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Sample records for autologue mesenchymal stem

  1. The effect of allogenic versus autologue mesenchymal stem cells in bone reconstructio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stefan; Overgaard, Søren; Ding, Ming

    2008-01-01

    with allogenic MSC (group#3) proved to have a significant higher mean SFE (Fisher's LSD-test). The other groups (#1 and #2) had a slightly higher mean SFE (Table 2). Discussion and Conclusion: There are shown two interesting things in this minor pilot-study. There is a trend showing, that the use of MSC has...

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dah-Ching; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have two features: the ability to differentiate along different lineages and the ability of self-renewal. Two major types of stem cells have been described, namely, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and are associated with tumorigenesis, and the use of human ESCs involves ethical and legal considerations. The use of adult mesenchymal stem cells is less problematic with regard to these issues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues, such as umbilical cord, endometrial polyps, menses blood, bone marrow, adipose tissue, etc. This is because the ease of harvest and quantity obtained make these sources most practical for experimental and possible clinical applications. Recently, MSCs have been found in new sources, such as menstrual blood and endometrium. There are likely more sources of MSCs waiting to be discovered, and MSCs may be a good candidate for future experimental or clinical applications. One of the major challenges is to elucidate the mechanisms of differentiation, mobilization, and homing of MSCs, which are highly complex. The multipotent properties of MSCs make them an attractive choice for possible development of clinical applications. Future studies should explore the role of MSCs in differentiation, transplantation, and immune response in various diseases. PMID:21396235

  3. Uses of mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    M. Delgado; González-Rey, Elena; Büscher, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating systemic infiammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in a subject. The invention provides compositions, uses and methods for the treatment of SIRS.

  4. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May;

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tooth Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Ling Ye; Xue-dong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Tooth loss compromises human oral health. Although several prosthetic methods, such as artificial denture and dental implants, are clinical therapies to tooth loss problems, they are thought to have safety and usage time issues. Recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention. Stem cell based tissue engineering is thought to be a promising way to replace the missing tooth. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types. The potential MSCs for tooth regeneration mainly include stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from the apical part of the papilla (SCAPs), stem cells from the dental follicle (DFSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). This review outlines the recent progress in the mesenchymal stem cells used in tooth regeneration.

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mundra, Vaibhav; Gerling, Ivan C.; Mahato, Ram I.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells which have self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential into several mesenchymal lineages including bones, cartilages, adipose tissues and tendons. MSCs may repair tissue injuries and prevent immune cell activation and proliferation. Immunomodulation and secretion of growth factors by MSCs have led to realizing the true potential of MSC-based cell therapy. The use of MSCs as immunomdulators has been explored in cell/organ t...

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Dolicanin, Zana; Mustafic, Fahrudin; Mujanovic, Rifat; Memic, Mensur; Grbovic, Vesna; Skevin, Aleksandra Jurisic; Nurkovic, Selmina

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Regenerative medicine and rehabilitation contribute in many ways to a specific plan of care based on a patient’s medical status. The intrinsic self-renewing, multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells offer great promise in the treatment of numerous autoimmune, degenerative, and graft-versus-host diseases, as well as tissue injuries. As such, mesenchymal stem cells represent a therapeutic fortune in regenerative medicine. The aim of this re...

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ian A; Sanina, Cristina; Balkan, Wayne; Hare, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for more deaths globally than any other single disease. There are on average 1.5 million episodes of myocardial infarction (heart attack) each year in the United States alone with roughly one-third resulting in death. There is therefore a major need for developing new and effective strategies to promote cardiac repair. Intramyocardial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged as a leading contender in the pursuit of clinical intervention and therapy. MSCs are potent mediators of cardiac repair and are therefore an attractive tool in the development of preclinical and clinical trials. MSCs are capable of secreting a large array of soluble factors, which have had demonstrated effects on pathogenic cardiac remolding, fibrosis, immune activation, and cardiac stem cell proliferation within the damaged heart. MSCs are also capable of differentiation into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, although the relative contribution of trilineage differentiation and paracrine effectors on cardiac repair remains the subject of active investigation. PMID:27236666

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Dolicanin, Zana; Mustafic, Fahrudin; Mujanovic, Rifat; Memic, Mensur; Grbovic, Vesna; Skevin, Aleksandra Jurisic; Nurkovic, Selmina

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Regenerative medicine and rehabilitation contribute in many ways to a specific plan of care based on a patient’s medical status. The intrinsic self-renewing, multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells offer great promise in the treatment of numerous autoimmune, degenerative, and graft-versus-host diseases, as well as tissue injuries. As such, mesenchymal stem cells represent a therapeutic fortune in regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to discuss possibilities, limitations, and future clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells. [Subjects and Methods] The authors have identified and discussed clinically and scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that have met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Direct treatment of muscle injuries, stroke, damaged peripheral nerves, and cartilage with mesenchymal stem cells has been demonstrated to be effective, with synergies seen between cellular and physical therapies. Over the past few years, several researchers, including us, have shown that there are certain limitations in the use of mesenchymal stem cells. Aging and spontaneous malignant transformation of mesenchymal stem cells significantly affect the functionality of these cells. [Conclusion] Definitive conclusions cannot be made by these studies because limited numbers of patients were included. Studies clarifying these results are expected in the near future. PMID:27390452

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells in oral reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C; Sørensen, J A; Kassem, M;

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical outcomes following intraoperative use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various oral reconstructive procedures. PubMed was searched without language restrictions from 2000 to 2011 using the search words stem cell, oral surgery, tissue engineering, sinus lift...

  11. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine.

  12. Turning Stem Cells into Mesenchymal Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziano Barberi; Willis, Lucy M.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Lorenz Studer

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells provide access to the earliest stages of human development and may serve as a source of specialized cells for regenerative medicine. Thus, it becomes crucial to develop protocols for the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into tissue-restricted precursors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we present culture conditions for the derivation of unlimited numbers of pure mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells and demonstrate multilinea...

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells targeting the GVHD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; ZHAO Robert ChunHua

    2009-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. About 35% -5% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients will develop acute GVHD. It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients who do not respond to primary therapy, which usually consists of glucocorticoids(steroids). Most of the available second-line and third-line treatments for sterold-refractory acute GVHD induce severe immunodeficiency, which is commonly accompanied by lethal infectious complications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to mediate immunomodulatory effects. The recently elucidated immunosuppreseive potential of mesenchymal stem cells has set the stage for their clinical testing as cellular immunosuppressants, MSCs have been used in patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD, and encouraging responses have been obtained in many studies. The utility of MSCs for the treatment of GVHD is becoming clear.

  14. A SAGE View of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Phinney, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were initially defined by their capacity to differentiate into connective tissue cell lineages and support hematopoiesis. More recently, MSCs have demonstrated some degree of therapeutic efficacy in a broad range of diseases including neurological and auto-immune disorders, stroke, diabetes, and chronic inflammatory conditions. An emerging paradigm suggests that MSCs alter the tissue microenvironment via paracrine signaling to induce angiogenesis, alter immune ce...

  15. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Radtke, Catherine L.; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P.; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow asp...

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Ergurhan Kiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are almost incurable, debilitating, and they might be fatal, because of limited neurogenesis in nervous system, presence of inhibitory substances and inhibition of recovery due to development of glial scar. Despite many treatment strategies of neurodegenerative diseases no full cure has been achieved. The successful results for mesenchymal stem cells applications on muscles, heart and liver diseases and the application of these cells to the damaged area in particular, hypoxia, inflammation and apoptosis promise hope of using them for neurodegenerative diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells applications constitute a vascular and neuronal phenotype in Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimers disease. Stem cells release bioactive agents that lead to suppression of local immune system, reduction of free radicals, increase in angiogenesis, inhibition of fibrosis, and apoptosis. In addition, tissue stem cells, increase neuronal healing, stimulate proliferation and differentiation. These findings show that stem cells might be a hope of a cure in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and intensive work on this issue should continue.

  17. Safety in mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthie Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, adult stem cell therapy has some achievements in the treatment of chronic disease. However, some risks in stem cell transplantation still serve as high barriers obstructing the pulling of these therapies into clinical use. Tumorigenecity is of almost concern after it is injected into patients. However, all clinical studies indexed in PubMed showed that there were no cases of tumor after transplantation. Especially in recent study published in Cell Death and Disease, Wang et al. (2013 showed that long-term cultured mesenchymal stem cells could develop the genomic mutations but cannot undergo malignant transformation. Moreover, the study also revealed these stem cells as capable of forming tumors. This commentary assesses the data generated to date, and discusses the conclusions drawn from various studies. [Biomed Res Ther 2014; 1(1.000: 21-24

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells targeting the GVHD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Robert; ChunHua

    2009-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease(GVHD) occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues.About 35%-50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant(HSCT) recipients will develop acute GVHD.It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality,particularly in patients who do not respond to primary therapy,which usually consists of glucocorticoids(steroids).Most of the available second-line and third-line treatments for steroid-refractory acute GVHD induce severe immunodeficiency,which is commonly accompanied by lethal infectious complications.Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) have been shown to mediate immunomodulatory effects.The recently elucidated immunosuppressive potential of mesenchymal stem cells has set the stage for their clinical testing as cellular immunosuppressants,MSCs have been used in patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD,and encouraging responses have been obtained in many studies.The utility of MSCs for the treatment of GVHD is becoming clear.

