluoride with 1,2-bis(tosyloxy)ethane and N,N-dimethylaminoethanol. The synthesis was carried out using both a one- and a two-step reaction in order to compare the two procedures. The effects on the radiochemical yield and purity by using different [{sup 18}F]fluoride phase transfer catalysts, reagents amounts and purification methods were assessed. Quality controls on the final products were performed by means of radio-thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with conductimetric, ultraviolet and radiometric detectors. Results: In the optimized experimental conditions, {sup 18}FECH was synthesized with a radiochemical yield of 43{+-}3% and 48{+-}1% (not corrected for decay) when the two-step or the one-step approach were used, respectively. The radiochemical purity was higher than 99% regardless of the different synthetic pathways or purification methods adopted. The main chemical impurity was due to N,N-dimethylmorpholinium. The identity of this impurity in {sup 18}FECH preparations was not previously reported. Conclusion: An improved two-step and an innovative one-step reaction for synthesizing {sup 18}FECH in a high yield were reported. The adaptation of a multistep synthesis to a single step process, opens further possibilities for simpler and more

  5. Automated power management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. A joint effort between NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology and NASA's Office of Space Station Freedom, it strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. The initial station operation will use ground-based dispatches to perform the necessary command and control tasks. These tasks constitute planning and decision-making activities that strive to eliminate unplanned outages. We perceive an opportunity to help these dispatchers make fast and consistent on-line decisions by automating three key tasks: failure detection and diagnosis, resource scheduling, and security analysis. Expert systems will be used for the diagnostics and for the security analysis; conventional algorithms will be used for the resource scheduling.

  6. Design and Exploration of the Automation Control Transformation of Hazardous Ammonia Synthesis Process%氨合成危险工艺自动化控制改造的设计及探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建颖

    2014-01-01

    As technology advances, the role of automation control in chemical production is continuously enhanced, so the whole country started the automation control transformation of the ammonia synthesis process. In this paper, the transformation of ammonia synthesis section is discussed.%随着科技的日新月异,自动化控制在化工生产中的发挥的作用不断增强,全国上下展开了合成氨生产装置工艺自动化控制改造。本论文仅对氨合成工段的改造进行探讨。

  7. A Toolchain for Home Automation Controller Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter H.; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Middelhede, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Home Automation systems provide a large number of devices to control diverse appliances. Taking advantage of this diversity to create efficient and intelligent environments requires well designed, validated, and implemented controllers. However, designing and deploying such controllers is a complex...

  8. Automated solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides containing sialic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Hui Lai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A sialic acid glycosyl phosphate building block was designed and synthesized. This building block was used to prepare α-sialylated oligosaccharides by automated solid-phase synthesis selectively.

  9. Operator versus computer control of adaptive automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Brian; Molloy, Robert; Wong, Dick; Parasuraman, Raja

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive automation refers to real-time allocation of functions between the human operator and automated subsystems. The article reports the results of a series of experiments whose aim is to examine the effects of adaptive automation on operator performance during multi-task flight simulation, and to provide an empirical basis for evaluations of different forms of adaptive logic. The combined results of these studies suggest several things. First, it appears that either excessively long, or excessively short, adaptation cycles can limit the effectiveness of adaptive automation in enhancing operator performance of both primary flight and monitoring tasks. Second, occasional brief reversions to manual control can counter some of the monitoring inefficiency typically associated with long cycle automation, and further, that benefits of such reversions can be sustained for some time after return to automated control. Third, no evidence was found that the benefits of such reversions depend on the adaptive logic by which long-cycle adaptive switches are triggered.

  10. Future Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume topics covered include wireless communications, advances in wireless video, wireless sensors networking, security in wireless networks, network measurement and management, hybrid and discrete-event systems, internet analytics and automation, robotic system and applications, reconfigurable automation systems, machine vision in automation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.

  11. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mäde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies.

  12. Electric power distribution, automation, protection, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2007-01-01

    * Each Chapter Provides an Introduction, Illustrative Examples, and a SummaryIntroduction to Distribution Automation Systems Historical Background Distribution System Topology and Structure Distribution Automation (DA) and Control Computational Techniques for Distribution Systems Complex Power Concepts Balanced Voltage to Neutral-Connected System Power Relationship for f Y-?-Connected System Per-Unit System Calculation of Power Losses Voltage Regulation Techniques Voltage-Sag Analysis and Calculation Equipment Modeling Components Modeling Distribution System Line Model Distribution Power Flo

  13. Traffic Flow Control In Automated Highway Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Luis; Horowitz, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This report studies the problem of traffic control in the Automated Highway System (AHS) hierarchical architecture of the California PATH program. A link layer controller for the PATH AHS architecture is presented. It is shown that the proposed control laws stabilize the vehicular density and flow around predetermined profiles.

  14. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  15. Toward the Automated Synthesis of Cooperative Mobile Robot Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    A current limitation in the real-world use of cooperating mobiIe robots is the difficulty in determining the proper team composition for a given robotic application. Present technology restricts the design and implementation of cooperative robot teams to the expertise of a robotics researcher, who has to develop robot teams on an application-specific basis. The objective of our research is to reduce the complexity of cooperative robotic systems through the development of a methodology that enables the automated synthesis of cooperative robot teams. We propose an approach to this problem that uses a combination of the theories of sensori-computational systems and information invariants, building on the earlier work of Donald, Rus, et al. We describe the notion of defining equivalence classes that serve as fundamental building blocks of more complex cooperative mobile robot behaviors. We postulate a methodology for framing mission requirements in terms of the goals and constraints of the problem, incorporating issues such as multi-robot interference, communication, control strategy, robot complexity, and so forth, into the mechanism. Our initial work restricts the robot application and design space to three multi-robot application domains we have previously studied and implemented: keeping formation, "mock" hazardous waste cleanup, and cooperative observation. This paper presents the foundational ideas upon which our approach to cooperative team design is based. Keywords: Cooperative behaviors, behavior synthesis, multi-robot learning

  16. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  17. Automation and control of off-planet oxygen production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.; Schooley, L. S.; Cellier, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the automation and control of off-planet production processes. First, a general approach to process automation and control is discussed from the viewpoint of translating human process control procedures into automated procedures. Second, the control issues for the automation and control of off-planet oxygen processes are discussed. Sensors, instruments, and components are defined and discussed in the context of off-planet applications, and the need for 'smart' components is clearly established.

  18. Control and automation, and energy system engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tai-hoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adeli, Hojjat [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Stoica, Adrian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kang, Byeong-Ho (eds.) [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    This book comprises selected papers of the International Conferences, CA and CES3 2011, held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, in December 2011. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focused on the various aspects of control and automation, and circuits, control, communication, electricity, electronics, energy, system, signal and simulation. (orig.)

  19. Automated Voltage Control in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Granado Cardoso, L; Jacobsson, R

    2011-01-01

    LHCb is one of the 4 LHC experiments. In order to ensure the safety of the detector and to maximize efficiency, LHCb needs to coordinate its own operations, in particular the voltage configuration of the different subdetectors, according to the accelerator status. A control software has been developed for this purpose, based on the Finite State Machine toolkit and the SCADA system used for control throughout LHCb (and the other LHC experiments). This software permits to efficiently drive both the Low Voltage (LV) and High Voltage (HV) systems of the 10 different sub-detectors that constitute LHCb, setting each sub-system to the required voltage (easily configurable at run-time) based on the accelerator state. The control software is also responsible for monitoring the state of the Sub-detector voltages and adding it to the event data in the form of status-bits. Safe and yet flexible operation of the LHCb detector has been obtained and automatic actions, triggered by the state changes of the ...

  20. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  1. HVAC control system for building automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. S.; Song, I. T.; Cho, S. W.; Cho, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the project is to design and construction of the HVAC control system for building automation. The HVAC control system can accomplish the function which are the optimum operation condition and operation time, and the operation pattern analysis. Also, this control system can effectively manage energy saving, building environment control, facilities safety monitoring etc. The HVAC control system consisted of the central control and monitoring system (CCMS) and the direct digital controller (DDC). 1) CCMS: -Main Compute -Graphic Board -Printer -Console Desk -Intercom. 2) DDC : -IMC-M (System Control Unit Main Module) -IMC-1,2,3,4(System Control Unit Module). Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the HVAC control system. 12 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  2. Lutetium-177 DOTATATE Production with an Automated Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aslani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT with yttrium-90 (90Y and lutetium-177 (177Lu-labelled SST analogues are now therapy option for patients who have failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. In-house production with automated PRRT synthesis systems have clear advantages over manual methods resulting in increasing use in hospital-based radiopharmacies. We report on our one year experience with an automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis system.Methods: All syntheses were carried out using the Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® automated synthesis system. All materials and methods used were followed as instructed by the manufacturer of the system (Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope, Berlin, Germany. Sterile, GMP-certified, no-carrier added (NCA 177Lu was used with GMPcertifiedpeptide. An audit trail was also produced and saved by the system. The quality of the final product was assessed after each synthesis by ITLCSG and HPLC methods.Results: A total of 17 [177Lu]-DOTATATE syntheses were performed between August 2013 and December 2014. The amount of radioactive [177Lu]-DOTATATE produced by each synthesis varied between 10-40 GBq and was dependant on the number of patients being treated on a given day. Thirteen individuals received a total of 37 individual treatment administrations in this period. There were no issues and failures with the system or the synthesis cassettes. The average radiochemical purity as determined by ITLC was above 99% (99.8 ± 0.05% and the average radiochemical purity as determined by HPLC technique was above 97% (97.3 ± 1.5% for this period.Conclusions: The automated synthesis of [177Lu]-DOTATATE using Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® system is a robust, convenient and high yield approach to the radiolabelling of DOTATATE peptide benefiting from the use of NCA 177Lu and almost negligible radiation exposure of the operators.

  3. Advances in Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume  topics covered include signal and Image processing, speech and audio Processing, video processing and analysis, artificial intelligence, computing and intelligent systems, machine learning, sensor and neural networks, knowledge discovery and data mining, fuzzy mathematics and Applications, knowledge-based systems, hybrid systems modeling and design, risk analysis and management, system modeling and simulation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.

  4. The digital code driven autonomous synthesis of ibuprofen automated in a 3D-printer-based robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-01-01

    An automated synthesis robot was constructed by modifying an open source 3D printing platform. The resulting automated system was used to 3D print reaction vessels (reactionware) of differing internal volumes using polypropylene feedstock via a fused deposition modeling 3D printing approach and subsequently make use of these fabricated vessels to synthesize the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen via a consecutive one-pot three-step approach. The synthesis of ibuprofen could be achieved on different scales simply by adjusting the parameters in the robot control software. The software for controlling the synthesis robot was written in the python programming language and hard-coded for the synthesis of ibuprofen by the method described, opening possibilities for the sharing of validated synthetic 'programs' which can run on similar low cost, user-constructed robotic platforms towards an 'open-source' regime in the area of chemical synthesis.

  5. The digital code driven autonomous synthesis of ibuprofen automated in a 3D-printer-based robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    An automated synthesis robot was constructed by modifying an open source 3D printing platform. The resulting automated system was used to 3D print reaction vessels (reactionware) of differing internal volumes using polypropylene feedstock via a fused deposition modeling 3D printing approach and subsequently make use of these fabricated vessels to synthesize the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen via a consecutive one-pot three-step approach. The synthesis of ibuprofen could be achieved on different scales simply by adjusting the parameters in the robot control software. The software for controlling the synthesis robot was written in the python programming language and hard-coded for the synthesis of ibuprofen by the method described, opening possibilities for the sharing of validated synthetic ‘programs’ which can run on similar low cost, user-constructed robotic platforms towards an ‘open-source’ regime in the area of chemical synthesis. PMID:28144350

  6. The digital code driven autonomous synthesis of ibuprofen automated in a 3D-printer-based robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Kitson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An automated synthesis robot was constructed by modifying an open source 3D printing platform. The resulting automated system was used to 3D print reaction vessels (reactionware of differing internal volumes using polypropylene feedstock via a fused deposition modeling 3D printing approach and subsequently make use of these fabricated vessels to synthesize the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen via a consecutive one-pot three-step approach. The synthesis of ibuprofen could be achieved on different scales simply by adjusting the parameters in the robot control software. The software for controlling the synthesis robot was written in the python programming language and hard-coded for the synthesis of ibuprofen by the method described, opening possibilities for the sharing of validated synthetic ‘programs’ which can run on similar low cost, user-constructed robotic platforms towards an ‘open-source’ regime in the area of chemical synthesis.

  7. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  8. Using Automated Planning for Traffic Signals Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Gulić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solving traffic congestions represents a high priority issue in many big cities. Traditional traffic control systems are mainly based on pre-programmed, reactive and local techniques. This paper presents an autonomic system that uses automated planning techniques instead. These techniques are easily configurable and modified, and can reason about the future implications of actions that change the default traffic lights behaviour. The proposed implemented system includes some autonomic properties, since it monitors the current traffic state, detects if the system is degrading its performance, sets up new sets of goals to be achieved by the planner, triggers the planner that generates plans with control actions, and executes the selected courses of actions. The obtained results in several artificial and real world data-based simulation scenarios show that the proposed system can efficiently solve traffic congestion.

  9. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision robots and computer numerically controlled ('CNC') polishing machines for optical fabrication. The objective was not to assess which is superior. Rather, it was to understand for the first time their complementary properties, leading us to operate them together as a unit, integrated in hardware and software. Three key areas are reported. First is the novel use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  10. Automated Power Control for Virtualized Infrastructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文雨; 王伟平; 郭莉; 孟丹

    2014-01-01

    Power control for virtualized environments has gained much attention recently. One of the ma jor challenges is keeping underlying infrastructure in reasonably low power states and achieving service-level objectives (SLOs) of upper applications as well. Existing solutions, however, cannot effectively tackle this problem for virtualized environments. In this paper, we propose an automated power control solution for such scenarios in hope of making some progress. The major advantage of our solution is being able to precisely control the CPU frequency levels of a physical environment and the CPU power allocations among virtual machines with respect to the SLOs of multiple applications. Based on control theory and online model estimation, our solution can adapt to the variations of application power demands. Additionally, our solution can simultaneously manage the CPU power control for all virtual machines according to their dependencies at either the application-level or the infrastructure-level. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that our solution outperforms three state-of-the-art methods in terms of achieving the application SLOs with low infrastructure power consumption.

  11. AUTOMATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF PET RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexoff, D.L.

    2001-09-21

    The development of automated systems supporting the production and application of PET radiopharmaceuticals has been an important focus of researchers since the first successes of using carbon-11 (Comar et al., 1979) and fluorine-18 (Reivich et al., 1979) labeled compounds to visualize functional activity of the human brain. These initial successes of imaging the human brain soon led to applications in the human heart (Schelbert et al., 1980), and quickly radiochemists began to see the importance of automation to support PET studies in humans (Lambrecht, 1982; Langstrom et al., 1983). Driven by the necessity of controlling processes emanating high fluxes of 511 KeV photons, and by the tedium of repetitive syntheses for carrying out these human PET investigations, academic and government scientists have designed, developed and tested many useful and novel automated systems in the past twenty years. These systems, originally designed primarily by radiochemists, not only carry out effectively the tasks they were designed for, but also demonstrate significant engineering innovation in the field of laboratory automation.

  12. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  13. Rapid and convenient semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of arylopeptoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Boccia, Marcello Massimo; Nielsen, John

    2014-01-01

    A facile and expedient route to the synthesis of arylopeptoid oligomers (N-alkylated aminomethyl benz-amides) using semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis is presented. The synthesis was optimized for the incorporation of side chains derived from sterically hindered or unreactive...

  14. Automated synthesis of distortion-invariant filters: AutoMinace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Patnaik, Rohit

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents our automated filter-synthesis algorithm for the minimum noise and correlation energy (MINACE) distortion-invariant filter (DIF). We discuss use of this autoMinace filter in face recognition and automatic target recognition (ATR), in which we consider both true-class object classification and rejection of non-database objects (impostors in face recognition and confusers in ATR). We use at least one Minace filter per object class to be recognized; a separate Minace filter or a set of Minace filters is synthesized for each object class. The Minace parameter c trades-off distortion-tolerance (recognition) versus discrimination (impostor/confuser/clutter rejection) performance. Our automated Minace filter-synthesis algorithm (autoMinace) automatically selects the Minace filter parameter c and selects the training set images to be included in the filter, so that we achieve both good recognition and good impostor/confuser and clutter rejection performance; this is achieved using a training and validation set. No impostor/confuser, clutter or test set data is present in the training or validation sets. Use of the peak-to-correlation energy (PCE) ratio is found to perform better than the correlation peak height metric. The use of circular versus linear correlations is addressed; circular correlations require less storage and fewer online computations and are thus preferable. Representative test results for three different databases - visual face, IR ATR, and SAR ATR - are presented. We also discuss an efficient implementation of Minace filters for detection applications, where the filter template is much smaller than the input target scene.

  15. Automated sampling and control of gaseous simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruoguan

    2013-05-04

    In this work, we describe a method that automates the sampling and control of gaseous fluid simulations. Several recent approaches have provided techniques for artists to generate high-resolution simulations based on a low-resolution simulation. However, often in applications the overall flow in the low-resolution simulation that an animator observes and intends to preserve is composed of even lower frequencies than the low resolution itself. In such cases, attempting to match the low-resolution simulation precisely is unnecessarily restrictive. We propose a new sampling technique to efficiently capture the overall flow of a fluid simulation, at the scale of user\\'s choice, in such a way that the sampled information is sufficient to represent what is virtually perceived and no more. Thus, by applying control based on the sampled data, we ensure that in the resulting high-resolution simulation, the overall flow is matched to the low-resolution simulation and the fine details on the high resolution are preserved. The samples we obtain have both spatial and temporal continuity that allows smooth keyframe matching and direct manipulation of visible elements such as smoke density through temporal blending of samples. We demonstrate that a user can easily configure a simulation with our system to achieve desired results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

  17. Retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Simkin; V.S. Naumchik; B.D. Kozitskii (and others) [OAO L' vovORGRES, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2008-04-15

    Approaches and principles for retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations are considered. The results obtained from retrofitting the monitoring and control system of Unit 9 at the Burshtyn thermal power station are described.

  18. PNEUMATIC - LOGIC SYNTHESIS OF BUS DOOR FROM ASPECT OF AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stefanovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a logic synthesis procedure pneumatic control of the door of the bus for suburban traffic. Minimization of pneumatic control is determined graphically by Weitz – Carnot method. It also shows all pneumatic components belonging to installations used for opening and closing the door of the bus. Finally it is shown the basic maintenance of pneumatic system of the bus door.

  19. Combinatorial parallel synthesis and automated screening of a novel class of liquid crystalline materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, Oliver; Kirsch, Peer; Pauluth, Detlef; Bäuerle, Peter

    2002-12-07

    Combinatorial parallel synthesis has led to the rapid generation of a single-compound library of novel fluorinated quaterphenyls. Subsequent automated screening revealed liquid crystalline (LC) behaviour and gave qualitative relationships of molecular structures and solid state properties.

  20. 75 FR 77664 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions... of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Rock Island, Illinois... International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these...

  1. 76 FR 81986 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions... Assistance on July 30, 2010, applicable to workers of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control... location of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department...

  2. Compositional synthesis of safety controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    In my thesis I investigate compositional techniques for synthesis of safety controllers. A safety controller, in this context, is a state machine that gives the set of safe control outputs for every possible sequence of observations from the plant under control. Compositionality, in this context, re

  3. Automated Quality Control for Ortholmages and DEMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim; Potucková, Marketa

    2005-01-01

    The checking of geometric accurancy of orthoimages and digital elevation models (DEMs) is discussed. As a reference, an existing orthoimage and a second orthoimage derived from an overlapping aerial image, are used. The proposed automated procedures for checking the orthoimages and DEMs are based...

  4. Synthesis of many different types of organic small molecules using one automated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Ballmer, Steven G; Gillis, Eric P; Fujii, Seiko; Schmidt, Michael J; Palazzolo, Andrea M E; Lehmann, Jonathan W; Morehouse, Greg F; Burke, Martin D

    2015-03-13

    Small-molecule synthesis usually relies on procedures that are highly customized for each target. A broadly applicable automated process could greatly increase the accessibility of this class of compounds to enable investigations of their practical potential. Here we report the synthesis of 14 distinct classes of small molecules using the same fully automated process. This was achieved by strategically expanding the scope of a building block-based synthesis platform to include even C(sp3)-rich polycyclic natural product frameworks and discovering a catch-and-release chromatographic purification protocol applicable to all of the corresponding intermediates. With thousands of compatible building blocks already commercially available, many small molecules are now accessible with this platform. More broadly, these findings illuminate an actionable roadmap to a more general and automated approach for small-molecule synthesis.

  5. Internal Control, Auditing, and the Automated Acquisitions System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1990-01-01

    Discusses issues and procedures involved in auditing the automated acquisitions system at Ohio State University Libraries. The audit process is explained, internal controls within the system are identified, general control mechanisms such as limited electronic access are discussed, and application control mechanisms that relate to specific…

  6. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system.

  7. Automation and control of the MMT thermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. D.; Porter, Dallan; Goble, William

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the software automation and control framework for the MMT thermal system. Thermal-related effects on observing and telescope behavior have been considered during the entire software development process. Regression analysis of telescope and observatory subsystem data is used to characterize and model these thermal-related effects. The regression models help predict expected changes in focus and overall astronomical seeing that result from temperature variations within the telescope structure, within the primary mirror glass, and between the primary mirror glass and adjacent air (i.e., mirror seeing). This discussion is followed by a description of ongoing upgrades to the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system and the associated software controls. The improvements of the MMT thermal system have two objectives: 1) to provide air conditioning capabilities for the MMT facilities, and 2) to modernize and enhance the primary mirror (M1) ventilation system. The HVAC upgrade necessitates changes to the automation and control of the M1 ventilation system. The revised control system must factor in the additional requirements of the HVAC system, while still optimizing performance of the M1 ventilation system and the M1's optical behavior. An industry-standard HVAC communication and networking protocol, BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), has been adopted. Integration of the BACnet protocol into the existing software framework at the MMT is discussed. Performance of the existing automated system is evaluated and a preliminary upgraded automated control system is presented. Finally, user interfaces to the new HVAC system are discussed.

  8. Transition of Control: automation giving back control to the driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Stuiver, A.; Hogema, J.

    2014-01-01

    The automotive domain is currently moving towards automated driver assistance applications, like automatic evasive maneuvers to avoid accidents, and even beyond assistance towards automated driving. However, in the near future these systems will only be active under certain conditions, thus still re

  9. Transition of Control : Automation Giving Back Control to the Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahram, T; Karwowski, W; Marek, T; Willemsen, D; Stuiver, A; Hogema, J

    2014-01-01

    The automotive domain is currently moving towards automated driver assistance applications, like automatic evasive maneuvers to avoid accidents, and even beyond assistance towards automated driving. However, in the near future these systems will only be active under certain conditions, thus still re

  10. Levels of automation and user control - evaluation of a turbine automation interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    The study was performed during the annual operator training at the Studsvik nuclear power plant simulator facility in Nykoeping, Sweden. The participating operators came from the Oskarshamn 3 nuclear power plant. In the study, seven nuclear power plant turbine operators were interviewed concerning their use of the automatic turbine system. A field study approach together with a heuristic usability evaluation was made to assess how the operators are affected by use of automation in the control room setting. The purpose of the study was to examine how operator performance is affected by varying levels of automation in nuclear power plant turbine operation. The Automatic Turbine System (ATS) was evaluated to clarify how the ATS interface design supports the operators work. The results show that during manual control the operators experience loss of speed and accuracy in performing actions together with difficulty of dividing attention between performing a task and overall monitoring, as the major problems. The positive aspects of manual operations lie in increased feeling of being in control when performing actions by hand. With higher levels of automation the problems shift to issues concerning difficulty of following the automatic sequences and loosing track in procedures. As the level of automation gets higher, the need of feedback increases which means that information presentation also becomes more important. The use of the semiautomatic, step-mode is often preferred by the operators since it combines the speed and accuracy of the automation with the ability of maintaining the feeling of being in control. Further, a number of usability related concerns was found in the ATS interface. The operators especially experience the presentation of the conditions that manage the automatic sequences as difficult to perceive. (author)

  11. Hierarchical Model Predictive Control for Sustainable Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mayer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchicalmodel predictive controller (HMPC is proposed for flexible and sustainable building automation. The implications of a building automation system for sustainability are defined, and model predictive control is introduced as an ideal tool to cover all requirements. The HMPC is presented as a development suitable for the optimization of modern buildings, as well as retrofitting. The performance and flexibility of the HMPC is demonstrated by simulation studies of a modern office building, and the perfect interaction with future smart grids is shown.

  12. Gestural Control Of Wavefield synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grani, Francesco; Di Carlo, Diego; Portillo, Jorge Madrid

    2016-01-01

    Wi- iMote game controller to “throw” sounding objects towards them. Aim of this project was to create a gestural interface for a game based on auditory cues only, and to investigate how convolution reverberation can affects people’s percep- tion of distance in a wavefield synthesis setup environment....

  13. Automation and remote control at Mining 85 in Birmingham

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czauderna, N.

    1985-09-12

    Looking round the exhibition showed that more and more manufacturers and users take advantage of the new measuring, control and regulatory techniques with economic profit. Process computers and micro-computers make a general use of these techniques possible. The backbone of all automation systems is data transmission between widely distributed stations on individual machines. Here, too, it was clear that in mining multiple data transmission on the basis of highly integrated components and own microprocessors is occupying an ever more prominent place in communication techniques. BUS systems are more and more in evidence and already installed in some plants. For the purpose of this report and ease of reference to the large field automation and remote control at Minig 85 the products have been grouped under sensor, transmission and automation technologies. (orig./MOS).

  14. Dynamic one-way traffic control in automated transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, M; van der Zee, DJ

    2004-01-01

    In a project on underground freight transportation using Automated Guided Vehicles, single lanes for traffic in two directions are constructed to reduce infrastructure investment. Intelligent control rules are required to manage vehicle flows such, that collision is avoided and waiting times are min

  15. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is consider

  16. ANDROID BASED REMOTE CONTROLLER FOR HOME AND OFFICE AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Navaneethakrishnan .V.M*; Navaneeda Krishnan .K; Michel .P; Velmurugan R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, as the world gets more and more technologically advanced, we find new technology coming in deeper and deeper into our personal lives even at home. Home automation is becoming more popular around the world and is becoming a common practice. This Paper presents the overall design of Home Automation System (HAS) with low cost and wireless remote control. This system is designed to assist and provide support in order to fulfill the needs of elderly and disabled in home. Also, the s...

  17. Automated ARGET ATRP Accelerates Catalyst Optimization for the Synthesis of Thiol-Functionalized Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, Daniel J; Leiendecker, Matthias; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2012-02-14

    Conventional synthesis of polymers by ATRP is relatively low throughput, involving iterative optimization of conditions in an inert atmosphere. Automated, high-throughput controlled radical polymerization was developed to accelerate catalyst optimization and production of disulfide-functionalized polymers without the need of an inert gas. Using ARGET ATRP, polymerization conditions were rapidly identified for eight different monomers, including the first ARGET ATRP of 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate. In addition, butyl acrylate, oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate 300 and 475, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, styrene, and methyl methacrylate were polymerized using bis(2-hydroxyethyl) disulfide bis(2-bromo-2-methylpropionate) as the initiator, tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine as the ligand, and tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as the reducing agent. The catalyst and reducing agent concentration was optimized specifically for each monomer, and then a library of polymers was synthesized systematically using the optimized conditions. The disulfide-functionalized chains could be cleaved to two thiol-terminated chains upon exposure to dithiothreitol, which may have utility for the synthesis of polymer bioconjugates. Finally, we demonstrated that these new conditions translated perfectly to conventional batch polymerization. We believe the methods developed here may prove generally useful to accelerate the systematic optimization of a variety of chemical reactions and polymerizations.

  18. Automated synthesis of [18F]gefitinib on a modular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Läppchen, T.; Vlaming, M.L.H.; Custers, E.; Lub, J.; Sio, C.F.; DeGroot, J.; Steinbach, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, [ 18F]gefitinib PET has successfully been employed for a number of applications ranging from oncology to in vivo studies of drug transporter proteins. We here report a reliable, automated procedure for routine synthesis of this radiotracer on an Eckert and Ziegler modular system. Th

  19. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hee; Eom, Heung Sub; Kim, Ko Ryu; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, You Rak; Lee, Soo Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot and computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor pressure vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new inspection automation system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall. According to the conceptual design studied in the first year, we developed the inspection automation system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem and a main control subsystem. And we carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup. After finishing this project successfully, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 5 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 37 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  20. Automation of Sensor Control in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    status. Custom input handling with the script allowed for status acknowledgements from participants. 2.2.4.4 Sensor control Three sensor control...adaptable system for invoking automation. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 48(4), 693-709. doi: 10.1518...Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. doi: 10.1177/1071181312561093 Cummings, M. L., Bruni, S., Mercier, S., & Mitchell, P

  1. Air Traffic Control automation: for humans or people?

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Are air traffic controllers humans or people? At first sight, this seems a very odd question, given that ‘humans’ and ‘people’ are near-synonyms in the dictionary and everyday usage. However, in research on air traffic control (ATC) automation the phrase ‘human-centred’ is used to mean particular aspects of people: for example, it does not usually address their motivations for embracing change or cover organisational behaviour issues. The objective here is to try to understa...

  2. Automated safety control by video cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefter, I.; Rothkrantz, L.; Somhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    At this moment many surveillance systems are installed in public domains to control the safety of people and properties. They are constantly watched by human operators who are easily overloaded. To support the human operators, a surveillance system model is designed that detects suspicious behaviour

  3. A New Approach to an Automated Air Traffic Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patchev Dragoljub

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies areas of improvements of the air traffic control system and proposes modification of the concept of automation by using available technologies. With the proposed modification, the current Europe wide en route network structure can be modified in order to make routes more optimal. For this new route network structure, a new concept of automation will be used to manage with the air traffic. The first identified area of improvement is implementation of automation process that will enable decentralization of the air traffic control functionality to each individual aircraft and this will be achieved through automated routing of the aircrafts and CD&R (conflict detection and resolution). The FMS (flight management system) at the aircraft will make decisions for the optimal flight route based on the sensor inputs, information on selection of the routes, next hope points and flight levels, all received by ADS-B (automatic dependant surveillance-broadcast). The second area is processing the information about the deviation from the optimal route as in flight plan due to a traffic management (vectoring, level change) and taking it into consideration when further actions are undertaken. For each action, a cost factor will be calculated from the fuel burned for that action. This factor will be used to select conflict resolution protocol. The proposed concept shall increase the capacity of the network, and enable the air traff~c more efficient and more environmentally friendly while maintaining safe separation.

  4. Sistemas de control automático en pavimentadoras acabadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de control automático tienden a lograr la fijación de la posición de la placa acabadora, de forma que, independientemente de las irregularidades del suelo y alteraciones producidas por las ruedas y orugas durante el movimiento de máquina, se consiga una superficie plana uniforme y del espesor y pendiente deseados.

  5. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  6. Automated quality control in a file-based broadcasting workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina

    2014-04-01

    Benefit from the development of information and internet technologies, television broadcasting is transforming from inefficient tape-based production and distribution to integrated file-based workflows. However, no matter how many changes have took place, successful broadcasting still depends on the ability to deliver a consistent high quality signal to the audiences. After the transition from tape to file, traditional methods of manual quality control (QC) become inadequate, subjective, and inefficient. Based on China Central Television's full file-based workflow in the new site, this paper introduces an automated quality control test system for accurate detection of hidden troubles in media contents. It discusses the system framework and workflow control when the automated QC is added. It puts forward a QC criterion and brings forth a QC software followed this criterion. It also does some experiments on QC speed by adopting parallel processing and distributed computing. The performance of the test system shows that the adoption of automated QC can make the production effective and efficient, and help the station to achieve a competitive advantage in the media market.

  7. Security-Control Systems and Automation in Contemporary Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet Aytıs

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the developing technology, major renovations related to the security control systems and to building automation applications on contemporary buildings have appeared. The main item of the control systems is the entry system with cards and passwords and this is applied almost in all the large contemporary buildings. The entry and exit to/from the carparking is getting to be as important as the entry and exit to/from the building. Thus, specific measures to stop the security system being already perforated in the parking are needed. Warning systems with a great range of different detectors against various dangers that run connected to the mainframe computers and that turn on the system in case of danger are taken into consideration. The fact of obtaining all comfort conditions desired in the contemporary high space buildings and functioning of the first-aid systems are fully realized by computers with the help of systems that are called “Building Automation System” (BAS. All inspection, energy saving and security controls are achieved through these systems. In the buildings where building automation systems are applied, trained personel is needed to keep the system running; and the training of the residents about the system gains more and more importance.

  8. Advances in automation and control research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG DaiZhan

    2009-01-01

    Automation is the utilization of control techniques together with other Information technology to control industrial processes,reducing the need for human intervention.It plays a highly important role in social and economy as well as In daily life.Control theory is the theory of automation,and is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics,examining the behavior of dynamical systems.China has a long history of manufacturing automatic devices.In recent years,some rapid progresses in control theory have been made in China.Many new theories and new methodologies have been developed to meet the increasing demands in industry,agriculture,defense,and other social sectors.Contemporary sciences such as complexity,systems biology,quantum technologies,have also found their close links to control theories and technologies.On the other hand,control theory itself has many unsolved fundamental problems requiring further studies and investigation.This paper is to review the development and progress that have been made in all these aspects in China.Some remarks on the future development of control theory are also presented.

  9. Tools for the automation of large control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara

    2005-01-01

    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit – SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting in real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and the for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  10. Tools for the Automation of Large Distributed Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara

    2005-01-01

    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit - SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting is real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  11. Gallium‐68 DOTATATE Production with Automated PET Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System: A Three Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aslani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gallium‐68 (Ga‐68 is an ideal research and hospital‐based PET radioisotope. Currently, the main form of Ga‐68 radiopharmaceutical that is being synthesised in‐house is Ga‐68 conjugated with DOTA based derivatives. The development of automated synthesis systems has increased the reliability, reproducibility and safety of radiopharmaceutical productions. Here we report on our three year, 500 syntheses experience with an automated system for Ga‐68 DOTATATE. Methods: The automated synthesis system we use is divided into three parts of a servomotor modules, b single use sterile synthesis cassettes and, c a computerized system that runs the modules. An audit trail is produced by the system as a requirement for GMP production. The required reagents and chemicals are made in‐. The Germanium breakthrough is determined on a weekly basis. Production yields for each synthesis are calculated to monitor the performance and efficiency of the synthesis. The quality of the final product is assessed after each synthesis by ITLC‐SG and HPLC methods. Results: A total of 500 Ga‐68 DOTATATE syntheses (>800 patient doses were performed between March 2011 and February 2014. The average generator yield was 81.3±0.2% for 2011, 76.7±0.4% for 2012 and 75.0±0.3% for 2013. Ga‐68 DOTATATE yields for 2011, 2012, and 2013 were 81.8±0.4%, 82.2±0.4% and 87.9±0.4%, respectively. These exceed the manufacturer’s expected value of approximately 70%. Germanium breakthrough averaged 8.6×10‐6% of total activity which is well below the recommended level of 0.001%. The average ITLC‐measured radiochemical purity was above 98.5% and the average HPLC‐measured radiochemical purity was above 99.5%. Although there were some system failures during synthesis, there were only eight occasions where the patient scans needed to be rescheduled. Conclusion: In our experience the automated synthesis system performs reliably with a relatively low incident

  12. Automated synthesis of {sup 11}C-acetoacetic acid, a key alternate brain fuel to glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Sebastien [Research Center on Aging, Sherbrooke University Geriatric Institute, 1036 Belvedere Street South, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 4C4 (Canada)]. E-mail: Sebastien.Tremblay@USherbrooke.ca; Ouellet, Rene [Sherbrooke Molecular Imaging Centre, Etienne-LeBel Clinical Research Centre, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4 (Canada); Rodrigue, Serge [Sherbrooke Molecular Imaging Centre, Etienne-LeBel Clinical Research Centre, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4 (Canada); Langlois, Rejean [Sherbrooke Molecular Imaging Centre, Etienne-LeBel Clinical Research Centre, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4 (Canada); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Quebec, J1H 5N4 (Canada); Benard, Francois [Sherbrooke Molecular Imaging Centre, Etienne-LeBel Clinical Research Centre, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4 (Canada); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Quebec, J1H 5N4 (Canada); Cunnane, Stephen C. [Research Center on Aging, Sherbrooke University Geriatric Institute, 1036 Belvedere Street South, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 4C4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2007-08-15

    An automated, one-pot radio-synthesis module for the routine preparation of 1-[{sup 11}C]acetoacetic acid has been developed. The enolate anion of acetone was reacted with [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} in tetrahydrofuran (THF), followed by hydrolysis and purification by ion-exchange chromatography. The total synthesis time was 18 min and radiochemical yield was 34% after decay correction. HPLC analysis showed {<=}3% impurities while residual THF ({<=}200 ppm) and ethanol ({<=}500 ppm) were well under the tolerable limits for human studies.

  13. Automation of [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde synthesis: application to a recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1RA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Olivia; McMahon, Adam; Boutin, Herve; Grigg, Julian; Prenant, Christian

    2016-06-15

    [(18) F]Fluoroacetaldehyde is a biocompatible prosthetic group that has been implemented pre-clinically using a semi-automated remotely controlled system. Automation of radiosyntheses permits use of higher levels of [(18) F]fluoride whilst minimising radiochemist exposure and enhancing reproducibility. In order to achieve full-automation of [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde peptide radiolabelling, a customised GE Tracerlab FX-FN with fully programmed automated synthesis was developed. The automated synthesis of [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde is carried out using a commercially available precursor, with reproducible yields of 26% ± 3 (decay-corrected, n = 10) within 45 min. Fully automated radiolabelling of a protein, recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1RA), with [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde was achieved within 2 h. Radiolabelling efficiency of rhIL-1RA with [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde was confirmed using HPLC and reached 20% ± 10 (n = 5). Overall RCY of [(18) F]rhIL-1RA was 5% ± 2 (decay-corrected, n = 5) within 2 h starting from 35 to 40 GBq of [(18) F]fluoride. Specific activity measurements of 8.11-13.5 GBq/µmol were attained (n = 5), a near three-fold improvement of those achieved using the semi-automated approach. The strategy can be applied to radiolabelling a range of peptides and proteins with [(18) F]fluoroacetaldehyde analogous to other aldehyde-bearing prosthetic groups, yet automation of the method provides reproducibility thereby aiding translation to Good Manufacturing Practice manufacture and the transformation from pre-clinical to clinical production.

  14. Semi-automated microwave assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Ljungberg

    Despite the development of new coupling reagents and solid supports, SPPS is still often faced with difficulties in the assembly of long or ‘difficult' sequences, e.g. due to aggregation and steric hindrance giving rise to incomplete reactions. The use of convenient and precise heating with micro......Despite the development of new coupling reagents and solid supports, SPPS is still often faced with difficulties in the assembly of long or ‘difficult' sequences, e.g. due to aggregation and steric hindrance giving rise to incomplete reactions. The use of convenient and precise heating...... Biotage Initiator microwave instrument, which is available in many laboratories, with a modified semi-automated peptide synthesizer from MultiSynTech. A custom-made reaction vessel is placed permanently in the microwave oven, thus the reactor does not have to be moved between steps. Mixing is achieved...

  15. Automated synthesis of photovoltaic-quality colloidal quantum dots using separate nucleation and growth stages

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2013-11-26

    As colloidal quantum dot (CQD) optoelectronic devices continue to improve, interest grows in the scaled-up and automated synthesis of high-quality materials. Unfortunately, all reports of record-performance CQD photovoltaics have been based on small-scale batch syntheses. Here we report a strategy for flow reactor synthesis of PbS CQDs and prove that it leads to solar cells having performance similar to that of comparable batch-synthesized nanoparticles. Specifically, we find that, only when using a dual-temperature-stage flow reactor synthesis reported herein, are the CQDs of sufficient quality to achieve high performance. We use a kinetic model to explain and optimize the nucleation and growth processes in the reactor. Compared to conventional single-stage flow-synthesized CQDs, we achieve superior quality nanocrystals via the optimized dual-stage reactor, with high photoluminescence quantum yield (50%) and narrow full width-half-maximum. The dual-stage flow reactor approach, with its versatility and rapid screening of multiple parameters, combined with its efficient materials utilization, offers an attractive path to automated synthesis of CQDs for photovoltaics and, more broadly, active optoelectronics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Mathematical models of magnetite desliming for automated quality control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olevska, Yu.; Mishchenko, V.; Olevskyi, V.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study is to provide multifactor mathematical models suitable for use in automatic control systems of desliming process. For this purpose we described the motion of a two-phase environment regard to the shape the desliming machine and technological parameters of the enrichment process. We created the method for preparation of dependences of the enrichment process quality from the technological and design parameters. To automate the process we constructed mathematical models to justify intensive technological modes and optimal parameters for design of desliming machine.