  19. Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Juliann G

    2016-08-01

    Recent understanding of the cellular and molecular signaling activations in adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has provided new insights into their potential clinical applications, particularly for tissue repair and regeneration. This review focuses on these advances, specifically in the context of self-renewal for tissue repair and recovery after radiation injury. Thus far, MSCs have been characterized extensively and shown to be useful in mitigation and therapy for acute radiation syndrome and cognitive dysfunction. Use of MSCs for treating radiation injury alone or in combination with additional trauma is foreseeable. PMID:27356065

  20. The secretome of mesenchymal stem cells: potential implications for neuroregeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gesine; Anisimov, Sergey V

    2013-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have shown regenerative properties in many tissues. This feature had originally been ascribed to their multipotency and thus their ability to differentiate into tissue-specific cells. However, many researchers consider the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells the most important player in the observed reparative effects of these cells. In this review, we specifically focus on the potential neuroregenerative effect of mesenchymal stem cells, summarize several possible mechanisms of neuroregeneration and list key factors mediating this effect. We illustrate examples of mesenchymal stem cell treatment in central nervous system disorders including stroke, neurodegenerative disorders (such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple system atrophy and cerebellar ataxia) and inflammatory disease (such as multiple sclerosis). We specifically highlight studies where mesenchymal stem cells have entered clinical trials.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe

    2009-05-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent adult stem cells harboring a wide range of differentiations and non-human leukocyte antigen-restricted immunosuppressive properties that lead to an increasing use of MSC in immunomodulation and in regenerative medicine. To produce MSC, definitive standards are still lacking. Whatever the starting material used (e.g., bone marrow, adipose tissue, or cord blood), numerous parameters including cell plating density, number of passages, and culture medium, play a major role in the culture process and have to be determined. To date, the different production processes have been effective, and based on phenotypic analysis and differentiation potential, a first set of simple controls have been defined. However, controls of the final product should provide precise data on efficacy and safety. The next challenge will be to develop production processes that reach good manufacturing practices goals and to define more accurate control methods of cultivated MSC.

  2. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  3. Modeling sarcomagenesis using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rene Rodriguez; Ruth Rubio; Pablo Menendez

    2012-01-01

    Because of their unique properties,multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising adult stem cells being used worldwide in a wide array of clinical applications.Overall,compelling evidence supports the long-term safety of ex vivo expanded human MSCs,which do not seem to transform spontaneously.However,experimental data reveal a link between MSCs and cancer,and MSCs have been reported to inhibit or promote tumor growth depending on yet undefined conditions.Interestingly,solid evidence based on transgenic mice and genetic intervention of MSCs has placed these cells as the most likely cell of origin for certain sarcomas.This research area is being increasingly explored to develop accurate MSC-based models of sarcomagenesis,which will be undoubtedly valuable in providing a better understanding about the etiology and pathogenesis of mesenchymal cancer,eventually leading to the development of more specific therapies directed against the sarcoma-initiating cell.Unfortunately,still little is known about the mechanisms underlying MSC transformation and further studies are required to develop bona fide sarcoma models based on human MSCs.Here,we comprehensively review the existing MSC-based models of sarcoma and discuss the most common mechanisms leading to tumoral transformation of MSCs and sarcomagenesis.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods...... are currently available for isolation of the mesenchymal stem cells based on their physical and immunological characteristics. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Recent...... studies have demonstrated that the life span of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro can be extended by increasing the levels of telomerase expression in the cells and thus allowing culture of large number of cells needed for therapy. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to culture the cells...

  5. Isolation and characterization of equine amnion mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Coli, Alessandra; Nocchi, Francesca; Lamanna, Roberta; Iorio, Mariacarla; Lapi, Simone; Urciuoli, Patrizia; Scatena, Fabrizio; Giannessi, Elisabetta; Stornelli, Maria Rita; Passeri, Simona

    2011-01-01

    The amnion is a particular tissue whose cells show features of multipotent stem cells proposed for use in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. From equine amnion collected after the foal birth we have isolated MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells), namely EAMSCs (equine amnion mesenchymal stem cells), from the mesoblastic layer. The cells were grown in α-MEM (α-modified minimum essential medium) and the effect of EGF (epidermal growth factor) supplementation was evaluated. To assess the growth...

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for nonmusculoskeletal diseases: emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tom K; Ho, Jennifer H; Lee, Oscar K

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are stem/progenitor cells originated from the mesoderm and can different into multiple cell types of the musculoskeletal system. The vast differentiation potential and the relative ease for culture expansion have established mesenchymal stem cells as the building blocks in cell therapy and tissue engineering applications for a variety of musculoskeletal diseases, including repair of fractures and bone defects, cartilage regeneration, treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and correction of genetic diseases such as osteogenesis imperfect. However, research in the past decade has revealed differentiation potentials of mesenchymal stem cells beyond lineages of the mesoderm, suggesting broader applications than originally perceived. In this article, we review the recent developments in mesenchymal stem cell research with respect to their emerging properties and applications in nonmusculoskeletal diseases. PMID:19523328

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells: A new diagnostic tool?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are progenitor cellscapable of self-renewal that can differentiate inmultiple tissues and, under specific and standardized culture conditions, expand in vitro with little phenotypicalterations. In recent years, preclinical andclinical studies have focused on MSC analysis andunderstanding the potential use of these cells as atherapy in a wide range of pathologies, and manyapplications have been tested. Clinical trials usingMSCs have been performed (e.g. , for cardiac events,stroke, multiple sclerosis, blood diseases, auto-immunedisorders, ischemia, and articular cartilage and bonepathologies), and for many genetic diseases, thesecells are considered an important resource. Consideringof the biology of MSCs, these cells may also be usefultools for understanding the physiopathology of differentdiseases, and they can be used to develop specificbiomarkers for a broad range of diseases. In thiseditorial, we discuss the literature related to the use ofMSCs for diagnostic applications and we suggest newtechnologies to improve their employment.

  8. Mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Andrew J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Biophysical cues play a key role in directing the lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), but the mechanotransductive mechanisms at play are still not fully understood. This review article first describes the roles of both substrate mechanics (e.g. stiffness and topography) and extrinsic mechanical cues (e.g. fluid flow, compression, hydrostatic pressure, tension) on the differentiation of MSCs. A specific focus is placed on the role of such factors in regulating the osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic and adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Next, the article focuses on the cellular components, specifically integrins, ion channels, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton, hypothesized to be involved in MSC mechanotransduction. This review aims to illustrate the strides that have been made in elucidating how MSCs sense and respond to their mechanical environment, and also to identify areas where further research is needed.

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Angels or Demons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Y. Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been used in cell-based therapy in various disease conditions such as graft-versus-host and heart diseases, osteogenesis imperfecta, and spinal cord injuries, and the results have been encouraging. However, as MSC therapy gains popularity among practitioners and researchers, there have been reports on the adverse effects of MSCs especially in the context of tumour modulation and malignant transformation. These cells have been found to enhance tumour growth and metastasis in some studies and have been related to anticancer-drug resistance in other instances. In addition, various studies have also reported spontaneous malignant transformation of MSCs. The mechanism of the modulatory behaviour and the tumorigenic potential of MSCs, warrant urgent exploration, and the use of MSCs in patients with cancer awaits further evaluation. However, if MSCs truly play a role in tumour modulation, they can also be potential targets of cancer treatment.

  10. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-i...

  11. Application of Nanoscaffolds in Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoraishizadeh, Saman; Ghorishizadeh, Afsoon; Ghoraishizadeh, Peyman; Daneshvar, Nasibeh; Boroojerdi, Mohadese Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an alternative solution for organ transplantation. Stem cells and nanoscaffolds are two essential components in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as primary adult stem cells with high proliferation capacity, wide differentiation potential, and immunosuppression properties which make them unique for regenerative medicine and cell therapy. Scaffolds are engineered nanofibers that provide suitable microenvironment for cell signalling whi...

  12. Labeling and Imaging Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, adipose and muscle cells. Adult derived MSCs are being actively investigated because of their potential to be utilized for therapeutic cell-based transplantation. Methods...