  17. Design, construction and testing of a low-cost automated (68)Gallium-labeling synthesis unit for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Pedram; Szretter, Alicia; Rushford, Laura E; Stevens, Maria; Collier, Lee; Sore, Judit; Hooker, Jacob; Mahmood, Umar

    2016-01-01

    The interest in (68)Gallium labeled PET probes continues to increase around the world. Widespread use in Europe and Asia has led to great interest for use at numerous sites in the US. One barrier to entry is the cost of the automated synthesis units for relatively simple labeling procedures. We describe the construction and testing of a relatively low-cost automated (68)Ga-labeling unit for human-use. We provide a guide for construction, including part lists and synthesis timelists to facilitate local implementation. Such inexpensive systems could help increase use around the globe and in the US in particular by removing one of the barriers to greater widespread availability. The developed automated synthesis unit reproducibly synthesized (68)Ga-DOTATOC with average yield of 71 ± 8% and a radiochemical purity ≥ 95% in a synthesis time of 25 ± 1 minutes. Automated product yields are comparable to that of manual synthesis. We demonstrate in-house construction and use of a low-cost automated synthesis unit for labeling of DOTATOC and similar peptides with (68)Gallium.

  18. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  19. Instrumentation, control, and automation for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ángel; Durán, Freddy; Ruano, María Victoria; Ribes, Josep; Rosado, Alfredo; Seco, Aurora; Ferrer, José

    2015-01-01

    A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) demonstration plant with two commercial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration systems (PURON®, Koch Membrane Systems, PUR-PSH31) was designed and operated for urban wastewater treatment. An instrumentation, control, and automation (ICA) system was designed and implemented for proper process performance. Several single-input-single-output (SISO) feedback control loops based on conventional on-off and PID algorithms were implemented to control the following operating variables: flow-rates (influent, permeate, sludge recycling and wasting, and recycled biogas through both reactor and membrane tanks), sludge wasting volume, temperature, transmembrane pressure, and gas sparging. The proposed ICA for AnMBRs for urban wastewater treatment enables the optimization of this new technology to be achieved with a high level of process robustness towards disturbances.

  20. Automated alignment method for coherence-controlled holographic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Zbynek; Slaby, Tomas; Kvasnica, Lukas; Lostak, Martin; Krizova, Aneta; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-11-01

    A coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) was developed particularly for quantitative phase imaging and measurement of live cell dynamics, which is the proper subject of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). CCHM in low-coherence mode extends DHM in the study of living cells. However, this advantage is compensated by sensitivity of the system to easily become misaligned, which is a serious hindrance to wanted performance. Therefore, it became clear that introduction of a self-correcting system is inevitable. Accordingly, we had to devise a theory of a suitable control and design an automated alignment system for CCHM. The modulus of the reconstructed holographic signal was identified as a significant variable for guiding the alignment procedures. From this, we derived the original basic realignment three-dimensional algorithm, which encompasses a unique set of procedures for automated alignment that contains processes for initial and advanced alignment as well as long-term maintenance of microscope tuning. All of these procedures were applied to a functioning microscope and the tested processes were successfully validated. Finally, in such a way, CCHM is enabled to substantially contribute to study of biology, particularly of cancer cells in vitro.

  1. Automated Deployment of Advanced Controls and Analytics in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritoni, Marco

    Buildings use 40% of primary energy in the US. Recent studies show that developing energy analytics and enhancing control strategies can significantly improve their energy performance. However, the deployment of advanced control software applications has been mostly limited to academic studies. Larger-scale implementations are prevented by the significant engineering time and customization required, due to significant differences among buildings. This study demonstrates how physics-inspired data-driven models can be used to develop portable analytics and control applications for buildings. Specifically, I demonstrate application of these models in all phases of the deployment of advanced controls and analytics in buildings: in the first phase, "Site Preparation and Interface with Legacy Systems" I used models to discover or map relationships among building components, automatically gathering metadata (information about data points) necessary to run the applications. During the second phase: "Application Deployment and Commissioning", models automatically learn system parameters, used for advanced controls and analytics. In the third phase: "Continuous Monitoring and Verification" I utilized models to automatically measure the energy performance of a building that has implemented advanced control strategies. In the conclusions, I discuss future challenges and suggest potential strategies for these innovative control systems to be widely deployed in the market. This dissertation provides useful new tools in terms of procedures, algorithms, and models to facilitate the automation of deployment of advanced controls and analytics and accelerate their wide adoption in buildings.

  2. The Model and Control Methods of Access to Information and Technology Resources of Automated Control Systems in Water Supply Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytov, M. Yu; Spichyack, S. A.; Fedorov, V. P.; Petreshin, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a formalized control model of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. The given model considers the availability of various communication links with information systems and technological equipment. There are also studied control methods of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. On the basis of the formalized control model and appropriate methods there was developed a software-hardware complex for rapid access to information and technological resources of automated control systems, which contains an administrator’s automated workplace and ultimate users.

  3. Cooperative Control and Active Interfaces for Vehicle Assitsance and Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Flemisch, Frank; Kelsch, Johann; Löper, Christan; Schieben, Anna; Schindler, Julian; Heesen, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Enabled by scientific, technological and societal progress, and pulled by human demands, more and more aspects of our life can be assisted or automated by technical artefacts. One example is the transportation domain, where in the sky commercial aircraft are flying highly automated most of the times and where on the roads a gradual revolution takes place towards assisted, highly automated or even fully automated cars and trucks. Automobiles and mobility are changing gradually t...

  4. Multiplatform automated system for monitoring and sprinkler irrigation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTO, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The automation systems together with web and mobile control is a facilitator of the various processes in several areas, among them the agricultural sector. Specically in the irrigation management, the lowest cost technology is not able to satisfy the farmer's needs, which are the correct water supply to plants and remote monitoring of the irrigation. The objective of this paper is to present a system for controlling and monitoring irrigation with a multiplatform support for both desktop and web/mobile. The system is designed to realize automatic irrigation management in order to provide the exact amount of water needed for culture, avoiding water stress both the culture and the waste of resources such as water and electricity. Additionally, the system allows remote monitoring from anywhere by means of a computer and/or mobile device by internet. This work was developed during the undergraduate mentorship of the authors.

  5. Automation of multi-agent control for complex dynamic systems in heterogeneous computational network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, Gennady; Feoktistov, Alexander; Bogdanova, Vera; Sidorov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The rapid progress of high-performance computing entails new challenges related to solving large scientific problems for various subject domains in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment (e.g., a network, Grid system, or Cloud infrastructure). The specialists in the field of parallel and distributed computing give the special attention to a scalability of applications for problem solving. An effective management of the scalable application in the heterogeneous distributed computing environment is still a non-trivial issue. Control systems that operate in networks, especially relate to this issue. We propose a new approach to the multi-agent management for the scalable applications in the heterogeneous computational network. The fundamentals of our approach are the integrated use of conceptual programming, simulation modeling, network monitoring, multi-agent management, and service-oriented programming. We developed a special framework for an automation of the problem solving. Advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated on the parametric synthesis example of the static linear regulator for complex dynamic systems. Benefits of the scalable application for solving this problem include automation of the multi-agent control for the systems in a parallel mode with various degrees of its detailed elaboration.

  6. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  7. Automated Controlled-Potential Coulometer for the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.V. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Holland, M.K.; Fields, T.

    1998-01-29

    An automated controlled-potential coulometer has been developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the determination of plutonium for use at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Siebersdorf, Austria. The system is functionally the same as earlier systems built for use at the Savannah River Site`s Analytical Laboratory. All electronic circuits and printed circuits boards have been upgraded with state-of-the-art components. A higher amperage potentiostat with improved control stability has been developed. The system achieves electronic calibration accuracy and linearity of better than 0.01 percent, with a precision and accuracy better than 0.1 percent has been demonstrated. This coulometer features electrical calibration of the integration system, electrolysis current background corrections, and control-potential adjustment capabilities. These capabilities allow application of the system to plutonium measurements without chemical standards, achieving traceability to the international measurement system through electrical standards and Faraday`s constant. the chemist is provided with the capability to perform measurements without depending upon chemical standards, which is a significant advantage for applications such as characterization of primary and secondary standards. Additional benefits include reducing operating cost to procure, prepare and measure calibration standards and the corresponding decrease in radioactive waste generation. The design and documentation of the automated instrument are provided herein. Each individual module`s operation, wiring, layout, and alignment are described. Interconnection of the modules and system calibration are discussed. A complete set of prints and a list of associated parts are included.

  8. Control and path prediction of an Automate Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Butdee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper a new architecture and control strategy of an AGV is proposed. It is organized as follows.The system architecture is explained in section 2. Section 3 deals with the kinematics model of the AGV path,prediction and control. Section 4 describes the experiments. The conclusion and recommendation are given insection 5.Design/methodology/approach: It is a three wheels vehicle. The front wheel is used for driving and steering theAGV and the two rear wheels are free. The steering and driving are DC motor. Two encoders are individuallyattached on the two rear wheels in order to measure the vehicle displacement and then calculate its real timeposition and orientation. The choice of positioning the encoders on the free wheels provides to the vehicle anaccurate measurement of its progression. A programmable logic control (PLC is used for motion control.Findings: In this paper, An Automate Guided Vehicle (AGV is presented. The developed algorithm is basedon memorised path and kinematics determination of the movement. The vehicle position and deviation arecalculated from rear wheels rotation measurement. The steering and driving command are determined fromthis deviation. Localization of AGV by Kaman filtering algorithm is presented. Control of AGV motion isimplemented by using PID control scheme. Displacement axis and steering axis are separated to implementthe motion control. We proposed the localization system for estimation of AGV. Position and orientation areestimated by Kalman filtering in state-space model. Position and orientation of AGV are measured and used forsimulation for localization system. We conclude that the vehicle can reach from the initial position moved alongwith generated path with accurate location. A Schneider PLC is used to implement this control. The tests reveala smooth movement and convenient deviation.Practical implications: The first prototype working, the next research steps will be development of a

  9. The scheme of combined application of optimization and simulation models for formation of an optimum structure of an automated control system of space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskiy, A. S.; Tsarev, R. Yu; Nikiforov, A. Yu; Zelenkov, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    With the development of automated control systems of space systems, there are new classes of spacecraft that requires improvement of their structure and expand their functions. When designing the automated control system of space systems occurs various tasks such as: determining location of elements and subsystems in the space, hardware selection, the distribution of the set of functions performed by the system units, all of this under certain conditions on the quality of control and connectivity of components. The problem of synthesis of structure of automated control system of space systems formalized using discrete variables at various levels of system detalization. A sequence of tasks and stages of the formation of automated control system of space systems structure is developed. The authors have developed and proposed a scheme of the combined implementation of optimization and simulation models to ensure rational distribution of functions between the automated control system complex and the rest of the system units. The proposed approach allows to make reasonable hardware selection, taking into account the different requirements for the operation of automated control systems of space systems.

  10. Extrusion – back to the future: Using an established technique to reform automated chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Herein, the benefits which extrusion can provide for the automated continuous synthesis of organic compounds are highlighted. Extrusion is a well-established technique that has a vital role in the manufacturing processes of polymers, pharmaceuticals and food products. Furthermore, this technique has recently been applied to the solvent-free continuous synthesis of co-crystals and coordination compounds including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). To date, a vast amount of research has already been conducted into reactive extrusion (REX), particularly in the polymer industry, which in many cases has involved organic transformations, however, it has not received significant recognition for this. This review highlights these transformations and discusses how this previous research can be applied to the future of organic compound manufacture. PMID:28179950

  11. Extrusion - back to the future: Using an established technique to reform automated chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Deborah E

    2017-01-01

    Herein, the benefits which extrusion can provide for the automated continuous synthesis of organic compounds are highlighted. Extrusion is a well-established technique that has a vital role in the manufacturing processes of polymers, pharmaceuticals and food products. Furthermore, this technique has recently been applied to the solvent-free continuous synthesis of co-crystals and coordination compounds including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). To date, a vast amount of research has already been conducted into reactive extrusion (REX), particularly in the polymer industry, which in many cases has involved organic transformations, however, it has not received significant recognition for this. This review highlights these transformations and discusses how this previous research can be applied to the future of organic compound manufacture.

  12. Automated washing of FTA Card punches and PCR setup for reference samples using a LIMS-controlled Sias Xantus automated liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Olsen, Addie Nina; Frøslev, Tobias G.;

    2009-01-01

    We have implemented and validated automated methods for washing FTA Card punches containing buccal samples and subsequent PCR setup using a Sias Xantus automated liquid handler. The automated methods were controlled by worklists generated by our LabWare Laboratory Information Management System (L...

  13. Fully automated SPE-based synthesis and purification of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl-choline for human use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaljohann, Joern [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Schirrmacher, Esther [McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Waengler, Bjoern; Waengler, Carmen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Schirrmacher, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.schirrmacher@mcgill.c [McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Guhlke, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.guhlke@ukb.uni-bonn.d [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: 2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl-choline ([{sup 18}F]FECH) is a promising tracer for the detection of prostate cancer as well as brain tumors with positron emission tomography (PET). [{sup 18}F]FECH is actively transported into mammalian cells, becomes phosphorylated by choline kinase and gets incorporated into the cell membrane after being metabolized to phosphatidylcholine. So far, its synthesis is a two-step procedure involving at least one HPLC purification step. To allow a wider dissemination of this tracer, finding a purification method avoiding HPLC is highly desirable and would result in easier accessibility and more reliable production of [{sup 18}F]FECH. Methods: [{sup 18}F]FECH was synthesized by reaction of 2-bromo-1-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethane ([{sup 18}F]BFE) with dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) in DMSO. We applied a novel and very reliable work-up procedure for the synthesis of [{sup 18}F]BFE. Based on a combination of three different solid-phase cartridges, the purification of [{sup 18}F]BFE from its precursor 2-bromoethyl-4-nitrobenzenesulfonate (BENos) could be achieved without using HPLC. Following the subsequent reaction of the purified [{sup 18}F]BFE with DMAE, the final product [{sup 18}F]FECH was obtained as a sterile solution by passing the crude reaction mixture through a combination of two CM plus cartridges and a sterile filter. The fully automated synthesis was performed using as well a Raytest SynChrom module (Raytest, Germany) or a Scintomics HotboxIII module (Scintomics, Germany). Results: The radiotracer [{sup 18}F]FECH can be synthesized in reliable radiochemical yields (RCY) of 37{+-}5% (Synchrom module) and 33{+-}5% (Hotbox III unit) in less than 1 h using these two fully automated commercially available synthesis units without HPLC involvement for purification. Detailed quality control of the final injectable [{sup 18}F]FECH solution proved the high radiochemical purity and the absence of Kryptofix2.2.2, DMAE and DMSO used in the

  14. Robust control synthesis for uncertain dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kuk-Whan; Wie, Bong; Sunkel, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents robust control synthesis techniques for uncertain dynamical systems subject to structured parameter perturbation. Both QFT (quantitative feedback theory) and H-infinity control synthesis techniques are investigated. Although most H-infinity-related control techniques are not concerned with the structured parameter perturbation, a new way of incorporating the parameter uncertainty in the robust H-infinity control design is presented. A generic model of uncertain dynamical systems is used to illustrate the design methodologies investigated in this paper. It is shown that, for a certain noncolocated structural control problem, use of both techniques results in nonminimum phase compensation.

  15. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  16. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  17. Control and Automation of Fluid Flow, Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions in Microscale Segmented Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Milad

    Flowing trains of uniformly sized bubbles/droplets (i.e., segmented flows) and the associated mass transfer enhancement over their single-phase counterparts have been studied extensively during the past fifty years. Although the scaling behaviour of segmented flow formation is increasingly well understood, the predictive adjustment of the desired flow characteristics that influence the mixing and residence times, remains a challenge. Currently, a time consuming, slow and often inconsistent manual manipulation of experimental conditions is required to address this task. In my thesis, I have overcome the above-mentioned challenges and developed an experimental strategy that for the first time provided predictive control over segmented flows in a hands-off manner. A computer-controlled platform that consisted of a real-time image processing module within an integral controller, a silicon-based microreactor and automated fluid delivery technique was designed, implemented and validated. In a first part of my thesis I utilized this approach for the automated screening of physical mass transfer and solubility characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a physical solvent at a well-defined temperature and pressure and a throughput of 12 conditions per hour. Second, by applying the segmented flow approach to a recently discovered CO2 chemical absorbent, frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs), I determined the thermodynamic characteristics of the CO2-FLP reaction. Finally, the segmented flow approach was employed for characterization and investigation of CO2-governed liquid-liquid phase separation process. The second part of my thesis utilized the segmented flow platform for the preparation and shape control of high quality colloidal nanomaterials (e.g., CdSe/CdS) via the automated control of residence times up to approximately 5 minutes. By introducing a novel oscillatory segmented flow concept, I was able to further extend the residence time limitation to 24 hours. A case study of a

  18. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  19. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarau, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased consider

  20. Trajectory Specification for Automation of Terminal Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paielli, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    "Trajectory specification" is the explicit bounding and control of aircraft tra- jectories such that the position at each point in time is constrained to a precisely defined volume of space. The bounding space is defined by cross-track, along-track, and vertical tolerances relative to a reference trajectory that specifies position as a function of time. The tolerances are dynamic and will be based on the aircraft nav- igation capabilities and the current traffic situation. A standard language will be developed to represent these specifications and to communicate them by datalink. Assuming conformance, trajectory specification can guarantee safe separation for an arbitrary period of time even in the event of an air traffic control (ATC) sys- tem or datalink failure, hence it can help to achieve the high level of safety and reliability needed for ATC automation. As a more proactive form of ATC, it can also maximize airspace capacity and reduce the reliance on tactical backup systems during normal operation. It applies to both enroute airspace and the terminal area around airports, but this paper focuses on arrival spacing in the terminal area and presents ATC algorithms and software for achieving a specified delay of runway arrival time.

  1. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads

  2. Robotics, automation, and the new role of process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, R A

    1998-01-01

    The natural progression of automation in the clinical laboratory next will lead to robotic devices to perform many of the manual tasks still remaining. To date, most efforts of laboratory automation have been directed at the analytic phase. New targets for automation will be at the preanalytic and postanalytic phases where many of the bottlenecks in specimen flow now occur in highly repetitive manual tasks. Laboratory professionals will have a unique opportunity to incorporate new concepts of robotics in their facilities to improve error rates and to use massive laboratory databases to improve medical and public health services.

  3. Automated X-ray quality control of catalytic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashishekhar, N.; Veselitza, D.

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic converters are devices attached to the exhaust system of automobile or other engines to eliminate or substantially reduce polluting emissions. They consist of coated substrates enclosed in a stainless steel housing. The substrate is typically made of ceramic honeycombs; however stainless steel foil honeycombs are also used. The coating is usually a slurry of alumina, silica, rare earth oxides and platinum group metals. The slurry also known as the wash coat is applied to the substrate in two doses, one on each end of the substrate; in some cases multiple layers of coating are applied. X-ray imaging is used to inspect the applied coating depth on a substrate to confirm compliance with quality requirements. Automated image analysis techniques are employed to measure the coating depth from the X-ray image. Coating depth is assessed by analysis of attenuation line profiles in the image. Edge detection algorithms with noise reduction and outlier rejection are used to calculate the coating depth at a specified point along an attenuation line profile. Quality control of the product is accomplished using several attenuation line profile regions for coating depth measurements, with individual pass or fail criteria specified for each region.

  4. Construction of cryptographic information protection in automated control systems for rapid reaction military forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Evseev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to realizations of military operations are analyzed. The main factors that directly affect the construction and operation of information security subsystems in prospective automated command and control military systems are described. Possible ways of the construction of cryptographic subsystems of information protection in automated operation management systems for united military force groups are investigated.

  5. The modeling of transfer of steering between automated vehicle and human driver using hybrid control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaustubh, M.; Willemsen, D.M.C.; Mazo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of autonomous driving pursue driverless technologies, whereas others foresee a gradual transition where there will be automated driving systems that share the control of the vehicle with the driver. With such advances it becomes pertinent that the developed automated systems need to be sa

  6. Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation Assessment, Diagnosis and Improvement of Control Loop Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jelali, Mohieddine

    2013-01-01

    Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation provides a coherent and self-contained treatment of a group of methods and applications of burgeoning importance to the detection and solution of problems with control loops that are vital in maintaining product quality, operational safety, and efficiency of material and energy consumption in the process industries. The monograph deals with all aspects of control performance management (CPM), from controller assessment (minimum-variance-control-based and advanced methods), to detection and diagnosis of control loop problems (process non-linearities, oscillations, actuator faults), to the improvement of control performance (maintenance, re-design of loop components, automatic controller re-tuning). It provides a contribution towards the development and application of completely self-contained and automatic methodologies in the field. Moreover, within this work, many CPM tools have been developed that goes far beyond available CPM packages. Control Perform...

  7. Improved synthesis of anti-[18F]FACBC: improved preparation of labeling precursor and automated radiosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConathy, Jonathan; Voll, Ronald J; Yu, Weiping; Crowe, Ronald J; Goodman, Mark M

    2003-06-01

    The non-natural amino acid anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC) has shown promise for tumor imaging with positron emission tomography. An improved synthesis of the precursor of anti-[18F]FACBC has been devised which demonstrates high stereoselectivity and suitability for large-scale preparations. An automated radiosynthesis has been developed which provides anti-[18F]FACBC in 24% decay-corrected yield. Additionally, the major non-radioactive species present in doses of anti-[18F]FACBC has been identified as anti-1-amino-3-hydroxycyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid. Together, these results are important steps towards the routine production of anti-[18F]FACBC for human use.

  8. Automated synthesis of power circuit single ended DC-DC converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakovsky, Dimiter; Hinov, Nikolay

    2016-12-01

    Guaranteeng the parameters in the output of the power electronics device is of great importance for achieving the desired quality of the process of energy conversion. The combined methods for realization of the electronic devices with guaranteed parameters requires the usage of systematic approach in the realization of the power electronics device - from the stage of the parameter formulation to the receiving of the end product. In the investigation the application of the modelling and software products for the research are growing more and more. In that relation it is necessary the creation of a common programming environment in which the diversity of application programs can operate. In the paper is present an automated synthesis and design of single-transistor dc-dc converters.

  9. Design, automated synthesis and immunological evaluation of NOD2-ligand–antigen conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian M. J. H. P. Willems

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The covalent attachment of an innate immune system stimulating agent to an antigen can provide active vaccine modalities capable of eliciting a potent immune response against the incorporated antigen. Here we describe the design, automated synthesis and immunological evaluation of a set of four muramyl dipeptide–peptide antigen conjugates. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP represents a well-known ligand for the intracellular NOD2 receptor and our study shows that covalently linking an MDP-moiety to an antigenic peptide can lead to a construct that is capable of stimulating the NOD2 receptor if the ligand is attached at the anomeric center of the muramic acid. The constructs can be processed by dendritic cells (DCs and the conjugation does not adversely affect the presentation of the incorporated SIINFEKL epitope on MHC-I molecules. However, stimulation of the NOD2 receptor in DCs was not sufficient to provide a strong immunostimulatory signal.

  10. Control and automation of the Pegasus multi-point Thomson scattering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G M; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Reusch, J A; Rodriguez Sanchez, C; Schlossberg, D J

    2016-11-01

    A new control system for the Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been deployed to automate the laser operation, data collection process, and interface with the system-wide Pegasus control code. Automation has been extended to areas outside of data collection, such as manipulation of beamline cameras and remotely controlled turning mirror actuators to enable intra-shot beam alignment. Additionally, the system has been upgraded with a set of fast (∼1 ms) mechanical shutters to mitigate contamination from background light. Modification and automation of the Thomson system have improved both data quality and diagnostic reliability.

  11. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen;

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications a....... This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research....

  12. Knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent control and automation in electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Nordstrom, Lars; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent systems (MAS) in control, automation and diagnosis of electric power systems. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model...... and choose an appropriate control action. The paper also elaborates on real time interfacing between multi-agent systems and industry standard distribution automation and control system....

  13. Explicit control of adaptive automation under different levels of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jürgen; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wastell, David; Nickel, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of three different forms of explicit control of adaptive automation under low- and high-stress conditions, operationalised by different levels of noise. In total, 60 participants were assigned to one of three types of automation design (free, prompted and forced choice). They were trained for 4 h on a highly automated simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS. This was followed by a 4-h testing session under noise exposure and quiet conditions. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that all three modes of explicit control of adaptive automation modes were able to attenuate the negative effects of noise. This was partly due to the fact that operators opted for higher levels of automation under noise. It also emerged that forced choice showed marginal advantages over the two other automation modes. Statement of Relevance: This work is relevant to the design of adaptive automation since it emphasises the need to consider the impact of work-related stressors during task completion. During the presence of stressors, different forms of operator support through automation may be required than under more favourable working conditions.

  14. Automatic Synthesis of Robust and Optimal Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassez, Franck; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to apply recent tools for the automatic synthesis of robust and near-optimal controllers for a real industrial case study. We show how to use three different classes of models and their supporting existing tools, Uppaal-TiGA for synthesis, phaver for verification......, and Simulink for simulation, in a complementary way. We believe that this case study shows that our tools have reached a level of maturity that allows us to tackle interesting and relevant industrial control problems....

  15. Microprocessor-based integration of microfluidic control for the implementation of automated sensor monitoring and multithreaded optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, Elishai; Maor, Idan; Bavli, Danny; Shalom, Itai; Levy, Gahl; Prill, Sebastian; Jaeger, Magnus S; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic applications range from combinatorial synthesis to high throughput screening, with platforms integrating analog perfusion components, digitally controlled micro-valves and a range of sensors that demand a variety of communication protocols. Currently, discrete control units are used to regulate and monitor each component, resulting in scattered control interfaces that limit data integration and synchronization. Here, we present a microprocessor-based control unit, utilizing the MS Gadgeteer open framework that integrates all aspects of microfluidics through a high-current electronic circuit that supports and synchronizes digital and analog signals for perfusion components, pressure elements, and arbitrary sensor communication protocols using a plug-and-play interface. The control unit supports an integrated touch screen and TCP/IP interface that provides local and remote control of flow and data acquisition. To establish the ability of our control unit to integrate and synchronize complex microfluidic circuits we developed an equi-pressure combinatorial mixer. We demonstrate the generation of complex perfusion sequences, allowing the automated sampling, washing, and calibrating of an electrochemical lactate sensor continuously monitoring hepatocyte viability following exposure to the pesticide rotenone. Importantly, integration of an optical sensor allowed us to implement automated optimization protocols that require different computational challenges including: prioritized data structures in a genetic algorithm, distributed computational efforts in multiple-hill climbing searches and real-time realization of probabilistic models in simulated annealing. Our system offers a comprehensive solution for establishing optimization protocols and perfusion sequences in complex microfluidic circuits.

  16. Robust PID Steering Control in Parameter Space for Highly Automated Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mümin Tolga Emirler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the design of a parameter space based robust PID steering controller. This controller is used for automated steering in automated path following of a midsized sedan. Linear and nonlinear models of this midsized sedan are presented in the paper. Experimental results are used to validate the longitudinal and lateral dynamic models of this vehicle. This paper is on automated steering control and concentrates on the lateral direction of motion. The linear model is used to design a PID steering controller in parameter space that satisfies D-stability. The PID steering controller that is designed is used in a simulation study to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulation results for a circular trajectory and for a curved trajectory are presented and discussed in detail. This study is part of a larger research effort aimed at implementing highly automated driving in a midsized sedan.

  17. 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 11th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2014), held in Vienna, Austria, from 1 to 3 September 2014. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in the application of informatics to Control, Automation and Robotics. Four simultaneous tracks will be held, covering Intelligent Control Systems, Optimization, Robotics, Automation, Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modelling and Control, and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management. Informatics applications are pervasive in many areas of Control, Automation and Robotics. ICINCO 2014 received 301 submissions, from 49 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 20% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, ba...

  18. 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Madani, Kurosh; Gusikhin, Oleg; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2015), held in Colmar, France, from 21 to 23 July 2015. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in the application of informatics to Control, Automation and Robotics. Four simultaneous tracks will be held, covering Intelligent Control Systems, Optimization, Robotics, Automation, Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modelling and Control, and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management. Informatics applications are pervasive in many areas of Control, Automation and Robotics. ICINCO 2015 received 214 submissions, from 42 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 14% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based ...

  19. Acoustic Wake-Up Receivers for Home Automation Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bannoura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated home applications are to ease the use of technology and devices around the house. Most of the electronic devices, like shutters or entertainment products (Hifi, TV and even WiFi, are constantly in a standby mode, where they consume a considerable amount of energy. The standby mode is necessary to react to commands triggered by the user, but the time the device spends in a standby mode is considered long. In our work, we present a receiver that is attached to home appliances that allows the devices to be activated while they are completely turned off in order to reduce the energy consumed in the standby mode. The receiver contains a low power wake-up module that reacts to an addressable acoustic 20-kHz sound signal that controls home devices that are connected to it. The acoustic wake-up signal can be sent by any kind of speaker that is available in commercial smartphones. The smartphones will operate as transmitters to the signals. Our wake-up receiver consists of two parts: a low power passive circuit connected to a wake-up chip microcontroller and an active micro-electromechanical system (MEMS microphone that receives the acoustic signal. A duty cycle is required to reduce the power consumption of the receiver, because the signal reception occurs when the microphone is active. The current consumption was measured to be 15 μA in sleep mode and 140 μA in active mode. An average wake-up range of 10 m using a smartphone as a sender was achieved.

  20. Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) for ISS Flight Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) intended for use by International Space Station (ISS) ground controllers to increase the...

  1. INTEGRATION OF INFORMATIONAL COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES SMK: AUTOMATION OF THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE TECHNICAL CONTROL DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pavlenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that automation of some functions of control department allows to record defects, reclamations and failures of technology, to make the necessary reporting forms and quality certificates for production.

  2. Guided Synthesis of Control Programs Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, T.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    of abstraction required for synthesizing control programs from generated timed traces. Therefore it quickly becomes too detailed and complicated for automatic synthesis. To solve this problem we present a general way of adding guidance to a model by augmenting it with additional guidance variables and decorating......In this paper we address the problem of scheduling and synthesizing distributed control programs for a batch production plant. We use a timed automata model of the batch plant and the verification tool UPPAAL to solve the scheduling problem. The plant model aims at faithfully reflecting the level...... the transitions with extra guards. Applying this technique have made synthesis of control programs feasible for a plant producing as many as 60 batches. In comparison, we could only handle plants producing two batches without using guides. The synthesized control programs have been executed in a physical plant...

  3. The implementation of the situational control concept of information security in automated training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main approaches to ensuring security of information in the automated training systems are considered, need of application of situational management of security of information for the automated training systems is proved, the mathematical model and a problem definition of situational control is offered, the technique of situational control of security of information is developed.The purpose of the study. The aim of the study is to base the application of situational control of information security by subsystem of the control and protection of information in automated learning systems and to develop implementation methods of the situational control concept.Materials and methods. It is assumed that the automated learning system is a fragment of a larger information system that contains several information paths, each of them treats different information in the protection degree from information, containing constituting state secrets, to open access information.It is considered that the technical methods, measures and means of information protection in automated learning systems implement less than half (30% functions of subsystems of control and protection information. The main part of the functions of this subsystem are organizational measures to protect information. It is obvious that the task of ensuring the security of information in automated learning systems associated with the adoption of decisions on rational selection and proper combination of technical methods and institutional arrangements. Conditions of practical application of automated learning systems change over time and transform the situation of such a decision, and this leads to the use of situational control methods.When situational control is implementing, task of the protection of information in automated learning system is solved by the subsystem control and protection of information by distributing the processes ensuring the security of information and resources of

  4. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven K. Logan

    2012-08-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its

  5. Robust Controller Synthesis Based on Circle Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuwa, Katsuhiko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kando, Hisashi

    It is well-known that stability margins (gain and phase margins) are important quantitative indicators for evaluating stability in feedback control system synthesis. However, when we use conventional techniques based on such stability margins, it may be difficult to suppress the vibration from high-order modes of mechanical system. This paper proposes the robust controller synthesis which achieves both the conventional stability margins and the second phase margin which is a quantitative indicator for suppressing the vibration. The basic idea is to synthesize controller such that the Nyquist locus of open-loop transfer function encircles the immediate outer side of the circle which is specified by the conventional stability margins and the second phase margin. This is formulated as modified H∞ mixed sensitivity problem with the weighting constants which are decided by the center and radius of the circle.

  6. Automated design synthesis of robotic/human workcells for improved manufacturing system design in hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Joshua M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-12

    Manufacturing tasks that are deemed too hazardous for workers require the use of automation, robotics, and/or other remote handling tools. The associated hazards may be radiological or nonradiological, and based on the characteristics of the environment and processing, a design may necessitate robotic labor, human labor, or both. There are also other factors such as cost, ergonomics, maintenance, and efficiency that also effect task allocation and other design choices. Handling the tradeoffs of these factors can be complex, and lack of experience can be an issue when trying to determine if and what feasible automation/robotics options exist. To address this problem, we utilize common engineering design approaches adapted more for manufacturing system design in hazardous environments. We limit our scope to the conceptual and embodiment design stages, specifically a computational algorithm for concept generation and early design evaluation. In regard to concept generation, we first develop the functional model or function structure for the process, using the common 'verb-noun' format for describing function. A common language or functional basis for manufacturing was developed and utilized to formalize function descriptions and guide rules for function decomposition. Potential components for embodiment are also grouped in terms of this functional language and are stored in a database. The properties of each component are given as quantitative and qualitative criteria. Operators are also rated for task-relevant criteria which are used to address task compatibility. Through the gathering of process requirements/constraints, construction of the component database, and development of the manufacturing basis and rule set, design knowledge is stored and available for computer use. Thus, once the higher level process functions are defined, the computer can automate the synthesis of new design concepts through alternating steps of embodiment and function structure

  7. Instrumentation, control and automation in wastewater - from London 1973 to Narbonne 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, G.; Carlsson, B.; Comas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Key developments of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) applications in wastewater systems during the past 40 years are highlighted in this paper. From the first ICA conference in 1973 through to today there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the processes, instrumen......Key developments of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) applications in wastewater systems during the past 40 years are highlighted in this paper. From the first ICA conference in 1973 through to today there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the processes......, instrumentation, computer systems and control theory. However, many developments have not been addressed here, such as sewer control, drinking water treatment and water distribution control. It is hoped that this review can stimulate new attempts to more effectively apply control and automation in water systems...

  8. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-14

    Double-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing fluorophores interacting by energy-transfer mechanisms are essential for modern bioanalysis, molecular diagnostics, and in vivo imaging techniques. Although bright xanthene and cyanine dyes are gaining increased prominence within these fields, little attention has thus far been paid to probes containing these dyes internally attached, a fact which is mainly due to the quite challenging synthesis of such oligonucleotide probes. Herein, by using 2'-O-propargyl uridine phosphoramidite and a series of xanthenes and cyanine azide derivatives, we have for the first time performed solid-phase copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click labeling during the automated phosphoramidite oligonucleotide synthesis followed by postsynthetic click reactions in solution. We demonstrate that our novel strategy is rapid and efficient for the preparation of novel oligonucleotide probes containing internally positioned xanthene and cyanine dye pairs and thus represents a significant step forward for the preparation of advanced fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the novel xanthene and cyanine labeled probes display unusual and very promising photophysical properties resulting from energy-transfer interactions between the fluorophores controlled by nucleic acid assembly. Potential benefits of using these novel fluorescent probes within, for example, molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy include: Considerable Stokes shifts (40-110 nm), quenched fluorescence of single-stranded probes accompanied by up to 7.7-fold light-up effect of emission upon target DNA/RNA binding, remarkable sensitivity to single-nucleotide mismatches, generally high fluorescence brightness values (FB up to 26), and hence low limit of target detection values (LOD down to <5 nM).

  9. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Vyatkin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  10. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzon Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  11. Design and Development of a Simple Low-cost Touchscreen to Control Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muntasir Rahman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human and computer interaction has been developed into a wide and sophisticated field. Earlier automating electrical devices were absolutely mechanical. But with the invention of computer system, many computer researchers have tried to create computer based intelligent systems to accomplish many of their functionalities. Touchscreen controlled home automation system is one of them. These fascinating efforts to create intelligent systems are to provide human being a more convenient life. Moreover, it would accelerate the working speed of users. This paper concentrates primarily on experimental experiences on home automation system with a low-cost touchscreen technology. The proposed system provide an environment in which user can give commands by touching desired position on the touchscreen to automate the control of electrical devices. The interfacing circuit is designed using electronic components available in local market to keep the cost at low level.

  12. The design of the automated control system for warehouse equipment under radio-electronic manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapulin, D. V.; Chemidov, I. V.; Kazantsev, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the paper, the aspects of design, development and implementation of the automated control system for warehousing under the manufacturing process of the radio-electronic enterprise JSC «Radiosvyaz» are discussed. The architecture of the automated control system for warehousing proposed in the paper consists of a server which is connected to the physically separated information networks: the network with a database server, which stores information about the orders for picking, and the network with the automated storage and retrieval system. This principle allows implementing the requirements for differentiation of access, ensuring the information safety and security requirements. Also, the efficiency of the developed automated solutions in terms of optimizing the warehouse’s logistic characteristics is researched.

  13. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Automated Solution-Phase Synthesis of Insect Glycans to Probe the Binding Affinity of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shu-Lun; Linz, Lucas B; Bonning, Bryony C; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2015-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV)--a plant RNA virus transmitted exclusively by aphids--causes disease in multiple food crops. However, the aphid-virus interactions required for disease transmission are poorly understood. For virus transmission, PEMV binds to a heavily glycosylated receptor aminopeptidase N in the pea aphid gut and is transcytosed across the gut epithelium into the aphid body cavity prior to release in saliva as the aphid feeds. To investigate the role of glycans in PEMV-aphid interactions and explore the possibility of viral control through blocking a glycan interaction, we synthesized insect N-glycan terminal trimannosides by automated solution-phase synthesis. The route features a mannose building block with C-5 ester enforcing a β-linkage, which also provides a site for subsequent chain extension. The resulting insect N-glycan terminal trimannosides with fluorous tags were used in a fluorous microarray to analyze binding with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled PEMV; however, no specific binding between the insect glycan and PEMV was detected. To confirm these microarray results, we removed the fluorous tag from the trimannosides for isothermal titration calorimetry studies with unlabeled PEMV. The ITC studies confirmed the microarray results and suggested that this particular glycan-PEMV interaction is not involved in virus uptake and transport through the aphid.

  15. Automated distortion-invariant filter synthesis and training set selection (auto-Minace)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Rohit; Casasent, David

    2006-04-01

    The minimum noise and correlation energy (MINACE) distortion-invariant filter (DIF) finds use in several applications such as face recognition, automatic target recognition (ATR), etc., in which one considers both true-class object classification and rejection of non-database objects (that are labeled as impostors in face recognition, and confusers in ATR). To solve the classification/rejection problem, we use at least one Minace filter per object class to be recognized. A separate Minace filter or a set of Minace filters is synthesized for each object class. The Minace parameter c trades-off distortion-tolerance (recognition) versus discrimination (impostor/confuser rejection) performance. We present our automated Minace filter-synthesis algorithm (auto-Minace) that selects the training set images to be included in the filter and selects the filter parameter c, so that the filter can achieve both good recognition and impostor/confuser and clutter rejection performance; this is achieved using a training and validation set. No impostor/confuser, clutter or test set data is present in the training or validation sets. The peak-to-correlation energy (PCE) ratio is used as the correlation plane metric in both filter synthesis and in tests, since it gives better results than use of the correlation peak value. We also address the use of the Minace filters in detection applications where the filter template is much smaller than the target scene. The use of circular versus linear correlations are addressed, circular correlations require less storage and fewer online computations.

  16. Who is driving my car? Development and analysis of a control transition strategy for collaborative automated congestion driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urhahne, Joseph Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The role of the driver is changing now that vehicles with driving automation technologies appear on the road. It evolves from being an active controller of the vehicle to being a supervisor of the automated ride. The driver has to collaborate with the driving automation and remains responsible for t

  17. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications and markedly improve patient quality of life. An artificial pancreas consists of portable devices for glucose sensing and insulin delivery which are controlled by an algorithm residing on a computer. The technology is still under development and currently no artificial pancreas is commercially available. This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research.

  18. Controlled synthesis of single-crystalline graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xueshen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the controlled synthesis of single-crystalline graphene on the back side of copper foil using CH4 as the precursor. The influence of growth time and the pressure ratio of CH4/H2 on the structure of graphene are examined. An optimized polymer-assisted method is used to transfer the synthesized graphene onto a SiO2/Si substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the graphene.

  19. Intelligent Control Mechanism of Part Picking Operations of Automated Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chwen-Tzeng; Su

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the part picking operations of a ut omated warehouse. It assumed the demand of picking orders of automated warehouse are dynamic generated. Once the picking orders of certain period of time are kn own, it is necessary to decide an efficient order picking sequence and routing t o minimize the total travel distance to complete those orders. Assumed there are n i items to be picked in order O i. Each item in the picking ord er is located in different locations in the warehouse. Since i...

  20. Fully automated synthesis of [(18) F]fluoro-dihydrotestosterone ([(18) F]FDHT) using the FlexLab module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Lewis, Jason S; Young, Kenneth; Morris, Michael J; Weickhardt, Andrew; Davis, Ian D; Scott, Andrew M

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer using F-18 FDHT is becoming increasingly popular. With the radiolabelling precursor now commercially available, developing a fully automated synthesis of [(18) F] FDHT is important. We have fully automated the synthesis of F-18 FDHT using the iPhase FlexLab module using only commercially available components. Total synthesis time was 90 min, radiochemical yields were 25-33% (n = 11). Radiochemical purity of the final formulation was > 99% and specific activity was > 18.5 GBq/µmol for all batches. This method can be up-scaled as desired, thus making it possible to study multiple patients in a day. Furthermore, our procedure uses 4 mg of precursor only and is therefore cost-effective. The synthesis has now been validated at Austin Health and is currently used for [(18) F]FDHT studies in patients. We believe that this method can easily adapted by other modules to further widen the availability of [(18) F]FDHT.

  1. Policy-based secure communication with automatic key management for industrial control and automation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoguzov, Alexander; Markham, Thomas R.; Haridas, Harshal S.

    2016-11-22

    A method includes generating at least one access vector associated with a specified device in an industrial process control and automation system. The specified device has one of multiple device roles. The at least one access vector is generated based on one or more communication policies defining communications between one or more pairs of devices roles in the industrial process control and automation system, where each pair of device roles includes the device role of the specified device. The method also includes providing the at least one access vector to at least one of the specified device and one or more other devices in the industrial process control and automation system in order to control communications to or from the specified device.

  2. PLACE: an open-source python package for laboratory automation, control, and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jami L; Tom Wörden, Henrik; van Wijk, Kasper

    2015-02-01

    In modern laboratories, software can drive the full experimental process from data acquisition to storage, processing, and analysis. The automation of laboratory data acquisition is an important consideration for every laboratory. When implementing a laboratory automation scheme, important parameters include its reliability, time to implement, adaptability, and compatibility with software used at other stages of experimentation. In this article, we present an open-source, flexible, and extensible Python package for Laboratory Automation, Control, and Experimentation (PLACE). The package uses modular organization and clear design principles; therefore, it can be easily customized or expanded to meet the needs of diverse laboratories. We discuss the organization of PLACE, data-handling considerations, and then present an example using PLACE for laser-ultrasound experiments. Finally, we demonstrate the seamless transition to post-processing and analysis with Python through the development of an analysis module for data produced by PLACE automation.

  3. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  4. Synchronous Control Method and Realization of Automated Pharmacy Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Quan

    Firstly, the control method of elevator's synchronous motion is provided, the synchronous control structure of double servo motor based on PMAC is accomplished. Secondly, synchronous control program of elevator is implemented by using PMAC linear interpolation motion model and position error compensation method. Finally, the PID parameters of servo motor were adjusted. The experiment proves the control method has high stability and reliability.

  5. Function complex for automated system of coke machinery remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Slatin, E.I.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1979-05-01

    this paper discusses a functional control system for remote control of coking plants introduced at the KBAiM of the Giprokoks. The control block allows for three modes of operation: fully automatic, by predesignated program according to oven design and technology; semi-automatic, in which individual programs perform automatically, checked and initiated by the operator; and remote, in which the operator controls each operation from the control console. The functions of selecting the location for the coke machinery, signal transmission and control selection have been incorporated as three autonomous but interfacing systems. (In Russian)

  6. Automated explosive pellet manufacturing using a PDP-14 programmable controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.O.

    1976-10-29

    A Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-14 Industrial Programmable Controller was employed to provide automatic, closed-loop control for an explosive pellet manufacturing system at Mound Laboratory. Programmable controllers allow the application of sophisticated and flexible control, through programming. Advantages of the PDP-14 controller are ease of installation and maintenance, capability for modular expansion, and immunity to electrical noise. Safety requirements were met by using new techniques for adapting electrical equipment to a hazardous environment and by locating the PDP-14 remotely outside the explosive area. Another advantage of the new explosion proofing (EP) methods/equipment was that they produced a minimum of clutter on the controlled explosive pellet manufacturing system.

  7. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Product and Producton Development (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working

  8. Methods of Synthesis of Automatic Control Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Lapeta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the procedure for introduction of systems containing delay elements. Shortcomings and difficulties in the synthesis of regulators and precompensators of control systems with delays in output and control channel where determined. The author focused on two approaches for the formation of promatrix and synthesis of control systems, considering the factor of delay.

  9. Real Time Fuzzy Based Speed and Direction Angle Control of an Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Başçı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy controller is applied to velocity and direction angle control of a certain type of wheeled mobile robots called Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs. The velocity and direction angle of the AGV are controlled to keep the vehicle on desired path. A PI controller is also applied to AGV in order to show the robustness of the fuzzy controller. Experimental results prove that the fuzzy controller shows better tracking performance than the PI controller in terms of robustness, smoothness and fast dynamics. Results are also given for sudden disturbance and extra load conditions and satisfied results are obtained.

  10. Towards cooperative guidance and control of highly automated vehicles: H-Mode and Conduct-by-Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemisch, Frank Ole; Bengler, Klaus; Bubb, Heiner; Winner, Hermann; Bruder, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a general ergonomic framework of cooperative guidance and control for vehicles with an emphasis on the cooperation between a human and a highly automated vehicle. In the twenty-first century, mobility and automation technologies are increasingly fused. In the sky, highly automated aircraft are flying with a high safety record. On the ground, a variety of driver assistance systems are being developed, and highly automated vehicles with increasingly autonomous capabilities are becoming possible. Human-centred automation has paved the way for a better cooperation between automation and humans. How can these highly automated systems be structured so that they can be easily understood, how will they cooperate with the human? The presented research was conducted using the methods of iterative build-up and refinement of framework by triangulation, i.e. by instantiating and testing the framework with at least two derived concepts and prototypes. This article sketches a general, conceptual ergonomic framework of cooperative guidance and control of highly automated vehicles, two concepts derived from the framework, prototypes and pilot data. Cooperation is exemplified in a list of aspects and related to levels of the driving task. With the concept 'Conduct-by-Wire', cooperation happens mainly on the guidance level, where the driver can delegate manoeuvres to the automation with a specialised manoeuvre interface. With H-Mode, a haptic-multimodal interaction with highly automated vehicles based on the H(orse)-Metaphor, cooperation is mainly done on guidance and control with a haptically active interface. Cooperativeness should be a key aspect for future human-automation systems. Especially for highly automated vehicles, cooperative guidance and control is a research direction with already promising concepts and prototypes that should be further explored. The application of the presented approach is every human-machine system that moves and includes high

  11. Automated roof window control system to address overheating on renovated houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lyme, Thøger

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Manually controlled passive cooling system do not assure high quality environment. •Automated window system reduces overheating risk in houses of temperate climates. •Window system offers similar indoor air quality with mechanical ventilation system. •User behavior on window system is...

  12. Value sensitive design of automated workload distribution support for traffic control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of automated support for workload distribution in traffic control teams on human values such as security, autonomy and privacy. The paper describes a workshop in which the support system's stakeholders, their values, and the effects of the support system on these value

  13. THE CYBERSECURITY OF AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS AS A KEY COMPONENT OF NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galin R. Ivanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the current problems raised by the necessity to provide and ensure national cybersecurity. Moreover, it suggests measures for adequate counteraction to present-day cyber threats to automated control systems employed in the sector of national security.

  14. Planning and control of automated material handling systems: The merge module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, Sameh; Hurink, Johann; Schutten, Marco; Zijm, Henk; Schuur, Peter; Hu, Bo; Morasch, Karl; Pickl, Stefan; Siegle, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We address the field of internal logistics, embodied in Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs), which are complex installations employed in sectors such as Baggage Handling, Physical Distribution, and Parcel & Postal. We work on designing an integral planning and real-time control architecture,

  15. Generic Planning and Control of Automated Material Handling Systems: Practical Requirements Versus Existing Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, Sameh; Zijm, Henk; Schutten, Marco; Schuur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling, distrib

  16. Driver's situation awareness during supervision of automated control - comparison between SART and SAGAT measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukel, van den A.P.; Voort, van der M.C.; Risser, R.

    2014-01-01

    Systems enabling to drive automatically are being introduced on the market. When using this technology, drivers are in need for interfaces which support them with supervision of the automated control. Assessment of Situation Awareness (SA) which drivers are able to gain while using such interfaces,

  17. 78 FR 56541 - Concept Release on Risk Controls and System Safeguards for Automated Trading Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... September 12, 2013 Part IV Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Chapter I Concept Release on Risk Controls and System Safeguards for Automated Trading Environments; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 177 / Thursday, September 12, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] COMMODITY FUTURES...

  18. Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness : A review of the empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, J.C.F. de; Happee, R.; Martens, M.H.; Stanton, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC), a driver assistance system that controls longitudinal motion, has been introduced in consumer cars in 1995. A next milestone is highly automated driving (HAD), a system that automates both longitudinal and lateral motion. We investigated the effects of ACC and HAD on d

  19. Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness: A review of the empirical evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de Joost C.F.; Happee, Riender; Martens, Marieke H.; Stanton, Neville A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC), a driver assistance system that controls longitudinal motion, has been introduced in consumer cars in 1995. A next milestone is highly automated driving (HAD), a system that automates both longitudinal and lateral motion. We investigated the effects of ACC and HAD on d

  20. Providing security for automated process control systems at hydropower engineering facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Y. S.; Zegzhda, P. D.; Zegzhda, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    This article suggests the concept of a cyberphysical system to manage computer security of automated process control systems at hydropower engineering facilities. According to the authors, this system consists of a set of information processing tools and computer-controlled physical devices. Examples of cyber attacks on power engineering facilities are provided, and a strategy of improving cybersecurity of hydropower engineering systems is suggested. The architecture of the multilevel protection of the automated process control system (APCS) of power engineering facilities is given, including security systems, control systems, access control, encryption, secure virtual private network of subsystems for monitoring and analysis of security events. The distinctive aspect of the approach is consideration of interrelations and cyber threats, arising when SCADA is integrated with the unified enterprise information system.

  1. An adaptive fuzzy-sliding lateral control strategy of automated vehicles based on vision navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinghua; Li, Linhui; Li, Keqiang; Wang, Rongben

    2013-10-01

    Lateral control is considered to be one of the toughest challenges in the development of automated vehicles due to their features of nonlinearities, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In order to overcome these difficulties, an adaptive fuzzy-sliding mode control strategy used for lateral control of vision-based automated vehicles is proposed in this paper. First, a vision algorithm is designed to provide accurate location information of vehicle relative to reference path. Then, an adaptive fuzzy-sliding mode lateral controller is proposed to counteract parametric uncertainties and strong nonlinearities, and the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop lateral control system is proven by the Lyapunov theory. Finally, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can achieve favourable tracking performance, and it has strong robustness.

  2. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative spra

  3. Knowledge based support for multiagent control and automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support in multiagent based control and diagnosis. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model for reasoning about control situations. The proposed mechanism have been used in ...

  4. IEPLC Framework, Automated Communication in a Heterogeneous Control System Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Locci, F

    2014-01-01

    In CERN accelerators control system several components are essential such as: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), PCI Extensions for Instrumentation (PXI), and other micro-controller families. Together with their weaknesses and their strength points they typically present custom communication protocols and it is therefore difficult to federate them into the control system using a single communication strategy. Furthermore this dependency to the physical device interfaces and protocols makes most of the code not reusable and the replacement of old technology a difficult problem. The purpose of IEPLC ([1]) is to mitigate the communication issues given by this heterogeneity; it proposes a framework to define communication interfaces in a hardware independent manner. In addition it automatically generates all the resources needed on master side (typically represented by a FEC: Front-End Computer) and slave side (typically represented by the controller) to implement a common and generic Ethernet communication. Th...

  5. Automation and control trends in the upstream sector of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plucenio, Agustinho; Pagano, Daniel J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Automacao, Controle e Instrumentacao para a Industria do Petroleo e Gas, PRH-34

    2004-07-01

    The need to continuously improve the aspects of Health, Safety and Environment to operators, installation's security, optimization of oil reservoir recovery in wells operating with different artificial lift methods, subject to different secondary recovery techniques, has motivated the development of technologies in the automation and control for the upstream sector of the oil industry. While the application of control and automation techniques is well established in the downstream sector of the oil industry that is not the case in the downstream sector. One tendency in this sector is the utilization of control via Field bus Networks. This technology uses equipment that communicate with each other in a two wire digital network and can be programmed to execute function blocks algorithms designed to perform a designed control strategy. The most noticeable benefits are the improvements in the process performance and the equipment reusability and interoperability. Proprietary solutions can be replaced by systems composed of equipment supplied by different manufacturers connected in the same network. These equipment operate according to a strategy designed by automation and control engineers under the supervision of professionals working in computer terminals located in different company departments. Other gains are a better understanding about the industry processes, application of optimization techniques, fault detection, equipment maintenance follow-up, and improved operators working conditions and workers qualification. Other tendencies are: permanent well monitoring. Either with installation of down hole sensors based on fiber grating sensors or surface sensors using embedded electronic processors. Developments of instrumentation technology for low cost multiphase flow measurements. Application of control techniques for flow regime control and optimization of reservoir recovery through better identification, optimization and Model Based Predictive Control

  6. 3rd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    2012-01-01

    Session 2 includes 110 papers selected from 2011 3rd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (CAR 2011), held on December 24-25, 2011, Shenzhen, China.   As we all know, the ever growing technology in robotics and automation will help build a better human society. This session will provide a unique opportunity for the academic and industrial communities to address new challenges, share solutions, and discuss research directions for the future. Robotics research emphasizes intelligence and adaptability to cope with unstructured environments. Automation research emphasizes efficiency, productivity, quality, and reliability, focusing on systems that operate autonomously. The main focus of this session is on the autonomous acquisition of semantic information in intelligent robots and systems, as well as the use of semantic knowledge to guide further acquisition of information.

  7. Automated accelerator controls for a 3 MV tandem Pelletron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmell, R. D.; Kitchen, R. L.; Luck, T. R.; Sundquist, M. L.

    1991-05-01

    A new accelerator control system has been developed which uses a real-time, multitasking operating system running on a Motorola 68030 based microcomputer. The system includes multiple graphic and text displays and allows the operator to communicate via these displays to the accelerator, which is interfaced to CAMAC. Most accelerator parameters can be controlled using a mouse in conjunction with a single graphic display, eliminating the need to change CRT pages in order to control parameters from the source to the target. A touch screen is also available to permit a number of parameters to be at the operator's finger tips at all times. Operating parameters for a new beam and energy can be automatically set by scaling from a previously stored run. The program and database are structured to facilitate interlocking and closed loop control of parameters. The hardware configuration, structure and features of the software will be reviewed.

  8. FUZZY CONTROLLED AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE MAIN COAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵良杉; 叶景楼; 付华

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy control scheme is presented according to the coal quantity in the main coal bunker, this method has a good dynamic response characteristic and is suited for complex nonlinear systems. The designation of self-adopting fuzzy controller, the working principle and functions of this system are also proposed, with the hardware and the main flow diagram of this system introduced in this paper.

  9. CUSTOMS CONTROL SYSTEM AUTOMATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE TAXATION ON INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Ozhigov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of technology and economy, an increasing number of objects requires the development of automation. In today’s world of computer technology is inconceivable without control various processes, including the control system. All accumulated information to be used for further monitoring and analysis of the computer itself without the inspector, and issued in the form of employee risks to further its decision. Only automating conducting customs operations and customs control of goods transported by individuals we can reduce the time for customs control and improve its quality and as a consequence increase the collection of customs duties and levy fines on individuals. This is important in time of crisis/

  10. Monitoring and Control of the Automated Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugonnet, C.; D'Hoine, S.

    The objective of this paper is to present succinctly the architecture of the heart of the ATV Control Centre: the Monitoring and Control developed by CS for the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA). At the moment, the Monitoring and Control is in the development phase, a first real time version will be delivered to CNES in July 2003, then a second version will be delivered in October including off line capabilities. The following paper introduces the high level specifications and the main driving performance criteria of the monitoring and control system in order to successfully operate these complex ATV space vehicles from the first flight planned in 2004. It presents the approach taken by CS and CNES in order to meet this challenge in a very short time. ATV-CC Monitoring and Control system is based on the reuse of flight proven components that are integrated in a software bus based architecture. The paper particularly shows the advantages of using new computer technologies in operational system: use of Object Oriented technologies from specification, design (UML) to development (C++, Java, PLSQL), use of a CORBA Object Request Broker for the exchange of messages and some centralised services, use of Java for the development of an ergonomic and standardised (for all functions of the M&C) Graphical User Interface and the extensive use of XML for data exchanges.

  11. Early Validation of Automation Plant Control Software using Simulation Based on Assumption Modeling and Validation Use Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Brandstetter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In automation plants, technical processes must be conducted in a way that products, substances, or services are produced reliably, with sufficient quality and with minimal strain on resources. A key driver in conducting these processes is the automation plant’s control software, which controls the technical plant components and thereby affects the physical, chemical, and mechanical processes that take place in automation plants. To this end, the control software of an automation plant must adhere to strict process requirements arising from the technical processes, and from the physical plant design. Currently, the validation of the control software often starts late in the engineering process in many cases – once the automation plant is almost completely constructed. However, as widely acknowledged, the later the control software of the automation plant is validated, the higher the effort for correcting revealed defects is, which can lead to serious budget overruns and project delays. In this article we propose an approach that allows the early validation of automation control software against the technical plant processes and assumptions about the physical plant design by means of simulation. We demonstrate the application of our approach on the example of an actual plant project from the automation industry and present it’s technical implementation

  12. Automated system of control and diagnostics of cast-steel defects in the mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, S. V.; Usoltsev, A. A.; Skopich, D. V.; Fatyanova, E. A.; Dolgopolov, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    To solve the problem of efficient control over technological process in the foundry the mathematical model is required, that would connect the the input and output parameters of the object. To collect the data on cast-steels defects an automated system was developed that greatly simplifies the process of technical control and allows the problem of process parameters optimization to be solved using the criterion of defects minimization in the cast- steels.

  13. A camera space control system for an automated forklift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.K.; Stewart, D.G.; Brockman, W.H. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)); Skaar, S.B. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    The authors present experimental results on a method of camera space control applied to a mobile cart with an on-board robot, operated as a forklift. The objective is to extend earlier results to the task of the precise and robust three-dimensional object placement. The method is illustrated with a box stacking task. Camera space control does not rely on producing absolute position measurements. All measurements, estimates and control criteria are done relative to camera images in units of pixels. The resulting ''camera space'' technique is found to be very robust, i.e., extremely accurate modeling and calibration are not needed in order to achieve a precise result.

  14. Partitioning,Automation and Error Recovery in the Control and Monitoring System of an LHC Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Gaspar

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Controls Project(JCOP)is a collaboration between CERN and the four LHC experiments to find and implement common solutions for their control and monitoring systems.As part of this project and Architecture Working Group was set up in order to study the requirements and devise an architectural model that would suit the four experiments.Many issues were studied by this working group:Alarm handling,Access Control,Hierarchical Control,etc.This paper will report on the specific issue of hierarchical control and in particular partitioning,automation and error recovery.

  15. Development of an integrated spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for automated proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Peter Z.; Spencer, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation process of a highly automated Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for a small satellite on-orbit inspection application, enabling proximity operations without human-in-the-loop interaction. The paper focuses on the integration and testing of Guidance, Navigation, & Control software and the development of decision logic to address the question of how such a system can be effectively implemented for full automation. This process is unique because a multitude of operational scenarios must be considered and a set of complex interactions between subsystem algorithms must be defined to achieve the automation goal. The Prox-1 mission is currently under development within the Space Systems Design Laboratory at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The mission involves the characterization of new small satellite component technologies, deployment of the LightSail 3U CubeSat, entering into a trailing orbit relative to LightSail using ground-in-the-loop commands, and demonstration of automated proximity operations through formation flight and natural motion circumnavigation maneuvers. Operations such as these may be utilized for many scenarios including on-orbit inspection, refueling, repair, construction, reconnaissance, docking, and debris mitigation activities. Prox-1 uses onboard sensors and imaging instruments to perform Guidance, Navigation, & Control operations during on-orbit inspection of LightSail. Navigation filters perform relative orbit determination based on images of the target spacecraft, and guidance algorithms conduct automated maneuver planning. A slew and tracking controller sends attitude actuation commands to a set of control moment gyroscopes, and other controllers manage desaturation, detumble, thruster firing, and target acquisition/recovery. All Guidance, Navigation, & Control algorithms are developed in a MATLAB/Simulink six degree-of-freedom simulation environment and are integrated using

  16. Fully automated [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine synthesis in the TracerLab MX{sub FDG} Coincidence synthesizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryza, David [Laboratoire CREATIS-ANIMAGE, UMR 5515 Cnrs-U630 Inserm-Insa de Lyon (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital E Herriot, Radiopharmacie, 69437 Lyon (France); Departement de Biophysique, Universite Lyon 1, domaine Rockfeller, 69008 Lyon (France)], E-mail: david.kryza@chu-lyon.fr; Tadino, Vincent [Optimized Radiochemical Applications, Saint-Nicolas (Belgium); Filannino, Maria Azzurra; Villeret, Guillaume; Lemoucheux, Laurent [Advanced Accelerator Applications, 01630 Saint Genis Pouilly (France)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction: We developed a new fully automated method for the radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine by modifying the commercial 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-D-deoxy-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) synthesizer module (GE TracerLab MX, formerly Coincidence). Methods: [{sup 18}F]Flurocholine was synthesized by {sup 18}F-fluoroalkylation of N,N-dimethylaminoethanol using [{sup 18}F]fluorobromomethane as fluoromethylating agent. [{sup 18}F]Fluorobromomethane was produced by reaction of dibromomethane with [{sup 18}F]fluoride, assisted by Kryptofix 2.2.2. Results: After purification on solid-phase extraction cartridges, the [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine was obtained in 15-25% radiochemical yields (decay not corrected), with more than 99% radiochemical purity. Specific activity was more than 37 GBq/{mu}mol. Synthesis time was less than 35 min. Conclusion: This new automated synthesis technique provides high and reproducible yields that could be dedicated for routine use with the same [{sup 18}F]FDG disposable cassette system.

  17. Automated Control Surface Design and Sizing for the Prandtl Plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ginneken, D.A.J.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Frediani, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the design of the primary flight control surfaces, in terms of size, number and location, for fixed wing aircraft (conventional or unconventional). As test case, the methodology is applied to a 300 passenger variant of the Prandtl Plane. This box wing aircraft i

  18. Transition of control in highly automated vehicles : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlakveld, W.P.

    2016-01-01

    The Directorate-General of Highways, Waterways, and Water Systems (Rijkswaterstaat in Dutch) of the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (IenM) in Dutch) has commissioned SWOV to conduct a literature review about transition of control in highly and

  19. Automating Fine Concurrency Control in Object-Oriented Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Malta, Carmelo; 10.1109/ICDE.1993.344057

    2010-01-01

    Several propositions were done to provide adapted concurrency control to object-oriented databases. However, most of these proposals miss the fact that considering solely read and write access modes on instances may lead to less parallelism than in relational databases! This paper cope with that issue, and advantages are numerous: (1) commutativity of methods is determined a priori and automatically by the compiler, without measurable overhead, (2) run-time checking of commutativity is as efficient as for compatibility, (3) inverse operations need not be specified for recovery, (4) this scheme does not preclude more sophisticated approaches, and, last but not least, (5) relational and object-oriented concurrency control schemes with read and write access modes are subsumed under this proposition.

  20. Biosensors and Automation for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Bioprocess monitoring and control is a complex task that needs rapid and reliable methods which are adaptable to continuous analysis. Process monitoring during fermentation is widely applicable in the field of pharmaceutical, food and beverages and wastewater treatment. The ability to monitor has direct relevance in improving performance, quality, productivity, and yield of the process. In fact, the complexity of the bioprocesses requires almost real time insight into the dynamic process for ...

  1. Automation and Systems Issues in Air Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the study and analysis of a successfully designed control system in ATM. The aircraft's motion is affected by other factors, besides the pilot controls in the form of external disturbances, such as wind, and internal errors, due to unmodelled dynamics, tracking error and system noise. Navigation equipment tracks the exact real-time location of the aircraft in 4D space and provides feedback to both the pilot in the cockpit and ATC via ADS-B. ATM was expressed as a large, decentralized, dynamic, variable size, infinite horizon, multi-parameter, constrained, nonlinear, non-causal, non-convex, multi-objective, high-dimensionality, hybrid (continuous and combinatorial, optimal control problem. Rapidly increasing growth and demand in CNS/ATM, the advanced scheme for ATM, ADS-B system which is based on digital communication is being implemented in the field of surveillance. ADS-B is a radically new technology that is redefining the paradigm of CNS in ATM today. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B is the next generation air surveillance system which supplants and complements the limitations of conventional radar, since conventional ATM radar systems will reach their limits soon due to the increases in air traffic.

  2. Synthesis of dissipative output feedback controllers. Application to mechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannessen, Erling Aarsand

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents new results on the synthesis of linear controllers with passivity, or more general, dissipativity properties. These methods may be applied to obtain more accurate control over mechanical systems and in the control of chemical processes that involve dissipative subsystems. The thesis presents two different approaches for synthesis of dissipative controllers: (1) A method that exploits the Riccati equation solution to the state space formulation of the H{sub {infinity}} control problem is investigated, illustrated by synthesising a controller for damping of flexible modes in a beam. (2) A more general method for dissipative control synthesis is developed that retains the well-known techniques of loop-shaping and frequency weighting in H{sub {infinity}}. A method is also presented for controller synthesis directly from frequency response data. 82 refs., 34 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. 9th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Alain; Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh

    2014-01-01

    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the Ninth International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2012), held in Rome, Italy, from 28 to 31 July 2012. The conference was organized in four simultaneous tracks: Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization, Robotics and Automation, Systems Modeling, Signal Processing and Control and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management.   ICINCO 2012 received 360 paper submissions, from 58 countries in all continents. From these, after a blind review process, only 40 were accepted as full papers, of which 20 were selected for inclusion in this book, based on the classifications provided by the Program Committee. The selected papers reflect the interdisciplinary nature of the conference as well as the logic equilibrium between the four abovementioned tracks. The diversity of topics is an important feature of this conference, enabling an overall perception of several important scientific and...

  4. Automating Access Control Logics in Simple Type Theory with LEO-II (Techreport)

    CERN Document Server

    Benzmueller, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Garg and Abadi recently proved that prominent access control logics can be translated in a sound and complete way into modal logic S4. We have previously outlined how normal multimodal logics, including monomodal logics K and S4, can be embedded in simple type theory (which is also known as higher-order logic) and we have demonstrated that the higher-order theorem prover LEO-II can automate reasoning in and about them. In this paper we combine these results and describe a sound and complete embedding of different access control logics in simple type theory. Employing this framework we show that the off the shelf theorem prover LEO-II can be applied to automate reasoning in prominent access control logics.

  5. Method and System for Protection of Automated Control Systems for “Smart Buildings”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Mikhaylov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is related to system and method for protection of an automated control system (ACS against un-authorized devices connected to the ACS via wired or wireless channels that substantially obviates the disadvantages of the related art. The protection system monitors the signals spreading in the network analyzing the performance of the network for malicious code or hidden connections of attacker. The system is developed specifically for this purpose and it can protect the industrial control systems more effectively than standard anti-virus programs. Specific anti-virus software installed on a central server of the automated control system protects it from software-based attacks both from internal and external offenders. The system comprises a plurality of bus protection devices of different types, including any of a twisted-pair protection device, a power lines protection device, On-Board Diagnostics signal protocol protection device, and a wireless protection device.

  6. Waste utilization for the controlled synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayar, Suprabha, E-mail: Suprabha.nayar@gmail.com [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India); Guha, Avijit [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)

    2009-05-05

    This work uses biomolecules in waste and medicinally important materials for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Orange and potato peel, eggshell, papaya leaf and calendula flower extracts have varied biomolecules, which exert a significant, control on the in situ synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite particles. The biomimetic synthesis of inorganic particles using known matrices is already well established, however, there are only a few reports using compound extracts. The synthesized nanocomposite has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies. Role of varied biomolecules in controlled inorganic synthesis may have tremendous technological impact.

  7. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc; Hart, A. John

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called "Robofurnace." Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes.

  8. Development of a finite state machine for the automates operation of the LLRF control at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, A.

    2007-07-15

    The entry of digital signal processors in modern control systems not only allows for extended diagnostics compared to analog systems but also for sophisticated and tricky extensions of the control algorithms. With modern DSP- and FPGA-technology, the processing speed of digital systems is no longer inferior to analog systems in many applications. A higher degree of digitalization leads to an increased complexity of the systems and hence to higher requirements on their operators. The focus of research and development in the field of high frequency control has changed in the last few years and moved towards the direction of software development and complexity management. In the presented thesis, a frame for an automation concept of modern high frequency control systems is developed. The developed automation is based on the concept of finite state machines (FSM), which is established in industry for years. A flexible framework was developed, in which procedures communicate using standardized interfaces and can be exchanged easily. With that, the developer of high frequency control components as well as the operator on shift shall be empowered to improve and adapt the automation to changed conditions without special programming skills required. Along the automation concept a number of algorithms addressing various problems were developed which satisfy the needs of modern high frequency control systems. Among the developed and successfully tested algorithms are the calibration of incident and reflected wave of resonators without antennas, the fast adaptive compensation of repetitive errors, the robust estimation of the phase advance in the control loop and the latency adjustment for the rejection of instabilities caused by passband modes. During the development of the resonator theory, high value was set on the usability of the equation in algorithms for high frequency control. The usage of the common nomenclature of control theory emphasizes the underlying mathematical

  9. An Automated SVD for Alignment and Control of James Webb Space Telescope Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Sharam; Howard, Joseph M.; Aronstein, David L.; Ha, Kong; Smith, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a three-mirror anastigmatic telescope. The alignment of the segmented primary and secondary mirrors in the wavefront sensing and control process involves a series of actuators to control the six degrees-of-freedom motion on each surface in addition to the radius of curvature. The control matrix developed from the alignment parameters is over-determined and singular value decomposition (SVD) method is used to solve it in the least square sense. An automated SVD scheme has been developed to identify the most contributing modes in a typical alignment process and reduce the impact of error-prone modes from the control process.

  10. FPGA Control System for the Automated Test of Microshutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Eric; Rapchun, David A.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled to replace the Hubble in 2013, must simultaneously observe hundreds of faint galaxies. This requirement has led to the development of a programmable transmission mask which can be adapted to admit light with arbitrary pattern of galaxies into its spectrograph. This programmable mask will contain a large array of micro-electromechanical (MEMs) devices called MicroShutters. These microscopic shutters physically open and close like the shutter on a camera, except each shutter is microscopic in size and an array 365 by 171 is used to select the objects under spectroscopic observation at a given time, and to block the unwanted background light from other areas. NASA developed and is currently refining the exceptionally difficult process of manufacturing these shutters. This paper describes how the authors used LabVIEW FPGA and a reconfigurable I/O board to control the shutters in a test chamber and how the flexibility of the system allows us to continue to modify the control algorithms as NASA optimizes the performance of the MicroShutter arrays.

  11. Automated methods and control when mining seams prone to outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesov, O.A.; Agaphonov, A.V.; Kolchin, G.I. [Makeyevka Safety in Mines Research Institute (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    Drawbacks in existing methods of predicting outburst zones in Donbas (Russia) thin coal seams led specialists at MakNII to investigate methods based on artificial excited acoustic signals, with processing by personnal computers. The paper describes investigations to correlate different acoustic signal parameters with stress and strained state of the massif preface. The method proved reliable in determining the relief zone in 12 Donbas mines. The paper goes on to describe development of a control method for another widely used method of coal and gas outburst prevention in Donbas, that of water injection into the coal seam known as `hydroripping`. This method includes acoustic signals recording and preface part parameters determination in the drilling process for infusion and recording and processing of the acoustic signal in real time, which is created during water infusion. 8 refs.

  12. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P., E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: sprenger@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  13. Automated control of optical polarization for nonlinear microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter K.

    2012-03-01

    Laser-scanning non-linear optical techniques such as multi-photon fluorescence excitation microscopy (MPM), Second/ Third Harmonic Generation (SHG/THG), and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) are being utilized in research laboratories worldwide. The efficiencies of these non-linear effects are dependent on the polarization state of the excitation light relative to the orientation of the sample being imaged. In highly ordered anisotropic biological samples this effect can become pronounced and the excitation polarization can have a dramatic impact on imaging experiments. Therefore, controlling the polarization state of the exciting light is important; however this is challenging when the excitation light passes through a complex optical system. In a typical laser-scanning microscope, components such as the dichroic filters, lenses, and even mirrors can alter the polarization state of a laser beam before it reaches the sample. We present an opto-mechanical solution to compensate for the polarization effects of an optical path, and to precisely program the polarization state of the exciting laser light. The device and accompanying procedures allow the delivery of precise laser polarization states at constant average power levels to a sample during an imaging experiment.

  14. Assessment Study on Sensors and Automation in the Industries of the Future. Reports on Industrial Controls, Information Processing, Automation, and Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Bonnie [Adventium Labs; Boddy, Mark [Adventium Labs; Doyle, Frank [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Jamshidi, Mo [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ogunnaike, Tunde [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This report presents the results of an expert study to identify research opportunities for Sensors & Automation, a sub-program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). The research opportunities are prioritized by realizable energy savings. The study encompasses the technology areas of industrial controls, information processing, automation, and robotics. These areas have been central areas of focus of many Industries of the Future (IOF) technology roadmaps. This report identifies opportunities for energy savings as a direct result of advances in these areas and also recognizes indirect means of achieving energy savings, such as product quality improvement, productivity improvement, and reduction of recycle.

  15. The Study of Maglev Train Control and Diagnosis Networks Based on Role Automation Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Qi; Tan, Yongdong

    The control and diagnosis networks in Maglev Train are the most important parts. In the paper, the control and diagnosis network structures are discussed, and the disadvantages of them are described and analyzed. In virtue of role automation decentralized system (RoADS), some basic ideas of RoADS are applied in new network. The structure, component parts and application of new network are proposed, designed and discussed in detail. The comparison results show that new network not only embodies some RoADS' ideas but also better meets the demands of control and diagnosis networks in Maglev Train.

  16. SPS/LEP beam transfer equipment control using industrial automation components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimar, A.; Berard, G.; Bretin, J.L.; Carlier, E.; Dieperink, J.H.; Laffin, M.; Mertens, V.; Verhagen, H. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1992-12-01

    Several control systems for SPS and LEP beam transfer equipment have to be commissioned in the near future. Tools for fast software development, easy maintenance and modifications, compliance with industrial standards, and independence of specific suppliers are considered to be essential. A large fraction of the systems can be realized using off-the-shelf industrial automation components like industrial I/O systems, programmable logic controllers, or diskless PCs. Specific electronics built up in G-64 can be integrated. Diskless systems running UNIX and X Windows are foreseen as process controllers and local access media. (author).

  17. Feasibility and reliability of an automated controller of inspired oxygen concentration during mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Saihi, Kaouther; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Gonin, Xavier; Krüger, Thomas; Dojat, Michel; Brochard, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hypoxemia and high fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2) are concerns in critically ill patients. An automated FiO2 controller based on continuous oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement was tested. Two different SpO2-FiO2 feedback open loops, designed to react differently based on the level of hypoxemia, were compared. The results of the FiO2 controller were also compared with a historical control group. Methods The system measures SpO2, compares with a target range (92% to 96%), and...

  18. Automated drop-on-demand system with real-time gravimetric control for precise dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, A; Brown, M; Muzzio, F; Takhistov, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Many of the therapies for personalized medicine have few dosage options, and the successful translation of these therapies to the clinic is significantly dependent on the drug/formulation delivery platform. We have developed a lab-scale integrated system for microdosing of drug formulations with high accuracy and precision that is capable of feedback control. The designed modular drug dispensing system includes a microdispensing valve unit and is fully automated with a LabVIEW-controlled computer interface. The designed system is capable of dispensing drug droplets with volumes ranging from nanoliters to microliters with high accuracy (relative standard deviation gravimetric control.

  19. Automated quality control methods for sensor data: a novel observatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available National and international networks and observatories of terrestrial-based sensors are emerging rapidly. As such, there is demand for a standardized approach to data quality control, as well as interoperability of data among sensor networks. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON has begun constructing their first terrestrial observing sites with 60 locations expected to be distributed across the US by 2017. This will result in over 14 000 automated sensors recording more than > 100 Tb of data per year. These data are then used to create other datasets and subsequent "higher-level" data products. In anticipation of this challenge, an overall data quality assurance plan has been developed and the first suite of data quality control measures defined. This data-driven approach focuses on automated methods for defining a suite of plausibility test parameter thresholds. Specifically, these plausibility tests scrutinize data range, persistence, and stochasticity on each measurement type by employing a suite of binary checks. The statistical basis for each of these tests is developed and the methods for calculating test parameter thresholds are explored here. While these tests have been used elsewhere, we apply them in a novel approach by calculating their relevant test parameter thresholds. Finally, implementing automated quality control is demonstrated with preliminary data from a NEON prototype site.

  20. Automated quality control methods for sensor data: a novel observatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available National and international networks and observatories of terrestrial-based sensors are emerging rapidly. As such, there is demand for a standardized approach to data quality control, as well as interoperability of data among sensor networks. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON has begun constructing their first terrestrial observing sites, with 60 locations expected to be distributed across the US by 2017. This will result in over 14 000 automated sensors recording more than > 100 Tb of data per year. These data are then used to create other datasets and subsequent "higher-level" data products. In anticipation of this challenge, an overall data quality assurance plan has been developed and the first suite of data quality control measures defined. This data-driven approach focuses on automated methods for defining a suite of plausibility test parameter thresholds. Specifically, these plausibility tests scrutinize the data range and variance of each measurement type by employing a suite of binary checks. The statistical basis for each of these tests is developed, and the methods for calculating test parameter thresholds are explored here. While these tests have been used elsewhere, we apply them in a novel approach by calculating their relevant test parameter thresholds. Finally, implementing automated quality control is demonstrated with preliminary data from a NEON prototype site.

  1. Controlling the Distribution of Supported Nanoparticles by Aqueous Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenhuisen, T.M.; Friedrich, H.; Nudelman, F.; Zečević, J.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of supported nanoparticles with controlled size and uniform distribution is a major challenge in nanoscience, in particular for applications in catalysis. Cryo-electron tomography revealed with nanometer resolution the 3D distribution of phases present during nanoparticle synthesis via imp

  2. Improved synthesis of anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC: improved preparation of labeling precursor and automated radiosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConathy, Jonathan; Voll, Ronald J.; Yu Weiping; Crowe, Ronald J.; Goodman, Mark M. E-mail: mgoodma@emory.edu

    2003-06-01

    The non-natural amino acid anti-1-amino-3-[{sup 18}F]fluorocyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC) has shown promise for tumor imaging with positron emission tomography. An improved synthesis of the precursor of anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC has been devised which demonstrates high stereoselectivity and suitability for large-scale preparations. An automated radiosynthesis has been developed which provides anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC in 24% decay-corrected yield. Additionally, the major non-radioactive species present in doses of anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC has been identified as anti-1-amino-3-hydroxycyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid. Together, these results are important steps towards the routine production of anti-[{sup 18}F]FACBC for human use.

  3. Development of a Software Tool to Automate ADCO Flight Controller Console Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    This independent study project covers the development of the International Space Station (ISS) Attitude Determination and Control Officer (ADCO) Planning Exchange APEX Tool. The primary goal of the tool is to streamline existing manual and time-intensive planning tools into a more automated, user-friendly application that interfaces with existing products and allows the ADCO to produce accurate products and timelines more effectively. This paper will survey the current ISS attitude planning process and its associated requirements, goals, documentation and software tools and how a software tool could simplify and automate many of the planning actions which occur at the ADCO console. The project will be covered from inception through the initial prototype delivery in November 2011 and will include development of design requirements and software as well as design verification and testing.

  4. Digital Coal Mine Integrated Automation System Based on ControlNet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-yun; ZHANG Shen; ZUO Wei-ran

    2007-01-01

    A three-layer model for digital communication in a mine is proposed. Two basic platforms are discussed: A uniform transmission network and a uniform data warehouse. An actual, ControlNet based, transmission network platform suitable for the Jining No.3 coal mine is presented. This network is an information superhighway intended to integrate all existing and new automation subsystems. Its standard interface can be used with future subsystems. The network, data structure and management decision-making all employ this uniform hardware and software. This effectively avoids the problems of system and information islands seen in traditional mine-automation systems. The construction of the network provides a stable foundation for digital communication in the Jining No.3 coal mine.

  5. Validation of the process control system of an automated large scale manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H; Kremers, H; Karrer, T; Traut, R H

    1998-02-01

    The validation procedure for the process control system of a plant for the large scale production of human albumin from plasma fractions is described. A validation master plan is developed, defining the system and elements to be validated, the interfaces with other systems with the validation limits, a general validation concept and supporting documentation. Based on this master plan, the validation protocols are developed. For the validation, the system is subdivided into a field level, which is the equipment part, and an automation level. The automation level is further subdivided into sections according to the different software modules. Based on a risk categorization of the modules, the qualification activities are defined. The test scripts for the different qualification levels (installation, operational and performance qualification) are developed according to a previously performed risk analysis.

  6. An automated qualification framework for the MeerKAT CAM (Control-And-Monitoring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, Lize; Marais, Neilen; Slabber, Martin

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces and discusses the design of an Automated Qualification Framework (AQF) that was developed to automate as much as possible of the formal Qualification Testing of the Control And Monitoring (CAM) subsystem of the 64 dish MeerKAT radio telescope currently under construction in the Karoo region of South Africa. The AQF allows each Integrated CAM Test to reference the MeerKAT CAM requirement and associated verification requirement it covers and automatically produces the Qualification Test Procedure and Qualification Test Report from the test steps and evaluation steps annotated in the Integrated CAM Tests. The MeerKAT System Engineers are extremely happy with the AQF results, but mostly by the approach and process it enforces.