  13. Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita,Masayuki; Noguchi,Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes. They possess an immunosuppressive effect, which makes them a viable cell population for the cell-based therapy of treatment-resistant immune diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been demonstrated to have the ability to acquire the properties of subcutaneous adipose tissue particularly easily, and cryopreservation...

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Danieli, Patrizia; Cervio, Elisabetta

    2012-08-19

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult stem cells with capacity for self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. Initially described in the bone marrow, MSC are also present in other organs and tissues. From a therapeutic perspective, because of their easy preparation and immunologic privilege, MSC are emerging as an extremely promising therapeutic agent for tissue regeneration and repair. Studies in animal models of myocardial infarction have demonstrated the ability of transplanted MSC to engraft and differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells. Most importantly, engrafted MSC secrete a wide array of soluble factors that mediate beneficial paracrine effects and may greatly contribute to cardiac repair. Together, these properties can be harnessed to both prevent and reverse remodeling in the ischemically injured ventricle. In proof-of-concept and phase I clinical trials, MSC therapy improved left ventricular function, induced reverse remodeling, and decreased scar size. In this review we will focus on the current understanding of MSC biology and MSC mechanism of action in cardiac repair. PMID:22521741

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensebé, L; Krampera, M; Schrezenmeier, H; Bourin, P; Giordano, R

    2010-02-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells/Multipotent Marrow Stromal Cells (MSC) are multipotent adult stem cells present in all tissues, as part of the perivascular population. As multipotent cells, MSCs can differentiate into different tissues originating from mesoderm ranging from bone and cartilage, to cardiac muscle. Conflicting data show that MSCs could be pluripotent and able to differentiate into tissues and cells of non-mesodermic origin as neurons or epithelial cells. Moreover, MSCs exhibit non-HLA restricted immunosuppressive properties. This wide range of properties leads to increasing uses of MSC for immunomodulation or tissue repair. Based on their immunosuppressive properties MSC are used particularly in the treatment of graft versus host disease, For tissue repair, MSCs can work by different ways from cell replacement to paracrine effects through the release of cytokines and to regulation of immune/inflammatory responses. In regenerative medicine, trials are in progress or planed for healing/repair of different tissue or organs as bone, cartilage, vessels, myocardium, or epithelia. Although it has been demonstrated that ex-vivo expansion processes using fetal bovine serum, recombinant growth factors (e.g. FGF2) or platelet lysate are feasible, definitive standards to produce clinical-grade MSC are still lacking. MSCs have to be produced according GMP and regulation constraints. For answering to the numerous challenges in this fast developing field of biology and medicine, integrative networks linking together research teams, cell therapy laboratories and clinical teams are needed.

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Functional Tooth Regeneration in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Wataru Sonoyama; Yi Liu; Dianji Fang; Takayoshi Yamaza; Byoung-Moo Seo; Chunmei Zhang; He Liu; Stan Gronthos; Cun-Yu Wang; Songlin Wang; Songtao Shi

    2006-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla). Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This wo...

  17. Telomere stability and telomerase in mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Graakjaer, Jesper; Kølvrå, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres are repetitive genetic material that cap and thereby protect the ends of chromosomes. Each time a cell divides, telomeres get shorter. Telomere length is mainly maintained by telomerase. This enzyme is present in high concentrations in the embryonic stem cells and in fast growing...... embryonic cells, and declines with age. It is still unclear to what extent there is telomerase in adult stem cells, but since these are the founder cells of cells of all the tissues in the body, understanding the telomere dynamics and expression of telomerase in adult stem cells is very important....... In the present communication we focus on telomere expression and telomere length in stem cells, with a special focus on mesenchymal stem cells. We consider different mechanisms by which stem cells can maintain telomeres and also focus on the dynamics of telomere length in mesenchymal stem cells, both the overall...

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Khondoker M; Samad, Sohel; Spiteri, Monica; Forsyth, Nicholas R

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a distinct population of adult stem cells, have amassed significant interest from both medical and scientific communities. An inherent multipotent differentiation potential offers a cell therapy option for various diseases, including those of the musculoskeletal, neuronal, cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. MSCs also secrete an array of paracrine factors implicated in the mitigation of pathological conditions through anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory mechanisms. The safety and efficacy of MSCs in human application have been confirmed through small- and large-scale clinical trials. However, achieving the optimal clinical benefit from MSC-mediated regenerative therapy approaches is entirely dependent upon adequate understanding of their healing/regeneration mechanisms and selection of appropriate clinical conditions. MSC-mediated acute alveolar injury repair. A cartoon depiction of an injured alveolus with associated inflammation and AEC apoptosis. Proposed routes of MSC delivery into injured alveoli could be by either intratracheal or intravenous routes, for instance. Following delivery a proposed mechanism of MSC action is to inhibit/reduce alveolar inflammation by abrogation of IL-1_-depenedent Tlymphocyte proliferation and suppression of TNF-_ secretion via macrophage activation following on from stimulation by MSC-secreted IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN). The inflammatory environment also stimulates MSC to secrete prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) which can stimulate activated macrophages to secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Inhibition of AEC apoptosis following injury can also be promoted via MSC stimulated up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene. MSC-secreted KGF can stimulate AECII proliferation and migration propagating alveolar epithelial restitution. Alveolar structural engraftment of MSC is a rare event. PMID:22772131

  19. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancone, Luigi; Bruno, Stefania; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Tetta, Ciro; Camussi, Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to reverse acute and chronic kidney injury in different experimental models by paracrine mechanisms. This paracrine action may be accounted for, at least in part, by microvesicles (MVs) released from mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in a horizontal transfer of mRNA, microRNA and proteins. MVs, released as exosomes from the endosomal compartment, or as shedding vesicles from the cell surface, are now recognized as being an integral component of the intercellular microenvironment. By acting as vehicles for information transfer, MVs play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication. This exchange of information between the injured cells and stem cells has the potential to be bi-directional. Thus, MVs may either transfer transcripts from injured cells to stem cells, resulting in reprogramming of their phenotype to acquire specific features of the tissue, or conversely, transcripts could be transferred from stem cells to injured cells, restraining tissue injury and inducing cell cycle re-entry of resident cells, leading to tissue self-repair. Upon administration with a therapeutic regimen, MVs mimic the effect of mesenchymal stem cells in various experimental models by inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating cell proliferation. In this review, we discuss whether MVs released from mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to be exploited in novel therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine to repair damaged tissues, as an alternative to stem cell-based therapy. PMID:22851627

  20. Viscoelastic behaviour of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Kam W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we have investigated the viscoelastic behaviour of individual human adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs and the role of F-actin filaments in maintaining these properties, using micropipette aspiration technique together with a standard linear viscoelastic solid model. Results Under a room temperature of 20°C, the instantaneous and equilibrium Young's modulus, E0 and E∞, were found to be 886 ± 289 Pa and 372 ± 125 Pa, respectively, while the apparent viscosity, μ, was 2710 ± 1630 Pa·s. hMSCs treated with cytochalasin D up to 20 μM at 20°C registered significant drop of up to 84% in stiffness and increase of up to 255% in viscosity. At the physiological temperature of 37°C, E0 and E∞ have decreased by 42–66% whereas μ has increased by 95%, compared to the control. Majority of the hMSCs behave as viscoelastic solid with a rapid initial increase in aspiration length and it gradually levels out with time. Three other types of non-typical viscoelastic behavior of hMSCs were also seen. Conclusion hMSCs behave as viscoelastic solid. Its viscoelstic behaviour are dependent on the structural integrity of the F-actin filaments and temperature.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells and inflammatory lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, S S; Co, C; Rojas, M

    2009-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as a therapeutic modality in various inflammatory disease states. A number of ongoing randomized Phase I/II clinical trials are evaluating the effects of allogeneic MSC infusion in patients with multiple sclerosis, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's disease, and severe chronic myocardial ischemia. MSCs are also being considered as a potential therapy in patients with inflammatory lung diseases. Several studies, including our own, have demonstrated compelling benefits from the administration of MSCs in animal models of lung injury. These studies are leading to growing interest in the therapeutic use of MSCs in inflammatory lung diseases. In this Review, we describe how the immunoregulatory effects of MSCs can confer substantial protection in the setting of lung diseases such as acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pulmonary hypertension. We also address potential pitfalls related to the therapeutic use of MSCs in fibrotic lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, we identify emerging areas for MSC- based therapies in modulating oxidative stress and in attenuating inflammation in alcohol-related acute lung injury. PMID:19352305

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells: from experiment to clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto William R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently much interest in adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and their ability to differentiate into other cell types, and to partake in the anatomy and physiology of remote organs. It is now clear these cells may be purified from several organs in the body besides bone marrow. MSCs take part in wound healing by contributing to myofibroblast and possibly fibroblast populations, and may be involved in epithelial tissue regeneration in certain organs, although this remains more controversial. In this review, we examine the ability of MSCs to modulate liver, kidney, heart and intestinal repair, and we update their opposing qualities of being less immunogenic and therefore tolerated in a transplant situation, yet being able to contribute to xenograft models of human tumour formation in other contexts. However, such observations have not been replicated in the clinic. Recent studies showing the clinical safety of MSC in several pathologies are discussed. The possible opposing powers of MSC need careful understanding and control if their clinical potential is to be realised with long-term safety for patients.