  7. Automation technology and sense of control: a window on human agency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Berberian

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the perceived times of voluntary actions and their effects are perceived as shifted towards each other, so that the interval between action and outcome seems shortened. This has been referred to as 'intentional binding' (IB. However, the generality of this effect remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Intentional Binding also occurs in complex control situations. Using an aircraft supervision task with different autopilot settings, our results first indicated a strong relation between measures of IB and different levels of system automation. Second, measures of IB were related to explicit agency judgement in this applied setting. We discuss the implications for the underlying mechanisms, and for sense of agency in automated environments.

  8. Automated synthesis of both the topology and numerical parameters for seven patented optical lens systems using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W.; Al-Sakran, Sameer H.; Koza, John R.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes how genetic programming was used as an automated invention machine to synthesize both the topology and numerical parameters for seven previously patented optical lens systems, including one aspherical system and one issued in the 21st-century. Two of the evolved optical lens systems infringe the claims of the patents and the others are novel solutions that satisfy the design goals stated in the patent. The automatic synthesis was done "from scratch"--that is, without starting from a pre-existing good design and without pre-specifying the number of lenses, the topological layout of the lenses, or the numerical parameters of the lenses. Genetic programming is a form of evolutionary computation used to automatically solve problems. It starts from a high-level statement of what needs to be done and progressively breeds a population of candidate individuals over many generations using the principle of Darwinian natural selection and genetic recombination. The paper describes how genetic programming created eyepieces that duplicated the functionality of seven previously patented lens systems. The seven designs were created in a substantially similar and routine way, suggesting that the use of genetic programming in the automated design of both the topology and numerical parameters for optical lens systems may have widespread utility.

  9. Methodology and planning for a microprocessor-oriented real time controller design automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matelan, M.N.; Smith, R.J. II

    1976-11-04

    A methodology for reducing the complexity of designing dedicated real-time control systems is developed. It is shown that three areas are amenable to automation: the selection and configuration of hardware, the production of software, and the adaptation of a monitor to maintain real-time integrity of the entire system. The concept of hardware binding is introduced, and it is shown that delaying the point in the design cycle where hardware is functionally bound allows a new approach to machine independence. Concepts which allow expression of repetitive control situations are described, and a realization-independent language (CSDL), based on these concepts, is defined. Methods for automatically selecting a time-wise correct monitor are classified, and techniques for specifying the realization capabilities of digital processors are discussed. These concepts and techniques are brought together in a design automation system for the production of a complete controller design from a behavioral description. An example description is traced through the CSD System; a software listing and hardware configuration document for an actual microprocessor (the Intel 8080) is produced. This research provides a structured description of the control system design process, and allows a unified perspective in the realization of controllers for applications previously considered to be unrelated. The concepts developed define a new direction in the production of real-time control systems. 9 figures, 4 tables.

  10. 几种车辆纵向控制器的性能比较%Performance Comparison of Automated Vehicle Controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The design of intelligent vehicle control system is an important part of AHS (Automated highway systems).This paper addresses the problem of longitudinal control of a vehicles platoon and pressents the comparison of several control algorthms of vehicle longitudinal control system,Simlation of the appopriate platoon performance if presented.

  11. μ Synthesis Method for Robust Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    μ synthesis method for robust control of uncertain nonlinear systems is propored, which is based on feedback linearization. First, nonlinear systems are linearized as controllable linear systems by I/O linearization,such that uncertain nonlinear systems are expressed as the linear fractional transformations (LFTs) on the generalized linearized plants and uncertainty.Then,linear robust controllers are obtained for the LFTs usingμsynthesis method based on H∞ optimization.Finally,the nonlinear robust controllers are constructed by combining the linear robust controllers and the nonlinear feedback.An example is given to illustrate the design.

  12. Development of an Automated Decision-Making Tool for Supervisory Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) Research and Development Program of the US Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular AdvSMR plants. This research activity advances the state of the art by incorporating real-time, probabilistic-based decision-making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides background information on the state of the art of automated decision-making, including the description of existing methodologies. It then presents a description of a generalized decision-making framework, upon which the supervisory control decision-making algorithm is based. The probabilistic portion of automated decision-making is demonstrated through a simple hydraulic loop example.

  13. Automated Synthesis of 18F Analogue of Paclitaxel (PAC): [18F]Paclitaxel (FPAC)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A positron-emitting paclitaxel (PAC) derivative could allow in-vivo measurement of multidrug resistance in tumors and, therefore, predict a potential chemotherapeutic benefit to patients. [18F]Paclitaxel was produced using a 2-reaction vessel automated synthesizer followed by HPLC purification. Optimized reaction conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 21.2 ± 9.6% at end of bombardment, radiochemical purity > 99%, and specific activity of 159 ± 43 GBq/μmol. [18F]Paclitaxel activities o...

  14. THE AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL (ASCRE FOR ROSPOTREBNADZOR: CREATION HISTORY, APPLICABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the automated system of radiation exposure control (ASCRE for Rospotrebnadzor developed  in  the  framework  of  the  Federal  target  program  "Nuclear  and  Radiation  Safety  in  2008  and  for  the period till 2015". The history of the development of this system is given. It is shown the diagram of the functioning of ASCRE, description of the individual blocks of diagram is given. It is shown that the grpouping of the data from various Federal banks in the single automated information-analytical system on the general address basis with the wide possibilities of analytical tools application will greatly expand the range of the issues for the assessment of radiation impact on the population than in the existing systems. The use of automation resources will reduce the time for obtaining the necessary information and, ultimately, will increase the effectiveness of the decision making in the field of radiation protection.

  15. GASICA: Generic Automated Stress Induction and Control ApplicationDesign of an application for controlling the stress state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Van Der Vijgh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1.In a multitude of research and therapy paradigms it is relevant to know, and desirably to control, the stress state of a patient or participant. Examples include research paradigms in which the stress state is the dependent or independent variable, or therapy paradigms where this state indicates the boundaries of the therapy. To our knowledge, no application currently exists that focuses specifically on the automated control of the stress state while at the same time being generic enough to be used in various therapy and research purposes. Therefore, we introduce GASICA, an application aimed at the automated control of the stress state in a multitude of therapy and research paradigms. The application consists of three components: a digital stressor game, a set of measurement devices and a feedback model. These three components form a closed loop (called a biocybernetic loop by Pope, Bogart, & Bartolome, 1995 and Fairclough, 2009 that continuously presents an acute psychological stressor, measures several physiological responses to this stressor, and adjusts the stressor intensity based on these measurements by means of the feedback model, hereby aiming to control the stress state. In this manner GASICA presents multidimensional and ecological valid stressors, whilst continuously in control of the form and intensity of the presented stressors, aiming at the automated control of the stress state. Furthermore, the application is designed as a modular open-source application to easily implement different therapy and research tasks using a high-level programming interface and configuration file, and allows for the addition of (existing measurement equipment, making it usable for various paradigms.

  16. GASICA: generic automated stress induction and control application design of an application for controlling the stress state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert J; van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In a multitude of research and therapy paradigms it is relevant to know, and desirably to control, the stress state of a patient or participant. Examples include research paradigms in which the stress state is the dependent or independent variable, or therapy paradigms where this state indicates the boundaries of the therapy. To our knowledge, no application currently exists that focuses specifically on the automated control of the stress state while at the same time being generic enough to be used in various therapy and research purposes. Therefore, we introduce GASICA, an application aimed at the automated control of the stress state in a multitude of therapy and research paradigms. The application consists of three components: a digital stressor game, a set of measurement devices, and a feedback model. These three components form a closed loop (called a biocybernetic loop by Pope et al. (1995) and Fairclough (2009) that continuously presents an acute psychological stressor, measures several physiological responses to this stressor, and adjusts the stressor intensity based on these measurements by means of the feedback model, hereby aiming to control the stress state. In this manner GASICA presents multidimensional and ecological valid stressors, whilst continuously in control of the form and intensity of the presented stressors, aiming at the automated control of the stress state. Furthermore, the application is designed as a modular open-source application to easily implement different therapy and research tasks using a high-level programming interface and configuration file, and allows for the addition of (existing) measurement equipment, making it usable for various paradigms.

  17. Research on the H∞ Controller Synthesis for Maglev Suspension System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The performances of a single-magnet model, which is the simplified model of Maglev suspension, are analyzed. The H∞ controller synthesized for the single-magnet model is presented. The synthesis results show that the control performance and robustness performance are satisfactory and the application of the H∞ controller to Maglev suspension is feasible and effective.

  18. Wireless Controlled Methods via Voice and Internet (e-mail for Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Ramlee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless Home Automation System (HAS that mainly performed by computer. The system is designed with several control methods in order to control the target electrical appliances. This various control methods implemented to fulfill the needs of users at home even at outside. The computer application is designed in Microsoft Windows OS that integrated with speech recognition voice control by using Microsoft Speech Application Programming Interface (SAPI. The voice control method provides more convenience especially to the blind and paralyzed users at home. This system is designed to perform short distance control by using wireless Bluetooth technology and long distance control by using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP email control method. The short distance control is considered as the control that performed inside the house. Moreover, the long distance control can be performed at everywhere by devices that installed with browser or email application, and also with the internet access. The system intended to control electrical appliances at home with relatively low cost design, user-friendly interface and ease of installation.

  19. Automated system for acquisition and image processing for the control and monitoring boned nopal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano, E.; de Posada, E.; Arronte, M.; Ponce, L.; Flores, T.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a system for acquisition and image processing to control the removal of thorns nopal vegetable (Opuntia ficus indica) in an automated machine that uses pulses of a laser of Nd: YAG. The areolas, areas where thorns grow on the bark of the Nopal, are located applying segmentation algorithms to the images obtained by a CCD. Once the position of the areolas is known, coordinates are sent to a motors system that controls the laser to interact with all areolas and remove the thorns of the nopal. The electronic system comprises a video decoder, memory for image and software storage, and digital signal processor for system control. The firmware programmed tasks on acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation, recognition and interpretation of the areolas. This system achievement identifying areolas and generating table of coordinates of them, which will be send the motor galvo system that controls the laser for removal

  20. Quality Control in Automated Manufacturing Processes – Combined Features for Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuhlenkötter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In production processes the use of image processing systems is widespread. Hardware solutions and cameras respectively are available for nearly every application. One important challenge of image processing systems is the development and selection of appropriate algorithms and software solutions in order to realise ambitious quality control for production processes. This article characterises the development of innovative software by combining features for an automatic defect classification on product surfaces. The artificial intelligent method Support Vector Machine (SVM is used to execute the classification task according to the combined features. This software is one crucial element for the automation of a manually operated production process. 

  1. Real world instrumentation with Python automated data acquisition and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to develop your own applications to monitor or control instrumentation hardware. Whether you need to acquire data from a device or automate its functions, this practical book shows you how to use Python's rapid development capabilities to build interfaces that include everything from software to wiring. You get step-by-step instructions, clear examples, and hands-on tips for interfacing a PC to a variety of devices. Use the book's hardware survey to identify the interface type for your particular device, and then follow detailed examples to develop an interface with Python and C. O

  2. THE AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL (ASCRE) FOR ROSPOTREBNADZOR: CREATION HISTORY, APPLICABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Repin; A. M. Biblin; P. G. Kovalev; M. S. Nikolaevich; V. S. Repin

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the automated system of radiation exposure control (ASCRE) for Rospotrebnadzor developed  in  the  framework  of  the  Federal  target  program  "Nuclear  and  Radiation  Safety  in  2008  and  for  the period till 2015". The history of the development of this system is given. It is shown the diagram of the functioning of ASCRE, description of the individual blocks of diagram is given. It is shown that the grpouping of the data from various Federal banks in the single au...

  3. Automated synthesis of 18F analogue of paclitaxel (PAC): [18F]Paclitaxel (FPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalen, Joseph D; Hirsch, Jerry I; Kurdziel, Karen A; Eckelman, William C; Kiesewetter, Dale O

    2007-06-01

    A positron-emitting paclitaxel (PAC) derivative could allow in vivo measurement of multidrug resistance in tumors and, therefore, predict a potential chemotherapeutic benefit to patients. [18F]Paclitaxel was produced using a 2-reaction vessel automated synthesizer followed by HPLC purification. Optimized reaction conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 21.2+/-9.6% at end of bombardment, radiochemical purity >99%, and specific activity of 159+/-43 G Bq/micromol. [18F]Paclitaxel activities of 1.33+/-0.729 G Bq (n=7) were obtained in sterile, pyrogen-free solution for IV administration.

  4. Automated synthesis of {sup 18}F analogue of paclitaxel (PAC): [{sup 18}F]Paclitaxel (FPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalen, Joseph D. [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: jdkalen@vcu.edu; Hirsch, Jerry I. [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Kurdziel, Karen A. [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Eckelman, William C. [Molecular Tracer, LLC, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kiesewetter, Dale O. [Positron Emission Tomography Radiochemistry Group, NIBIB, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    A positron-emitting paclitaxel (PAC) derivative could allow in vivo measurement of multidrug resistance in tumors and, therefore, predict a potential chemotherapeutic benefit to patients. [{sup 18}F]Paclitaxel was produced using a 2-reaction vessel automated synthesizer followed by HPLC purification. Optimized reaction conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 21.2+/-9.6% at end of bombardment, radiochemical purity >99%, and specific activity of 159+/-43GBq/{mu}mol. [{sup 18}F]Paclitaxel activities of 1.33+/-0.729GBq (n=7) were obtained in sterile, pyrogen-free solution for IV administration.

  5. Complex Event Processing Approach To Automated Monitoring Of Particle Accelerator And Its Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Grzegorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and implementation of a software component for automated monitoring and diagnostic information analysis of a particle accelerator and its control system. The information that is analyzed can be seen as streams of events. A Complex Event Processing (CEP approach to event processing was selected. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to continuously query data coming from several streams. The presented software component is based on Esper, the most popular open-source implementation of CEP. As a test bed, the control system of the accelerator complex located at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, was chosen. The complex includes the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful accelerator. The main contribution to knowledge is by showing that the CEP approach can successfully address many of the challenges associated with automated monitoring of the accelerator and its control system that were previously unsolved. Test results, performance analysis, and a proposal for further works are also presented.

  6. The influence of automation support on Air Traffic Controller behaviour with a Speed And Route Advisory function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, K. van de; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Plaat, A. van der; Erikson, F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the influence of automation support on Air Traffic Controller performance, workload and Situation Awareness (SA). Controllers handle traffic through means of tactical control involving heading, speed and altitude instructions. Future Air Traffic Management (ATM)

  7. Control of Ribosome Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Meyenburg, K. von; Måløe, O.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of ribosome synthesis and accumulation in Escherichia coli during the transition after an energy source shift-down was analyzed. The shift was imposed on cultures of stringent and relaxed strains growing in glucose minimal medium by the addition of the glucose analogue {alpha...

  8. An Automated Laboratory Laser Heating Arrangement for Materials Synthesis at High Temperatures and High Pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, N; Bindu, R; Kumar, N R Sanjay; Sekar, M; Shekar, N V Chandra; Sahu, P Ch

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the automation of a laser heating arrangement for synthesizing and studying materials at high pressures (up to ~ 1 Mbar) and high temperatures (up to ~ 5000 K). In this arrangement, a diamond anvil high-pressure cell (DAC) containing a microscopic sample of typical diameter ~50-100 micrometer, is mounted on a precision X-Y nanomotor stage that forms part of an IR laser heating optical assembly. Automation of this stage has been accomplished using a LabVIEW virtual instrument program to manipulate the X and Y stages using nanopositioning systems. This has a major feature of enabling a rastered heating of the sample over a user-defined circular area, without any operator intervention in addition to a virtual joystick to position the sample with respect to the laser spot. This auto-rastering feature has the advantage of offering uniform exposure of a circular area of the sample to the incident heating laser beam apart from drastic reduction in scan time compared to a manual scan. The diamete...

  9. Rockwell Automation PLC-5 Lands Stennis Space Center with a Reliable, Flexible Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Ever since the first rocket was launched, people have been infatuated with the vast and unchartered frontier of space. Whether it's visiting a space center or watching a shuttle launch, people are waiting to see what will be discovered next. And even though orbiting the Earth or taking soil samples form the Moon now seems effortless, decades worth of behind-the-scenes work have helped the U.S. space program get to this point. Even today, NASA must take every precaution to ensure equipment is up to the endeavor of setting foot on the moon. As part of the initial push to put the first man on the moon, NASA established the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi in 1961 for space engine propulsion system development. Today, Stennis has three major test complexes where engine and component testing is carried out and integrated into full motion systems for space shuttles and vehicles as well as secondary testing facilities. With different products being tested throughout the facilities, Stennis was in need of an automation system that could link the operations. By integrating a control system based on a Rockwell Automation's flexible and reliable PLC-5 controller, Stennis was able to implement projects more efficiently and focus its efforts on getting the next generation of products ready for space.

  10. Rudder-Roll Damping Controller Design using Mu Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, C.; Blanke, M.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of rudder roll damping control is very sensitive to uncertainty in ship dynamic parameters. In this paper, an H-infinity controller is designed using mu synthesis and an uncertainty model for roll and yaw that was identified earlier from experiments at sea. The properties...

  11. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    between the Earth´s magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. The magnetic attitude control is intrinsically periodic due to cyclic variation of the geomagnetic field in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2 operator norm....... A linear matrix inequality-based algorithm is proposed for attitude control synthesis. Simulation results are provided, showing the prospect of the concept for onboard implementation....

  12. Shape-Controlled Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    prisms (5, 13–17), nanospheres (18, 19), and other platonic (20–22), branched (12), and anisotropic (12, 23, 24) morphologies. Although synthesis...polyol reaction method involving the use of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a reducing agent to produce various platonic Au nanoparticles. In a very...6786. 20. Kim, F.; Connor, S.; Song, H.; Kuykendall, T.; Yang, P. Platonic Gold Nanocrystals. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2004, 43

  13. Automating gene library synthesis by structure-based combinatorial protein engineering: examples from plant sesquiterpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokarry, Melissa; Laurendon, Caroline; O'Maille, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    Structure-based combinatorial protein engineering (SCOPE) is a homology-independent recombination method to create multiple crossover gene libraries by assembling defined combinations of structural elements ranging from single mutations to domains of protein structure. SCOPE was originally inspired by DNA shuffling, which mimics recombination during meiosis, where mutations from parental genes are "shuffled" to create novel combinations in the resulting progeny. DNA shuffling utilizes sequence identity between parental genes to mediate template-switching events (the annealing and extension of one parental gene fragment on another) in PCR reassembly reactions to generate crossovers and hence recombination between parental genes. In light of the conservation of protein structure and degeneracy of sequence, SCOPE was developed to enable the "shuffling" of distantly related genes with no requirement for sequence identity. The central principle involves the use of oligonucleotides to encode for crossover regions to choreograph template-switching events during PCR assembly of gene fragments to create chimeric genes. This approach was initially developed to create libraries of hybrid DNA polymerases from distantly related parents, and later developed to create a combinatorial mutant library of sesquiterpene synthases to explore the catalytic landscapes underlying the functional divergence of related enzymes. This chapter presents a simplified protocol of SCOPE that can be integrated with different mutagenesis techniques and is suitable for automation by liquid-handling robots. Two examples are presented to illustrate the application of SCOPE to create gene libraries using plant sesquiterpene synthases as the model system. In the first example, we outline how to create an active-site library as a series of complex mixtures of diverse mutants. In the second example, we outline how to create a focused library as an array of individual clones to distil minimal combinations of

  14. Architectures and design patterns for functional design of logic control and diagnostics in industrial automation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Recently in most of the industrial automation process an ever increasing degree of automation has been observed. This increasing is motivated by the higher requirement of systems with great performance in terms of quality of products/services generated, productivity, efficiency and low costs in the design, realization and maintenance. This trend in the growth of complex automation systems is rapidly spreading over automated manufacturing systems (AMS), where the integration of the mechanic...

  15. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  16. 10th International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected papers from the tenth “International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics” (ICINCO 2013), held in Reykjavík, Iceland, from 29 to 31 July 2013. The conference was organized in four simultaneous tracks: “Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization”, “Robotics and Automation”, “Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modeling and Control” and “Industrial Engineering, Production and Management”. The book is based on the same structure. ICINCO 2013 received 255 paper submissions from 50 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee only 30% were published and presented orally. A further refinement was made after the conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality, so that this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of ICINCO 2013.

  17. Automated Generation of Formal Models from ST Control Programs for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Blech, J-O; Gonzalez Suarez, V

    2014-01-01

    In large industrial control systems such as the ones installed at CERN, one of the main issues is the ability to verify the correct behaviour of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) programs. While manual and automated testing can achieve good results, some obvious problems remain unsolved such as the difficulty to check safety or liveness properties. This paper proposes a general methodology and a tool to verify PLC programs by automatically generating formal models for different model checkers out of ST code. The proposed methodology defines an automata-based formalism used as intermediate model (IM) to transform PLC programs written in ST language into different formal models for verification purposes. A tool based on Xtext has been implemented that automatically generates models for the NuSMV and UPPAAL model checkers and the BIP framework.

  18. Automation of PRL's Astronomical Optical Polarimeter with a GNU/Linux based distributed control system

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, S; Baliyan, K S; Mathur, S N; Patwal, P S; Shah, R R

    2009-01-01

    Physical Research Laboratory's (PRL) Optical Polarimeter has been used on various telescopes in India since its development in-house in the mid 1980s. To make the instrument more efficient and effective we have designed the acquisition and control system and written the software to run on the GNU/Linux Operating System. CCD cameras have been used, in place of eyepieces, which allow to observe fainter sources with smaller apertures. The use of smaller apertures provides dramatic gains in the signal-to-noise ratio. The polarimeter is now fully automated resulting in increased efficiency. With the advantage of networking being built-in at the operating system level in GNU/Linux, this instrument can now be controlled from anywhere on the PRL local area network which means that the observer can be stationed in Ahmedabad / Thaltej as well or via ssh anywhere on the internet. The current report provides an overview of the system as implemented.

  19. Automated control for coal handling operations at Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendzian, T.N. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Chesterton, IN (United States). Burns Harbor Div.

    1997-12-31

    The Burns Harbor coal handling operation processes 7,200 tons of coal per day to supply two 82 oven, six meter batteries. The operations in coal handling are subdivided into three separate sections: the coal field and stacker reclaimer operation, the crushing and storage of coal, and the coal blending operation. In 1996 a supervisory system was developed and installed to fully automate all the operations and equipment in the coal handling unit, add additional instrumentation and logic controls to prevent coal contamination, and improve data collection and logging. The supervisory system is operated from a computer based workstation and is based on a distributed control philosophy utilizing programmable logic controllers, set point controllers, and man-machine interface displays. The previous control system for the coal handling operation consisted of a switchboard from which an operator controller the set up and running of the conveyor systems and equipment to stack, reclaim, and blend coal. The new supervisory system was installed in parallel with the original control system to safeguard continued operation during the system installation and commissioning. The original system still exists and can be operated in even of failure of the supervisory system.

  20. Control computers and automation subsystem equipment in Del'fin facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allin, A.P.; Belen' kiy, Yu.M.; Borzyak, Yu.V.; Bykovskiy, N.E.; Grigor' ev, V.E.; Gusyatnikov, B.S.; Doroshkevich, I.L.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kuchinskiy, A.G.; Savchenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    The power equipment of the Del'fin laser facility contains a 10/sup 7/ J capacitor bank divided into four identical sections feeding a power preamplifier and three output stages each, with 328 IFP-20,000 flash tubes designed to produce 2.5 kJ laser radiation. The system for controlling and automating laser experiments, modeled after the SHIVA system (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), includes a computer complex in the central console and the sequential ring bus, with CAMAC peripheral stations inside the optical chamber including three microcomputers (Polon, Nuclear Enterprise, HENESA). The control computer with a 28 K memory is linked to the CAMAC stations and to a terminal DECWRITER-II. The system crate contains a 9030/32 interface, a 3992 driver for the sequential bus, and a 064 LAM GRADER interrogation processing module. The computer complex also includes an RSX-11M multiprogram multipurpose real-time disk operating system which uses standard DECNET-11 software and includes a translator from MACRO-11 assembler language to FORTRAN-4, BASIC-11, COBOL and a few other languages. The laser power is automatically controlled through the CAMAC stations according to a main program as well as dialog maintenance programs (BCE, KASKN, KASN, DIAL, STRB, MODB, BKYM, STRB, BKYB, BKY) and measurement programs (CONTRO, CNTRO, KOD) designed to ensure simple and reliable high-speed control of laser experiments. All alignment and regulation of the laser facility is automated through optical channels (aligning LTI-501 laser, collimators, lenses, auxiliary optics) and servomechanisms (coordinate photoreceiver-homing signal module-step motors) designed for positioning and orientating mirrors 80 mm and 30 mm in diameter. 25 references, 31 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Effects of Granular Control on Customers’ Perspective and Behavior with Automated Demand Response Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetrit, Oren; Kim, Joyce; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-08-01

    Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is expected to close the loop between buildings and the grid by providing machine-to-machine communications to curtail loads without the need for human intervention. Hence, it can offer more reliable and repeatable demand response results to the grid than the manual approach and make demand response participation a hassle-free experience for customers. However, many building operators misunderstand Auto-DR and are afraid of losing control over their building operation. To ease the transition from manual to Auto-DR, we designed and implemented granular control of Auto-DR systems so that building operators could modify or opt out of individual load-shed strategies whenever they wanted. This paper reports the research findings from this effort demonstrated through a field study in large commercial buildings located in New York City. We focused on (1) understanding how providing granular control affects building operators’ perspective on Auto-DR, and (2) evaluating the usefulness of granular control by examining their interaction with the Auto-DR user interface during test events. Through trend log analysis, interviews, and surveys, we found that: (1) the opt-out capability during Auto-DR events can remove the feeling of being forced into load curtailments and increase their willingness to adopt Auto-DR; (2) being able to modify individual load-shed strategies allows flexible Auto-DR participation that meets the building’s changing operational requirements; (3) a clear display of automation strategies helps building operators easily identify how Auto-DR is functioning and can build trust in Auto-DR systems.

  2. Automated Internet-based pain coping skills training to manage osteoarthritis pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Christine; Porter, Laura S; Somers, Tamara J; McKee, Daphne C; DeVellis, Robert F; Smith, Meredith; Winkel, Gary; Ahern, David K; Goldman, Roberta; Stiller, Jamie L; Mariani, Cara; Patterson, Carol; Jordan, Joanne M; Caldwell, David S; Keefe, Francis J

    2015-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) places a significant burden on worldwide public health because of the large and growing number of people affected by OA and its associated pain and disability. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based intervention targeting OA pain and disability. To reduce barriers that currently limit access to PCST, we developed an 8-week, automated, Internet-based PCST program called PainCOACH and evaluated its potential efficacy and acceptability in a small-scale, 2-arm randomized controlled feasibility trial. Participants were 113 men and women with clinically confirmed hip or knee OA and associated pain. They were randomized to a group completing PainCOACH or an assessment-only control group. Osteoarthritis pain, pain-related interference with functioning, pain-related anxiety, self-efficacy for pain management, and positive and negative affect were measured before intervention, midway through the intervention, and after intervention. Findings indicated high acceptability and adherence: 91% of participants randomized to complete PainCOACH finished all 8 modules over 8 to 10 weeks. Linear mixed models showed that, after treatment, women who received the PainCOACH intervention reported significantly lower pain than that in women in the control group (Cohen d = 0.33). Intervention effects could not be tested in men because of their low pain and small sample size. Additionally, both men and women demonstrated increases in self-efficacy from baseline to after intervention compared with the control group (d = 0.43). Smaller effects were observed for pain-related anxiety (d = 0.20), pain-related interference with functioning (d = 0.13), negative affect (d = 0.10), and positive affect (d = 0.24). Findings underscore the value of continuing to develop an automated Internet-based approach to disseminate this empirically supported intervention.

  3. Validating an automated outcomes surveillance application using data from a terminated randomized, controlled trial (OPUS [TIMI-16]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Michael E; Morrow, David A; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Cannon, Christopher P; Resnic, Frederic S

    2007-10-11

    We sought to validate an automated outcomes surveillance system (DELTA) using OPUS (TIMI-16), a multi-center randomized, controlled trial that was stopped early due to elevated mortality in one of the two intervention arms. Methodologies that were incorporated into the application (Statistical Process Control [SPC] and Bayesian Updating Statistics [BUS]) were compared with standard Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) protocols.

  4. An automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, William J; McWilliam, Alan; Slevin, Nicholas J; Mackay, Ranald I; van Herk, Marcel

    2016-12-21

    Contour propagation is an essential component of adaptive radiotherapy, but current contour propagation algorithms are not yet sufficiently accurate to be used without manual supervision. Manual review of propagated contours is time-consuming, making routine implementation of real-time adaptive radiotherapy unrealistic. Automated methods of monitoring the performance of contour propagation algorithms are therefore required. We have developed an automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation and validated it on a cohort of head and neck patients, on which parotids were outlined by two observers. Two types of error were simulated-mislabelling of contours and introducing noise in the scans before propagation. The ability of the workflow to correctly predict the occurrence of errors was tested, taking both sets of observer contours as ground truth, using receiver operator characteristic analysis. The area under the curve was 0.90 and 0.85 for the observers, indicating good ability to predict the occurrence of errors. This tool could potentially be used to identify propagated contours that are likely to be incorrect, acting as a flag for manual review of these contours. This would make contour propagation more efficient, facilitating the routine implementation of adaptive radiotherapy.

  5. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model. PMID:26076406

  6. An automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, William J.; McWilliam, Alan; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Mackay, Ranald I.; van Herk, Marcel

    2016-12-01

    Contour propagation is an essential component of adaptive radiotherapy, but current contour propagation algorithms are not yet sufficiently accurate to be used without manual supervision. Manual review of propagated contours is time-consuming, making routine implementation of real-time adaptive radiotherapy unrealistic. Automated methods of monitoring the performance of contour propagation algorithms are therefore required. We have developed an automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation and validated it on a cohort of head and neck patients, on which parotids were outlined by two observers. Two types of error were simulated—mislabelling of contours and introducing noise in the scans before propagation. The ability of the workflow to correctly predict the occurrence of errors was tested, taking both sets of observer contours as ground truth, using receiver operator characteristic analysis. The area under the curve was 0.90 and 0.85 for the observers, indicating good ability to predict the occurrence of errors. This tool could potentially be used to identify propagated contours that are likely to be incorrect, acting as a flag for manual review of these contours. This would make contour propagation more efficient, facilitating the routine implementation of adaptive radiotherapy.

  7. Automated process flowsheet synthesis for membrane processes using genetic algorithm: role of crossover operators

    KAUST Repository

    Shafiee, Alireza

    2016-06-25

    In optimization-based process flowsheet synthesis, optimization methods, including genetic algorithms (GA), are used as advantageous tools to select a high performance flowsheet by ‘screening’ large numbers of possible flowsheets. In this study, we expand the role of GA to include flowsheet generation through proposing a modified Greedysub tour crossover operator. Performance of the proposed crossover operator is compared with four other commonly used operators. The proposed GA optimizationbased process synthesis method is applied to generate the optimum process flowsheet for a multicomponent membrane-based CO2 capture process. Within defined constraints and using the random-point crossover, CO2 purity of 0.827 (equivalent to 0.986 on dry basis) is achieved which results in improvement (3.4%) over the simplest crossover operator applied. In addition, the least variability in the converged flowsheet and CO2 purity is observed for random-point crossover operator, which approximately implies closeness of the solution to the global optimum, and hence the consistency of the algorithm. The proposed crossover operator is found to improve the convergence speed of the algorithm by 77.6%.

  8. A model based message passing approach for flexible and scalable home automation controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienhaus, D. [INNIAS GmbH und Co. KG, Frankenberg (Germany); David, K.; Klein, N.; Kroll, D. [ComTec Kassel Univ., SE Kassel Univ. (Germany); Heerdegen, F.; Jubeh, R.; Zuendorf, A. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). FG Software Engineering; Hofmann, J. [BSC Computer GmbH, Allendorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    There is a large variety of home automation systems that are largely proprietary systems from different vendors. In addition, the configuration and administration of home automation systems is frequently a very complex task especially, if more complex functionality shall be achieved. Therefore, an open model for home automation was developed that is especially designed for easy integration of various home automation systems. This solution also provides a simple modeling approach that is inspired by typical home automation components like switches, timers, etc. In addition, a model based technology to achieve rich functionality and usability was implemented. (orig.)

  9. A Closed-Loop Proportional-Integral (PI) Control Software for Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-23

    A closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control software is provided for fully mechanically controlled automated electron microscopic tomography. The software is developed based on Gatan DigitalMicrograph�, and is compatible with Zeiss LIBRA� 120 transmission electron microscope. However, it can be expanded to other TEM instrument with modification. The software consists of a graphical user interface, a digital PI controller, an image analyzing unit, and other drive units (i.e.: image acquire unit and goniometer drive unit). During a tomography data collection process, the image analyzing unit analyzes both the accumulated shift and defocus value of the latest acquired image, and provides the results to the digital PI controller. The digital PI control compares the results with the preset values and determines the optimum adjustments of the goniometer. The goniometer drive unit adjusts the spatial position of the specimen according to the instructions given by the digital PI controller for the next tilt angle and image acquisition. The goniometer drive unit achieves high precision positioning by using a backlash elimination method. The major benefits of the software are: 1) the goniometer drive unit keeps pre-aligned/optimized beam conditions unchanged and achieves position tracking solely through mechanical control; 2) the image analyzing unit relies on only historical data and therefore does not require additional images/exposures; 3) the PI controller enables the system to dynamically track the imaging target with extremely low system error.

  10. AUTOMATED DYNAMIC LOAD CONTROL BY ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF A BUCKET-CHAIN EXCAVATOR IN THE COURSE OF SCOOPING

    OpenAIRE

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    2012-01-01

    Methods and algorithms of control of the tension of lifting and towing ropes of bucket-chain excavators are proposed in the article. They are based on the non-linear dependence of the current path length and intensity of excavation efforts. Three automatic control modes, including scooping, correction signals and automatic overload protection, are implemented. Two independent control loops in charge of tension of lifting and towing ropes are developed. The proposed automated control syste...

  11. Automated Kick Control Procedure for an Influx in Managed Pressure Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within drilling of oil and gas wells, the Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD method with active control of wellbore pressure during drilling has partly evolved from conventional well control procedures. However, for MPD operations the instrumentation is typically more extensive compared to conventional drilling. Despite this, any influx of formation fluids (commonly known as a kick during MPD operations is typically handled by conventional well control methods, at least if the kick is estimated to be larger than a threshold value. Conventional well control procedures rely on manual control of the blow out preventer, pumps, and choke valves and do not capitalize on the benefits from the instrumentation level associated with MPD. This paper investigates two alternative well control procedures specially adapted to backpressure MPD: the dynamic shut-in (DSI procedure and the automatic kick control (AKC procedure. Both methods capitalize on improvements in Pressure While Drilling (PWD technology. A commercially available PWD tool buffers high-resolution pressure measurements, which can be used in an automated well control procedure. By using backpressure MPD, the choke valve opening is tuned automatically using a feedback-feedforward control method. The two procedures are evaluated using a high fidelity well flow model and cases from a North Sea drilling operation are simulated. The results show that using AKC procedure reduces the time needed to establish control of the well compared to DSI procedure. It also indicates that the AKC procedure reduces the total kick size compared to the DSI procedure, and thereby reduces the risk of lost circulation.

  12. Controlled synthesis of Zn{sup 0} nanoparticles by bioreduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizal, G. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Apartado Postal 14-805, C.P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Schabes-Retchkiman, P.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nal. Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, C.P. 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Liu, Hong Bo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Apartado Postal 14-805, C.P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ascencio, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Apartado Postal 14-805, C.P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: ascencio@imp.mx

    2006-06-10

    Synthesis of metallic Zn nanoparticles through bio-reduction methods is reported for the first time. The structure, shape and size of the nanoparticles are critically controlled through the pH used in the sample preparation. High resolution electron microscopy was used in order to determine the structure of individual nanoparticles. Formation of quantum dots and the efficiency of ion reduction in the synthesis process are studied through the optical absorption in colloids. The structure and stability of the Zn clusters (up to 4000 atoms) were determined through the calculation of minimum energy configurations using molecular and quantum mechanics approximations and image simulation. The structure of the obtained nanoparticles was preferentially hexagonal, although multiple twinned and fcc-like structures were identified. The size controlled synthesis of small nanoparticles in the quantum-dot range was demonstrated successfully.

  13. On the Automated Synthesis of Enterprise Integration Patterns to Adapt Choreography-based Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Autili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Future Internet is becoming a reality, providing a large-scale computing environments where a virtually infinite number of available services can be composed so to fit users' needs. Modern service-oriented applications will be more and more often built by reusing and assembling distributed services. A key enabler for this vision is then the ability to automatically compose and dynamically coordinate software services. Service choreographies are an emergent Service Engineering (SE approach to compose together and coordinate services in a distributed way. When mismatching third-party services are to be composed, obtaining the distributed coordination and adaptation logic required to suitably realize a choreography is a non-trivial and error prone task. Automatic support is then needed. In this direction, this paper leverages previous work on the automatic synthesis of choreography-based systems, and describes our preliminary steps towards exploiting Enterprise Integration Patterns to deal with a form of choreography adaptation.

  14. Automation of the 1.3-meter Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard; Treffers, Richard R.

    2011-03-01

    This poster describes the automation for the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) Consortium of the 50-inch telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Building upon the work of the previous contractor the telescope, dome and instrument were wired for totally autonomous (robotic) observations. The existing motors, encoders, limit switches and cables were connected to an open industrial panel that allows easy interconnection, troubleshooting and modifications. A sixteen axis Delta Tau Turbo PMAC controller is used to control all motors, encoders, flat field lights and many of the digital functions of the telescope. ADAM industrial I/O bricks are used for additional digital and analog I/O functions. Complex relay logic problems, such as the mirror cover opening sequence and the slit control, are managed using Allen Bradley Pico PLDs. Most of the low level software is written in C using the GNU compiler. The basic functionality uses an ASCII protocol communicating over Berkeley sockets. Early versions of this software were developed at U.C. Berkeley, for what was to become the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory. ASCII communications are useful for control, testing and easy to debug by looking at the log files; C-shell scripts are written to form more complex orchestrations.

  15. Automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme for a class of real complicated systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shahi; A H Mazinan

    2015-02-01

    A class of real complicated systems, including chemical reactions, biological systems, information processing, laser systems, electrical circuits, information exchange, brain activities modelling, secure communication and other related ones can be presented through nonlinear and non-identical hyper-chaotic systems. The main goal of the present investigation is to synchronize two non-identical hyperchaotic master/slave systems, which are given as the models of the complicated systems, based on the realization of an efficient automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme. In the research presented here, the mentioned systems need to be dealt with through the proposed control scheme, since two non-identical systems are completely synchronized. In one such case, the whole of the chosen states of the master and slave systems should be coincided after a few time steps, as long as the effect of the external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters could truly be ignored. Due to the fact that the investigated hyper-chaotic systems have taken into consideration as the representation of a number of complicated processes under mentioned external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters, the traditional control approaches cannot actually be realized, in satisfactory manners.With this purpose, the proposed control scheme has been designed to cope with synchronization error, in a reasonable amount of time, in order to drive applicable hyper-chaotic systems. Consequently, the performance of the proposed control scheme is considered and verified through the numerical simulations.

  16. Improved synthesis of [(18)F]FLETT via a fully automated vacuum distillation method for [(18)F]2-fluoroethyl azide purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Plougastel, Lucie; Goh, Yit Wooi; Yeoh, Shinn Dee; Scott, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    The synthesis of [(18)F]2-fluoroethyl azide and its subsequent click reaction with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EDU) to form [(18)F]FLETT was performed using an iPhase FlexLab module. The implementation of a vacuum distillation method afforded [(18)F]2-fluoroethyl azide in 87±5.3% radiochemical yield. The use of Cu(CH3CN)4PF6 and TBTA as catalyst enabled us to fully automate the [(18)F]FLETT synthesis without the need for the operator to enter the radiation field. [(18)F]FLETT was produced in higher overall yield (41.3±6.5%) and shorter synthesis time (67min) than with our previously reported manual method (32.5±2.5% in 130min).

  17. Optimal Control and Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Urban Traffic Intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue J. [Boston University; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Cassandras, Christos G. [Boston University

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of coordinating online a continuous flow of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) crossing two adjacent intersections in an urban area. We present a decentralized optimal control framework whose solution yields for each vehicle the optimal acceleration/deceleration at any time in the sense of minimizing fuel consumption. The solu- tion, when it exists, allows the vehicles to cross the intersections without the use of traffic lights, without creating congestion on the connecting road, and under the hard safety constraint of collision avoidance. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation considering two intersections located in downtown Boston, and it is shown that coordination of CAVs can reduce significantly both fuel consumption and travel time.

  18. 4D Trajectory Estimation for Air Traffic Control Automation System Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model

  19. Sfm_georef: Automating image measurement of ground control points for SfM-based projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mike R.