  3. A Comparison of Culture Characteristics between Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Dental Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, Nurul Hidayat; Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Azlina, Ahmad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Hamid, Suzina Sheikh Abdul

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the field of stem cell biology is of major interest among researchers due to its broad therapeutic potential. Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Stem cells can be classified into two main types: adult stem cells (adult tissues) and embryonic stem cells (embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development). This review will discuss two types of adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental ...

  4. [Advances in the mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells in promoting wound healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjing; Sun, Haobo; Lyu, Guozhong

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells possess the ability of self-renewal and multiple differentiation potential, thus exert immunomodulatory effect during tissue repair. Mesenchymal stem cells can stimulate angiogenesis and promote tissue repair through transdifferentiation and secreting a variety of growth factors and cytokines. This review outlines the advances in the mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells in promoting wound healing, including alleviation of inflammatory response, induction of angiogenesis, and promotion of migration of mesenchymal stem cells to the site of tissue injury.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated functional tooth regeneration in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sonoyama

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla. Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This work integrates a stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration strategy, engineered materials for structure, and current dental crown technologies. This hybridized tissue engineering approach led to recovery of tooth strength and appearance.

  6. Immunophenotypic characterization of ovine mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad R; Chandrashekran, Anil; Smith, Roger K W; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2016-05-01

    The clinical potential of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has led to the essential development of analytical tools such as antibodies against membrane-bound proteins for the immunophenotypic characterization of human and rodent cells. Such tools are frequently lacking for emerging large animal models like the sheep that have greater relevance for the study of human musculoskeletal diseases. The present study identified a set of commercial nonspecies specific monoclonal antibodies for the immunophenotypic characterization of ovine MSCs. A protocol combining the less destructive proteolytic activity of accutase and EDTA was initially developed for the detachment of cells from plastic with minimum loss of cell surface antigens. A range of commercially available antibodies against human or rodent MSC antigens were then tested in single and multistain-based assays for their cross-reactivity to bone marrow derived ovine MSCs. Antibody clones cross-reactive to ovine CD73 (96.9% ± 5.9), CD90 (99.6% ± 0.3), CD105 (99.1 ± 1.5), CD271 (97.7 ± 2.0), and MHC1 (94.0% ± 7.2) antigens were identified using previously reported CD29, CD44, and CD166 as positive controls. Multistaining analysis indicated the colocalization of these antigens on MSCs. Furthermore, antibody clones identified to cross-react against white blood cell antigens exhibited either negative (CD117 (0.1% ± 0.1)) or low (MHCII (10.5% ± 16.0); CD31 (14.6% ± 4.2), and CD45 (39.4% ± 31.8)) cross-reactivity with ovine MSCs. The validation of these antibody clones to sheep MSC antigens is essential for studies utilizing this large animal model for stem cell-based therapies. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27077783

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  1. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nikukar

    2014-05-01

    We observed significant responses after 1 and 2-week stimulations in cell number, cell shapes and phenotypical markers. Microarray was performed for all groups. Cell count showed normal cell growth with stimulation. However, cell surface area, cell perimeter, and arboration after 1-week stimulation showed significant increases. Immunofluorescent studies have showed significant increase in osteocalcin production after stimulation. Conclusions: Nanoscale mechanical vibration showed significant changes in human mesenchymal stem cell behaviours. Cell morphology changed to become more polygonal and increased expression of the osteoblast markers were noted. These findings with gene regulation changes suggesting nanoscale mechanostimulation has stimulated osteoblastogenesis.  Keywords:  Mesenchymal, Nanoscale, Stem Cells.

  8. Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells: Interplay between mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Oscar Ka-Fai; Chan, Koon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells. The induction of Treg and Breg cells is of particular interest since Treg and Breg cells have significant roles in maintaining immune tolerance. Several mechanisms have been proposed regarding to the MSCs-mediated induction of Treg and Breg cells. Accordingly, MSCs induce regulatory lymphocytes through secretion of multiple pleiotropic cytokines, cell-to-cell contact with target cells and modulation of antigen-presenting cells. Here, we summarized how MSCs induce Treg and Breg cells to provoke immunosuppression.

  9. Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells: Interplay between mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Oscar Ka-Fai; Chan, Koon Ho

    2016-09-26

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells. The induction of Treg and Breg cells is of particular interest since Treg and Breg cells have significant roles in maintaining immune tolerance. Several mechanisms have been proposed regarding to the MSCs-mediated induction of Treg and Breg cells. Accordingly, MSCs induce regulatory lymphocytes through secretion of multiple pleiotropic cytokines, cell-to-cell contact with target cells and modulation of antigen-presenting cells. Here, we summarized how MSCs induce Treg and Breg cells to provoke immunosuppression. PMID:27679683

  10. Isolation and culture of umbilical vein mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Covas

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow contains a population of stem cells that can support hematopoiesis and can differentiate into different cell lines including adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, astrocytes, and tenocytes. These cells have been denoted mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study we isolated a cell population derived from the endothelium and subendothelium of the umbilical cord vein which possesses morphological, immunophenotypical and cell differentiation characteristics similar to those of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow. The cells were isolated from three umbilical cords after treatment of the umbilical vein lumen with collagenase. The cell population isolated consisted of adherent cells with fibroblastoid morphology which, when properly stimulated, gave origin to adipocytes and osteocytes in culture. Immunophenotypically, this cell population was found to be positive for the CD29, CD13, CD44, CD49e, CD54, CD90 and HLA-class 1 markers and negative for CD45, CD14, glycophorin A, HLA-DR, CD51/61, CD106, and CD49d. The characteristics described are the same as those presented by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that the umbilical cord obtained from term deliveries is an important source of mesenchymal stem cells that could be used in cell therapy protocols.

  11. Derivation of multipotent mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells provide access to the earliest stages of human development and may serve as a source of specialized cells for regenerative medicine. Thus, it becomes crucial to develop protocols for the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into tissue-restricted precursors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we present culture conditions for the derivation of unlimited numbers of pure mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells and demonstrate multilineage differentiation into fat, cartilage, bone, and skeletal muscle cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings will help to elucidate the mechanism of mesoderm specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation and provide a platform to efficiently generate specialized human mesenchymal cell types for future clinical applications.

  12. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The s...

  13. Collagen scaffold remodeling by human mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, SJ; Chan, BP

    2011-01-01

    Type I collagen has been widely used as scaffold for tissue engineering because of its excellent biocompatibility and negligible immunogenicity. We previously have developed a collagen microencapsulation technology entrapping many cells including human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in microspheres made of nanofibrous collagen meshwork. Nevertheless, little is understood about how stem cells interact with and remodel the collagen meshwork. This study aims to investigate collagen remodeling by...

  14. Immunomodulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Veterinary Species

    OpenAIRE

    Carrade, Danielle D.; Borjesson, Dori L.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult-derived multipotent stem cells that have been derived from almost every tissue. They are classically defined as spindle-shaped, plastic-adherent cells capable of adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. This capacity for trilineage differentiation has been the foundation for research into the use of MSC to regenerate damaged tissues. Recent studies have shown that MSC interact with cells of the immune system and modulate their function. ...

  15. Isolation and culture of umbilical vein mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    D.T. Covas; J.L.C. Siufi; A.R.L. Silva; M. D. Orellana

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow contains a population of stem cells that can support hematopoiesis and can differentiate into different cell lines including adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, astrocytes, and tenocytes. These cells have been denoted mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study we isolated a cell population derived from the endothelium and subendothelium of the umbilical cord vein which possesses morphological, immunophenotypical and cell differentiation characteristics similar to tho...

  16. Transition of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous. A fraction of these cells constitute multipotent cells that can self-renew and mainly give rise to mesodermal lineage cells such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. The ability of MSCs to differentiate into endothelial cell

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in proteoglycan induced arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, J. F.; de Roock, S.; Hofhuis, F. M.; Rozemuller, H.; van den Broek, T.; Moerer, P.; Broere, F.; van Wijk, F.; Kuis, W.; Prakken, B. J.; Martens, a.c.m; Wulffraat, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the immunosuppressive effect and mechanism of action of intraperitoneal (ip) and intra-articular (ia) mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection in proteoglycan induced arthritis (PGIA). Methods: MSC were administered ip or ia after establishment of arthritis. We used serial biolum

  18. Human mesenchymal stem cells: from basic biology to clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, B M; Kassem, M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are bein...

  19. Adult Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem Cells: Advances Towards Clinical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Harkness, Linda; Zaher, Walid;

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are non-hematopoietic adult stromal cells that reside in a perivascular niche in close association with pericytes and endothelial cells and possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. The origin, unique properties, and therapeutic benefits of MSC ...

  20. Current view of mesenchymal stem cells biology (brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslova O. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are in a focus of attention, some aspects of their biology are still unclear. This paper is a review of current research on MSC biology. The use of MSC in regenerative medicine is also briefly discussed.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Attenuates Brain Injury After Neonatal Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velthoven, Cindy T. J.; Sheldon, R. Ann; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Derugin, Nikita; Vexler, Zinaida S.; Willemen, Hanneke L. D. M.; Maas, Mirjam; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Ferriero, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Brain injury caused by stroke is a frequent cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality with limited therapeutic options. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to improve outcome after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury mainly by secretion of growth factors stimulati

  2. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; LI Geng-shan; LI Guo-cao; ZHOU Qing; LI Wen-qiang; XU Hong-xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recent studies have suggested benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation for the regeneration of cardiac tissue and function improvement of regionally infracted myocardium, but its effects on global heart failure is still little known. This study suggested the capacity of MSCs to transdifferentiate to cardiac cells in a nonischemic cardiomyopathic setting, and the effect of the cells on heart function.

  3. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  4. Paracrine Molecules of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Li; Yaojiong Wu

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are both adult stem cells residing in the bone marrow. MSCs interact with HSCs, they stimulate and enhance the proliferation of HSCs by secreting regulatory molecules and cytokines, providing a specialized microenvironment for controlling the process of hematopoiesis. In this paper we discuss how MSCs contribute to HSC niche, maintain the stemness and proliferation of HSCs, and support HSC transplantation.

  5. Glial origin of mesenchymal stem cells in a tooth model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaukua, Nina; Shahidi, Maryam Khatibi; Konstantinidou, Chrysoula; Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Kaucka, Marketa; Furlan, Alessandro; An, Zhengwen; Wang, Longlong; Hultman, Isabell; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars; Blom, Hans; Brismar, Hjalmar; Lopes, Natalia Assaife; Pachnis, Vassilis; Suter, Ueli; Clevers, Hans; Thesleff, Irma; Sharpe, Paul; Ernfors, Patrik; Fried, Kaj; Adameyko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells occupy niches in stromal tissues where they provide sources of cells for specialized mesenchymal derivatives during growth and repair. The origins of mesenchymal stem cells have been the subject of considerable discussion, and current consensus holds that perivascular cells fo

  6. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, A.M.; A.L.M. Yamada; M.A. Golim; L.E.C. Álvarez; L.L. Jorge; M.L. Conceição; E. Deffune; C.A. Hussni; A.L.G. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) in horses through (1) the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2) flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to...

  7. Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells by bioconjugated quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhranti S; Clark, Paul A; Moioli, Eduardo K; Stroscio, Michael A; Mao, Jeremy J

    2007-10-01

    Long-term labeling of stem cells during self-replication and differentiation benefits investigations of development and tissue regeneration. We report the labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with RGD-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) during self-replication, and multilineage differentiations into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cells. QD-labeled hMSCs remained viable as unlabeled hMSCs from the same subpopulation. These findings suggest the use of bioconjugated QDs as an effective probe for long-term labeling of stem cells.

  8. GATA2 regulates differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kamata, Mayumi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Kanehira, Masahiko; Nakajima, Shinji; Takahashi, Taro; Inoue, Ai; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment comprises multiple cell niches derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA2 is indispensable for hematopoietic stem cell function as well as other hematopoietic lineages, suggesting that it may maintain bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in an immature state and also contribute to their differentiation. To explore this ...

  9. Comparison of Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Barbet; Isabelle Peiffer; Antoinette Hatzfeld; Pierre Charbord; Hatzfeld, Jacques A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs ...

  10. The Role of Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Skin Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Rostamzadeh; Anjomshoa; Kurd; Chai; Jahangiri; Nilforoushzadeh; Zare

    2015-01-01

    Context Stem cell therapy, especially in the segment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), is one of the most promising areas of regenerative medicine. Evidence Acquisition According to research conducted by various researchers, Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) have several advantages compared to others sources, in regenerative medicine: WJMSCs are more primary cells; WJMSCs can be easily isolated and without invasive p...

  11. Induction of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis by polyacrylate substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Glennon-Alty, Laurence; Williams, Rachel; Dixon, Simon; Murray, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can generate chondrocytes in vitro, but typically need to be cultured as aggregates in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), which makes scale-up difficult. Here we investigated if polyacrylate substrates modelled on the functional group composition and distribution of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding site could induce MSCs to undergo chondrogenesis in the absence of exogenous TGF-β. Within a few days of culture on the biomimetic polyacry...

  12. Safety of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youwei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs hold great promise as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine and autoimmune diseases, based on their differentiation abilities and immunosuppressive properties. However, the therapeutic applications raise a series of questions about the safety of culture-expanded MSCs for human use. This paper summarized recent findings about safety issues of MSCs, in particular their genetic stability in long-term in vitro expansion, their cryopreservation, banking, and the role of serum in the preparation of MSCs.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as skeletal therapeutics–an update

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Hamid; Ahsan, Muhammad; Saleem, Zikria; Iqtedar, Mehwish; Islam, Muhammad; Danish, Zeeshan; Khan, Asif Manzoor

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells hold the promise to treat not only several congenital and acquired bone degenerative diseases but also to repair and regenerate morbid bone tissues. Utilizing MSCs, several lines of evidences advocate promising clinical outcomes in skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue repair/regeneration. In this context, both, autologous and allogeneic cell transfer options have been utilized. Studies suggest that MSCs are transplanted either alone by mixing with autogenous plasma/ser...

  14. Recruitment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Prostate Tumors Promotes Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Younghun; Kim, Jin Koo; SHIOZAWA, YUSUKE; Wang, Jingcheng; Mishra, Anjali; Joseph, Jeena; Berry, Janice E.; McGee, Samantha; Lee, Eunsohl; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Jianhua; Jin, Taocong; Zhang, Honglai; Dai, Jinlu; Paul H Krebsbach

    2013-01-01

    Tumors recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to facilitate healing, which induces their conversion into cancer-associated fibroblasts that facilitate metastasis. However, this process is poorly understood on the molecular level. Here we show that the CXCR6 ligand CXCL16 facilitates MSC or Very Small Embryonic-Like (VSEL) cells recruitment into prostate tumors. CXCR6 signaling stimulates the conversion of MSCs into cancer-associated fibroblasts, which secrete stromal-derived factor-1, also kno...

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes facilitate nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Si; Zhang, Qicheng; Xia, Yunfei; You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Bao, Lili; Li, Li; You, Yiwen; Gu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types, are reported to exert multiple effects on tumor development. However, the relationship between MSCs and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells remains unclear. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that can be released by several cell types, including MSCs. Exosomes, which can carry membrane and cytoplasmic constituents, have been described as participants in a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communicat...

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells in diabetes treatment: progress and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CHENG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by relative or absolute insulin deficient or reduced sensitivity of target cells to insulin. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells with multiple differentiation potential, self-renewable and immunoregulatory properties. Accumulating evidences from clinic or animal experiments recent years showed that MSCs infusion could ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetes. The research progress of MSCs in diabetes treatment is summarized and a corresponding perspective is herewith proposed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.16

  17. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Nabi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and administered 3 × 106 rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in injured rat...

  18. Chitosan-collagen porous scaffold and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Yan; Wei Yue; Yue-lin Zhang; Guo-chao Mao; Ke Gao; Zhen-xing Zuo; Ya-jing Zhang; Hui Lu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we successfully constructed a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chitosan-collagen scaffold in vitro, transplanted either the composite or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells alone into the ischemic area in animal models, and compared their effects. At 14 days after co-transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the hitosan-collagen scaffold, neurological function recovered noticeably. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression and nestin-labe...

  19. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research.

  20. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guihong; Yu, Fengbo; Lei, Ting; Gao, Haijun; Li, Peiwen; Sun, Yuxue; Huang, Haiyan; Mu, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research.