    2016-04-01

    Deriving accurate DEM and orthomosaic image products from UAV surveys generally involves the use of multiple ground control points (GCPs). Here, we demonstrate the automated collection of GCP image measurements for SfM-MVS processed projects, using sfm_georef software (James & Robson, 2012; http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm). Sfm_georef was originally written to provide geo-referencing procedures for SfM-MVS projects. It has now been upgraded with a 3-D patch-based matching routine suitable for automating GCP image measurement in both aerial and ground-based (oblique) projects, with the aim of reducing the time required for accurate geo-referencing. Sfm_georef is compatible with a range of SfM-MVS software and imports the relevant files that describe the image network, including camera models and tie points. 3-D survey measurements of ground control are then provided, either for natural features or artificial targets distributed over the project area. Automated GCP image measurement is manually initiated through identifying a GCP position in an image by mouse click; the GCP is then represented by a square planar patch in 3-D, textured from the image and oriented parallel to the local topographic surface (as defined by the 3-D positions of nearby tie points). Other images are then automatically examined by projecting the patch into the images (to account for differences in viewing geometry) and carrying out a sub-pixel normalised cross-correlation search in the local area. With two or more observations of a GCP, its 3-D co-ordinates are then derived by ray intersection. With the 3-D positions of three or more GCPs identified, an initial geo-referencing transform can be derived to relate the SfM-MVS co-ordinate system to that of the GCPs. Then, if GCPs are symmetric and identical, image texture from one representative GCP can be used to search automatically for all others throughout the image set. Finally, the GCP observations can be

  20. Impact of automation: Measurement of performance, workload and behaviour in a complex control environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to compare three levels of automation in rail signalling; a high level in which an automated agent set routes for trains using timetable information, a medium level in which trains were routed along pre-defined paths, and a low level where the operator (signaller) was responsible for the movement of all trains. These levels are described in terms of a Rail Automation Model based on previous automation theory (Parasuraman et al., 2000). Performance, subjective workload, and signaller activity were measured for each level of automation running under both normal operating conditions and abnormal, or disrupted, conditions. The results indicate that perceived workload, during both normal and disrupted phases of the experiment, decreased as the level of automation increased and performance was most consistent (i.e. showed the least variation between participants) with the highest level of automation. The results give a strong case in favour of automation, particularly in terms of demonstrating the potential for automation to reduce workload, but also suggest much benefit can achieved from a mid-level of automation potentially at a lower cost and complexity.

  1. Optimal Estimator Synthesis for Ship Dynamic Object Control

    OpenAIRE

    BIYA MOTTO Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Optimal estimator synthesis algorithm for dynamic ship system control is considered. Estimator is constructed in the form of Kalman gain as steady-state Kalman filter. Estimator design is realised by MATLAB codes using account of wind gust noise with a set spectral intensity

  2. Autopilot Control Synthesis for Path Tracking Maneuvers of Underwater Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sam-Sang YOU; Hyeung-Sik CHOI; Hwan-Seong KIM; Han-Il PARK

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the robust control synthesis of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for general path following maneuvers. First, we present maneuvering kinematics and vehicle dynamics in a unified framework. Based on H loop-shaping procedure, the 2-DOF autopilot controller has been presented to enhance stability and path tracking.By use of model reduction, the high-order control system is reduced to one with reasonable order, and further the scaled low-order controller has been analyzed in both the frequency and the time domains. Finally, it is shown that the autopilot control system provides robust performance and stability against prescribed levels of uncertainty.

  3. Modeling and control of tissue compression and temperature for automation in robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Utkarsh; Li, Baichun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is being used widely due to its various benefits that includes reduced patient trauma and increased dexterity and ergonomics for the operating surgeon. Making the whole or part of the surgical procedure autonomous increases patient safety and will enable the robotic surgery platform to be used in telesurgery. In this work, an Electrosurgery procedure that involves tissue compression and application of heat such as the coaptic vessel closure has been automated. A MIMO nonlinear model characterizing the tissue stiffness and conductance under compression was feedback linearized and tuned PID controllers were used to control the system to achieve both the displacement and temperature constraints. A reference input for both the constraints were chosen as a ramp and hold trajectory which reflect the real constraints that exist in an actual surgical procedure. Our simulations showed that the controllers successfully tracked the reference trajectories with minimal deviation and in finite time horizon. The MIMO system with controllers developed in this work can be used to drive a surgical robot autonomously and perform electrosurgical procedures such as coaptic vessel closures.

  4. Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm for System Identification and Controller Optimization of Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA with Pareto optimality and elitist tactics for the control system design of automated guided vehicle (AGV. The MOGA is used to identify AGV driving system model and optimize its servo control system sequentially. In system identification, the model identified by least square method is adopted as an evolution tutor who selects the individuals having balanced performances in all objectives as elitists. In controller optimization, the velocity regulating capability required by AGV path tracking is employed as decision-making preferences which select Pareto optimal solutions as elitists. According to different objectives and elitist tactics, several sub-populations are constructed and they evolve concurrently by using independent reproduction, neighborhood mutation and heuristic crossover. The lossless finite precision method and the multi-objective normalized increment distance are proposed to keep the population diversity with a low computational complexity. Experiment results show that the cascaded MOGA have the capability to make the system model consistent with AGV driving system both in amplitude and phase, and to make its servo control system satisfy the requirements on dynamic performance and steady-state accuracy in AGV path tracking.

  5. Intelligent systems approach for automated identification of individual control behavior of a human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.

    Acceptable results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator's control behavior. However, little research has been done in an attempt to identify an individual based on his/her control behavior. The main hypothesis investigated in this dissertation is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Furthermore, inter-person differences are manifested in the amplitude and frequency content of the non-linear component of the control behavior. Two enhancements to the existing models of the human operator, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented in this dissertation. One of the proposed enhancements accounts for the "testing" control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust his/her control strategy. Such enhancement uses the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which can be fine-tuned to model the "testing" control behavior of a given individual. The other model enhancement took the form of an equiripple filter (EF), which conditions the power spectrum of the control signal before it is passed through the plant dynamics block. The filter design technique uses Parks-McClellan algorithm, which allows parameterization of the desired levels of power at certain frequencies. A novel automated parameter identification technique (APID) was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models of the human operator. APID utilizes a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization engine called the Bit-climbing Algorithm (BCA). Proposed model enhancements were validated using the experimental data obtained at three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. Validation analysis involves comparison of the actual and simulated control

  6. AutoSyn:A new approach to automated synthesis of composite web services with correctness guarantee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAI JinPeng; DENG Ting; LI XianXian; DU ZongXia; GUO HuiPeng

    2009-01-01

    How to compose existing web services automatically and to guarantee the correctness of the design (e.g.freeness of deadlock and unspecified reception,and temporal constraints) is an important and challenging problem in web services.Most existing approaches require a detailed specification of the desired behaviors of a composite service beforehand and then perform certain formal verification to guarantee the correctness of the design,which makes the composition process both complex and time-consuming.In this paper,we propose a novel approach,referred to as AutoSyn to compose web services,where the correctness is guaranteed in the synthesis process.For a given set of services,a composite service is automatically constructed based on L* algorithm,which guarantees that the composite service is the most general way of coordinating services so that the correctness is ensured.We show the soundness and completeness of our solution and give a set of optimization techniques for reducing the time consumption.We have implemented a prototype system of AutoSyn and evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of AutoSyn through an experimental study.

  7. Control synthesis for polynomial nonlinear systems and application in attitude control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-fei TONG; Hui ZHANG; You-xian SUN

    2008-01-01

    A method for positive polynomial validation based on polynomial decomposition is proposed to deal with control synthesis problems. Detailed algorithms for decomposition are given which mainly consider how to convert coefficients of a polynomial to a matrix with free variables. Then, the positivity of a polynomial is checked by the decomposed matrix with semidefinite programming solvers. A nonlinear control law is presented for single input polynomial systems based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. The control synthesis method is advanced to multi-input systems further. An application in attitude control is finally presented. The proposed control law achieves effective performance as illustrated by the numerical example.

  8. Modelling of Fuzzy Control Modes for the Automated Pumping Station of the Oil and Gas Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdatullin, A.; Muravyova, E.; Sharipov, M.

    2016-06-01

    An attempt has been made to explain to the scientific and technical establishment the fact that the fuzzy controllers with input/output parameters represented by the set of precise terms of automate control objects, which operative algorithm is verbally presented as a unique experience of experts in the domain, in simpler way, with higher speed, slighter error and less costs as compared with the standard fuzzy controllers.

  9. METHOD OF PLANNING CONTROL AUTOMATED SYSTEM INTEGRITY IN THE OPERATION AND SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton S. Lysunets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problems of monitoring the integrity of sophisticated banking systems in the accompaniment. The understanding of the level of integrity of the automated system is described using estimates of the integrity level of the planning methodology of testing the automated banking system. Results of the article would be used in courses on Software Engineering and Banking Systems Automation

  10. Fully automated synthesis of (phosphopeptide arrays in microtiter plate wells provides efficient access to protein tyrosine kinase characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein David J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic peptides have played a useful role in studies of protein kinase substrates and interaction domains. Synthetic peptide arrays and libraries, in particular, have accelerated the process. Several factors have hindered or limited the applicability of various techniques, such as the need for deconvolution of combinatorial libraries, the inability or impracticality of achieving full automation using two-dimensional or pin solid phases, the lack of convenient interfacing with standard analytical platforms, or the difficulty of compartmentalization of a planar surface when contact between assay components needs to be avoided. This paper describes a process for synthesis of peptides and phosphopeptides on microtiter plate wells that overcomes previous limitations and demonstrates utility in determination of the epitope of an autophosphorylation site phospho-motif antibody and utility in substrate utilization assays of the protein tyrosine kinase, p60c-src. Results The overall reproducibility of phospho-peptide synthesis and multiplexed EGF receptor (EGFR autophosphorylation site (pY1173 antibody ELISA (9H2 was within 5.5 to 8.0%. Mass spectrometric analyses of the released (phosphopeptides showed homogeneous peaks of the expected molecular weights. An overlapping peptide array of the complete EGFR cytoplasmic sequence revealed a high redundancy of 9H2 reactive sites. The eight reactive phospopeptides were structurally related and interestingly, the most conserved antibody reactive peptide motif coincided with a subset of other known EGFR autophosphorylation and SH2 binding motifs and an EGFR optimal substrate motif. Finally, peptides based on known substrate specificities of c-src and related enzymes were synthesized in microtiter plate array format and were phosphorylated by c-Src with the predicted specificities. The level of phosphorylation was proportional to c-Src concentration with sensitivities below 0.1 Units of

  11. Dynamic planning of navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in an automated flight test control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtsov, D. A.; Karpov, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    This study considers an approach to planning navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in the course of preparing for and carrying out an active flight test in an automated flight test control system. The approach is based on special information and mathematical software. The performance indices of the navigation determination subsystem are studied. Results of simulated modeling are provided.

  12. Automated agents for management and control of the ALICE Computing Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoras, C.; Betev, L.; Carminati, F.; Legrand, I.; Voicu, R.

    2010-04-01

    A complex software environment such as the ALICE Computing Grid infrastructure requires permanent control and management for the large set of services involved. Automating control procedures reduces the human interaction with the various components of the system and yields better availability of the overall system. In this paper we will present how we used the MonALISA framework to gather, store and display the relevant metrics in the entire system from central and remote site services. We will also show the automatic local and global procedures that are triggered by the monitored values. Decision-taking agents are used to restart remote services, alert the operators in case of problems that cannot be automatically solved, submit production jobs, replicate and analyze raw data, resource load-balance and other control mechanisms that optimize the overall work flow and simplify day-to-day operations. Synthetic graphical views for all operational parameters, correlations, state of services and applications as well as the full history of all monitoring metrics are available for the ent ire system that now encompasses 85 sites all over the world, mo re than 14000 CPU cores and 10PB of storage.

  13. PLC在工业自动化控制中的应用%Application of PLC in Industrial Automation Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗勇

    2012-01-01

    叙述了PLC在工业自动化控制中的应用,并对可编程器PLC进行了简要介绍,分析了PLC的通信功能和特点,探讨了PLC在工业自动化领域的未来发展。%The author described application of PLC in industrial automation control, and briefly introduced PLC. Then, the author analyzed of communication function and features of PLC, and discussed future development of PLC in industrial automation field.

  14. Positive Real Synthesis of Networked Control System An LMI Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Riyanto, Bambang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the positive real analysis and synthesis for Networked Control Systems (NCS) in discrete time. Based on the definition of passivity, the sufficient condition of NCS is given by stochastic Lyapunov functional. The controller via state feedback is designed to guarantee the stability of NCS and closed-loop positive realness. It is shown that a mode-dependent positive real controller exists if a set of coupled linear matrix inequalities has solutions. The controller can be then constructed in terms of the solutions.

  15. Controller synthesis for negative imaginary systems: a data driven approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    The negative imaginary (NI) property occurs in many important applications. For instance, flexible structure systems with collocated force actuators and position sensors can be modelled as negative imaginary systems. In this study, a data-driven controller synthesis methodology for NI systems is presented. In this approach, measured frequency response data of the plant is used to construct the controller frequency response at every frequency by minimising a cost function. Then, this controller response is used to identify the controller transfer function using system identification methods. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016.

  16. Nitrogen control of photosynthetic protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1986-09-01

    Plant growth is severely affected by impaired photosynthesis resulting from nitrogen deficiency. The molecular aspects of this effect are being studied in the green alga Chlamydomonas grown in continuous culture systems. Photosynthetic membranes of nitrogen-limited cells are dramatically depleted in chlorophylls, xanthophylls and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes. In contrast, enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and electron transport chain complexes are reduced only 40 to 65% on a per cell basis comparison with nitrogen-sufficient cultures. From analyses of mRNA levels by in vitro translation and hybridization analyses with cloned DNA sequences for photosynthetic proteins, we have found there are rather minor effects of nitrogen deficiency on nuclear or chloroplast gene transcription. Maturation of a transcript of the nuclear-encoded small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase is inhibited in nitrogen-deficient cells and causes accumulation of large amounts of mRNA precursors. Most of the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic proteins appear to result from posttranscriptional regulatory processes: light-harvesting protein synthesis may be sustained but their import into chloroplasts or translocation to photosynthetic membranes is impaired. Nitrogen-deficient cells lack violaxanthin, a pigment that is essential for the structure, function and biogenesis of the major antenna complexes. The absence of this pigment may be a causative factor for the deficiency of light harvesting complexes. Finally, the accumulation of massive amounts of starch and triglycerides in nitrogen-limited cells indicate there are some genes whose maximal expression is dependent upon nitrogen-limiting conditions. 10 refs.

  17. Steam generation process control and automation; Automacao e controle no processo de geracao de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Junior, Jose Cleodon de; Silva, Walmy Andre C.M. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) in the steam generation process for injection in heavy oil fields of the Alto do Rodrigues Production Asset, developed by PETROBRAS/E and P/UN-RNCE. This Asset is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, in Rio Grande do Norte State. It addresses to the steam generators for injection in oil wells and the upgrade project that installed remote terminal units and a new panel controlled by PLC, changed all the pneumatic transmitters by electronic and incorporated the steam quality and oxygen control, providing the remote supervision of the process. It also discusses the improvements obtained in the steam generation after the changes in the conception of the control and safety systems. (author)

  18. Model-Driven Development of Automation and Control Applications: Modeling and Simulation of Control Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Vepsäläinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope and responsibilities of control applications are increasing due to, for example, the emergence of industrial internet. To meet the challenge, model-driven development techniques have been in active research in the application domain. Simulations that have been traditionally used in the domain, however, have not yet been sufficiently integrated to model-driven control application development. In this paper, a model-driven development process that includes support for design-time simulations is complemented with support for simulating sequential control functions. The approach is implemented with open source tools and demonstrated by creating and simulating a control system model in closed-loop with a large and complex model of a paper industry process.

  19. Synthesis Methods for Robust Passification and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Atul G.; Joshi, Suresh M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The research effort under this cooperative agreement has been essentially the continuation of the work from previous grants. The ongoing work has primarily focused on developing passivity-based control techniques for Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) systems. During this period, there has been a significant progress made in the area of passivity-based control of LTI systems and some preliminary results have also been obtained for nonlinear systems, as well. The prior work has addressed optimal control design for inherently passive as well as non- passive linear systems. For exploiting the robustness characteristics of passivity-based controllers the passification methodology was developed for LTI systems that are not inherently passive. Various methods of passification were first proposed in and further developed. The robustness of passification was addressed for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems for certain classes of uncertainties using frequency-domain methods. For MIMO systems, a state-space approach using Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI)-based formulation was presented, for passification of non-passive LTI systems. An LMI-based robust passification technique was presented for systems with redundant actuators and sensors. The redundancy in actuators and sensors was used effectively for robust passification using the LMI formulation. The passification was designed to be robust to an interval-type uncertainties in system parameters. The passification techniques were used to design a robust controller for Benchmark Active Control Technology wing under parametric uncertainties. The results on passive nonlinear systems, however, are very limited to date. Our recent work in this area was presented, wherein some stability results were obtained for passive nonlinear systems that are affine in control.

  20. Quantized Feedback Control Software Synthesis from System Level Formal Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, Federico; Salvo, Ivano; Tronci, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems (SBCSs), that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of SBCS control software. We present an algorithm, along with a tool QKS implementing it, that from a formal model (as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System, DTLHS) of the controlled system (plant), implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the Analog-to-Digital, AD, conversion) and System Level Formal Specifications (that is, safety and liveness requirements for the closed loop system) returns correct-by-construction control software that has a Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) linear in the number of AD bits and meets the given specifications. We show feasibility of our approach by presenting experimental results on using it to synthesize control software for a buck DC-DC converter, a widely used mixed-mode analog circuit.

  1. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  2. Predictive Sea State Estimation for Automated Ride Control and Handling - PSSEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Howard, Andrew B.; Aghazarian, Hrand; Rankin, Arturo L.

    2012-01-01

    PSSEARCH provides predictive sea state estimation, coupled with closed-loop feedback control for automated ride control. It enables a manned or unmanned watercraft to determine the 3D map and sea state conditions in its vicinity in real time. Adaptive path-planning/ replanning software and a control surface management system will then use this information to choose the best settings and heading relative to the seas for the watercraft. PSSEARCH looks ahead and anticipates potential impact of waves on the boat and is used in a tight control loop to adjust trim tabs, course, and throttle settings. The software uses sensory inputs including IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit), stereo, radar, etc. to determine the sea state and wave conditions (wave height, frequency, wave direction) in the vicinity of a rapidly moving boat. This information can then be used to plot a safe path through the oncoming waves. The main issues in determining a safe path for sea surface navigation are: (1) deriving a 3D map of the surrounding environment, (2) extracting hazards and sea state surface state from the imaging sensors/map, and (3) planning a path and control surface settings that avoid the hazards, accomplish the mission navigation goals, and mitigate crew injuries from excessive heave, pitch, and roll accelerations while taking into account the dynamics of the sea surface state. The first part is solved using a wide baseline stereo system, where 3D structure is determined from two calibrated pairs of visual imagers. Once the 3D map is derived, anything above the sea surface is classified as a potential hazard and a surface analysis gives a static snapshot of the waves. Dynamics of the wave features are obtained from a frequency analysis of motion vectors derived from the orientation of the waves during a sequence of inputs. Fusion of the dynamic wave patterns with the 3D maps and the IMU outputs is used for efficient safe path planning.

  3. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.

  4. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light.

  5. Classification Trees for Quality Control Processes in Automated Constructed Response Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David M.; Hone, Anne S.; Miller, Susan; Bejar, Isaac I.

    As the automated scoring of constructed responses reaches operational status, the issue of monitoring the scoring process becomes a primary concern, particularly when the goal is to have automated scoring operate completely unassisted by humans. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination and data for 326 cases with both human…

  6. A Multi-core Heterogeneous Programmable Automation Controller System of Construction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guoqing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two main issues, high cost and interrupt response delay for current PACs (programmable automation controllers which are using high frequency single-chip microprocessors and commercial RTOS (real-time operating system working by switching the tasks and interrupts. To solve these problems, a new low-cost multi-core heterogeneous PAC structure was proposed. Based on the traditional front-end of interrupt service without interrupt switching delay and the division & deployment of multi real-time tasks. We implemented a new programming language Engineer C including its syntax, compiler and an integrated development environment, which can dynamically divide the multi tasks and deploy the division to single low-cost microcontroller, then built the hardware prototype, which consists of a digital signal board, an analog signal board and a motion control board, every board has its microcontroller and communicates each other by an enhanced SPI bus. Testing results show the hardware prototype and IDE can be provided as a low-cost PAC solution for construction machine.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Security Entry Control Programs: Security Forces versus Automated Entry Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Performance, Uci . ’*. Now York: John Wiley & Sons, 19B4*. Austin, Brian 1B. "Controlling Physical Access From a Central Location." Securitu Mianaement...needed to accomplish tasks rver a period of time. Eating, if not properly approached, can cause malnutrition or improper nutrition, definitely

  8. Flight control synthesis for flexible aircraft using Eigenspace assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. B.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of eigenspace assignment techniques to synthesize flight control systems for flexible aircraft is explored. Eigenspace assignment techniques are used to achieve a specified desired eigenspace, chosen to yield desirable system impulse residue magnitudes for selected system responses. Two of these are investigated. The first directly determines constant measurement feedback gains that will yield a close-loop system eigenspace close to a desired eigenspace. The second technique selects quadratic weighting matrices in a linear quadratic control synthesis that will asymptotically yield the close-loop achievable eigenspace. Finally, the possibility of using either of these techniques with state estimation is explored. Application of the methods to synthesize integrated flight-control and structural-mode-control laws for a large flexible aircraft is demonstrated and results discussed. Eigenspace selection criteria based on design goals are discussed, and for the study case it would appear that a desirable eigenspace can be obtained. In addition, the importance of state-space selection is noted along with problems with reduced-order measurement feedback. Since the full-state control laws may be implemented with dynamic compensation (state estimation), the use of reduced-order measurement feedback is less desirable. This is especially true since no change in the transient response from the pilot's input results if state estimation is used appropriately. The potential is also noted for high actuator bandwidth requirements if the linear quadratic synthesis approach is utilized. Even with the actuator pole location selected, a problem with unmodeled modes is noted due to high bandwidth. Some suggestions for future research include investigating how to choose an eigenspace that will achieve certain desired dynamics and stability robustness, determining how the choice of measurements effects synthesis results, and exploring how the phase relationships between desired

  9. Robust parameter design for automatically controlled systems and nanostructure synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar

    2007-12-01

    This research focuses on developing comprehensive frameworks for developing robust parameter design methodology for dynamic systems with automatic control and for synthesis of nanostructures. In many automatically controlled dynamic processes, the optimal feedback control law depends on the parameter design solution and vice versa and therefore an integrated approach is necessary. A parameter design methodology in the presence of feedback control is developed for processes of long duration under the assumption that experimental noise factors are uncorrelated over time. Systems that follow a pure-gain dynamic model are considered and the best proportional-integral and minimum mean squared error control strategies are developed by using robust parameter design. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulated example and a case study in a urea packing plant. This idea is also extended to cases with on-line noise factors. The possibility of integrating feedforward control with a minimum mean squared error feedback control scheme is explored. To meet the needs of large scale synthesis of nanostructures, it is critical to systematically find experimental conditions under which the desired nanostructures are synthesized reproducibly, at large quantity and with controlled morphology. The first part of the research in this area focuses on modeling and optimization of existing experimental data. Through a rigorous statistical analysis of experimental data, models linking the probabilities of obtaining specific morphologies to the process variables are developed. A new iterative algorithm for fitting a Multinomial GLM is proposed and used. The optimum process conditions, which maximize the above probabilities and make the synthesis process less sensitive to variations of process variables around set values, are derived from the fitted models using Monte-Carlo simulations. The second part of the research deals with development of an experimental design methodology, tailor

  10. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  11. On the synthesis of the pilot optimal control model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study continues some work of the authors, this time performing a synthesis of optimal control model of the human pilot in systems with input delay, by removing the Padé or Hess approximations characterizing the pilot structural central nervous block and their introduction as a pure delay block. On the one hand, the method ensures a better accuracy of synthesis and on the other hand is advantageous with respect to general results to date for time delay systems since: a the optimal control law is given explicitly and b the Riccati equations for the gain matrices do not contain any time advanced or delayed arguments. The approach is stimulated by recent works of M. Basin and his collaborators.

  12. Synthesis of porous gold nanoshells by controlled transmetallation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattabi, Manjunatha, E-mail: manjupattabi@yahoo.com; M, Krishnaprabha [Department of Materials Science, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Aqueous synthesis of porous gold nanoshells in one step is carried out through controlled transmetallation (TM) reaction using a naturally available egg shell membrane (ESM) as a barrier between the sacrificial silver particles (AgNPs) and the gold precursor solution (HAuCl{sub 4}). The formation of porous gold nanoshells via TM reaction is inferred from UV-Vis spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies.

  13. Controlling Silver Nanoparticle Size and Morphology with Photostimulated Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, A K; Langlois, R; Loth, M; Schmitz, R; Taft, G; Tanke, R S; Wruck, A

    2005-01-01

    Photo-induced synthesis and control over the size and shape of colloidal silver nanoparticles is investigated in contrast to photo-stimulated aggregation of small nanoparticles into large fractal-type structures. The feasibility of light-driven nanoengineering which enables manipulation of the sizes and shapes of the isolated nanoparticles is studied by varying the amount and type of the stabilizing agent and the type of optical irradiation.

  14. Automatic controller to water plants Acionador automático para irrigar plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Medici

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the massive demand of water for plant irrigation, there are few devices being used in the automation of this process in agriculture. This work evaluates a simple controller to water plants automatically that can be set up with low cost commercial materials, which are large-scale produced. This controller is composed by a ceramic capsule used in common domestic water filters; a plastic tube around 1.5 m long, and a pressostate used in domestic washing machines. The capsule and the pressostate are connected through the tube so that all parts are filled with water. The ceramic capsule is the sensor of the controller and has to be placed into the plant substrate. The pressostate has to be placed below the sensor and the lower it is, the higher is the water tension to start the irrigation, since the lower is the pressostate the higher is the water column above it and, therefore, the higher is the tension inside the ceramic cup to pull up the water column. The controller was evaluated in the control of drip irrigation for small containers filled with commercial organic substrate or soil. Linear regressions explained the relationship between the position of pressostate and the maximum water tension in the commercial substrate (p A despeito da enorme demanda por água na irrigação de plantas, existem poucos aparelhos para automação deste processo sendo usados na agricultura. Avaliou-se um acionador automático para irrigação, o qual pode ser confeccionado com materiais comerciais de baixo custo, pois são produzidos em larga escala. Este acionador é composto por uma cápsula cerâmica usada em filtros de água domésticos; um tubo plástico com cerca de um metro e meio de comprimento e um pressostato de máquinas de lavar roupas domésticas. A cápsula e o pressostato são conectados pelo tubo de forma que todo o espaço interno seja preenchido com água. A cápsula é o sensor do acionador e deve ser posicionada dentro do substrato das

  15. F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. Computer Implementation of the F100 Multivariable Control Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    As turbofan engines become more complex, the development of controls necessitate the use of multivariable control techniques. A control developed for the F100-PW-100(3) turbofan engine by using linear quadratic regulator theory and other modern multivariable control synthesis techniques is described. The assembly language implementation of this control on an SEL 810B minicomputer is described. This implementation was then evaluated by using a real-time hybrid simulation of the engine. The control software was modified to run with a real engine. These modifications, in the form of sensor and actuator failure checks and control executive sequencing, are discussed. Finally recommendations for control software implementations are presented.

  16. Automated characterization of varnishes photo-degradation using portable T-controlled Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osticioli, I.; Ciofini, D.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Siano, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a portable-Raman device (excitation wavelength 1064 nm) was employed for the first time for continuously monitoring the complex molecular dynamics of terpenoid resins (dammar, mastic, colophony, sandarac and shellac), which occur during their ageing under artificial light exposure. The instrumentation was equipped with a pyroelectric sensor allowing for temperature control of the sample's irradiated surface while the acquisition of spectra occurs by setting fixed maximum temperature and total radiant exposure. Resins were dropped into special pits over a dedicated rotating wheel moved by a USB motor. The rotation allowed samples sliding between the positions designated for the acquisition of the Raman spectra and that for artificial ageing. Samples were exposed to artificial light for 45-days and almost 400 spectra for each resin sample were collected. The exposure to artificial light led to significant changes allowing the characterization of the alteration process. The automated acquisition of a large number of spectra overtime during light-exposure has given the possibility to distinguish fast dynamics, mainly associated to solvent evaporation, from those slower due to resins photo-degradation processes.

  17. AUTOMATION OF QUALITY CONTROL OF MILK HOMOGENIZATION BY ULTRASONIC SPECTROSCOPY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility of determining homogenization degree of milk and dairy products using ultrasonic vibrations absorption spectra. Advantages of this method application in automated manufacturing systems were examined. Theoretical background of the method, as well as the possibility of determining the distribution of the fat globules in milk, depending on their sizes were substantiated. We derived mathematical equations, showing the relationship between the homogenization degree of dairy products and the acoustic properties of the medium, such as the propagation velocity of ultrasonic vibrations in the medium tested and the absorption coefficient in the medium at a specific frequency of the ultrasonic impact and medium temperature. It was shown that the measurement of the propagation of the milk acoustic properties in frequency, evaluation of their density function of the relaxation times spectrum, and then from the relaxation times to the particles masses allow operational control of the fat globules masses distribution in fractions. Theoretical studies were confirmed by experimental research carrying out whose results demonstrate clearly the dependence of absorption degree of ultrasonic vibrations on the degree of milk homogenization. The dependence between the estimates of the relaxation spectra and the first two moments of the statistical distribution of milk fat globules, which demonstrated their relationship was studied. Possible improvements the method under consideration to increase the reliability of the results obtained were proposed.

  18. Heating automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  19. Microstructure synthesis control of biological polyhydroxyalkanoates with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Erik Norman

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA's) are a class of biologically produced polymers, or plastic, that is synthesized by various microorganisms. PHA's are made from biorenewable resources and are fully biodegradable and biocompatible, making them an environmentally friendly green polymer. A method of incorporating polymer microstructure into the PHA synthesized in Ralstonia eutropha was developed. These microstructures were synthesized with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the polymer domains. To synthesize the PHB V copolymer, the additional presence of valerate was required. To control valerate substrate additions to the bioreactor, an off-gas mass spectrometry (MS) feedback control system was developed. Important process information including the cell physiology, growth kinetics, and product formation kinetics in the bioreactor was obtained with MS and used to control microstructure synthesis. The two polymer microstructures synthesized were core-shell granules and block copolymers. Block copolymers control the structure of the individual polymer chains while core-shell granules control the organization of many polymer chains. Both these microstructures result in properties unattainable by blending the two polymers together. The core-shell structures were synthesized with controlled domain thickness based on a developed model. Different block copolymers compositions were synthesized by varying the switching time of the substrate pulses responsible for block copolymer synthesis. The block copolymers were tested to determine their chemical properties and cast into films to determine the materials properties. These block copolymer films possessed new properties not achieved by copolymers or blends of the two polymers.

  20. Integrating Prognostics in Automated Contingency Management Strategies for Advanced Aircraft Controls Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated Contingency Management (ACM) is an emerging and game-changing area of engineering and scientific research that integrates prognostics and health management...

  1. Controllable synthesis and characterization of alumina/MWNT nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, Zoltan; Hernadi, Klara [Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Rerrich Bela ter 1, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Marko, Kata; Erdohelyi, Andras [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, University of Szeged, Aradi ter 2, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Forro, Laszlo [Laboratory of Physics of Complex Matter, IPMC, EPFL, 1026 Ecublens (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a controllable synthesis pathway which produces a stable alumina layer on the surface of carbon nanotubes by impregnation method. Precursor compounds such as aluminium isopropoxide and aluminium-acetyl-acetonate were used to cover the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) under different solvent conditions. As-prepared alumina coverages were characterized by TEM, SEM, SEM-EDX, TG and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results revealed that homogeneous coverage can be achieved in a controllable way. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Games for Synthesis of Controllers with Partial Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, André; Vincent, Aymeric; Walukiewicz, Igor

    2003-01-01

    it is equivalent to automata with loop testing. The problems such as emptiness testing and elimination of alternation are solvable for such automata.The method proposed in this paper to solve a control problem consists in transforming this problem into a problem of satisfiability of a µ-calculus formula so...... that the set of models of this formula is exactly the set of controllers that solve the problem. This transformation relies on a simple construction of the quotient of automata with loop testing by a deterministic transition system. This is enough to deal with centralized control problems. The solution......The synthesis of controllers for discrete event systems, as introduced by Ramadge and Wonham, amounts to computing winning strategies in parity games. We show that in this framework it is possible to extend the specifications of the supervised systems as well as the constraints on the controllers...

  3. GCE Data Toolbox for MATLAB - a software framework for automating environmental data processing, quality control and documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W.; Chamblee, J.; Cary, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental scientists are under increasing pressure from funding agencies and journal publishers to release quality-controlled data in a timely manner, as well as to produce comprehensive metadata for submitting data to long-term archives (e.g. DataONE, Dryad and BCO-DMO). At the same time, the volume of digital data that researchers collect and manage is increasing rapidly due to advances in high frequency electronic data collection from flux towers, instrumented moorings and sensor networks. However, few pre-built software tools are available to meet these data management needs, and those tools that do exist typically focus on part of the data management lifecycle or one class of data. The GCE Data Toolbox has proven to be both a generalized and effective software solution for environmental data management in the Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTER). This open source MATLAB software library, developed by the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER program, integrates metadata capture, creation and management with data processing, quality control and analysis to support the entire data lifecycle. Raw data can be imported directly from common data logger formats (e.g. SeaBird, Campbell Scientific, YSI, Hobo), as well as delimited text files, MATLAB files and relational database queries. Basic metadata are derived from the data source itself (e.g. parsed from file headers) and by value inspection, and then augmented using editable metadata templates containing boilerplate documentation, attribute descriptors, code definitions and quality control rules. Data and metadata content, quality control rules and qualifier flags are then managed together in a robust data structure that supports database functionality and ensures data validity throughout processing. A growing suite of metadata-aware editing, quality control, analysis and synthesis tools are provided with the software to support managing data using graphical forms and command-line functions, as well as

  4. Controlled synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Gouder, Thomas; Courtois, Eglantine; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2013-04-22

    Very little is known about the size and shape effects on the properties of actinide compounds. As a consequence, the controlled synthesis of well-defined actinide-based nanocrystals constitutes a fundamental step before studying their corresponding properties. In this paper, we report on the non-aqueous surfactant-assisted synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nanocrystals. The final characteristics of thorium and uranium oxide nanocrystals can be easily tuned by controlling a few experimental parameters such as the nature of the actinide precursor and the composition of the organic system (e.g., the chemical nature of the surfactants and their relative concentrations). Additionally, the influence of these parameters on the outcome of the synthesis is highly dependent on the nature of the actinide element (thorium versus uranium). By using optimised experimental conditions, monodisperse isotropic uranium oxide nanocrystals with different sizes (4.5 and 10.7 nm) as well as branched nanocrystals (overall size ca. 5 nm), nanodots (ca. 4 nm) and nanorods (with ultra-small diameters of 1 nm) of thorium oxide were synthesised.

  5. Size Controlled Synthesis of Transition Metal Nanoparticles for Catalytic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Esparza, Angel

    2011-07-07

    Catalysis offers cleaner and more efficient chemical reactions for environmental scientists. More than 90% of industrial processes are performed with a catalyst involved, however research it is still required to improve the catalyst materials. The purpose of this work is to contribute with the development of catalysts synthesis with two different approaches. First, the precise size control of non-noble metals nanoparticles. Second, a new one-pot synthesis method based on a microemulsion system was developed to synthesize size-controlled metal nanoparticles in oxide supports. The one-pot method represents a simple approach to synthesize both support and immobilized nanometer-sized non-noble metal nanoparticles in the same reaction system. Narrow size distribution nickel, cobalt, iron and cobalt-nickel nanoparticles were obtained. High metal dispersions are attainable regardless the metal or support used in the synthesis. Thus, the methodology is adaptable and robust. The sizecontrolled supported metal nanoparticles offer the opportunity to study size effects and metal-support interactions on different catalytic reactions with different sets of metals and supports.

  6. Coating synthesis controlled by electron-beam heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, A. I.; Knyazeva, A. G.; Pobol, I. L.

    2016-07-01

    The methods of combined electron-beam treatment of parts made of steel with one- and two-layer coatings are studied experimentally. Ti-Ni, Ni-Al and Al-Ti systems were used as the examples in the experiments. The mathematical model is suggested for coating formation in the controlled regime of high temperature synthesis during high energy source motion along the preliminarily deposited layer of exothermic composition. The study takes into account the difference in thermophysical properties of the materials of coating and substrate, heat release from chemical reaction that leads to the coating properties formation and other factors. The realization of the synthesis depends on technological parameters. Various regimes of the treatment process are investigated numerically.

  7. Microfluidic Reactors for the Controlled Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emine Yegan

    Nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention in the past few decades due to their unique, size-dependent properties. In order to use these nanoparticles in devices or sensors effectively, it is important to maintain uniform properties throughout the system; therefore nanoparticles need to have uniform sizes -- or monodisperse. In order to achieve monodispersity, an extreme control over the reaction conditions is required during their synthesis. These reaction conditions such as temperature, concentration of reagents, residence times, etc. affect the structure of nanoparticles dramatically; therefore when the conditions vary locally in the reaction vessel, different sized nanoparticles form, causing polydispersity. In widely-used batch wise synthesis techniques, large sized reaction vessels are used to mix and heat reagents. In these types of systems, it is very hard to avoid thermal gradients and to achieve rapid mixing times as well as to control residence times. Also it is not possible to make rapid changes in the reaction parameters during the synthesis. The other drawback of conventional methods is that it is not possible to separate the nucleation of nanoparticles from their growth; this leads to combined nucleation and growth and subsequently results in polydisperse size distributions. Microfluidics is an alternative method by which the limitations of conventional techniques can be addressed. Due to the small size, it is possible to control temperature and concentration of reagents precisely as well as to make rapid changes in mixing ratios of reagents or temperature of the reaction zones. There have been several microfluidic reactors -- (microreactors) in literature that were designed to improve the size distribution of nanoparticles. In this work, two novel microfluidic systems were developed for achieving controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The first microreactor was made out of a chemically robust polymer, polyurethane, and it was used for low

  8. Gasification technology increases the efficiency of power plants. Automation solution controls processses; Vergasungstechnologie steigert Effizienz von Kraftwerken. Automatisierungsloesung steuert Prozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufkoetter, Silke

    2013-04-15

    More electric power and heat from waste and biomass - this enables innovative technologies which were developed by Metso (Helsinki, Finland). The plant installed by Metso in Lathi (Finland) is a milestone in the technology of the waste incineration: Never before, a power plant has gasified waste materials in such an order of magnitude. In Pori (Finland) biomass was gasified. The automation solution Metso DNA was used in both power plants in order to control the demanding processes.

  9. Synthesis of [1-{sup 11}C]octanoic acid, [{sup 11}C]raclopride and [{sup 11}C]nicergoline with a general-purpose automated synthesis apparatus of {sup 11}C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, Kazuyosi; Kawashima, Hidefumi; Cui, Ying-she; Hashimoto, Naoto; Miyake, Yoshihiro [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    We have developed a general-purpose automated synthesis apparatus of {sup 11}C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for PET, which can be adopted to both one-pot and two-or-more-pot reactions. The features of the apparatus were shown in the successful preparation of [(1-{sup 11})C]octanoic acid in a one-pot reaction and [{sup 11}C]raclopride and [{sup 11}C]nicergoline in two-pot reactions, the latter being a novel radiopharmaceutical. (author).

  10. Deadlock handling for real-time control of AGVs at automated container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, M.; Grunow, M.; Günther, H.O.

    2006-01-01

    In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock of indivi......In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock...... of individual cranes or AGVs. Particularly, AGVs are liable to deadlocks because they always need a secondary resource, either a quay crane or a stacking crane, to perform the pick-up and drop-off operations. Because usually no buffering of containers takes place at the interfaces between AGVs and cranes......, the consequences of deadlocks are rather severe. Two different methods for the detection of deadlocks are presented. One is based on a matrix representation of the terminal system. The other directly traces the requests for the individual resources. To resolve deadlock situations arising in an automated container...

  11. Deadlock handling for real-time control of AGV's at automated container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, M.; Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.

    2007-01-01

    In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock of indivi......In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock...... of individual cranes or AGVs. Particularly, AGVs are liable to deadlocks because they always need a secondary resource, either a quay crane or a stacking crane, to perform the pick-up and drop-off operations. Because usually no buffering of containers takes place at the interfaces between AGVs and cranes......, the consequences of deadlocks are rather severe. Two different methods for the detection of deadlocks are presented. One is based on a matrix representation of the terminal system. The other directly traces the requests for the individual resources. To resolve deadlock situations arising in an automated container...

  12. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  13. Size control by rate control in colloidal PbSe quantum dot synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Richard Karel; Yanover, Dianna; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2015-03-01

    A recently demonstrated approach to control the size of colloidal nanoparticles, ``size control by rate control'', which was validated on the examples of colloidal CdSe- and CdS-quantum dot (CQD) synthesis, appears to be a general strategy for designing technically applicable CQD-syntheses. The ``size control by rate control'' concept allows full-yield syntheses of ensembles of CQDs with different sizes by tuning the solute formation rate. In this work, we extended this strategy to dialkylphosphine enhanced hot-injection synthesis of PbSe-CQDs. Furthermore, we provide new insight into the reaction mechanism of dialkylphosphine enhancement in TOPSe based CQD-syntheses.A recently demonstrated approach to control the size of colloidal nanoparticles, ``size control by rate control'', which was validated on the examples of colloidal CdSe- and CdS-quantum dot (CQD) synthesis, appears to be a general strategy for designing technically applicable CQD-syntheses. The ``size control by rate control'' concept allows full-yield syntheses of ensembles of CQDs with different sizes by tuning the solute formation rate. In this work, we extended this strategy to dialkylphosphine enhanced hot-injection synthesis of PbSe-CQDs. Furthermore, we provide new insight into the reaction mechanism of dialkylphosphine enhancement in TOPSe based CQD-syntheses. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional data about the reaction and growth kinetics, NMR-data and exemplary TEM images of PbSe-CQDs prepared by the procedure described in this publication. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00028a

  14. Extremophilic Enzymatic Response: Role of Proteins in Controlling Selenium Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-28

    structures formed called nanorods. 3. Additional work: Synthesis of gold nanoparticles . Additionally, we produced gold nanoparticles using another...Performance Report Title: Extremophilic Enzymatic Response: Role of Proteins in Controlling Selenium Nanoparticle Synthesis . Research Interest...of selenite. Apparently a NADPH/NADH-dependent 4 reductase, extracted from this microorganism, mediates selenium nanoparticles synthesis under

  15. Demo abstract: Flexhouse-2-an open source building automation platform with a focus on flexible control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Svendsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    in or on buildings, and most of these resources will not be communicating directly with the smart grid; in order to allow internal coordination and optimization of resource use at building level, a building automation platform will act as an intermediary. Such a platform must be easy to adapt to the multitude......, an open-source implementation of a building automation system which has been designed with a strong focus on enabling the integration of the building into a smart power system and dedicated support for the requirements of an R&D environment. We will demonstrate the need for such a platform, discuss...

  16. Controlled synthesis of porous platinum nanostructures for catalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanqin; Zhang, Junwei; Yang, Yong; Huang, Zhengren; Long, Nguyen Viet; Nogami, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    Porous platinum, that has outstanding catalytic and electrical properties and superior resistant characteristics to corrosion, has been widely applied in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, and automotive industries. As the catalytic activity and selectivity depend on the size, shape and structure of nanomaterials, the strategies for controlling these factors of platinum nanomaterials to get excellent catalytic properties are discussed. Here, recent advances in the design and preparation of various porous platinum nanostructures are reviewed, including wet-chemical synthesis, electro-deposition, galvanic replacement reaction and de-alloying technology. The applications of various platinum nanostructures are also discussed, especially in fuel cells.

  17. CONTROLLED ANIONIC SYNTHESIS OF FUNCTIONALIZED AND STAR-BRANCHED POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RODERIC P. QUIRK; YIN Jian; GUO Shaohua; HU Xiaowei; GABRIEL SUMMERS; KIM Jungahn; ZHU Linfang; LAUREL E. SCHOCK

    1990-01-01

    The use of living, alkyllithium-initiated anionic polymerization to prepare chain-end functionalized polymers and heteroarm, star- branched polymers is discussed. The scope and limitations of specific termination reactions with a variety of electrophilic species are illustrated for carbonation, hydroxyethylation,amination, and sulfonation. The methodology of using substituted 1,1- diphenylethylenes to provide a general, quantitative functionalization procedure is outlined and illustrated with examples of amine and phenol end-functionalization. A methodology is described for the synthesis of functionalized,star-branched copolymers with compositionally heterogeneous arms of controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution using 1, 3-bis (1-phenylethenyl) benzene.

  18. Controllable Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Boron Nitride Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongling; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Tsang, Siu Hon; Zhen, Xu; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2015-12-22

    Boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs), as a new member of heavy metal-free quantum dots, have aroused great interest in fundamental research and practical application due to their unique physical/chemical properties. However, it is still a challenge to controllably synthesize high-quality BNQDs with high quantum yield (QY), uniform size and strong fluorescent. In this work, BNQDs have been successfully fabricated by the liquid exfoliation and the subsequent solvothermal process with respect to its facileness and easy large scale up. Importantly, BNQDs with high-quality can be controllably obtained by adjusting the synthetic parameters involved in the solvothermal process including filling factor, synthesis temperature, and duration time. Encouragingly, the as-prepared BNQDs possess strong blue luminescence with QY as high as 19.5%, which can be attributed to the synergetic effect of size, surface chemistry and edge defects. In addition, this strategy presented here provides a new reference for the controllable synthesis of other heavy metal-free QDs. Furthermore, the as-prepared BNQDs are non-toxic to cells and exhibit nanosecond-scaled lifetimes, suggesting they have great potential biological and optoelectronic applications.

  19. Automation of controller's management by train work on the byelorussian ferrous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Erofeev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The description of the automated system of working out of the look-ahead train schedule is resulted. Appointment, structure and system structure are considered. Requirements to the entrance information are established. Procedures of automatic construction and dispatching updatings of the look-ahead train schedule are regulated

  20. Towards automation of control software: a review of challenges in mechatronic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Cabrera, A.A.; Foeken, M.J.; Tekin, O.A.; Woestenenk, K.; Erden, M.S.; De Schutter, B.; Tooren, M.J.L.; Babuska, R.; Houten, van F.J.A.M.; Tomiyama, T.

    2010-01-01

    Development of mechatronic systems requires collaboration among experts from different design domains. In this paper the authors identify a set of challenges related to the design of mechatronic systems. The challenges are mostly related to integration of design and analysis tools, and automation of

  1. Instrumentation, control and automation for biogas plants - a full-scale example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, J. [EnerCess GmbH, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Biogas plants win more and more importance, because of numerous ecological advantages. That means, the biogas production cycle is an integrated system of resources utilization, organic waste treatment, nutrient recycling and redistribution, and renewable energy production, which creates numerous energetic, environmental and agricultural benefits. In these plants biogas can be produced by using numerous different input substrates: Farm products: cattle and pork liquid manure, wheat, poultry excrements, maize etc.; Organic waste (primarily from food industries): canteen kitchens, food markets, viniculture, brewery, distillery etc.; Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants. The processes in biogas plants are similar to processes, which are well known for many decades in anaerobic wastewater/sludge treatment. But up to now, the level of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) of full-scale biogas systems is still low. I.e. most plants are black box systems which can be analyzed and/or optimized only difficultly. Consequently, the practice shows that many biogas plants are operated suboptimal. Furthermore, for economic reasons more and more plants are operated in a critical (load) range. I.e. there is a high danger of a plant breakdown, which can cause high financial deficits. This situation is mainly caused by the fact, that most of biogas plants are still rather small plants. E.g., the average electricity production capacity of approx. 2,000 biogas plants in Germany is only approx. 125 kWel. But, as a result of technical progress and permanently rising prices for non-renewable energy, biogas plants become more and more economic reasonable. Furthermore, because of the economies of scale law more and more larger plants are built (250 - 2,000 kWel). In case of larger plants, the costs for ICA are only a small part of the total investment costs (5 - 10 %). On larger plants the operators are also usually full-time workers, which can fully concentrate upon the

  2. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  3. ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM WITHIN MEDICALECONOMIC PREFERENTIAL DRUGS PRESCRIPTION CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshkarov A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are about 575 thousand of citizens in the Krasnodar Region that are entitled to a preferential medical maintenance in accordance with the Federal Law of 17.07.1999 (№178-FZ "On state social assistance." About 120 thousand of preferential prescriptions for 150 thousand of medicines are serviced per month. In order to make the drugs prescription process based exceptionally on real medical indications in accordance with modern concepts of medical service quality it is necessary to plan the medical-economic drugs prescription validity control (MEC. The work proposes the analysis and synthesis method of decision support system (DSS modules for automation the selection of drugs prescription and medicinal maintenance cases, concerning the federal benefit recipients, while performing the MEC. DSS allows medical experts to estimate the efficiency of federal funds costs, that are spent on the preferential medicinal maintenance, moreover, it can serve as a basis for future purchases planning, as well as to correct and improve the efficiency of medical prescriptions. The DSS was developed in accordance with the approved procedure of information exchange in the Krasnodar Region; it involves the integration with existing systems. Furthermore, as the federal register of persons, entitled to the state social assistance, has common formats among all the Russian Federation subjects, the developed system can be easily adapted in other regions

  4. Multiobjective controller synthesis via eigenstructure assignment with state feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Lam, James

    2016-10-01

    A general parameter scheme for multiobjective controller synthesis via eigenstructure assignment with state feedback is proposed. The scheme provides total pole configurability, that is, pole assignment constraints, partial pole assignment constraints, generalised regional pole assignment constraints can be dealt with simultaneously without introducing essential conservatism. The scheme is derived from the pole assignment approach using Sylvester equations, and the parameter space is the Cartesian product of some subspaces characterising the free parameters. Under the scheme, the controller design problems are formulated as nonlinear optimisation problems with both objectives and constraints being differentiable and can be solved by derivative-based nonlinear programming technique. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  5. Controlled Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures by Electrodeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a systematic study on the synthesis of various ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition method with ZnCl2 solution as starting reactant. Several reaction parameters were examined to develop an optimal procedure for controlling the size, shape, and surface morphology of the nanostructure. The results showed that the morphology of the products can be carefully controlled through adjusting the concentration of the electrolyte. The products present well-aligned nanorod arrays when the concentration is low. However, they act as anomalous hexangular nanoplates when the concentration of ZnCl2 is higher than 5 mM. Transmission electron microscopy and select area electron diffraction results show that the product presents good crystallinity. A possible formation process has been proposed.

  6. More automation and less cognitive control of imagined walking movements in high versus low fit older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Godde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using motor imagery, we investigated brain activation in simple and complex walking tasks (walking forward and backward on a treadmill and analyzed if the motor status of older adults influenced these activation patterns. 51 older adults (64-79 years of age were trained in motor execution and imagery and then performed the imagination task and two control tasks (standing, counting backward in a horizontal position within a 3T MRI scanner (first person perspective, eyes closed. Walking backward as compared to walking forward required larger activations in the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum, but less activation in the cerebellum and brainstem. Motor high-fit individuals showed more activations and larger BOLD signals in motor-related areas compared to low-fit participants but demonstrated lower activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, parietal activation in high-fit participants remained stable throughout the movement period whereas low-fit participants revealed an early drop in activity in this area accompanied by increasing activity in frontal brain regions. Overall, walking forward seemed to be more automated (more activation in cerebellum and brainstem, whereas walking backward required more resources, e.g. for visual-spatial processing and sensorimotor control. Low-fit subjects in particular seemed to require more cognitive resources for planning and controlling. High-fit subjects, on the contrary, revealed more movement automation and a higher “attention span.” Our results support the hypothesis that high fitness corresponds with more automation and less cognitive control of complex motor tasks, which might help to free up cognitive resources.

  7. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  8. GMP-compliant automated synthesis of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 (Florbetapir F 18) for imaging {beta}-amyloid plaques in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, C.-H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.-J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Weng, C.-C. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I.-T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ting, Y.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Yen, T.-C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Jan, T.-R. [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Skovronsky, Daniel [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, M.-P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wey, S.-P., E-mail: spwey@mail.cgu.edu.t [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-15

    We report herein the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant automated synthesis of {sup 18}F-labeled styrylpyridine, AV-45 (Florbetapir), a novel tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) plaques in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. [{sup 18}F]AV-45 was prepared in 105 min using a tosylate precursor with Sumitomo modules for radiosynthesis under GMP-compliant conditions. The overall yield was 25.4{+-}7.7% with a final radiochemical purity of 95.3{+-}2.2% (n=19). The specific activity of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 reached as high as 470{+-}135 TBq/mmol (n=19). The present studies show that [{sup 18}F]AV-45 can be manufactured under GMP-compliant conditions and could be widely available for routine clinical use.

  9. A fully automated two-step synthesis of an {sup 18}F-labelled tyrosine kinase inhibitor for EGFR kinase activity imaging in tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobus, D.; Giesen, Y.; Ullrich, R.; Backes, H. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zuelch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Neumaier, B. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zuelch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)], E-mail: bernd.neumaier@nf.mpg.de

    2009-11-15

    Radiolabelled epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors potentially facilitate the assessment of EGFR overexpression in tumors. Since elaborate multi-step radiosyntheses are required for {sup 18}F-labelling of EGFR-specific anilinoquinazolines we report on the development of a two-step click labelling approach that was adapted to a fully automated synthesis module. 6-(4-N,N-Dimethylaminocrotonyl)amido-4-(3-chloro-4-fluoro)phenylamino-7-{l_brace}3- [4-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-2,3,4-triazol-1-yl]propoxy{r_brace}quinazoline ([{sup 18}F]6) was synthesized via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethylazide ([{sup 18}F]4) and the alkyne modified anilinoquinazoline precursor 5. PET images of PC9 tumor xenograft using the novel biomarker showed promising results to visualize EGFR overexpression.

  10. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  11. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  12. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Brnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with

  13. Synthesis and quality control of [{sup 18}F] fluorothymidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas C.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Priscilla F.; Faria, Tiago, E-mail: ltcn@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a technique that allows early diagnosis of various diseases by detecting metabolic changes of cells, in addition to being a noninvasive technique. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging is [{sup 18}F] Fludesoxiglucose ({sup 18}FDG), which is a marker of glucose metabolism and has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis and staging of various cancers. However, some carcinomas do not have high glucose consumption, besides {sup 18}FDG possess high urinary excretion rate interfering with the detection of tumors in pelvis and high uptake in brain and in inflammation, reducing the contrast tumor / background. The radiotracer 3'-fluoro-L-3'-deoxythymidine ({sup 18}FLT) is an analogue of thymidine used as an alternative to {sup 18}FDG for detecting tumors with high proliferation rate. The aim of this work was to develop [{sup 18}F] Fluorothymidine synthesis and quality control at the Radiopharmaceuticals Research and Production Facility of CDTN/CNEN. The synthesis was adapted from that used to {sup 18}FDG, based on the methodologies described in related papers. Radiochemical purity and impurities levels were determined by HPLC, RTLC and GC techniques. Total synthesis time was 35 minutes and the radiochemical yield in the end of bombardment (EOB) was 7%, with a radiochemical purity of about 93%. Radionuclidic identity and purity, pH, residual solvents, radiochemical and chemical purity were evaluated according to analytical methods described on the literature and on the United States Pharmacopeia (USP 32). Residual levels of Stavudine, Thymine and Thymidine were found and are under toxicological investigation in order to establish a maximum amount allowed in the final product. (author)

  14. Highly Automated Arrival Management and Control System Suitable for Early NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation of previously published work conducted in the development of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system. Included are concept and technical descriptions of the TAPSS system and results from human in the loop simulations conducted at Ames Research Center. The Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing system has demonstrated through research and extensive high-fidelity simulation studies to have benefits in airport arrival throughput, supporting efficient arrival descents, and enabling mixed aircraft navigation capability operations during periods of high congestion. NASA is currently porting the TAPSS system into the FAA TBFM and STARS system prototypes to ensure its ability to operate in the FAA automation Infrastructure. NASA ATM Demonstration Project is using the the TAPSS technologies to provide the ground-based automation tools to enable airborne Interval Management (IM) capabilities. NASA and the FAA have initiated a Research Transition Team to enable potential TAPSS and IM Technology Transfer.

  15. Dibujo automático de planos complejos: control de posiciones ocupadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Historico, Jesús

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available The computerized design of building structures at a level of an almost total automation give rise to a great number of problems of various kinds that have to be solved. Out of these problems the author has chosen a topic that is of special interest because of its general field of application and because it is different from the previous topics dealing with automatic dimensioning of structures.El diseño computarizado de estructuras de edificación a un nivel de automatismo prácticamente del cien por cien, exige la resolución de múltiples problemas de variada índole. De entre ellos, el autor selecciona un tema de especial interés, por su aplicabilidad genérica y por apartarse de los temas ya clásicos en el dimensionamiento automático de estructuras.

  16. Task of generation of variants of subsystems in to the automated hydrometeorological system on basis of morphological synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Доронина, Юлия Валентиновна

    2011-01-01

    The aspects of generation of variants of subsystems are examined for  the hydrometeorological system. Principles of generation of variants are rotined on the basis of morphological synthesis, statements of genetic algorithm

  17. AUTOMATION OF QUALITY CONTROL OF MILK HOMOGENIZATION BY ULTRASONIC SPECTROSCOPY METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Bityukov; A. A. Khvostov; D. I. Rebrikov; V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the possibility of determining homogenization degree of milk and dairy products using ultrasonic vibrations absorption spectra. Advantages of this method application in automated manufacturing systems were examined. Theoretical background of the method, as well as the possibility of determining the distribution of the fat globules in milk, depending on their sizes were substantiated. We derived mathematical equations, showing the relationship between the homogenization de...

  18. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanocrystals with Controlled Crystal- and Micro-structures from Titanium Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto Kobayashi; Hideki Kato; Masato Kakihana

    2013-01-01

    Selective synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) polymorphs including anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) by solvothermal treatment of water-soluble titanium complexes is described with a special focus on their morphological control. The utilization of water-soluble titanium complexes as a raw material allowed us to employ various additives in the synthesis of TiO2. As a result, the selective synthesis of the polymorphs, as well as diverse morphological control, was achieved.

  19. Controllable synthesis and biomedical applications of silver nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihai; Jiang, Xiaoli; Guo, Dawei; Gu, Ning

    2011-11-01

    Silver nanomaterials have lots of peculiar and exciting physical and chemical properties that are different from massive silver, so the synthesis and applications of silver nanomaterials have attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade. Currently, all kinds of silver nanomaterials having different shapes and sizes have been synthesized by many ingenious methods, and silver nanomaterials have exhibited extensive application prospects in many fields especially in biomedical aspect. In this article, the controllable synthesis of silver nanomaterials including nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoprisms, nanoplates, nanodisks, nanospheres, and nanopolyhedrons, etc. are reviewed. Silver nanomaterials are most utilized in the form of nanoparticles, so the main biomedical applications of silver nanoparticles, such as antibacterial and antiviral applications, antitumor applications, biosensors and biological labels, optical imaging and imaging intensifier, are discussed. Although antibacterial applications are still the most important aspects of silver nanomaterials at present, antitumor, optical sensors and imaging applications of silver nanomaterials have also shown good potential perspectives. More biomedical applications of silver nanomaterials still need to be exploited for the future, and the biological safety of silver nanomaterials also should be paid enough attention before their practical applications.

  20. The Regulatory Networks That Control Clostridium difficile Toxin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Peltier, Johann; Dupuy, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic clostridia cause many human and animal diseases, which typically arise as a consequence of the production of potent exotoxins. Among the enterotoxic clostridia, Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of nosocomial intestinal infections in adults with a compromised gut microbiota caused by antibiotic treatment. The symptoms of C. difficile infection are essentially caused by the production of two exotoxins: TcdA and TcdB. Moreover, for severe forms of disease, the spectrum of diseases caused by C. difficile has also been correlated to the levels of toxins that are produced during host infection. This observation strengthened the idea that the regulation of toxin synthesis is an important part of C. difficile pathogenesis. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the regulators and sigma factors that have been reported to control toxin gene expression in response to several environmental signals and stresses, including the availability of certain carbon sources and amino acids, or to signaling molecules, such as the autoinducing peptides of quorum sensing systems. The overlapping regulation of key metabolic pathways and toxin synthesis strongly suggests that toxin production is a complex response that is triggered by bacteria in response to particular states of nutrient availability during infection. PMID:27187475

  1. Distribution automation and control support; Analysis and interpretation of DAC working group results for use in project planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, P.; Evans, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Executive Summary and Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting was analyzed to identify specific projects appropriate for Distribution Automation and Control DAC RD&D. Specific projects that should be undertaken in the DAC RD&D program were recommended. The projects are presented under broad categories of work selected based on ESC's interpretation of the results of the Working Group Meeting. Some of the projects are noted as utility industry projects. The ESC recommendations regarding program management are presented. Utility versus Government management responsibilities are noted.

  2. REMOTE SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF SYSTEM-DYNAMIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Masloboev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The general line of research is concerned with development of information technologies and computer simulation tools for management information and analytical support of complex semistructured systems. Regional socio-economic systems are consideredas a representative of this system type. Investigation is carried out within the bounds of development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safety until 2020 in the Murmansk region, specifically under engineering of high end information infrastructure for innovation and security control problem-solving of regional development. Research methodology consists of system dynamics modeling method, distributed information system engineering technologies, pattern-based modeling and design techniques. The work deals with development of toolkit for decision-making information support problem-solving in the field of innovation security management of regional economics. For that purpose a system-dynamic models suite of innovation process standard components and information technology for remote formation and control of innovation business simulation models under research have been developed. Designed toolkit provides innovation security index dynamics forecasting and innovation business effectiveness of regional economics. Information technology is implemented within the bounds of thin client architecture and is intended for simulation models design process automation of complex systems. Technology implementation software tools provide pattern-based system-dynamic models distributed formation and simulation control of innovation processes. The technology provides availability and reusability index enhancement of information support facilities in application to innovation process simulation at the expense of distributed access to innovation business simulation modeling tools and model synthesis by the reusable components, simulating standard elements of innovation

  3. Synthesis of Au nanowires with controlled morphological and structural characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurvinder, E-mail: gurvinder.singh@ntnu.no [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Bandyopadhyay, Sulalit; Volden, Sondre; Andreassen, Jens-Petter [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Glomm, Wilhelm R., E-mail: Wilhelm.Glomm@sintef.no [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Biotechnology and Nanomedicine Sector, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of metal nanowires. • Control over structural and morphological characteristics via seed type nanoparticle. • Growth via surfactant or surface diffusion process. • Structural and surface characterization. - Abstract: A growth of one-dimensional noble metal nanostructure with controlled structural characteristic has been under intense investigation as the physical properties, for example, mechanical and electrical properties highly depend on the crystallinity of the nanostructure. Herein, we report a seed-mediated growth of gold nanowires with controlled structural and morphological characteristics, which can easily be varied by selecting appropriate seed nanoparticles, either spherical or rod type in aqueous solution at room temperature. The growth of nanowires was monitored by characterizing the samples at different time period during the reaction, and our observations suggest that growth occurs from seeds rapidly growing along one-dimension followed by surfactant induced fusion or welding and surface diffusion. The aspect ratio and morphology of these NWs can be tuned by CTAB concentration, pH and temperature of the growth solution. We show that the aspect ratio and morphology of these NWs can be tuned by the surfactant concentration, pH and temperature of the growth solution. Electron microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic techniques were employed for investigating structural and surface characteristics of nanowires. This approach can possibly help to synthesize nanowires of other metals with controlled crystalline behaviour which is highly essential for understanding their properties and practical applications in nanoelectronics, optical devices, catalysis, and sensors.

  4. Turbine Engine Control Synthesis. Volume 1. Optimal Controller Synthesis and Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    stability. rolume 11 contains three Appendices. Appendix A contains the details of engine math models. The software for the wind tu reel -ontroller is...aspects of optimal control. Volume II contains primarily data concerning the NASA component engine model and software for the wind tunnel test con...PTPB.NRTTB,6) Turbine FN 275 WT WTTNPB N * PB/TB 276 PBDLTB = PB (TB - TCD) 277 ETAB - FUNI(19, PBDLTB, 35) Combustion efficiency 278 CALL PROCOM (0

  5. Synthesis and optical properties of gold nanorods with controllable morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tianyu; Dai, Zhigao; Mei, Fei; Zhang, Xingang; Zhou, Yuanming; Xu, Jinxia; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2016-11-01

    Searching for architectural building blocks with tunable morphology and peculiarity is a prominent challenge for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, the aqueous-based seed-mediated methods for preparing highly mono-dispersed Au nanorods with a different aspect ratio are systematically studied by controlling the amounts of Ag ions and seeds. We also explore the effect of pH on the synthesis of gold nanorods. The realization of the overlap of longitudinal plasmon band and excitation source with different degrees is made by changing the aspect ratio of nanorod in order to determine its effect on the overall surface enhancement. In addition, the gold octahedra are prepared by overgrowth on Au nanorods. The SERS effects of Au nanorods are researched and the FDTD simulations are performed to reveal the morphology induced plasmon modes.

  6. Control synthesis of linear distributed parameter switched systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leping Bao; Shumin Fei; Lin Chai

    2015-01-01

    The control synthesis for switched systems is extended to distributed parameter switched systems in Hilbert space. Based on semigroup and operator theory, by means of multiple Lyapunov method incorporated average dwel time approach, sufficient con-ditions are derived in terms of linear operator inequalities frame-work for distributed parameter switched systems. Being applied to one dimensional heat propagation switched systems, these lin-ear operator inequalities are reduced to linear matrix inequalities subsequently. In particular, the state feedback gain matrices and the switching law are designed, and the state decay estimate is explicitly given whose decay coefficient completely depends on the system’s parameter and the boundary condition. Final y, two numerical examples are given to il ustrate the proposed method.

  7. Green synthesis and structural control of metal and mineral nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian

    is efficiency which in large part comes down to the efficiency of the catalyst. Global issues arising from the use and reliance on fossil fuels urges the transition to sustainable alternatives and the development of new highly efficient nanomaterials. The efficiency depends on structure so controlling size...... of the complex processes. Strong indications of sequential reduction were found and details about ligands and surface immobilized molecules disclosed. This platform is a widely available alternative to traditionally used synchrotron techniques. In the second approach, systematic efforts toward size and shape....... Detailed crystallographic characterization was obtained by combining X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The synthesis of CuO was further optimized and the flat, rod-shaped nanostructures applied as heterogeneous catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation reactions. High activity and good reusability...

  8. Warehouse automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik, Jure

    2017-01-01

    An automated high bay warehouse is commonly used for storing large number of material with a high throughput. In an automated warehouse pallet movements are mainly performed by a number of automated devices like conveyors systems, trolleys, and stacker cranes. From the introduction of the material to the automated warehouse system to its dispatch the system requires no operator input or intervention since all material movements are done automatically. This allows the automated warehouse to op...

  9. Assessment for Operator Confidence in Automated Space Situational Awareness and Satellite Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, J.; Voshell, M.; Sliva, A.

    2016-09-01

    The United States is highly dependent on space resources to support military, government, commercial, and research activities. Satellites operate at great distances, observation capacity is limited, and operator actions and observations can be significantly delayed. Safe operations require support systems that provide situational understanding, enhance decision making, and facilitate collaboration between human operators and system automation both in-the-loop, and on-the-loop. Joint cognitive systems engineering (JCSE) provides a rich set of methods for analyzing and informing the design of complex systems that include both human decision-makers and autonomous elements as coordinating teammates. While, JCSE-based systems can enhance a system analysts' understanding of both existing and new system processes, JCSE activities typically occur outside of traditional systems engineering (SE) methods, providing sparse guidance about how systems should be implemented. In contrast, the Joint Director's Laboratory (JDL) information fusion model and extensions, such as the Dual Node Network (DNN) technical architecture, provide the means to divide and conquer such engineering and implementation complexity, but are loosely coupled to specialized organizational contexts and needs. We previously describe how Dual Node Decision Wheels (DNDW) extend the DNN to integrate JCSE analysis and design with the practicalities of system engineering and implementation using the DNN. Insights from Rasmussen's JCSE Decision Ladders align system implementation with organizational structures and processes. In the current work, we present a novel approach to assessing system performance based on patterns occurring in operational decisions that are documented by JCSE processes as traces in a decision ladder. In this way, system assessment is closely tied not just to system design, but the design of the joint cognitive system that includes human operators, decision-makers, information systems, and

  10. Automated chemoenzymatic synthesis of no-carrier-added [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]propionyl L-carnitine for pharmacokinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, R.J.; Pike, V.W.; Dowsett, K.; Turton, D.R.; Poole, K. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Cyclotron Unit

    1997-07-30

    Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is under development as a therapeutic for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Three methods were examined for labelling PLC in its propionyl group with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2} = 20.3 min), one chemical and two chemoenzymatic. The former was based on the preparation of [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride as labelling agent via {sup 11}C-carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and subsequent chlorination. Reaction of carrier-added [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride with L-carnitine in trifluoroacetic acid gave [{sup 11}C]PLC in 12% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide. However, the radiosynthesis was unsuccessful at the no-carrier added (NCA) level of specific radioactivity. [{sup 11}C]Propionate, as a radioactive precursor for chemoenzymatic routes, was prepared via carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and hydrolysis. NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was prepared in 68 min in 14% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from [{sup 11}C]propionate via sequential conversions catalysed by acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase and carnitine acetyltransferase. A superior chemoenzymatic synthesis of NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was developed, based on the use of a novel supported Grignard reagent for the synthesis of [{sup 11}C]propionate and conversions by S-acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. This gave an overall radiochemical yield of 30-48% (decay-corrected). This synthesis was automated for radiation safety and provides pure NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC in high radioactivities ready for intravenous administration within 25 min from radionuclide production. The [{sup 11}C]PLC is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in human subjects with PET and the elucidation of the fate of the propionyl group of PLC in vivo. (Author).

  11. Sonochemical synthesis of silica particles and their size control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Min [Advanced Materials and Chemical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hyun [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bonghwan, E-mail: bhkim@cu.ac.kr [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silica particles were easily prepared by an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method. • The particle size was controlled by the ammonium hydroxide/water molar ratio. • The size-controlled diameter of silica particles ranged from 40 to 400 nm. • The particles were formed in a relatively short reaction time. - Abstract: Using an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method, we successfully synthesized very uniformly shaped, monodisperse, and size-controlled spherical silica particles from a mixture of ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of ammonia as catalyst, at room temperature. The diameters of the silica particles were distributed in the range from 40 to 400 nm; their morphology was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The silica particle size could be adjusted by choosing suitable concentrations of ammonium hydroxide and water, which in turn determined the nucleation and growth rates of the particles during the reaction. This sonochemical-based silica synthesis offers an alternative way to produce spherical silica particles in a relatively short reaction time. Thus, we suggest that this simple, low-cost, and efficient method of preparing uniform silica particles of various sizes will have practical and wide-ranging industrial applicability.

  12. Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Jarno; Ihalainen, Mika; Koponen, Tarmo; Torvela, Tiina; Tenho, Mikko; Salonen, Jarno; Sippula, Olli; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Lähde, Anna

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (primary particle size of 80-90 nm) with controlled oxidation state were prepared via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapour synthesis (APCVS) method. Iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO)5], a precursor material, was thermally decomposed to iron in the APCVS reactor. Subsequently, the iron was oxidized with controlled amount of oxygen in the reactor to produce nearly pure magnetite or haematite particles depending on the oxygen concentration. Size, morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and computational fluid dynamics model were used to predict the oxidation state of the iron oxides and the reaction conditions during mixing. Aggregates of crystalline particles were formed, determined as magnetite at the oxygen volumetric fraction of 0.1 % and haematite at volumetric fraction of 0.5 %, according to the XRD. The geometric mean electrical mobility diameter of the aggregates increased from 110 to 155 nm when the volumetric fraction of oxygen increased from 0.1 to 0.5 %, determined using the SMPS. The aggregates were highly sintered based on TEM analyses. As a conclusion, APCVS method can be used to produce nearly pure crystalline magnetite or haematite nanoparticles with controlled oxidation in a continuous one-stage gas-phase process.

  13. An advanced automation system for operation of Sao Paulo pumping stations from TRANSPETRO Master Control Center - CNCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio; Barreto, Camila Maria Benevenuto [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Since 2000 the operations of the TRANSPETRO pumping stations in the state of Sao Paulo region began to be transferred from local control centers located at the transfer and storage terminals to the National Operational Control Center (CNCO) of TRANSPETRO, located at the headquarters of the company, in Rio de Janeiro. The proposed paper aims to presenting an overview of the automation system that was developed to enable such pumping stations to be operated from CNCO in a reliable and secure manner, focusing on tools that offer an embedded system alarms completely free of false alarms with automatic determining of the root cause, and also automatic and advanced diagnoses of problems caused by failures of hardware, human error and abnormal conditions of the process, providing the CNCO SCADA system of accurate and quality information that help operators to make decisions. The referred automation system was integrated for the first time to CNCO SCADA system in 2000, for pipeline pumps of Osvat (Sao Sebastiao - Vale do Paraiba pipeline) station at the Sao Sebastiao Terminal - northern coast of Sao Paulo region. (author)

  14. An Internet-based program for depressive symptoms using human and automated support: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Mira,1 Juana Bretón-López,1,2 Azucena García-Palacios,1,2 Soledad Quero,1,2 Rosa María Baños,2,3 Cristina Botella1,2 1Department of Basic, Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Labpsitec, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain; 2CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CIBERobn, CB06/03 Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 3Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of an Internet-based program for depressive symptoms using automated support by information and communication technologies (ICTs and human support. Patients and methods: An Internet-based program was used to teach adaptive ways to cope with depressive symptoms and daily problems. A total of 124 participants who were experiencing at least one stressful event that caused interference in their lives, many of whom had clinically significant depressive symptoms, were randomly assigned into either an intervention group with ICT support (automated mobile phone messages, automated emails, and continued feedback through the program; an intervention group with ICT support plus human support (brief weekly support phone call without clinical content; or a waiting-list control. At pre-, post-, and 12-month follow-up, they completed depression, anxiety, positive and negative effect, and perceived stress measures. Results were analyzed using both intention-to-treat and completers data. The majority were women (67.7%, with a mean age of 35.6 years (standard deviation =9.7. Results: The analysis showed that the two intervention groups improved significantly pre- to posttreatment, compared with the control group. Furthermore, improvements were maintained at the 12-month follow-up. Adherence and satisfaction with the program was high in both conditions. Conclusion: The Internet-based program was effective and well

  15. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  16. Fault Tolerant Control System Design Using Automated Methods from Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    Fault tolerant controls have the ability to be resilient to simple faults in control loop components.......Fault tolerant controls have the ability to be resilient to simple faults in control loop components....

  17. Development and flight test of a multi-function controller for automated cruise flaps on an aircraft wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Craig Allen

    Cruise flaps are trailing-edge flaps which minimize the profile drag of a wing by moving the low-drag-region (or bucket) of a drag polar such that it spans the current coefficient of lift. Previous research has explored the use of a pressure-based technique for automating cruise flaps. Data obtained using this technique can be presented in a number of different formats, and different presentations of the same data tend to lead to the development of different types of automating controllers. The presentation used by previous researchers led to the development of a drag-minimizing controller that required a low-pass filter to prevent instability. This prevented the controller from being used for purposes which required a fast-acting flap. The presentation of pressure data used in this research led to the development of a multi-function controller that includes both slow-acting functionality (drag reduction) and fast-acting functionality (gust alleviation). The pressure-based technique developed by previous researchers using natural-laminar-flow (NLF) airfoils must be modified somewhat for the low Reynolds number SD7037 airfoil used in this research. Drag polars for low Reynolds number airfoils do not behave as predictably as those for NLF airfoils at much higher Reynolds numbers. A series of rigid-aircraft simulations were conducted to show the effectiveness of the multi-function controller, which was able to simultaneously reduce drag and alleviate the effects of vertical gusts. A flight controller was developed using low-cost microcontrollers and pressure transducers. The controller implemented a slow-acting drag-reduction function and a fast-acting function to handle pilot-commanded elevator inputs. Gust alleviation was not implemented due to limitations of the available hardware and flight test conditions. The controller was tested on an radio-controlled sailplane with a wingspan of 100 inches. Although direct measurement of the drag of an aircraft this size is

  18. An Integrated Solution for both Monitoring and Controlling for Automization Using Wireless Sensor Networks: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gnana Seelan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature monitoring plays a major role in controlling it according to its varied conditions. Thisprocess is common in all critical areas like data centre, server rooms, grid rooms and other datacommunication equipped rooms. This is mandatory for each organization/industry to impart suchprocess, as most of the critical data would be in data centre along with their network infrastructure whichhaving various electronic, electrical and mechanical devices are involved for data transmissions. Thesedevices are very much depend on the environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, humidity etc.,and also emit heat in the form of thermal energy when they are in functional. To overcome these heats,the server/data centre room(s would be engaged with multiple (distributed air-conditioning (ac systemsto provide cooling environment and maintain the temperature level of the room. The proposed paper isthe study of automization of monitoring and controlling temperature as per desired requirements withwsn network

  19. COMPRESSIBLE VIRTUAL WINDOW ALGORITHM IN PICKING PROCESS CONTROL OF AUTOMATED SORTING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yaohua; ZHANG Yigong; WU Yingying

    2008-01-01

    Compared to fixed virtual window algorithm (FVWA), the dynamic virtual window algorithm (DVWA) determines the length of each virtual container according to the sizes of goods of each order, which saves space of virtual containers and improves the picking efficiency. However, the interval of consecutive goods caused by dispensers on conveyor can not be eliminated by DVWA, which limits a further improvement of picking efficiency. In order to solve this problem, a compressible virtual window algorithm (CVWA) is presented. It not only inherits the merit of DVWA but also compresses the length of virtual containers without congestion of order accumulation by advancing the beginning time of order picking and reasonably coordinating the pace of order accumulation. The simulation result proves that the picking efficiency of automated sorting system is greatly improved by CVWA.

  20. Shape-controlled continuous synthesis of metal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Victor; Smith, Christopher D.; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2016-03-01

    A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a thickness of 1.5 nm; and Pt nanocubes with a 5.6 nm edge length, all in a synthesis time as low as 150 s.A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a

  1. A Learning Based Approach to Control Synthesis of Markov Decision Processes for Linear Temporal Logic Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-20

    A Learning Based Approach to Control Synthesis of Markov Decision Processes for Linear Temporal Logic Specifications Dorsa Sadigh Eric Kim Samuel...2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Learning Based Approach to Control Synthesis of Markov Decision Processes for Linear Temporal Logic...ABSTRACT We propose to synthesize a control policy for a Markov decision process (MDP) such that the resulting traces of the MDP satisfy a linear

  2. Compositional Synthesis of Controllers from Scenario-Based Assume-Guarantee Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenyer, Joel; Kindler, Ekkart

    2013-01-01

    and even to automatically synthesize controllers from MSD specifications. The technique is suited for specifications of technical systems with real-time constraints and environment assumptions. However, synthesis is computationally expensive. In order to employ synthesis also for larger specifications, we...

  3. Direct chemical vapour deposited grapheme synthesis on silicon oxide by controlled copper dewettting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, van den Wesley T.E.; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for direct uniform graphene synthesis onto silicon oxide in a controlled manner. On a grooved silicon oxide wafer is copper deposited under a slight angle and subsequently the substrate is treated by a typical graphene synthesis process. During this process di

  4. Safe and Efficacious Use of Automated Bolus Advisors in Individuals Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injection (MDI) Therapy: Lessons Learned From the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Barnard, Katharine; Hinnen, Deborah A

    2015-03-20

    Numerous studies have shown that use of integrated automated bolus advisors (BAs) provides significant benefits to individuals using insulin pump devices, including improved glycemic control and greater treatment satisfaction. Within the past few years, BA devices have been developed specifically for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy; however, many clinicians who treat these individuals may be unfamiliar with insulin pump therapy and, thus, BA use. Findings from the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) revealed that BA use can be efficacious and clinically meaningful in MDI therapy, and that most patients are willing and able to use this technology appropriately when adequate clinical support is provided. The purpose of this article is to review key learnings from ABACUS and provide practical advice for initiating BA use and monitoring therapy.

  5. Accounting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    Accounting Automation   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/accounting-automation/  Or Visit www.hwcampus.com Accounting Automation” Please respond to the following: Imagine you are a consultant hired to convert a manual accounting system to an automated system. Suggest the key advantages and disadvantages of automating a manual accounting system. Identify the most important step in the conversion process. Provide a rationale for your response. ...

  6. Multi-objective robust controller synthesis for discrete-time systems with convex polytopic uncertain domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-hu; YAN Wen-jun; LU Jian-ning; ZHAO Guang-zhou

    2005-01-01

    Multi-objective robust state-feedback controller synthesis problems for linear discrete-time uncertain systems are addressed. Based on parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions, the Gl2 and GH2 norm expressed in terms of LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) characterizations are further generalized to cope with the robust analysis for convex polytopic uncertain system.Robust state-feedback controller synthesis conditions are also derived for this class of uncertain systems. Using the above results,multi-objective state-feedback controller synthesis procedures which involve the LMI optimization technique are developed and less conservative than the existing one. An illustrative example verified the validity of the approach.

  7. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  8. Toward Automating Web Protocol Configuration for a Programmable Logic Controller Emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    programmable logic controller RTU remote terminal unit SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition SUT system under test TTL time to live VM virtual...Date 29 May 2014 Date AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-4 Abstract Industrial Control Systems (ICS) remain vulnerable through attack vectors that exist within programmable...5 2.2 Industrial Control Systems

  9. Morphology control of brushite prepared by aqueous solution synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toshima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O, also known as brushite, is one of the important bioceramics due to not only diseases factors such as kidney stone and plaque formation but also purpose as fluoride insolubilization material. It is used medicinally to supply calcium, and is of interest for its unique properties in biological and pathological mineralization. It is important to control the crystal morphology of brushite since its chemical reactivity depends strongly on its surface properties; thus, its morphology is a key issue for its applications as a functional material or precursor for other bioceramics. Here, we report the effects of the initial pH and the Ca and phosphate ion concentrations on the morphology of DCPD particles during aqueous solution synthesis. Crystal morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology phase diagram of DCPD crystallization revealed that increasing the initial pH and/or ion concentration transformed DCPD morphology from petal-like into plate-like structures.