  1. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that leads to permanent neurological deficits. Current MS treatment regimens are insufficient to treat the irreversible neurological disabilities. Tremendous progress in the experimental and clinical applications of cell-based therapies has recognized stem cells as potential candidates for regenerative therapy for many neurodegenerative disorders including MS. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs derived precursor cells can modulate the autoimmune response in the central nervous system (CNS and promote endogenous remyelination and repair process in animal models. This review highlights studies involving the immunomodulatory and regenerative effects of mesenchymal stem cells and iPSCs derived cells in animal models, and their translation into immunomodulatory and neuroregenerative treatment strategies for MS.

  3. The Impact of Epigenetics on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkul, Yusuf; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Changes in epigenetic marks are known to be important regulatory factors in stem cell fate determination and differentiation. In the past years, the investigation of the epigenetic regulation of stem cell biology has largely focused on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Contrarily, less is known about the epigenetic control of gene expression during differentiation of adult stem cells (AdSCs). Among AdSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most investigated stem cell population because of their enormous potential for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we analyze the main studies addressing the epigenetic changes in MSC landscape during in vitro cultivation and replicative senescence, as well as follow osteocyte, chondrocyte, and adipocyte differentiation. In these studies, histone acetylation, DNA methylation, and miRNA expression are among the most investigated phenomena. We describe also epigenetic changes that are associated with in vitro MSC trans-differentiation. Although at the at initial stage, the epigenetics of MSCs promise to have profound implications for stem cell basic and applied research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2393-2401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Impact of Epigenetics on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkul, Yusuf; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Changes in epigenetic marks are known to be important regulatory factors in stem cell fate determination and differentiation. In the past years, the investigation of the epigenetic regulation of stem cell biology has largely focused on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Contrarily, less is known about the epigenetic control of gene expression during differentiation of adult stem cells (AdSCs). Among AdSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most investigated stem cell population because of their enormous potential for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we analyze the main studies addressing the epigenetic changes in MSC landscape during in vitro cultivation and replicative senescence, as well as follow osteocyte, chondrocyte, and adipocyte differentiation. In these studies, histone acetylation, DNA methylation, and miRNA expression are among the most investigated phenomena. We describe also epigenetic changes that are associated with in vitro MSC trans-differentiation. Although at the at initial stage, the epigenetics of MSCs promise to have profound implications for stem cell basic and applied research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2393-2401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26960183

  5. ¬Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate: Applying Biomaterials for Control of Stem Cell Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Jane Anderson; Matthew John Dalby; Jugal eSahoo; Rein eUljin

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate: Applying Biomaterials for Control of Stem Cell BehaviourHilary J Anderson1, Jugal Kishore Sahoo2, Rein V Ulijn2,3, Matthew J Dalby1*1 Centre for Cell Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.2 Technology and Innovation centre, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. 3 Advanced Science Research Centre (ASRC) and Hunter College, City University of New York, NY 10031, NY, USA. Correspondence:*Hilary Andersonh.anderson...

  6. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human mesenchymal stem cells of parotid gland origin

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xing; Xu, Nuo; Meng, Cen; Wang, Bianhong; Yuan, Jinghong; Wang, Caiyun; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The technology to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent state allows the generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and autologous transplantation. Here we, for the first time, identified mesenchymal stem cells isolated from parotid gland (hPMSCs) as a suitable candidate for iPSC production. In the present study, hPMSCs were isolated from parotid gland specimens in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of th...

  7. Pretreatment of Cardiac Stem Cells With Exosomes Derived From Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhances Myocardial Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Yang, Junjie; Yan, Weiya; Li, Yangxin; Shen, Zhenya; Asahara, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were proved to boost cell proliferation and angiogenic potency. We explored whether cardiac stem cells (CSCs) preconditioned with MSC exosomes could survive and function better in a myocardial infarction model. Methods and Results DiI‐labeled exosomes were internalized with CSCs. They stimulated proliferation, migration, and angiotube formation of CSCs in a dose‐dependent manner. In a rat myocardial infarction model, MSC exosome–p...

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic delivery vehicles targeting tumor stroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Christensen, Rikke; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    2011-01-01

    The field of stem cell biology continues to evolve by characterization of further types of stem cells and by exploring their therapeutic potential for experimental and clinical applications. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are one of the most promising candidates simply because...... of their easiness of both ex vivo expansion in culture dishes and genetic manipulation. Despite many extensive isolation and expansion studies, relatively little has been done with regard to hMSCs' therapeutic potential. Although clinical trials using hMSCs are underway, their use in cancer therapy still needs...... better understanding and in vivo supporting data. The homing ability of hMSCs was investigated by creating a human xenograft model by transplanting an ovarian cancer cell line into immunocompromised mice. Then, genetically engineered hMSC-telo1 cells were injected through the tail vein...

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations: phenotype, property and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Miaohua; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ying; Li, Hong; Wu, Yaojiong

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are capable of differentiating into cells of multiple cell lineages and have potent paracrine effects. Due to their easy preparation and low immunogenicity, MSC have emerged as an extremely promising therapeutic agent in regenerative medicine for diverse diseases. However, MSC are heterogeneous with respect to phenotype and function in current isolation and cultivation regimes, which often lead to incomparable experimental results. In addition, there may be specific stem cell subpopulations with definite differentiation capacity toward certain lineages in addition to stem cells with multi-differentiation potential. Recent studies have identified several subsets of MSC which exhibit distinct features and biological activities, and enhanced therapeutic potentials for certain diseases. In this review, we give an overview of these subsets for their phenotypic, biological and functional properties. PMID:27141940

  10. Recent Advances in Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Containing Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, John; Penna, Matthew; Kochen, Juan; Cheung, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Modern day tissue engineering and cellular therapies have gravitated toward using stem cells with scaffolds as a dynamic modality to aid in differentiation and tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most studied stem cells used in combination with scaffolds. These cells differentiate along the osteogenic lineage when seeded on hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds and can be used as a therapeutic option to regenerate various tissues. In recent years, the combination of hydroxyapatite and natural or synthetic polymers has been studied extensively. Due to the interest in these scaffolds, this review will cover the wide range of hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds used with MSCs for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Further, in order to maintain a progressive scope of the field this review article will only focus on literature utilizing adult human derived MSCs (hMSCs) published in the last three years.

  11. Recent Advances in Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Containing Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Michel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern day tissue engineering and cellular therapies have gravitated toward using stem cells with scaffolds as a dynamic modality to aid in differentiation and tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are one of the most studied stem cells used in combination with scaffolds. These cells differentiate along the osteogenic lineage when seeded on hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds and can be used as a therapeutic option to regenerate various tissues. In recent years, the combination of hydroxyapatite and natural or synthetic polymers has been studied extensively. Due to the interest in these scaffolds, this review will cover the wide range of hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds used with MSCs for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Further, in order to maintain a progressive scope of the field this review article will only focus on literature utilizing adult human derived MSCs (hMSCs published in the last three years.

  12. Strategies to improve homing of mesenchymal stem cells for greater efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Mirahmadi, Mahdi; Ahmadiankia, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cell-based therapeutic approach in clinical practice has been an elusive dream in medical sciences, and improvement of stem cell homing is one of major challenges in cell therapy programs. Stem/progenitor cells have a homing response to injured tissues/organs, mediated by interactions of chemokine receptors expressed on the cells and chemokines secreted by the injured tissue. For improvement of directed homing of the cells, many techniques have been developed either to engineer stem/progenitor cells with higher amount of chemokine receptors (stem cell-based strategies) or to modulate the target tissues to release higher level of the corresponding chemokines (target tissue-based strategies). This review discusses both of these strategies involved in the improvement of stem cell homing focusing on mesenchymal stem cells as most frequent studied model in cellular therapies.

  13. The role of mesenchymal stem cells and serotonin in the development of experimental pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnic, L B; Lychkova, A E; Knyazev, O V

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatitis was modeled before and after preliminary transplantation of stem cells and serotonin. It was demonstrated that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and activation of serotoninergic system prevent the development of pancreatitis. PMID:24143388

  14. Recruitment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Prostate Tumors Promotes Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Kim, Jin Koo; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Wang, Jingcheng; Mishra, Anjali; Joseph, Jeena; Berry, Janice E.; McGee, Samantha; Lee, Eunsohl; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Jianhua; Jin, Taocong; Zhang, Honglai; Dai, Jinlu; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Keller, Evan T.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Taichman, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    Tumors recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to facilitate healing, which induces their conversion into cancer-associated fibroblasts that facilitate metastasis. However, this process is poorly understood on the molecular level. Here we show that the CXCR6 ligand CXCL16 facilitates MSC or Very Small Embryonic-Like (VSEL) cells recruitment into prostate tumors. CXCR6 signaling stimulates the conversion of MSCs into cancer-associated fibroblasts, which secrete stromal-derived factor-1, also known as CXCL12. CXCL12 expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts then binds to CXCR4 on tumor cells and induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which ultimately promotes metastasis to secondary tumor sites. Our results provide the molecular basis for MSC recruitment into tumors and how this process leads to tumor metastasis. PMID:23653207

  15. Differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids under microgravity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerwinka Wolfgang H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To develop and characterize a novel cell culture method for the generation of undifferentiated and differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell 3D structures, we utilized the RWV system with a gelatin-based scaffold. 3 × 106 cells generated homogeneous spheroids and maximum spheroid loading was accomplished after 3 days of culture. Spheroids cultured in undifferentiated spheroids of 3 and 10 days retained expression of CD44, without expression of differentiation markers. Spheroids cultured in adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation media exhibited oil red O staining and von Kossa staining, respectively. Further characterization of osteogenic lineage, showed that 10 day spheroids exhibited stronger calcification than any other experimental group corresponding with significant expression of vitamin D receptor, alkaline phosphatase, and ERp60 . In conclusion this study describes a novel RWV culture method that allowed efficacious engineering of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids and rapid osteogenic differentiation. The use of gelatin scaffolds holds promise to design implantable stem cell tissue of various sizes and shapes for future regenerative treatment.