  10. Controlled synthesis of ferromagnetic MnSe x particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junjie; Li, Chao; Chen, Duo; Kang, Shishou; Liu, Guolei; Yu, Shuyun; Han, Guangbing; Mei, Liangmo

    2016-10-01

    The MnSe x (x = 1,2) nanoparticles were synthesized under hydrothermal condition, by reaction of the reduced selenium and Mn2+ ion in the presence of hydrazine and acetic acid. By precisely controlling the pH value of the solution, a series of MnSe x particles were synthesized. The structure and morphology of as-prepared particles were examined with x-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average sizes of as-prepared particles varied from nanoscale to microscale with pH value increase. Furthermore, the nucleation and growth mechanism associated with pH values were discussed, which can be applied to the hydrothermal synthesis of metal chalcogenide in general. Finally, the optical and magnetic properties of as-prepared particles were measured. All as-made particles exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with low coercivity and remanence at room temperature. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921502), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474184 and 11627805), the 111 Project (Grant No. B13029), and the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University, China.

  11. Experiencia Praktikum con máquinas eléctricas y control automático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael González Curiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Praktikum project is an innovative experience carried out at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV with 17-years-old students that have taken a course of Technology in the High School period. Students are chosen from all the Valencia region attending to their marks in their first year of High School. This note explains the activities carried out in the frame of this program in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales of the UPV. During a week, a student was guided by the university professors of this department in the fields of maintenance and calculation of electrical machines and domestic electrical installations. The automated control of them was also introduced to the student.

  12. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method...... to determine optimal μPIV-settings for obtaining high-quality results of the spatially inhomogeneous acoustophoretic velocity fields of large dynamical range is presented. In particular we study the dependence of the results on the μPIV interrogation window size and the number of repeated experiments. The μPIV......-method was further verified by comparing it with our previously published particle tracking method. Using the μPIV platform we present a series of high-resolution measurements of the acoustophoretic velocity field as a function of the driving frequency, the driving voltage, and the resonator temperature. Finally, we...

  13. Statistical issues in randomised controlled trials: a narrative synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bolaji; Emmanuel; Egbewale

    2015-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials(RCTs) are gold standard in the evaluation of treatment efficacy in medical investigations, only if well designed and implemented. Till date, distorted views and misapplications of statistical procedures involved in RCTs are still in practice. Hence, clarification of concepts and acceptable practices related to certain statistical issues involved in the design, conduct and reporting of randomised controlled trials is needed. This narrative synthesis aimed at providing succinct but clear information on the concepts and practices of selected statistical issues in RCTs to inform correct applications. The use of tests of significance is no longer acceptable as means to compare baseline similarity between treatment groups and in determining which covariate(s) should be included in the model for adjustment. Distribution of baseline attributes simply presented in tabular form is however, rather preferred. Regarding covariate selection, such approach that makes use of information on the degree of correlation between the covariate(s) and the outcome variable is more in tandem with statistical principle(s) than that based on tests of significance. Stratification and minimisation are not alternatives to covariate adjusted analysis; in fact they establish the need for one. Intention-totreat is the preferred approach for the evaluation of primary outcome measures and researchers have responsibility to report whether or not the procedure was followed. A major use of results from subgroup analysis is to generate hypothesis for future clinical trials. Since RCTs are gold standard in the comparison of medical interventions, researchers cannot afford the practices of distorted allocation or statistical procedures in this all important experimental design method.

  14. Optimization and Quality Control of Automated Quantitative Mineralogy Analysis for Acid Rock Drainage Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pooler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low ore-grade waste samples from the Codelco Andina mine that were analyzed in an environmental and mineralogical test program for acid rock drainage prediction, revealed inconsistencies between the quantitative mineralogical data (QEMSCAN® and the results of geochemical characterizations by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, LECO® furnace, and sequential extractions. For the QEMSCAN® results, biases were observed in the proportions of pyrite and calcium sulfate minerals detected. An analysis of the results indicated that the problems observed were likely associated with polished section preparation. Therefore, six different sample preparation protocols were tested and evaluated using three samples from the previous study. One of the methods, which involved particle size reduction and transverse section preparation, was identified as having the greatest potential for correcting the errors observed in the mineralogical analyses. Further, the biases in the quantities of calcium sulfate minerals detected were reduced through the use of ethylene glycol as a polishing lubricant. It is recommended that the sample preparation methodology described in this study be used in order to accurately quantify percentages of pyrite and calcium sulfate minerals in environmental mineralogical studies which use automated mineralogical analysis.

  15. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  16. AUTOMATED DYNAMIC LOAD CONTROL BY ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF A BUCKET-CHAIN EXCAVATOR IN THE COURSE OF SCOOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods and algorithms of control of the tension of lifting and towing ropes of bucket-chain excavators are proposed in the article. They are based on the non-linear dependence of the current path length and intensity of excavation efforts. Three automatic control modes, including scooping, correction signals and automatic overload protection, are implemented. Two independent control loops in charge of tension of lifting and towing ropes are developed. The proposed automated control system may be integrated both into new bucket-chain excavators and into those excavators that are already in operation. The new system does not require any substantial alterations in electric drive control systems in charge of lifting and towing, if integrated into excavators in operation. The author has performed the non-linearity analysis; he has also designed, developed and implemented the models that are capable of taking an adequate account of the system peculiarities identified in the course of the project implementation. The system parameters are adjustable to specific conditions of the excavator operation, including the hardness of the rock extracted by the excavator, etc. The automatic overload control system attached to the electric drives in control of lifting and towing ensures maximal responsiveness of the system based on the commutation-related limitations imposed by power-driven elements, maximal over-control values and variability of the transition process. Prevention of any rope slacks in the course of scooping of any hard rock is assured by the loop of regulation of minimal tension of lifting cables. The service life of lifting and towing ropes goes up by eight to ten weeks, if the system proposed by the author is implemented.

  17. Agent-oriented Embedded Control System Design and Development of a Vision-based Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control system design and development approach for a vision‐based automated guided vehicle (AGV based on the multi‐agent system (MAS methodology and embedded system resources. A three‐phase agent‐oriented design methodology Prometheus is used to analyse system functions, construct operation scenarios, define agent types and design the MAS coordination mechanism. The control system is then developed in an embedded implementation containing a digital signal processor (DSP and an advanced RISC machine (ARM by using the multitasking processing capacity of multiple microprocessors and system services of a real‐time operating system (RTOS. As a paradigm, an onboard embedded controller is designed and developed for the AGV with a camera detecting guiding landmarks, and the entire procedure has a high efficiency and a clear hierarchy. A vision guidance experiment for our AGV is carried out in a space‐limited laboratory environment to verify the perception capacity and the onboard intelligence of the agent‐oriented embedded control system.

  18. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  19. Heterogeneity in the acute control of vascular protein synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Pierre; Yamaguchi, Nobuharu; Larivière, Richard; Moreau, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    In response to both hemodynamic and neurohumoral changes, the cardiovascular system remodels and this process could contribute to end organ damage. The aim of this study was to determine the early in vivo interactions between 3 systems known to contribute to vascular hypertrophic remodeling, in conduit and resistance arteries. Exogenous angiotensin II, norepinephrine and endothelin 1 administration elevated protein synthesis in the aorta and in small mesenteric arteries. In small arteries, the effect of angiotensin II was blocked by angiotensin II type 1, alpha-adrenergic and endothelin receptor antagonists, while only the alpha-adrenergic and endothelin receptor antagonists inhibited the effect of norepinephrine. Moreover, only the endothelin receptor antagonist significantly blunted the effect of exogenous endothelin on protein synthesis. In the aorta, the stimulation of angiotensin II on protein synthesis was also inhibited by the 3 antagonists. However, only the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist blunted the response to norepinephrine, and the 3 antagonists prevented the endothelin-induced elevation of protein synthesis. The blood pressure effects of the drugs did not correlate with their capacity to stimulate or inhibit vascular protein synthesis. In conclusion, interactions in the control of protein synthesis are heterogeneous along the vascular tree. In small arteries, the interaction is linear with endothelin as the downstream effector. In the aorta, the local sympathetic nervous system appears to control protein synthesis. The heterogeneity in downstream effectors should be considered in studies investigating signaling events related to protein synthesis, which is used as an early marker of hypertrophy.

  20. AUTOMATING THE CONFIGURATION OF THE CONTROLS SYSTEMS OF THE LHC EXPERIMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Calheiros, F; Varela, F

    2007-01-01

    The supervisory layer of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments is based on the Prozeßvisualisierungs- und Steuerungsystem (PVSS) [1] and the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP) Framework (FW) [2]. This controls framework includes a Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit, which allows to operate the control systems according to a well-defined set of states and commands. During the FSM transitions of the detectors, it is required to re-configure parts of the control systems. All configuration parameters of the devices integrated into the control system are stored in the so-called configuration database. In this paper the JCOP FW FSM-Configuration database tool is presented. This tool ensures the availability of all required configuration data, for a given type of run of the experiment, in the PVSS sub-detector control applications. The chosen implementation strategy is discussed in the paper. The approach enables the standalone operation of different partitions of the detectors simultaneously while ensuring indepe...

  1. Altering user' acceptance of automation through prior automation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2016-08-22

    Air navigation service providers worldwide see increased use of automation as one solution to overcome the capacity constraints imbedded in the present air traffic management (ATM) system. However, increased use of automation within any system is dependent on user acceptance. The present research sought to determine if the point at which an individual is no longer willing to accept or cooperate with automation can be manipulated. Forty participants underwent training on a computer-based air traffic control programme, followed by two ATM exercises (order counterbalanced), one with and one without the aid of automation. Results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation ('tipping point') decreased; suggesting it is indeed possible to alter automation acceptance. Practitioner Summary: This paper investigates whether the point at which a user of automation rejects automation (i.e. 'tipping point') is constant or can be manipulated. The results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation decreased; suggesting it is possible to alter automation acceptance.

  2. Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogou, Chrysovalantou; Ipsakis, Dimitris; Elmasides, Costas; Stergiopoulos, Fotis; Papadopoulou, Simira; Seferlis, Panos; Voutetakis, Spyros

    The design of the automation system and the implemented operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system in Greece are fully analyzed in the present study. A photovoltaic array and three wind generators serve as the system main power sources and meet a predefined load demand. A lead-acid accumulator is used to compensate the inherent power fluctuations (excess or shortage) and to regulate the overall system operation, based on a developed power management strategy. Hydrogen is produced by using system excess power in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and is further stored in pressurized cylinders for subsequent use in a PEM fuel cell in cases of power shortage. A diesel generator complements the integrated system and is employed only in emergency cases, such as subsystems failure. The performance of the automatic control system is evaluated through the real-time operation of the power system where data from the various subsystems are recorded and analyzed using a supervised data acquisition unit. Various network protocols were used to integrate the system devices into one central control system managing in this way to compensate for the differences between chemical and electrical subunits. One of the main advantages is the ability of process monitoring from distance where users can perform changes to system principal variables. Furthermore, the performance of the implemented power management strategy is evaluated through simulated scenarios by including a case study analysis on system abilities to meet higher than expected electrical load demands.

  3. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity.

  4. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-07

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  5. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  6. Control of a Wheelchair in an Indoor Environment Based on a Brain-Computer Interface and Automated Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing; Yan, Yongyong; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shaoyu; Yu, Tianyou; Gu, Zhenghui

    2016-01-01

    The concept of controlling a wheelchair using brain signals is promising. However, the continuous control of a wheelchair based on unstable and noisy electroencephalogram signals is unreliable and generates a significant mental burden for the user. A feasible solution is to integrate a brain-computer interface (BCI) with automated navigation techniques. This paper presents a brain-controlled intelligent wheelchair with the capability of automatic navigation. Using an autonomous navigation system, candidate destinations and waypoints are automatically generated based on the existing environment. The user selects a destination using a motor imagery (MI)-based or P300-based BCI. According to the determined destination, the navigation system plans a short and safe path and navigates the wheelchair to the destination. During the movement of the wheelchair, the user can issue a stop command with the BCI. Using our system, the mental burden of the user can be substantially alleviated. Furthermore, our system can adapt to changes in the environment. Two experiments based on MI and P300 were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our system.

  7. Performance evaluation of an automated detection and control system for volunteer potatoes in sugar beet fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.; Hofstee, J.W.; Henten, van E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete control of volunteer potato plants causes a high environmental load through increased crop protection chemical usage in potato cropping. A joint effort of industry, policy makers and science initiated a four year scientific project on detection and control of volunteer potato plants. A pr

  8. Automated Manipulation of Micro-Nano Objects with SPM by Using L₁ Adaptive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinmin Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel control methodology for automatically manipulating micro/nano particles by using a Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM is presented. First\tof all, a mathematical model of micro/nanomanipulation, including the interactive forces and dynamics between the tip, particle and substrate along with the roughness effect of the substrate, is described. Then, the L₁ adaptive control design for the manipulation system of micro/nano objects is presented, which consists of a state predictor with fast adaptation, a piece‐wise continuous adaptive law and a low‐pass filtered control design. This control framework can handle nonlinear uncertainties and ensures uniformly bounded tracking performance. The tracking performance bound can be systematically improved by reducing the step size of integration. Rigorous mathematical proof is provided. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented L₁ adaptive control law on the micro/nanomanipulation model.

  9. MODAL SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR NORM COMPUTATION OF H∞ DECENTRALIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wan-xie(钟万勰); WU Zhi-gang(吴志刚); GAO Qiang(高强); A.Y.T.Leung(梁以德); F.W.Williams

    2004-01-01

    When using H ∞ techniques to design decentralized controllers for large systems,the whole system is divided into subsystems, which are analysed using H∞ control theory before being recombined. An analogy was established with substructural analysis in structural mechanics, in which H ∞ decentralized control theory corresponds to substructural modal synthesis theory so that the optimal H ∞ norm of the whole system corresponds to the fundamental vibration frequency of the whole structure. Hence, modal synthesis methodology and the extended Wittrick-Williams algorithm were transplanted from structural mechanics to compute the optimal H∞ norm of the control system. The orthogonality and the expansion theorem of eigenfunctions of the subsystems H∞ control are presented in part (Ⅰ)of the paper. The modal synthesis method for computation of the optimal H ∞ norm of decentralized control systems and numerical examples are presented in part (Ⅱ).

  10. MODAL SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR NORM COMPUTATION OF H ∞ DECENTRALIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS ( Ⅰ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wan-xie(钟万勰); WU Zhi-gang(吴志刚); GAO Qiang(高强); A.Y.T.Leung(梁以德); F.W.Williams

    2004-01-01

    When using H ∞ techniques to design decentralized controllers for large systems,the whole system is divided into subsystems, which are analysed using H ∞ control theory before being recombined. An analogy was established with substructural analysis in structural mechanics, in which H∞ decentralized control theory corresponds to substructural modal synthesis theory so that the optimal H∞ norm of the whole system corresponds to the fundamental vibration frequency of the whole structure. Hence, modal synthesis methodology and the extended Wittrick-Williams algorithm were transplanted from structural mechanics to compute the optimal H ∞ norm of the control system. The orthogonality and the expansion theorem of eigenfunctions of the subsystems H∞ control are presented in part ( Ⅰ ) of the paper. The modal synthesis method for computation of the optimal H∞ norm of decentralized control systems and numerical examples are presented in part ( Ⅱ ).

  11. Nonlinear control synthesis for electrical power systems using controllable series capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjarekar, N.S.; Banavar, Ravi N. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Systems and Control Engineering

    2012-07-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector g(x) in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stabilizing controllers for power systems, where the CSC dynamics are included as a first order system. Next, we consider a different control methodology, immersion and invariance (I and I), to synthesize an asymptotically stabilizing control law for the SMIB system with a CSC. The CSC is described by a first order system. As a generalization of I and I, we incorporate the power balance algebraic constraints in the load bus to the SMIB swing equation, and extend the design philosophy to a class of differential algebraic systems. The proposed result is then demonstrated on another example: a two-machine system with two load buses and a CSC. The controller performances are validated through simulations for all cases.

  12. Automated boundary interaction force control of micromanipulators with in situ applications to microsurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Jalili, Nader

    2012-12-01

    Most recent works on miniature tasks are concentrated on developing tools to take advantage of the visual servoing feedback to control the ultra-small interaction forces. This paper spans an extensive platform for automatic controlling of boundary interaction forces with high precision in the level of micro/nano-Newton with extensive micro/nanoengineering applications such as the microsurgery. To this end, a comprehensive piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) model considering the shear deformation and rotary inertia effects treating as the distributed-parameters model along with the Hertzian contact force is presented. The purpose of considering the Hertzian contact force model is to investigate the dynamic response of the interaction force between the microcantilever's tip and the specimen. Afterward, a control platform is introduced to automatically manipulate the PMC to follow an ideal micro/nano-interaction force. By using the integrated PMC with the micromanipulator and a digital signal processor, an intuitive programming code is written to incorporate the micromanipulator and the controller in a real-time framework. To calibrate and verify the induced voltage in the PMC, a self-sensing experiment on the piezoelectric microcantilever is carried out to warrant the calibration procedure. Some experiments are established to affirm the validity of the proposed control for the autonomous real-time tasks on the boundary interaction force control. Unlike the conventional research studies, the measured force here contributes as the feedback source in contrast to the vision feedback while force sensors possess more precision, productivity and small size. This technique has several potential applications listed but not limited to the micro/nanomanipulation, developing artificial biological systems (e.g., fabricating hydrogel for the scaffold), and medicine such as microsurgery. As a result, using the proposed platform, we are able to manipulate and control the boundary

  13. Control of Klebsiella pneumoniae nif mRNA synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Four probes, each specific for a single nif transcript, were used for an analysis of the regulation of nif mRNA synthesis. Transcription of the nifLA operon was repressed by NH4+ but not by amino acids, O2, or temperatures above 37 degrees C. The nifA gene product was required for the activation of transcription of the other nif operons but not nifLA. Synthesis of the other nif transcripts was rapidly turned off by the addition of O2, NH4+, serine, or glutamine. These regulatory effects requi...

  14. Automated optogenetic feedback control for precise and robust regulation of gene expression and cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Rullan, Marc; Aoki, Stephanie K.; Buchmann, Peter; Khammash, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic control of gene expression can have far-reaching implications for biotechnological applications and biological discovery. Thanks to the advantages of light, optogenetics has emerged as an ideal technology for this task. Current state-of-the-art methods for optical expression control fail to combine precision with repeatability and cannot withstand changing operating culture conditions. Here, we present a novel fully automatic experimental platform for the robust and precise long-term optogenetic regulation of protein production in liquid Escherichia coli cultures. Using a computer-controlled light-responsive two-component system, we accurately track prescribed dynamic green fluorescent protein expression profiles through the application of feedback control, and show that the system adapts to global perturbations such as nutrient and temperature changes. We demonstrate the efficacy and potential utility of our approach by placing a key metabolic enzyme under optogenetic control, thus enabling dynamic regulation of the culture growth rate with potential applications in bacterial physiology studies and biotechnology. PMID:27562138

  15. Controller Strategies for Automation Tool Use under Varying Levels of Trajectory Prediction Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Susan; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Martin, Lynne; Bienert, Nancy; Cabrall, Christopher; Hunt, Sarah; Homola, Jeffrey; Kraut, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to examine the effects of varying levels of trajectory prediction uncertainty on air traffic controller workload and performance, as well as how strategies and the use of decision support tools change in response. This paper focuses on the strategies employed by two controllers from separate teams who worked in parallel but independently under identical conditions (airspace, arrival traffic, tools) with the goal of ensuring schedule conformance and safe separation for a dense arrival flow in en route airspace. Despite differences in strategy and methods, both controllers achieved high levels of schedule conformance and safe separation. Overall, results show that trajectory uncertainties introduced by wind and aircraft performance prediction errors do not affect the controllers' ability to manage traffic. Controller strategies were fairly robust to changes in error, though strategies were affected by the amount of delay to absorb (scheduled time of arrival minus estimated time of arrival). Using the results and observations, this paper proposes an ability to dynamically customize the display of information including delay time based on observed error to better accommodate different strategies and objectives.

  16. Nonlinear Control Synthesis for Electrical Power Systems Using Controllable Series Capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Manjarekar, N S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector $g(x)$ in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stab...

  17. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  18. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  19. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  20. A review of mechanical move sprinkler irrigation control and automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic sensors, equipment controls, and communication protocols have been developed to meet the growing interest in site-specific irrigation using center pivot and lateral move irrigation systems. Onboard and field-distributed sensors can collect data necessary for real-time irrigation manageme...

  1. The Automation of Government Publications: Functional Requirements and Selected Software Systems for Serials Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mary Sue; Purcell, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-based software and network systems for application to serials and government publications. General and specific functional requirements (hardware, software, file structure) are discussed, and descriptive information about commercially available serials control systems and a list of distributors are provided. (CLB)

  2. A Domain-specific Framework for Automated Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The development of modern railway and tramway control systems represents a considerable challenge to both systems and software engineers: The goal to increase the traffic throughput while at the same time increasing the availability and reliability of railway operations leads to a demand for more...

  3. An Overview of the Cost/Benefit Analyses for the Automated Technical Control (ATEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    Functions for Croughton and Hillingdon , Mar 󈨎. 63 TABLE XXIV. DETERMINATION OF MANPOWER REDUCTIONS (ATEC WITHOUT ENHANCEMENTS) A. Using direct...analysis of the technical control functions for DCS stations Croughton and Hillingdon was used extensively. The LCC computations included an appreciable

  4. Lactide Synthesis and Chirality Control for Polylactic acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wouwe, Pieter; Dusselier, Michiel; Vanleeuw, Evelien; Sels, Bert

    2016-05-10

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a very promising biodegradable, renewable, and biocompatible polymer. Aside from its production, its application field is also increasing, with use not only in commodity applications but also as durables and in biomedicine. In the current PLA production scheme, the most expensive part is not the polymerization itself but obtaining the building blocks lactic acid (LA) and lactide, the actual cyclic monomer for polymerization. Although the synthesis of LA and the polymerization have been studied systematically, reports of lactide synthesis are scarce. Most lactide synthesis methods are described in patent literature, and current energy-intensive, aselective industrial processes are based on archaic scientific literature. This Review, therefore, highlights new methods with a technical comparison and description of the different approaches. Water-removal methodologies are compared, as this is a crucial factor in PLA production. Apart from the synthesis of lactide, this Review also emphasizes the use of chemically produced racemic lactic acid (esters) as a starting point in the PLA production scheme. Stereochemically tailored PLA can be produced according to such a strategy, giving access to various polymer properties.

  5. Analysis of Reliability of Electrical Automation Control Equipment%关于电气自动化控制设备可靠性问题的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰

    2016-01-01

    The author analyzes and researches on some problems related to reliability of the electrical automation equipment based on years of practical experience and professional knowledge and skills,mainly including significance of doing a good job of electrical automation equipment reliability analysis,problems in the analysis process of electrical automation control equipment reliability,and measures of solving the problems in electrical automation control equipment reliability analysis,aiming to offer ref-erence and promote better development of Chinaˊs electrical industry.%笔者结合自身多年的实践经验和所掌握的专业知识和技能,就电气自动化设备可靠性的相关问题进行了分析和研究,主要包括做好电气自动化设备可靠性分析工作的重要意义、电气自动化控制设备可靠性分析过程中存在的问题、解决电气自动化控制设备可靠性分析中存在问题及措施三个基础部分,希望能够起到一定参考和借鉴的作用,促进我国的电气行业实现更快更好的发展。

  6. Multi-Temperature Zone, Droplet-based Microreactor for Increased Temperature Control in Nanoparticle Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Erdem, E. Yegân

    2013-12-12

    Microreactors are an emerging technology for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The Multi-Temperature zone Microreactor (MTM) described in this work utilizes thermally isolated heated and cooled regions for the purpose of separating nucleation and growth processes as well as to provide a platform for a systematic study on the effect of reaction conditions on nanoparticle synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Self Assistive Technology for Disabled People – Voice Controlled Wheel Chair and Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Puviarasi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of an innovative and low cost self-assistive technology that is used to facilitate the control of a wheelchair and home appliances by using advanced voice commands of the disabled people. This proposed system will provide an alternative to the physically challenged people with quadriplegics who is permanently unable to move their limbs (but who is able to speak and hear and elderly people in controlling the motion of the wheelchair and home appliances using their voices to lead an independent, confident and enjoyable life. The performance of this microcontroller based and voice integrated design is evaluated in terms of accuracy and velocity in various environments. The results show that it could be part of an assistive technology for the disabled persons without any third person’s assistance.

  8. Semi-automated x-ray gauging process control system. [For pressed-material components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draut, C.F.; Homan, D.A.

    1976-10-08

    An x-ray gauging method was developed and a production gauging system was subsequently fabricated to control the quality of precision manufactured components. The gauging system measures via x-ray absorption the density of pressed finely divided solids held in a dissimilar container. The two dissimilar materials condition necessitated a ''two scan'' technique: first, the x-ray attenuation (absorption) of the empty container prior to loading and then, the attenuation of the loaded container are measured; that is, four variables. The system provided greatly improved product control via timely data feedback and increased product quality assurance via 100 percent inspection of product. In addition, it reduced labor costs, product cost, and possibilities for human errors.

  9. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  10. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  11. Automated, Miniaturized and Integrated Quality Control-on-Chip (QC-on-a-Chip) for Advanced Cell Therapy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartmann, David; Rothbauer, Mario; Kuten, Olga; Barresi, Caterina; Visus, Carmen; Felzmann, Thomas; Ertl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The combination of microfabrication-based technologies with cell biology has laid the foundation for the development of advanced in vitro diagnostic systems capable of evaluating cell cultures under defined, reproducible and standardizable measurement conditions. In the present review we describe recent lab-on-a-chip developments for cell analysis and how these methodologies could improve standard quality control in the field of manufacturing cell-based vaccines for clinical purposes. We highlight in particular the regulatory requirements for advanced cell therapy applications using as an example dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines to describe the tangible advantages of microfluidic devices that overcome most of the challenges associated with automation, miniaturization and integration of cell-based assays. As its main advantage lab-on-a-chip technology allows for precise regulation of culturing conditions, while simultaneously monitoring cell relevant parameters using embedded sensory systems. State-of-the-art lab-on-a-chip platforms for in vitro assessment of cell cultures and their potential future applications for cell therapies and cancer immunotherapy are discussed in the present review.

  12. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T; Bruus, Henrik; Laurell, Thomas

    2011-12-21

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method to determine optimal μPIV-settings for obtaining high-quality results of the spatially inhomogeneous acoustophoretic velocity fields of large dynamical range is presented. In particular we study the dependence of the results on the μPIV interrogation window size and the number of repeated experiments. The μPIV-method was further verified by comparing it with our previously published particle tracking method. Using the μPIV platform we present a series of high-resolution measurements of the acoustophoretic velocity field as a function of the driving frequency, the driving voltage, and the resonator temperature. Finally, we establish a direct and consistent connection between the obtained acoustophoretic velocity fields, and continuous flow mode acoustophoresis, commonly used in applications.

  13. Automated Control of the Organic and Inorganic Composition of Aloe vera Extracts Using (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Randel, Gabriele; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2016-09-01

    Recent classification of Aloe vera whole-leaf extract by the International Agency for Research and Cancer as a possible carcinogen to humans as well as the continuous adulteration of A. vera's authentic material have generated renewed interest in controlling A. vera. The existing NMR spectroscopic method for the analysis of A. vera, which is based on a routine developed at Spectral Service, was extended. Apart from aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, whole-leaf material (WLM), acetic acid, fumaric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate, the quantification of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and fructose is possible with the addition of a Cs-EDTA solution to sample. The proposed methodology was automated, which includes phasing, baseline-correction, deconvolution (based on the Lorentzian function), integration, quantification, and reporting. The NMR method was applied to 41 A. vera preparations in the form of liquid A. vera juice and solid A. vera powder. The advantages of the new NMR methodology over the previous method were discussed. Correlation between the new and standard NMR methodologies was significant for aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and WLM (P vera.

  14. Automated, Miniaturized and Integrated Quality Control-on-Chip (QC-on-a-Chip for Advanced Cell Therapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWartmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The combination of microfabrication-based technologies with cell biology has laid the foundation for the development of advanced in vitro diagnostic systems capable of evaluating cell cultures under defined, reproducible and standardizable measurement conditions. In the present review we describe recent lab-on-a-chip developments for cell analysis and how these methodologies could improve standard quality control in the field of manufacturing cell-based vaccines for clinical purposes. We highlight in particular the regulatory requirements for advanced cell therapy applications using as an example dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines to describe the tangible advantages of microfluidic devices that overcome most of the challenges associated with automation, miniaturization and integration of cell-based assays. As its main advantage lab-on-a-chip technology allows for precise regulation of culturing conditions, while simultaneously monitoring cell relevant parameters using embedded sensory systems. State-of-the-art lab-on-a-chip platforms for in vitro assessment of cell cultures and their potential future applications for cell therapies and cancer immunotherapy are discussed in the present review.

  15. Standardization of automated industrial test equipment for mass production of control systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090663; Dai, Iosifina Panagiota; Oleniuk, Patryk Wojciech; Todd, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. They must be designed to achieve a high Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and hardware reliability must be ensured by board level testing before hardware is assembled and installed. In this framework, the National Instrument PCI extension for Instrumentation (PXI) was chosen as standard platform for the development of testers. This paper reports on the design strategy and approach used focusing on the tester hardware, firmware and software development.

  16. Control automático de un exoesqueleto de marcha para pacientes con discapacidad motora

    OpenAIRE

    Arcos Legarda, Willington Jaime

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es desarrollar una estrategia de control multivariable para el movimiento de un exoesqueleto de marcha. El propósito del exoesqueleto es asistir la caminata de un sujeto con discapacidad motora. En este trabajo se modela la dinámica multicuerpos del sistema sujeto exoesqueleto. El modelo de la dinámica multicuerpos es construido en SimMechanics de Matlab. El modelado y la simulación de la caminata incluye dos fases de operación: apoyo simple y apoyo doble. La d...

  17. The importance of control considerations for heat exchanger network synthesis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost optimization in the synthesis decision tree often leads to a reduced degree of freedom which degrades the process’s ability to reject disturbances as a consequence of low controllability. In fact, Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs obtained by traditional synthesis procedures that ignore controllability aspects must be evaluated in this context a posteriori. The aim of this work was to develop a procedure that includes RGA and SVD measures of controllability, which are solely based on steady state information, thereby freeing the synthesis procedure of the cumbersome dynamic analysis. When a structure is defined during a traditional HEN synthesis procedure, a degree of freedom analysis is approached as a simulation problem. Next, an optimization is performed, since new variables are usually added to increase the degree of freedom of the HEN in order to render it controllable. A key point in the proposed procedure is the inference of controllability based on the proposed controllability measures, which also provide a control scheme by pairing controlled and manipulated variables during the process design. A HEN reported in the literature is used to illustrate the proposed procedure. The steady state simulator Aspen Plus and the dynamic simulator Aspen Dynamics (Aspentech, Inc. were employed.

  18. Automated methanol dosage using liquid flow controllers; Automatisierte Methanolregelung mit Liquid Flow Controllern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, Thomas [Buerkert Fluid Control Systems, Ingelfingen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Transmission gearwheels are frequently exposed to extreme loads. Generally, in order to counteract premature wear, gearwheels made from steel are surface-hardened. This is carried out primarily by gas carburizing and subsequent quenching (case hardening). These processes of gas carburizing increase the carbon content in the boundary area of the workpiece and change the boundary structure of the steel. In the foundation Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik (IWT) (Institute for Materials Engineering) in Bremen, they are engaged intensively with the various processes of heat treatment for the hardening of steel. As an alternative to gas carburizing using endogas, the Nitrogen-Methanol Process, in which liquid methanol is directly introduced into the furnace, plays an important role and is gaining in importance. At the IWT, Liquid Flow Controllers (LFC) provide regulated and completely documented processes. (orig.)

  19. Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

  20. Automation or De-automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  1. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling.

  2. Synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozhaev, I. V.; Gayvoronskiy, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are often used for performing scientific, emergency or other types of missions under harsh conditions and environments, which can have non-stable, variable parameters. So, the problem of developing autonomous underwater vehicle motion control systems, capable of operating properly in random environments, is highly relevant. The paper is dedicated to the synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system, capable of keeping an underwater vehicle stable during a translation at different angles of attack. In order to synthesize the PID-controller, two problems were solved: a new method of synthesizing a robust controller was developed and a mathematical model of an underwater vehicle motion process was derived. The newly developed mathematical model structure is simpler than others due to acceptance of some of the system parameters as interval ones. The synthesis method is based on a system poles allocation approach and allows providing the necessary transient process quality in a considered system.

  3. Concurrent combined verification: reducing false positives in automated NMR structure verification through the evaluation of multiple challenge control structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golotvin, Sergey S; Pol, Rostislav; Sasaki, Ryan R; Nikitina, Asya; Keyes, Philip

    2012-06-01

    Automated structure verification using (1)H NMR data or a combination of (1)H and heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) data is gaining more interest as a routine application for qualitative evaluation of large compound libraries produced by synthetic chemistry. The goal of this automated software method is to identify a manageable subset of compounds and data that require human review. In practice, the automated method will flag structure and data combinations that exhibit some inconsistency (i.e. strange chemical shifts, conflicts in multiplicity, or overestimated and underestimated integration values) and validate those that appear consistent. One drawback of this approach is that no automated system can guarantee that all passing structures are indeed correct structures. The major reason for this is that approaches using only (1)H or even (1)H and HSQC spectra often do not provide sufficient information to properly distinguish between similar structures. Therefore, current implementations of automated structure verification systems allow, in principle, false positive results. Presented in this work is a method that greatly reduces the probability of an automated validation system passing incorrect structures (i.e. false positives). This novel method was applied to automatically validate 127 non-proprietary compounds from several commercial sources. Presented also is the impact of this approach on false positive and false negative results.

  4. Application of an automation system and a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the optimal operation of a membrane adsorption hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P J; Vigneswaran, S; Ngo, H H; Nguyen, H T; Ben-Aim, R

    2006-01-01

    The application of automation and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to municipal water and wastewater treatment plants is rapidly increasing. However, the application of these systems is less frequent in the research and development phases of emerging treatment technologies used in these industries. This study involved the implementation of automation and a SCADA system to the submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system for use in a semi-pilot scale research project. An incremental approach was used in the development of the automation and SCADA systems, leading to the development of two new control systems. The first system developed involved closed loop control of the backwash initiation, based upon a pressure increase, leading to productivity improvements as the backwash is only activated when required, not at a fixed time. This system resulted in a 40% reduction in the number of backwashes required and also enabled optimised operations under unsteady concentrations of wastewater. The second system developed involved closed loop control of the backwash duration, whereby the backwash was terminated when the pressure reached a steady state. This system resulted in a reduction of the duration of the backwash of up to 25% and enabled optimised operations as the foulant build-up within the reactor increased.

  5. Improved quantitative PCR protocols for adenovirus and CMV with an internal inhibition control system and automated nucleic acid isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke-Gendo, C; Ganzenmueller, T; Kluba, J; Harste, G; Raggub, L; Heim, A

    2012-06-01

    With the establishment of routine virus load (DNAemia) screening for Human adenovirus (HAdV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in post-transplant care quality standards for quantitative PCR-assays are increasing. Established real-time PCR assays were improved with a fully automated DNA-extraction and with a competitive internal control DNA packaged into a lambda phage which serves as an extraction and amplification control in each sample. HAdV and CMV DNA were detected and quantified simultaneously in various types of diagnostic samples like blood, feces or respiratory tract materials. Inhibition was observed in 0.33-0.66% of over 14,000 diagnostic samples, an infrequent but nevertheless not negligible event, which is observed mainly in stool samples. CMV viral load in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) ranged between positive but below the quantitation limit of 1,000 copies/ml up to 1.8 × 10(7) copies/ml with a median of 6.0 × 10(3) copies/ml. Forty-one (4.7%) BALF samples had a viral load above 5.0 × 10(5) copies/ml, which was proposed as a threshold for the diagnosis of pneumonia. HAdV viral loads ranged between positive but below the quantitation limit of 1,000 copies/ml to a very high concentration of 1.3 × 10(11) copies/ml in stool and BALF samples. A HAdV-DNAemia of >10(4) copies/ml was found only in patients with stool viral load of above 10(5) copies/ml. These data support the hypothesis that quantitation in diagnostic materials other than blood may give valuable diagnostic information and that further evaluation of this approach is reasonable.

  6. Localization and recognition of traffic signs for automated vehicle control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Mahmoud M.; Kasvand, T.; Suen, Ching Y.

    1998-01-01

    We present a computer vision system for detection and recognition of traffic signs. Such systems are required to assist drivers and for guidance and control of autonomous vehicles on roads and city streets. For experiments we use sequences of digitized photographs and off-line analysis. The system contains four stages. First, region segmentation based on color pixel classification called SRSM. SRSM limits the search to regions of interest in the scene. Second, we use edge tracing to find parts of outer edges of signs which are circular or straight, corresponding to the geometrical shapes of traffic signs. The third step is geometrical analysis of the outer edge and preliminary recognition of each candidate region, which may be a potential traffic sign. The final step in recognition uses color combinations within each region and model matching. This system maybe used for recognition of other types of objects, provided that the geometrical shape and color content remain reasonably constant. The method is reliable, easy to implement, and fast, This differs form the road signs recognition method in the PROMETEUS. The overall structure of the approach is sketched.

  7. Control De Un Vehículo Guiado Automáticamente (AGV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pedroza Reyes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo principal el aporte de un algoritmo de cálculo de trayectorias para un vehículo autónomo guiado. El cálculo se hace partiendo de parámetros capturados en un computador, los cuales son enviados al sistema de control para calcular una ruta libre de colisiones, que aproveche el espacio disponible, para proveer de movimientos suaves al vehículo. El algoritmo desarrollado está basado en la construcción de curvas paramétricas tipo Hermite y su implementación se llevó a cabo en un microcontrolador dsPIC30F en lenguaje C modificado. Además se ha realizado un prototipo a escala, con el cual se realizaron pruebas que permitieron dar fe del buen funcionamiento del algoritmo, aún y cuando es susceptible de muchas mejoras, entre ellas, el desarrollo de un prototipo más eficiente o una comunicación inalámbrica, para mejorar las condiciones de simulación.

  8. Can We Optimize Arc Discharge and Laser Ablation for Well-Controlled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rasel; Shahnavaz, Zohreh; Ali, Md. Eaqub; Islam, Mohammed Moinul; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2016-11-01

    Although many methods have been documented for carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis, still, we notice many arguments, criticisms, and appeals for its optimization and process control. Industrial grade CNT production is urgent such that invention of novel methods and engineering principles for large-scale synthesis are needed. Here, we comprehensively review arc discharge (AD) and laser ablation (LA) methods with highlighted features for CNT production. We also display the growth mechanisms of CNT with reasonable grassroots knowledge to make the synthesis more efficient. We postulate the latest developments in engineering carbon feedstock, catalysts, and temperature cum other minor reaction parameters to optimize the CNT yield with desired diameter and chirality. The rate limiting steps of AD and LA are highlighted because of their direct role in tuning the growth process. Future roadmap towards the exploration of CNT synthesis methods is also outlined.

  9. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  10. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  11. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  12. AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRENKO A. O.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Health and human performance largely determined by the conditions of climate and air quality in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. At that, in turn, is influenced by the external environment and the climate, and the geometric dimensions of the room, and thermal performance building envelopes, and the location of the premises (Orientation, and many other factors. The result is the formation of complex systems, which control decision-making in conditions of multifactor [1]. In hygienic purposes it is necessary to strive to create the best indoor microclimate conditions, regardless of changes in the factors that affect the climate in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. Develop systems to ensure the necessary microclimate parameters – it is a complex and important task, which will depend entirely comfortable and cozy environment for the person. The problem of the present time, there is a steady increase in the energy consumption of these systems, due to the rise in price of non-renewable energy sources, and our job is, to simulate the work of software systems necessary microclimate for the changes in the factors that affect it and to minimize the use of non-renewable energy sources. Analysis of recent research and publications. Domestic and foreign hygienists [2, 3, 4] to establish a connection between the climate in the room and in the workplace and the state of human health. Formation of the indoor climate of residential, administrative and residential and public buildings is influenced by many factors that have already noted earlier [5, 6]. Study of the processes of influence of various factors on human health is of great complexity. If we consider each process separately, and in this case they are not currently amenable to theoretical description clearer. To simulate the effect of these factors studies were conducted, which showed that, with sufficient

  13. Model-driven design using IEC 61499 a synchronous approach for embedded and automation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yoong, Li Hsien; Bhatti, Zeeshan E; Kuo, Matthew M Y

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a novel approach for the design of embedded systems and industrial automation systems, using a unified model-driven approach that is applicable in both domains.  The authors illustrate their methodology, using the IEC 61499 standard as the main vehicle for specification, verification, static timing analysis and automated code synthesis.  The well-known synchronous approach is used as the main vehicle for defining an unambiguous semantics that ensures determinism and deadlock freedom. The proposed approach also ensures very efficient implementations either on small-scale embedded devices or on industry-scale programmable automation controllers (PACs). It can be used for both centralized and distributed implementations. Significantly, the proposed approach can be used without the need for any run-time support. This approach, for the first time, blurs the gap between embedded systems and automation systems and can be applied in wide-ranging applications in automotive, robotics, and industri...

  14. Enantioselective synthesis of both (-)-(R)-and (+)-(S)-angustureine controlled by enzymatic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Gaspar, E-mail: gaspardm@qui.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Qumica; Diaz, Marisa A.N. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Reis, Marco A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-09-15

    The present study describes a new synthesis of (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)-angustureine enantiomers, as well as of racemate ({+-})-angustureine, from a racemic {beta}-amino ester controlled by kinetic enzymatic resolution. This strategy allowed to incorporate the basic skeleton, as well as to control the single stereocenter at carbon 2 in both enantiomers. The sequence of five steps starting from the chiral {beta}-amino ester and sodium carboxylate for the synthesis of both alkaloids achieved overall yields of 80 and 44%, respectively, and produced excellent enantiomeric excesses (95 and 96%, respectively) with no protection of functional groups in any of the steps. (author)

  15. On the Controller Synthesis for Markov Decision Process of Conflict Tolerant Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Huang, Zhiqiu; Cao, Zining

    For an embedded control system, different requirements often need be satisfied at same time, and some of them make the system to act conflicted. Conflict tolerant specification is provided to denote this situation. In such a system, there often exist probabilistic and non-deterministic behaviors. We use Markov Decision Process (MDP) to denote these features. We study the controller synthesis for MDP over conflict tolerant specification. We extend PCTL star by adding past operator to denote the conflict tolerant specification succinctly. We use CT-PLTL to denote conflicted actions and PCTL to denote the specification for probability demand. We first synthesize a controller on a base system over CT-PLTL and then use it to prune the corresponding MDP of the system model. We use the resulting sub-MDP as the model to further synthesis a controller over PCTL. The whole controller for MDP is a conjunction of the two controllers obtained.

  16. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting

  17. Quality control of CT systems by automated monitoring of key performance indicators: a two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowik, Patrik; Bujila, Robert; Poludniowski, Gavin; Fransson, Annette

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of performing routine periodical quality controls (QC) of CT systems by automatically analyzing key performance indicators (KPIs), obtainable from images of manufacturers' quality assurance (QA) phantoms. A KPI pertains to a measurable or determinable QC parameter that is influenced by other underlying fundamental QC parameters. The established KPIs are based on relationships between existing QC parameters used in the annual testing program of CT scanners at the Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. The KPIs include positioning, image noise, uniformity, homogeneity, the CT number of water, and the CT number of air. An application (MonitorCT) was developed to automatically evaluate phantom images in terms of the established KPIs. The developed methodology has been used for two years in clinical routine, where CT technologists perform daily scans of the manufacturer's QA phantom and automatically send the images to MonitorCT for KPI evaluation. In the cases where results were out of tolerance, actions could be initiated in less than 10 min. 900 QC scans from two CT scanners have been collected and analyzed over the two-year period that MonitorCT has been active. Two types of errors have been registered in this period: a ring artifact was discovered with the image noise test, and a calibration error was detected multiple times with the CT number test. In both cases, results were outside the tolerances defined for MonitorCT, as well as by the vendor. Automated monitoring of KPIs is a powerful tool that can be used to supplement established QC methodologies. Medical physicists and other professionals concerned with the performance of a CT system will, using such methods, have access to comprehensive data on the current and historical (trend) status of the system such that swift actions can be taken in order to ensure the quality of the CT examinations, patient safety, and minimal disruption of service.

  18. Formal ESL Synthesis for Control-Intensive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Dossis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the massive complexity of contemporary embedded applications and integrated systems, long effort has been invested in high-level synthesis (HLS and electronic system level (ESL methodologies to automatically produce correct implementations from high-level, abstract, and executable specifications written in program code. If the HLS transformations that are applied on the source code are formal, then the generated implementation is correct-by-construction. The focus in this work is on application-specific design, which can deliver optimal, and customized implementations, as opposed to platform or IP-based design, which is bound by the limits and constraints of the preexisting architecture. This work surveys and reviews past and current research in the area of ESL and HLS. Then, a prototype HLS compiler tool that has been developed by the author is presented, which utilizes compiler-generators and logic programming to turn the synthesis into a formal process. The scheduler PARCS and the formal compilation of the system are tested with a number of benchmarks and real-world applications. This demonstrates the usability and applicability of the presented method.

  19. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  20. Fuzzy control systems with time-delay and stochastic perturbation analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ligang; Shi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on fuzzy control systems. It presents solutions to a series of problems with new approaches for the analysis and synthesis of fuzzy time-delay systems and fuzzy stochastic systems, including stability analysis and stabilization, dynamic output feedback control, robust filter design, and model approximation. A set of newly developed techniques such as fuzzy Lyapunov function approach, delay-partitioning, reciprocally convex, cone complementary linearization approach are presented. Fuzzy Control Systems with Time-Delay and Stochastic Perturbation: Analysis and Synthesis is a comprehensive reference for researcher and practitioners working in control engineering, system sciences and applied mathematics, and is also a useful source of information for senior undergraduates and graduates in these areas. The readers will benefit from some new concepts, new models and new methodologies with practical significance in control engineering and si...

  1. Controlled synthesis of transition metal/conducting polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Poyraz, Selcuk; Lu, Ning; Kim, Moon; Smith, James; Wang, Xiaolong; Yu, Yajiao; Zhang, Xinyu

    2012-08-01

    A novel displacement reaction has been observed to occur between conducting polymers (CP) and metal salts which can be used to fabricate nanostructured CP-metal composites in a one-pot manner. Vanadium pentoxide (V 2O5) nanofiber is used during the synthesis as the reactive seeds to induce the nanofibril CP-metal network formation. The CP-metal nanocomposites exhibit excellent sensory properties for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection, where both high sensitivity and a low detection limit can be obtained. The sensory performance of the CP-metal composite can be further enhanced by a facile microwave treatment. It is believed that the CP-metal nanofibril network can be converted to a carbon-metal network by a microwave-induced carbonization process and result in the sensory enhancement.

  2. Controlled synthesis of the tricontinuous mesoporous material IBN-9 and its carbon and platinum derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2011-08-23

    Controlled synthesis of mesoporous materials with ultracomplicated pore configurations is of great importance for both fundamental research of nanostructures and the development of novel applications. IBN-9, which is the only tricontinuous mesoporous silica with three sets of interpenetrating three-dimensional channel systems, appears to be an excellent model mesophase for such study. The extensive study of synthesis space diagrams proves mesophase transition among the cylindrical MCM-41, tricontinuous IBN-9 and bicontinuous MCM-48, and also allows a more precise control of phase-pure synthesis. On the other hand, rational design of structure-directing agents offers a possibility to extend the synthesis conditions of IBN-9, as well as tailor its pore size. Moreover, an unprecedented helical structure consisting of twisted 3-fold interwoven mesoporous channels is reported here for the first time. The unique tricontinuous mesostructure of IBN-9 has been well-replicated by other functional materials (e.g., carbon and platinum) via a "hard- templating" synthesis route. The obtained carbon material possesses large surface area (∼1900 m2/g), high pore volume (1.56 cm 3/g), and remarkable gas adsorption capability at both cryogenic temperatures and room temperature. The platinum material has an ordered mesostructure composed of highly oriented nanocrystals. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. STIR: Redox-Switchable Olefin Polymerization Catalysis: Electronically Tunable Ligands for Controlled Polymer Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    frameworks and metallated using organometallic reagents so as to produce precatalysts that could be activated using methylaluminoxane, borane, or...capable functionalities were incorporated into specifically chosen ligand frameworks and metallated using organometallic reagents so as to produce...Polymerization Catalysis: Electronically Tunable Ligands for Controlled Polymer Synthesis Brian K. Long Department of Chemistry University of Tennessee

  4. pH-controllable synthesis of unique nanostructured tungsten oxide aerogel and its sensitive glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang-Qiang; Xu, Maowen; Bao, Shu-Juan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-03-20

    This work presents a controllable synthesis of nanowire-networked tungsten oxide aerogels, which was performed by varying the pH in a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted hydrothermal process. An enzyme-tungsten oxide aerogel co-modified electrode shows high activity and selectivity toward glucose oxidation, thus holding great promise for applications in bioelectronics.

  5. Control of rRNA Synthesis in Escherichia coli: a Systems Biology Approach†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Patrick P.; Ehrenberg, Mans; Bremer, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The first part of this review contains an overview of the various contributions and models relating to the control of rRNA synthesis reported over the last 45 years. The second part describes a systems biology approach to identify the factors and effectors that control the interactions between RNA polymerase and rRNA (rrn) promoters of Escherichia coli bacteria during exponential growth in different media. This analysis is based on measurements of absolute rrn promoter activities as transcripts per minute per promoter in bacterial strains either deficient or proficient in the synthesis of the factor Fis and/or the effector ppGpp. These absolute promoter activities are evaluated in terms of rrn promoter strength (Vmax/Km) and free RNA polymerase concentrations. Three major conclusions emerge from this evaluation. First, the rrn promoters are not saturated with RNA polymerase. As a consequence, changes in the concentration of free RNA polymerase contribute to changes in rrn promoter activities. Second, rrn P2 promoter strength is not specifically regulated during exponential growth at different rates; its activity changes only when the concentration of free RNA polymerase changes. Third, the effector ppGpp reduces the strength of the rrn P1 promoter both directly and indirectly by reducing synthesis of the stimulating factor Fis. This control of rrn P1 promoter strength forms part of a larger feedback loop that adjusts the synthesis of ribosomes to the availability of amino acids via amino acid-dependent control of ppGpp accumulation. PMID:15590778

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODELING, AUTOMATION AND CONTROL OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF SORBITOL TO SORBOSE IN THE VITAMIN C PRODUCTION PROCESS I. MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonomi A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, the Biotechnology and the Control Systems Groups of IPT started developing a system for the control and automation of fermentation processes, applied to the oxidation of sorbitol to sorbose by the bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans, the microbial step of the vitamin C production process, that was chosen as a case study. Initially, a thirteen-parameter model was fitted to represent the batch operation of the system utilizing a nonlinear regression analysis, the flexible polyhedron method. Based on these results, a model for the continuous process (with the same kinetic equations was constructed and its optimum operating point obtained

  7. Frequency domain synthesis of trajectory learning controllers for robot manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kavli

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory learning control is a method for generating near to optimal feedforward control for systems that are controlled along a reference trajectory in repeated cycles. Iterative refinements of a stored feedforward control sequence corresponding to one cycle of the control trajectory is computed based upon the recorded trajectory error from the previous cycle. Several learning operators have been proposed in earlier work, and convergence proofs are developed for certain classes of systems, but no satisfactory method for design and analysis of learning operators under the presence of uncertainties in the system model have been presented. This article presents frequency domain methods for analysing the convergence properties and performance of the learning controller when the amplitude and phase of the system transfer function is assumed to be within specified windows. Experimental results with an industrial robot manipulator confirm the theoretical results.

  8. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part I: Modeling and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a work on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The study is performed from the perspective of giving a unitary control method to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. To illustrate the proposed HVAC control technique, in this first part it is considered as benchmark problem a single thermal space HVAC system. The construction of the mathematical model is performed only with a view to obtain a framework of HVAC intelligent control validation by numerical simulations. The latter will be reported in a second part of the study.

  9. Synthesis and retrofit design of operable heat exchanger networks; 1: Flexibility and structural controllability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papalexandri, K.P.; Pistikopoulos, E.N. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology)

    1994-07-01

    A systematic framework for the synthesis and/or retrofit of flexible and structurally controllable heat exchanger networks is presented in this paper. Based on a multiperiod hyperstructure network representation, explicit structural controllability (total disturbance rejection) criteria are developed and included within a synthesis/retrofit mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, where a total annualized (operating and investment) cost is minimized. The proposed framework results in a network structure which features minimum annualized cost, while being (1) flexible to operate within a specified range (or discrete set) of uncertain stream flow rates, inlet temperature, and/or heat transfer coefficients and (2) structurally controllable for a given set of disturbances and control variables.

  10. STRUCTURAL SYNTHESIS OF A STABILIZING ROBUST CONTROLLER OF THE ROTOR FLUX LINKAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Khlopenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim is to structural synthesis of robust stabilizing control of the rotor flux vector control system of induction motor. Methodology. Synthesis controller structure was carried out in two stages. The first stage constructed a mathematical model of the channel of the rotor flux with parametric uncertainty and calculated transfer function of H∞-suboptimal controller by method of the mixed sensitivity. The second stage was carried out the expansion of the transfer function of the continued fraction for the Euclidean algorithm. This fraction was used to construct the controller structural scheme. Results. Computer modeling of the transfer function of H∞-suboptimal controller. Achieved decomposition found the transfer function of the continued fraction. The flow diagram of suboptimal H∞-controller with a proportional and integrating links and a few summers. The curves of transient rotor flux linkage in packages Robust Control Toolbox and Simulink. They coincide in the steady state, but differ among themselves in the transition. Originality. We developed the method of structural synthesis of robust stabilizing controller of the flux linkage rotor, H∞-suboptimal structural scheme of which is presented in the form of simple compounds integrating and proportional elements of the same order as the controller with the strictly correct transfer function, and takes into account the parametric uncertainty of control object. The results of the simulation of transient processes in a variety of packages MATLAB applications confirms the adequacy and small sensitivity of the system to parametric perturbation. Practical value. The resulting structure of the controller makes it possible to carry out the modernization of electric control systems, in use, with minimal financial costs.

  11. H∞ Synthesis Method for Control of Non-linear Flexible Joint Models

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Patrik; Pipeleers, Goele; Helmersson, Anders; Norrlöf, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    An H∞ synthesis method for control of a flexible joint, with non-linear spring characteristic, is proposed. The first step of the synthesis method is to extend the joint model with an uncertainty description of the stiffness parameter. In the second step, a non-linear optimisation problem, based on nominal performance and robust stability requirements, has to be solved. Using the Lyapunov shaping paradigm and a change of variables, the non-linear optimisation problem can be rewritten as a con...

  12. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  13. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  14. Microcontroller for automation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  15. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  16. Algebraic synthesis of time-optimal unitaries in SU(2) with alternating controls

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Clarice D.; Allegra, Michele; Hemmerling, Boerge; Wang, Xiaoting; Cappellaro, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present an algebraic framework to study the time-optimal synthesis of arbitrary unitaries in SU(2), when the control set is restricted to rotations around two non-parallel axes in the Bloch sphere. Our method bypasses commonly used control-theoretical techniques, and easily imposes necessary conditions on time-optimal sequences. In a straightforward fashion, we prove that time-optimal sequences are solely parametrized by three rotation angles and derive general bounds on those angles as a ...

  17. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  18. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  19. PREDICTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM SYNTHESIS OF DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrotin S.A.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A combined system of building heating predictive control has been synthesized in the research. Following algorithms are described: adaptive algorithm of very short-term temperature forecast and algorithm of anticipatory control of heat supply to building heating taking into account different outside climate influence on elevations of a building.

  20. Library Automation in the Netherlands and Pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossers, Anton; Van Muyen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Pica Library Automation Network (originally the Project for Integrated Catalogue Automation), which is based on a centralized bibliographic database. Highlights include the Pica conception of library automation, online shared cataloging system, circulation control system, acquisition system, and online Dutch union catalog with…

  1. 略谈PLC在自动化控制领域中的应用%Brief Probe of Application of PLC in the Field of Automation Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜旭玲

    2015-01-01

    As the computer equipment in modern industrial production, the stewardship function is particularly outstanding, it has irreplaceable role in the field of automation control. PLC into the field of industrial automation control, the key is switch value controlling, analog confirmation, process monitoring and motion controlling, etc. Special attention should be paid to do a good job in controlling design and system commissioning in actual application, optimizing and maintaining appropriate working environment, preventing all sorts of interference.%作为工业生产现代化的计算机设备,PLC的自动化引领功能特别突出,它在自动化控制领域,具有不可替代的作用。工业生产自动化控制领域引入PLC,重点是开关量控制、模拟量确认、过程控制和运动控制等,实际应用时特别要注意做好控制设计和系统调试,优化、保持适度工作环境,预防各种干扰。

  2. Automating the CMS DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Ozga, Wojciech Andrzej; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Wakefield, Christopher Colin; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90\\% and to even improve it to 95\\% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  3. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  4. DNA synthesis in mouse brown adipose tissue is under. beta. -adrenergic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnmark, S.; Nedergaard, J. (Univ. of Stockholm (Sweden))

    1989-02-01

    The rate of DNA synthesis in mouse brown adipose tissue was followed with injections of ({sup 3}H)thymidine. Cold exposure led to a large increase in the rate of ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation, reaching a maximum after 8 days, after which the activity abruptly ceased. A series of norepinephrine injections was in itself able to increase ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation. When norepinephrine was injected in combination with the {alpha}-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine or with the {beta}-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, the stimulation was fully blocked by propranolol. It is suggested that stimulation of DNA synthesis in brown adipose tissue is a {beta}-adrenergically mediated process and that the tissue is an interesting model for studies of physiological control of DNA synthesis.

  5. Environment friendly approach for size controllable synthesis of biocompatible Silver nanoparticles using diastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Anna, Kiran Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A green, facile method for the size selective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using diastase as green reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. The thiol groups present in the diastase are mainly responsible for the rapid reaction rate of silver nanoparticles synthesis. The variation in the size and morphology of AgNPs were studied by changing the pH of diastase. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-vis, XRD, FTIR, TEM and SAED. The FTIR analysis revealed the stabilization of diastase molecules on the surface of AgNPs. Additionally, in-vitro cytotoxicity experiments concluded that the cytotoxicity of the as-synthesized AgNPs towards mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell lines is dose and size dependent. Furthermore, the present method is an alternative to the traditional chemical methods of size controlled AgNPs synthesis.

  6. The application of finite automate theory in automatic control%有穷自动机理论在自动化控制方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习仲坚; 巫明

    2012-01-01

    有穷自动机是一种关于系统状态变迁与时间关系的数学模型,20世纪40年代和50年代分别由McCulloch、Pitts和Moore等建立了自动机模型,经过半世纪多的发展,它已经成为一门完善的离散数学理论分支,广泛应用于形式语言、数字电路、计算机编译程序和操作系统等各个方面.自动机分为确定性(DFA)和非确定性两种(NFA),NFA可通过闭包算法转变为DFA,本文将探讨DFA在自动化控制方面的应用.%Finite automation is a mathematical model of the system state changes with the time automation model by McCulloch Pitts and Moore in the 1940s and 1950s,after half a century of development ,it has become branch of discrete mathematics theory .widely used in formal language ,all aspects of digital circuits .computer complier and operating system Automata Divided into deterministic(DFA) and non-deterministic(NFA), NFA by closure algorithm change for the DFA ,the article will explore the application of DFA in the automation control.

  7. Logic synthesis for FSM-based control units

    CERN Document Server

    Barkalov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The control unit is one of the most important parts of any digital system responsible for interplay of other system blocks. Very often, the model of a finite state machine (FSM) is used to represent the behaviour of a control unit. Modern computer-aided design tools include a lot of optimal solutions (library cells) for implementation of such regular blocks of digital systems as decoders, multiplexers, parallel multibit adders and so on. But as a rule, control units have an irregular structure which makes impossible to design their logic circuits using the standard library cells. To use these

  8. Periodic H2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control with a Vector Magnetometer and Magnetorquers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    A control synthesis for a spacecraft equipped with a set of mutually perpendicular coils and a vector magnetometer is addressed in this paper. The interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. Comparison between...... the expected magnetic field vector and the true magnetometer data is used for the attitude determination. The magnetic attitude control and determination is intrinsically periodic due to periodic nature of the geomagnetic field variation in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2...... operator norm. The paper proposes an LMI solution to this problem...

  9. Controlling Synthesis of Nanostructured Silver Aggregates by Light

    CERN Document Server

    Brummer, J; Loth, M; Popov, A K; Schmitz, R; Taft, G; Tanke, R; Wruck, A

    2004-01-01

    The possibilities for control over the size and properties of silver nanoaggregates with incoherent and laser light are investigated. The applications in nanoengineering and for giant enhancement of optical processes at nanoscale are discussed.

  10. H∞ controller synthesis of piecewise discrete time linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang FENG

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an H∞ controller design method for piecewise discrete time linear systems based on a piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function. It is shown that the resulting closed loop system is globally stable with guaranteed H∞ perfomance and the controller can be obtained by solvng a set of bilinear matrix inequalities. It has been shown that piecewise quadratic Lyapnnov functions are less conservative than the global quadratic Lyapunov functions. A simulation example is also given to illustrate the advantage of the proposed approach.

  11. Size-controlled synthesis of biodegradable nanocarriers for targeted and controlled cancer drug delivery using salting out cation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madasamy Hari Balakrishanan; Mariappan Rajan

    2016-02-01

    Research for synthesis of size-controlled carriers is currently challenging one. In this research paper, a method for size-controlled synthesis of biodegradable nanocarriers is proposed and described. Salting out method is suitable for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for the encapsulation on carriers. This synthetic method is based on polylactic acid (PLA) and non-ionic carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) composed by CaCl2 as salting out agent. This method permits size-controlled synthesis of particles between 50 and 400 nm simply by varying the concentration of salting out agents. We have prepared cisplatin (CDDP)-loaded PLA-CMC nanocarriers by salting out method, with varying salting out agent (CaCl2) concentrations as 0.05, 0.2, 0.35 and 0.5 M. The nanocarriers were characterized for their size, surface charge and morphology by atomic force microscope, zeta potential analyser and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro drug-releasing behaviour of the nanocarriers were investigated. The cytotoxicity effect of nanocarriers and drug-loaded nanocarriers was tested against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  12. Design and Implementation of Pumping Station Automation Control System%泵站自动化控制系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金法

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the universal pump station at home and abroad have built the status of automation and control systems,especially in Shenzhen City, Shenzhen City Water Authority under the Water Works Project Management Office Dongjiang the first phase of the actual status of the three pumping stations, combines with intelligent process equipment development trend, proposes the establishment of a measurement, control, control integration, automation system design principles.Moreover, it describes the implemention of automatic control system of common pumping stations by the principle.%通过分析国内外已建通用型泵站自动化控制系统的现状,特别是深圳市水务局下属的深圳市东江水源工程管理处第一期的三个泵站的实际现况,结合工艺设备智能化的发展趋势,提出了建立一套测、控、管一体化自动化系统的设计原则,并利用该原则阐述常见泵站自动化控制系统的实现.

  13. Hierarchical control theory and power system automation research%分层递阶控制理论与电力系统自动化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯进兵

    2012-01-01

      随着科学技术及电力设计的发展,电力系统的自动化水平日益提高,智能控制技术在电力系统中的应用越越来越深入。本文分析了分层递阶控制理论与电力系统智能化之间的联系,以及相似的理论与实践间的相互促进关系。并在电力控制系统中引入了仿人智能控制理论,分析了职能技术在电力自动化系统中的应用。%  with the development of science and technology and design of electric power development,power system automation level increasing,intel igent control technology and its application in power system is more and more thorough.This paper analyzes the hierarchical control theory and power system intel igent connection between theory and practice,as wel as the similarity of the mutual promotion relationship.And in the power control is introduced to the system of the imitation of human intel igent control theory,analysis the function of technology in electric power automation system application.

  14. A Recombinant Collagen-mRNA Platform for Controllable Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Xiong, Yunjing; Bashan, Anat; Zimmerman, Ella; Shulman Daube, Shirley; Peleg, Yoav; Albeck, Shira; Unger, Tamar; Yonath, Hagith; Krupkin, Miri; Matzov, Donna; Yonath, Ada

    2015-07-06

    We have developed a collagen-mRNA platform for controllable protein production that is intended to be less prone to the problems associated with commonly used mRNA therapy as well as with collagen skin-healing procedures. A collagen mimic was constructed according to a recombinant method and was used as scaffold for translating mRNA chains into proteins. Cysteines were genetically inserted into the collagen chain at positions allowing efficient ribosome translation activity while minimizing mRNA misfolding and degradation. Enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) mRNA bound to collagen was successfully translated by cell-free Escherichia coli ribosomes. This system enabled an accurate control of specific protein synthesis by monitoring expression time and level. Luciferase-mRNA was also translated on collagen scaffold by eukaryotic cell extracts. Thus we have demonstrated the feasibility of controllable protein synthesis on collagen scaffolds by ribosomal machinery.

  15. FLIGHT/THRUST INTEGRATED CONTROL USINGH∞SYNTHESIS IN AUTOMATIC CARRIER LANDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuYong; YangYidong; DaiShijun

    2002-01-01

    The landing task of an aircraft under low aerodynamic pressure on carrier requires precise airplane control,A flight/thrust integrated control system(FTICS)with constant ad,actual angle of attack,is developed using LMI-based H∞synthesis.The typical single input/outputspecifications are translated into the weighting functions of an H∞output-feedback synthesis problem.The motiva-tion of the work is to improve the key performance of dy-namic tracking and air disturbance attenuation.The FTICS can keep the attitude andgle and the path angle un-changeable as the airplane is passing through the ramp at which the tracking radar doesnot work and the guidance signal is terminated.For engineering application,an or-der-reduction method of the H∞controller is also pro-posed,Simulational results indicate that the system satis-fies the design requirements quite well.

  16. Synthesis of thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier for controlled sorafenib delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarinasab, Amir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmad Panahi, Homayon [Department of Chemistry, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faramarzi, Mehdi, E-mail: faramarzi.iaug@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjadian, Fatemeh [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    Allyl glycidyl ether/N-isopropylacrylamide-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a substrate for radical copolymerization of allyl glycidyl ether and N-isopropylacrylamide. Chitosan was coupled with the prepared nanoparticles by opening the epoxy ring of the allyl glycidyl ether. The thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier (TSMNC) obtained can be applied as a potent drug carrier. The TSMNC structure was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, vibrating sample magnetometer, and elemental analysis. Its morphology and size were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of employing the TSMNC for adsorption and in vitro controlled release of the chemotherapeutic agent sorafenib was tested. The effect of the adsorption parameters of pH, temperature, and loading time of sorafenib onto TSMNC was evaluated. The adsorption data was fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the relevant parameters derived. The drug release profile indicated that 88% of the adsorbed drug was released within 35 h at 45 °C and drug release was Fickian diffusion-controlled. The results confirmed that the TSMNC has a high adsorption capacity at low temperature and good controlled release in a slow rate at a high temperature and could be developed for further application as a drug nanocarrier. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide. It was evaluated for sorafenib (SFB) adsorption and tested as a controlled-release system in response to changes in temperature. The TSMNC showed superparamagnetic properties with a high adsorption capacity and desirable controlled release at below and above LCST. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A TSMNC was synthesized for controlled

  17. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  18. Application of Model-Checking Technology to Controller Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Jessen, Jan Jacob

    2011-01-01

    its continuous environment, which is modelled and taken care of in our frameworks. Our first technique does it by using Matlab to discretise the problem and then Uppaal-tiga to solve the obtained timed game. This is implemented as a toolbox. The second technique relies on the user defining a timed......In this paper we present two frameworks that have been implemented to link traditional model-checking techniques to the domain of control. The techniques are based on solving a timed game and using the resulting solution (a strategy) as a controller. The obtained discrete controller must fit within...... game model in Uppaal- tiga. Then the strategy is automatically imported in Simulink as an S-function for simulation and validation purposes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these frameworks in different case-studies....

  19. Use of expert system and data analysis technologies in automation of error detection, diagnosis and recovery for ATLAS Trigger-DAQ Controls framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Magnoni, L; Lehmann Miotto, G

    2012-01-01

    Trigger and DAQ (Data AQuisition) System of the ATLAS experiment on LHC at CERN is a very complex distributed computing system, composed of O(10000) applications running on a farm of commodity CPUs. The system is being designed and developed by dozens of software engineers and physicists since end of 1990's and it will be maintained in operational mode during the lifetime of the experiment. The TDAQ system is controlled by the Controls framework, which includes a set of software components and tools used for system configuration, distributed processes handling, synchronization of Run Control state transitions etc. The huge flow of operational monitoring data produced is constantly monitored by operators and experts in order to detect problems or misbehaviour. Given the scale of the system and the rates of data to be analyzed, the automation of the Controls framework functionality in the areas of operational monitoring, system verification, error detection and recovery is a strong requirement. The paper descri...

  20. On transcending the impasse of respiratory motion correction applications in routine clinical imaging - a consideration of a fully automated data driven motion control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Adam L; Schleyer, Paul J; Büther, Florian; Walter, Martin A; Schäfers, Klaus P; Koo, Phillip J

    2014-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for the detection, characterization, and follow-up of tumors located in the thorax. However, patient respiratory motion presents a unique limitation that hinders the application of high-resolution PET technology for this type of imaging. Efforts to transcend this limitation have been underway for more than a decade, yet PET remains for practical considerations a modality vulnerable to motion-induced image degradation. Respiratory motion control is not employed in routine clinical operations. In this article, we take an opportunity to highlight some of the recent advancements in data-driven motion control strategies and how they may form an underpinning for what we are presenting as a fully automated data-driven motion control framework. This framework represents an alternative direction for future endeavors in motion control and can conceptually connect individual focused studies with a strategy for addressing big picture challenges and goals.

  1. Optimal quantum circuit synthesis from Controlled-U gates

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Sastry, S; Whaley, K B; Zhang, Jun; Vala, Jiri; Sastry, Shankar

    2003-01-01

    From a geometric approach, we derive the minimum number of applications needed for an arbitrary Controlled-Unitary gate to construct a universal quantum circuit. A new analytic construction procedure is presented and shown to be either optimal or close to optimal. This result can be extended to improve the efficiency of universal quantum circuit construction from any entangling gate. Specifically, for both the Controlled-NOT and Double-CNOT gates, we develop simple analytic ways to construct universal quantum circuits with three applications, which is the least possible.

  2. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  3. Interfacial synthesis and widely controllable conductivity of polythiophene microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Gui; Li, Ji; Meng, Qing-Kai; Huang, Mei-Rong

    2009-07-23

    synthesis of unique PTh microparticles with large pi-conjugation, high conductivity, black color, uniform size, good insolubility, excellent infusibility, high thermostability, and high yield of electrically conducting char at 999 degrees C.

  4. The Integration of On-Line Monitoring and Reconfiguration Functions using EDAA - European design and Automation Association1149.4 Into a Safety Critical Automotive Electronic Control Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, C; Prosser, S; Lickess, M; Richardson, A; Riches, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative application of EDAA - European design and Automation Association 1149.4 and the Integrated Diagnostic Reconfiguration (IDR) as tools for the implementation of an embedded test solution for an Automotive Electronic Control Unit implemented as a fully integrated mixed signal system. The paper described how the test architecture can be used for fault avoidance with results from a hardware prototype presented. The paper concludes that fault avoidance can be integrated into mixed signal electronic systems to handle key failure modes.

  5. Plataforma virtual de péndulo sobre carro deslizante para la enseñanza del control automático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodriguez D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de plataforma virtual para la enseñanza del control automático basado en el péndulo invertido sobre carro deslizante, el cual se desarrolla herramientas didácticas sobre un prototipo virtual, simulando el modelo no lineal en matlab y presentado en un entorno amigable basado en easy-java. Para el diseño de los controladores, se tienen en cuenta dos aspectos principales como los son el “swing up” (llevar el péndulo a posición vertical y el balanceo (mantener el péndulo en la posición vertical. La interfaz al usuario busca facilitar el aprendizaje de los conceptos básicos de un sistema de control automático para estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado, buscando minimizar costos y tiempo en la enseñanza e implementación de sistemas de control.

  6. Chirality-Controlled Synthesis and Applications of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilu; Wu, Fanqi; Gui, Hui; Zheng, Ming; Zhou, Chongwu

    2017-01-24

    Preparation of chirality-defined single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is the top challenge in the nanotube field. In recent years, great progress has been made toward preparing single-chirality SWCNTs through both direct controlled synthesis and postsynthesis separation approaches. Accordingly, the uses of single-chirality-dominated SWCNTs for various applications have emerged as a new front in nanotube research. In this Review, we review recent progress made in the chirality-controlled synthesis of SWCNTs, including metal-catalyst-free SWCNT cloning by vapor-phase epitaxy elongation of purified single-chirality nanotube seeds, chirality-specific growth of SWCNTs on bimetallic solid alloy catalysts, chirality-controlled synthesis of SWCNTs using bottom-up synthetic strategy from carbonaceous molecular end-cap precursors, etc. Recent major progresses in postsynthesis separation of single-chirality SWCNT species, as well as methods for chirality characterization of SWCNTs, are also highlighted. Moreover, we discuss some examples where single-chirality SWCNTs have shown clear advantages over SWCNTs with broad chirality distributions. We hope this review could inspire more research on the chirality-controlled preparation of SWCNTs and equally important inspire the use of single-chirality SWCNT samples for more fundamental studies and practical applications.

  7. Biopolymer colloids for controlling and templating inorganic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Preiss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and biopolymer colloids can act as controlling agents and templates not only in many processes in nature, but also in a wide range of synthetic approaches. Inorganic materials can be either synthesized ex situ and later incorporated into a biopolymer structuring matrix or grown in situ in the presence of biopolymers. In this review, we focus mainly on the latter case and distinguish between the following possibilities: (i biopolymers as controlling agents of nucleation and growth of inorganic materials; (ii biopolymers as supports, either as molecular supports or as carrier particles acting as cores of core–shell structures; and (iii so-called “soft templates”, which include on one hand stabilized droplets, micelles, and vesicles, and on the other hand continuous scaffolds generated by gelling biopolymers.

  8. Temperature control of microheaters for localized carbon nanotube synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyu; Xu, Ting; Miao, Jianmin

    2011-12-01

    The temperatures of microheater devices for the localized growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were brought under control to a great extent by providing the appropriate electric load (direct current or voltage) to the microheater circuit. The electrical-thermal coupled field simulations show that high temperatures only appear in very local areas under certain electric load. The infrared image of the produced microheater device agrees well with the simulation results. By applying the selected current to the fabricated microheater device and providing the mixed reaction gases, long, dense, and vertically well aligned CNT bundles were successfully grown very locally on the substrate. The control of temperatures paves the way to the localized growth of CNTs with good compatibility with CMOS process, and thus facilitating the direct integration of CNTs into future micro/nano electronics as interconnects. What's more, the method will also excite more in depth investigations on the applications of microheaters in many other fields.

  9. Morphology control of brushite prepared by aqueous solution synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O), also known as brushite, is one of the important bioceramics due to not only diseases factors such as kidney stone and plaque formation but also purpose as fluoride insolubilization material. It is used medicinally to supply calcium, and is of interest for its unique properties in biological and pathological mineralization. It is important to control the crystal morphology of brushite since its chemical reactivity depends strongly on its surfa...

  10. Polythiophene: Synthesis in aqueous medium and controllable morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU RuoChen; LIU ZhengPing

    2009-01-01

    Various morphologies of polythiophene have been designed and successfully prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous medium. The morphologies of polythiophene could be controlled in ribbons, fibers and spherical particles by changing the concentrations of reductant, oxidant and phase transfer catalyst. The structure, thermal stability and the conductivity have been characterized, and a mechanism for the transformation of the morphology of polythiophene has been proposed.

  11. Automated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) in Developing Decadal Global Lake Dynamics Products using Landsat-7 and 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Y.; Song, C.; Wang, J.; Garibay, D.; Woods, J.; Lyons, E. A.; Smith, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    Inland lakes, important water resources, play a crucial role in the global water cycle and are sensitive to climate change and human activities. There clearly is a pressing need to understand temporal and spatial variations of lakes at global and continental scales. To inventory dynamics of global lakes is rather challenging due to their high abundance and low accessibility. With its broad spatial coverage and monitoring capability, satellite remote sensing is the only feasible approach to inventory global lake dynamics, but requires tens of thousands of high-resolution satellite images, automated mapping algorithms, and more importantly tedious yet essential quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures. Millions of lakes have been mapped out using over 20 thousands Landsat images acquired at lake-stable seasons. Even though a set of highly replicable and automated lake mapping algorithms and tools have been developed, commission and omission errors still exist and some lake boundaries may not be adequately delineated. These errors need to be identified and fixed through intensive QA/QC processes. However, QA/QC of such a huge quantity of lakes remains a great challenge, and the currently available lake datasets from remote sensing were not produced through a rigorous QA/QC process. We have developed two QA/QC strategies with automation. Automated QA requires mapping the Earth twice in the same seasons for lakes and identifies "inconsistent" lakes for further QA/QC. Other lakes without significant changes are considered quality assured, and labor-intensive QA/QC is only limited to those "inconsistent" lakes. We have also developed semi-automated QC tools to further reduce the workload for manpower, and have produced a high-resolution systematically-generated circa-2000 global lake database with adequate QA/QC using Landsat-7. The recent operation of Landsat 8 extends the unprecedented Landsat record to over 40 years, allowing long-term, large-scale lake

  12. Controllable synthesis of rice-shape Alq3 nanoparticles with single crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wanfeng; Fan, Jihui; Song, Hui; Jiang, Feng; Yuan, Huimin; Wei, Zhixian; Ji, Ziwu; Pang, Zhiyong; Han, Shenghao

    2016-10-01

    We report the controllable growth of rice-shape nanoparticles of Alq3 by an extremely facile self-assembly approach. Possible mechanisms have been proposed to interpret the formation and controlled process of the single crystal nanoparticles. The field-emission performances (turn-on field 7 V μm-1, maximum current density 2.9 mA cm-2) indicate the potential application on miniaturized nano-optoelectronics devices of Alq3-based. This facile method can potentially be used for the controlled synthesis of other functional complexes and organic nanostructures.

  13. Active control synthesis for flexible space structures excited by persistent disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    1990-01-01

    Both classical and state-space synthesis methods for active control of flexible space structures in the presence of persistent disturbances are presented. The methods exploit the so-called internal model principle for asymptotic disturbance rejection. A generic example of flexible space structures is used to illustrate the simplicity of the proposed design methodologies. The concept of a disturbance rejection filter dipole is introduced from a classical control viewpoint. It is shown that the proposed design methods will invariably make use of non-minimum-phase compensation for a class of noncolocated control problems. The need for tradeoffs between performance and parameter robustness is discussed.

  14. Robust H-infinity control synthesis method and its application to benchmark problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Liu, Qiang; Byun, Kuk-Whan

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a robust H-infinity control synthesis method for structured parameter uncertainty. The robust H-infinity control design methodology is also incorporated with the so-called internal model principle for persistent-disturbance rejection. A noncollocated control problem of flexible space structures subject to parameter variations is used to illustrate the design methodology. It is shown that the proposed design method invariably makes use of nonminimum-phase compensation and that it achieves the desired asymptotic disturbance rejection by having a disturbance rejection 'dipole'.

  15. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  16. Fast 3D Pattern Synthesis with Polarization and Dynamic Range Ratio Control for Conformal Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Comisso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an iterative algorithm for the 3D synthesis of the electric far-field pattern of a conformal antenna array in the presence of requirements on both the polarization and the dynamic range ratio (DRR of the excitations. Thanks to the use of selectable weights, the algorithm allows a versatile control of the DRR and of the polarization in a given angular region and requires a low CPU time to provide the array excitations. Furthermore, a modified version of the algorithm is developed to enable the optimization of the polarization state by phase-only control. Numerical results are presented to verify the usefulness of the proposed approach for the joint pattern and polarization synthesis of conformal arrays with reduced or even unitary DRR.

  17. A First and Second Order Moment Approach to Probabilistic Control Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a robust control design methodology based on the estimation of the first two order moments of the random variables and processes that describe the controlled response. Synthesis is performed by solving an multi-objective optimization problem where stability and performance requirements in time- and frequency domains are integrated. The use of the first two order moments allows for the efficient estimation of the cost function thus for a faster synthesis algorithm. While reliability requirements are taken into account by using bounds to failure probabilities, requirements related to undesirable variability are implemented by quantifying the concentration of the random outcome about a deterministic target. The Hammersley Sequence Sampling and the First- and Second-Moment- Second-Order approximations are used to estimate the moments, whose accuracy and associated computational complexity are compared numerically. Examples using output-feedback and full-state feedback with state estimation are used to demonstrate the ideas proposed.

  18. Controlled Synthesis of Atomically Layered Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal boron nitrite (h-BN is an attractive material for many applications including electronics as a complement to graphene, anti-oxidation coatings, light emitters, etc. However, the synthesis of high-quality h-BN is still a great challenge. In this work, via controlled chemical vapor deposition, we demonstrate the synthesis of h-BN films with a controlled thickness down to atomic layers. The quality of as-grown h-BN is confirmed by complementary characterizations including high-resolution transition electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. This work will pave the way for production of large-scale and high-quality h-BN and its applications as well.

  19. Convergent synthesis of proteins by kinetically controlled ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen; Pentelute, Brad; Bang, Duhee; Johnson, Erik; Durek, Thomas

    2010-03-09

    The present invention concerns methods and compositions for synthesizing a polypeptide using kinetically controlled reactions involving fragments of the polypeptide for a fully convergent process. In more specific embodiments, a ligation involves reacting a first peptide having a protected cysteyl group at its N-terminal and a phenylthioester at its C-terminal with a second peptide having a cysteine residue at its N-termini and a thioester at its C-termini to form a ligation product. Subsequent reactions may involve deprotecting the cysteyl group of the resulting ligation product and/or converting the thioester into a thiophenylester.

  20. Quality control in aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis its role in translational fidelity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadavalli, Srujana S; Ibba, Michael

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms to achieve high levels of accuracy in aminoacylation. Editing functions in aaRSs contribute to the overall low error rate in protein synthesis. Over 40 years of research on aaRSs using structural, biochemical, and kinetic approaches has expanded our knowledge of their cellular roles and quality...... control mechanisms. Here, we review aaRS editing with an emphasis on the mechanistic and kinetic details of the process....