  16. Multilineage Potential Research of Bovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC. The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  17. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Li; Wei Zhao; Wei Liu; Ye Zhou; Jingqiao Jia; Lifeng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the ifeld of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the resto-ration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury.

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  12. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...... of a variety of clinical conditions. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the biology of MSC, their identification and culture, and mechanisms controlling their proliferation and differentiation. We also review the current status of their clinical use. Areas in which research is needed...

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Risaku

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome affects military personnel and civilians following the uncontrolled dispersal of radiation, such as that caused by detonation of nuclear devices and inappropriate medical treatments. Therefore, there is a growing need for medical interventions that facilitate the improved recovery of victims and patients. One promising approach may be cell therapy, which, when appropriately implemented, may facilitate recovery from whole body injuries. This editorial highlights the current knowledge regarding the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the benefits and limitations of which are under investigation. Establishing successful therapies for acute radiation syndrome may require using such a therapeutic approach in addition to conventional approaches. PMID:27182446

  14. Neurogenic Bladder Repair Using Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Pradeep V; Subramanian, Swetha; Danke, Amit; Kumar, Anand

    2016-01-01

    The normal function of the urinary bladder is to store and expel urine in a coordinated, controlled fashion, the activity of which is regulated by the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to a malfunctioning urinary bladder due to neurologic dysfunction or insult emanating from internal or external trauma, disease, or injury. This report describes a case of neurogenic bladder following laminectomy procedure and long-standing diabetes mellitus with neuropathy treated with autologous cellular therapy. The differentiation potential and paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells on bladder function have been highlighted. PMID:27656308

  15. Chitosan-collagen porous scaffold and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we successfully constructed a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chitosan-collagen scaffold in vitro, transplanted either the composite or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells alone into the ischemic area in animal models, and compared their effects. At 14 days after co-transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the hitosan-collagen scaffold, neurological function recovered noticeably. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression and nestin-labeled neural precursor cells were detected in the ischemic area, surrounding tissue, hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Simultaneously, a high level of expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and a low level of expression of neuron-specific enolase were visible in BrdU-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. These findings suggest that transplantation of a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chitosan-collagen scaffold has a neuroprotective effect following ischemic stroke.

  16. Chitosan-collagen porous scaffold and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yan; Wei Yue; Yue-lin Zhang; Guo-chao Mao; Ke Gao; Zhen-xing Zuo; Ya-jing Zhang; Hui Lu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we successfully constructed a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chitosan-collagen scaffoldin vitro, transplanted either the composite or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells alone into the ischemic area in animal models, and compared their effects. At 14 days after co-transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the hi-tosan-collagen scaffold, neurological function recovered noticeably. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression and nestin-labeled neural precursor cells were detected in the ischemic area, surrounding tissue, hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Simultaneously, a high level of expression of glial ifbrillary acidic protein and a low level of expression of neuron-spe-ciifc enolase were visible in BrdU-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. These ifndings suggest that transplantation of a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chi-tosan-collagen scaffold has a neuroprotective effect following ischemic stroke.

  17. Immunoregulatory effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the nasal polyp microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezato, Rogério; de Almeida, Danilo Cândido; Bezerra, Thiago Freire; Silva, Fernando de Sá; Perez-Novo, Claudina; Gregório, Luís Carlos; Voegels, Richard Louis; Câmara, Niels Olsen; Bachert, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Nasal polyposis is a severe, chronic inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses and is frequently associated with asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Mesenchymal stem cells exhibit a potent immunosuppressive effect in several inflammatory conditions, and their role in nasal polyposis remains little explored. Hence, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells could modulate cell phenotype in the nasal polyp milieu. After coculture with mesenchymal stem cells, the frequency of these inflammatory cells was found to decrease. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cells promoted strong inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation, increased the frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T cells, and changed the global cytokine profile from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response. We believe that mesenchymal stem cells may be a very useful adjunct for investigation of the inflammatory process in nasal polyposis, contributing to better understanding of the inflammatory course of this condition. PMID:24707116

  18. Immunoregulatory Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Nasal Polyp Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Pezato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal polyposis is a severe, chronic inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses and is frequently associated with asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Mesenchymal stem cells exhibit a potent immunosuppressive effect in several inflammatory conditions, and their role in nasal polyposis remains little explored. Hence, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells could modulate cell phenotype in the nasal polyp milieu. After coculture with mesenchymal stem cells, the frequency of these inflammatory cells was found to decrease. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cells promoted strong inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation, increased the frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T cells, and changed the global cytokine profile from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response. We believe that mesenchymal stem cells may be a very useful adjunct for investigation of the inflammatory process in nasal polyposis, contributing to better understanding of the inflammatory course of this condition.

  19. Tumourigenicity and radiation resistance of mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Andrea, Filippo Peder; Horsman, Michael Robert; Kassem, Moustapha;

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cancer stem cells are believed to be more radiation resistant than differentiated tumour cells of the same origin. It is not known, however, whether normal nontransformed adult stem cells share the same radioresistance as their cancerous counterpart. Material and methods. Nontumourige......Background. Cancer stem cells are believed to be more radiation resistant than differentiated tumour cells of the same origin. It is not known, however, whether normal nontransformed adult stem cells share the same radioresistance as their cancerous counterpart. Material and methods....... Nontumourigenic (TERT4) and tumourigenic (TRET20) cell lines, from an immortalised mesenchymal stem cell line, were grown in culture prior to irradiation and gene expression analysis. Radiation resistance was measured using a clonogenic assay. Differences in gene expression between the two cell lines, both under...... nontreated and irradiated conditions, were assessed with microarrays (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array). The cellular functions affected by the altered gene expressions were assessed through gene pathway mapping (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis). Results. Based on the clonogenic assay the nontumourigenic cell...

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa El-Badri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular, nervous, and renal complications. Attempts to cure diabetes mellitus using islet transplantation have been successful in providing a source for insulin secreting cells. However, limited donors, graft rejection, the need for continued immune suppression, and exhaustion of the donor cell pool prompted the search for a more sustained source of insulin secreting cells. Stem cell therapy is a promising alternative for islet transplantation in type 2 diabetic patients who fail to control hyperglycemia even with insulin injection. Autologous stem cell transplantation may provide the best outcome for those patients, since autologous cells are readily available and do not entail prolonged hospital stays or sustained immunotoxic therapy. Among autologous adult stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs therapy has been applied with varying degrees of success in both animal models and in clinical trials. This review will focus on the advantages of MSCs over other types of stem cells and the possible mechanisms by which MSCs transplant restores normoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Sources of MSCs including autologous cells from diabetic patients and the use of various differentiation protocols in relation to best transplant outcome will be discussed.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells and chronic renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Sales, Elizabeth B; Boim, Mirian A

    2016-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis is the main cause of renovascular hypertension and results in ischemic nephropathy characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress, microvascular loss, and fibrosis with consequent functional failure. Considering the limited number of strategies that effectively control renovascular hypertension and restore renal function, we propose that cell therapy may be a promising option based on the regenerative and immunosuppressive properties of stem cells. This review addresses the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an experimental animal model of renovascular hypertension known as 2 kidney-1 clip (2K-1C). Significant benefits of MSC treatment have been observed on blood pressure and renal structure of the stenotic kidney. The mechanisms involved are discussed.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells: a new trend for cell therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin WEI; Xue YANG; Zhi-peng HAN; Fang-fang QU; Li SHAO; Yu-fang SHI

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs),the major stem cells for cell therapy,have been used in the clinic for approximately 10 years.From animal models to clinical trials,MSCs have afforded promise in the treatment of numerous diseases,mainly tissue injury and immune disorders.In this review,we summarize the recent opinions on methods,timing and cell sources for MSC administration in clinical applications,and provide an overview of mechanisms that are significant in MSC-mediated therapies.Although MSCs for cell therapy have been shown to be safe and effective,there are still challenges that need to be tackled before their wide application in the clinic.

  3. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  4. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells improves type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lisha; Li, Furong; Gao, Feng; Yang, Yali; Liu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Pingping; Li, Yulin

    2016-05-01

    Bone-marrow-derived stem cells can regenerate pancreatic tissue in a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) form the main part of bone marrow. We show that the intrapancreatic transplantation of MSCs elevates serum insulin and C-peptide, while decreasing blood glucose. MSCs engrafted into the damaged rat pancreas become distributed into the blood vessels, acini, ducts, and islets. Renascent islets, islet-like clusters, and a small number of MSCs expressing insulin protein have been observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Intrapancreatic transplantation of MSCs triggers a series of molecular and cellular events, including differentiation towards the pancreas directly and the provision of a niche to start endogenous pancreatic regeneration, which ameliorates hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia caused by streptozotocin. These data establish the many roles of MSCs in the restoration of the function of an injured organ. PMID:26650464

  5. Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Organ Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are prototypical adult stem cells with the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation with a broad tissue distribution. MSCs not only differentiate into types of cells of mesodermal lineage but also into endodermal and ectodermal lineages such as bone, fat, cartilage and cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, lung epithelial cells, hepatocytes, neurons, and pancreatic islets. MSCs have been identified as an adherent, fibroblast-like population and can be isolated from different adult tissues, including bone marrow (BM, umbilical cord, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. MSCs secrete factors, including IL-6, M-CSF, IL-10, HGF, and PGE2, that promote tissue repair, stimulate proliferation and differentiation of endogenous tissue progenitors, and decrease inflammatory and immune reactions. In this paper, we focus on the role of BM-derived MSCs in organ repair.

  6. Therapeutic Implications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ausiliatrice Puglisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, represent an attractive tool for the establishment of a successful stem-cell-based therapy of liver diseases. A number of different mechanisms contribute to the therapeutic effects exerted by MSCs, since these cells can differentiate into functional hepatic cells and can also produce a series of growth factors and cytokines able to suppress inflammatory responses, reduce hepatocyte apoptosis, regress liver fibrosis, and enhance hepatocyte functionality. To date, the infusion of MSCs or MSC-conditioned medium has shown encouraging results in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure and in end-stage liver disease in experimental settings. However, some issues under debate hamper the use of MSCs in clinical trials. This paper summarizes the biological relevance of MSCs and the potential benefits and risks that can result from translating the MSC research to the treatment of liver diseases.

  7. Hepatogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raquel Taléns-Visconti; Ana Bonora; Ramiro Jover; Vicente Mirabet; Francisco Carbonell; José Vicente Castell; María José Gómez-Lechón

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and compare the hepatogenic transdifferentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) in vitro. Transdifferentiation of BMSC into hepatic cells in vivo has been described. Adipose tissue represents an accessible source of ADSC, with similar characteristics to BMSC.METHODS: BMSCs were obtained from patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and ADSC from human adipose tissue obtained from lipectomy. Cells were grown in medium containing 15% human serum. Cultures were serum deprived for 2 d before cultivating under similar pro-hepatogenic conditions to those of liver development using a 2-step protocol with sequential addition of growth factors, cytokines and hormones. Hepatic differentiation was RT-PCR-assessed and liver-marker genes were immunohistochemically analysed.RESULTS: BMSC and ADSC exhibited a fibroblastic morphology that changed to a polygonal shape when cells differentiated. Expression of stem cell marker Thy1 decreased in differentiated ADSC and BMSC. However, the expression of the hepatic markers, albumin and CYPs increased to a similar extent in differentiated BMSC and ADSC. Hepatic gene activation could be attributed to increased liver-enriched transcription factors (C/EBPβ and HNF4α), as demonstrated by adenoviral expression vectors.CONCLUSION: Mesenchymal stem cells can be induced to hepatogenic transdifferentiation in vitro. ADSCs have a similar hepatogenic differentiation potential to BMSC,but a longer culture period and higher proliferation capacity. Therefore, adipose tissue may be an ideal source of large amounts of autologous stem cells, and may become an alternative for hepatocyte regeneration, liver cell transplantation or preclinical drug testing.

  8. Induction of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis by polyacrylate substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon-Alty, Laurence; Williams, Rachel; Dixon, Simon; Murray, Patricia

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can generate chondrocytes in vitro, but typically need to be cultured as aggregates in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), which makes scale-up difficult. Here we investigated if polyacrylate substrates modelled on the functional group composition and distribution of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding site could induce MSCs to undergo chondrogenesis in the absence of exogenous TGF-β. Within a few days of culture on the biomimetic polyacrylates, both mouse and human MSCs, and a mesenchymal-like mouse-kidney-derived stem cell line, began to form multi-layered aggregates and started to express the chondrocyte-specific markers, Sox9, collagen II and aggrecan. Moreover, collagen II tended to be expressed in the centre of the aggregates, similarly to developing limb buds in vivo. Surface analysis of the substrates indicated that those with the highest surface amine content were most effective at promoting MSC chondrogenesis. These results highlight the importance of surface group functionality and the distribution of those groups in the design of substrates to induce MSC chondrogenesis. PMID:23237986

  9. Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2015-12-17

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes. They possess an immunosuppressive effect, which makes them a viable cell population for the cell-based therapy of treatment-resistant immune diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been demonstrated to have the ability to acquire the properties of subcutaneous adipose tissue particularly easily, and cryopreservation is currently performed as a routine method for preserving ASCs to safely acquire large numbers of cells. However, many studies have reported that cellular activity after freezing and thawing may be affected by the solutions used for cryopreservation. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a cryopreservation medium as it diffuses into the cell through the plasma membrane and protects the cells from the damage caused by freezing. As substitutes for DMSO or animal-derived serum, cell banker series, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sericin and maltose, and methyl cellulose (MC) have been investigated for their clinical applications. It is critical to develop a reliable cell cryopreservation protocol for regenerative medicine using MSCs. PMID:26858903

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell and osteoarthritis: a literature review

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    Zhaleh Shariati Sarabi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common disease in the aged population is osteoarthritis (OA that is resulting in progressive dysfunction following isolated cartilage injuries, subchondral bone remodeling, tissue loss, marginal osteophytes, and loss of joint space. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent stem cells; they are able to produce many or all joint tissues. Bone marrow and adipose tissue are rich sources of mesenchymal cells that are useful for the reconstruction of injured tissues such as bone, cartilage, or cardiac muscle. Recently, some studies have been performed on the use of the direct intra-articular injection of mononuclear cells (MNCs and MSCs as potential therapeutic targets in OA. In this review, the history of MSCs in the treatment of OA are explained. Injection of Bone Marrow Aspirates Concentrate (BMAC has significantly improved both joint pain and function in radiologic findings; some studies suggested that the injection would be even more effective in early to moderate phases of OA. Injection of MSCs in combination with growth factors may be better solution for the treatment.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells: Emerging mechanisms of immunomodulation and therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justin; D; Glenn; Katharine; A; Whartenby

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) are a pleiotropic population of cells that are self-renewing and capable of differentiating into canonical cells of the mesenchyme, including adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. They employ multi-faceted approaches to maintain bone marrow niche homeostasis and promote wound healing during injury. Biomedical research has long sought to exploit their pleiotropic properties as a basis for cell therapy for a variety of diseases and to facilitate hematopoietic stem cell establishment and stromal reconstruction in bone marrow transplantation. Early results demonstrated their usage as safe, and there was little host response to these cells. The discovery of their immunosuppressive functions ushered in a new interest in MSCs as a promising therapeutic tool to suppress inflammation and down-regulate pathogenic immune responses in graft-versus-host and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, autoimmune diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. MSCs produce a large number of soluble and membrane-bound factors, some of which inhibit immune responses. However, the full range of MSC-mediated immune-modulation remains incompletely understood, as emerging reports also reveal that MSCs can adopt an immunogenic phenotype, stimulate immune cells, and yield seemingly contradictory results in experimental animal models of inflammatory disease. The present review describes the large body of literature that has been accumulated on the fascinating biology of MSCs and their complex effects on immune responses.

  12. Cell therapy of congenital corneal diseases with umbilical mesenchymal stem cells: lumican null mice.

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    Hongshan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keratoplasty is the most effective treatment for corneal blindness, but suboptimal medical conditions and lack of qualified medical personnel and donated cornea often prevent the performance of corneal transplantation in developing countries. Our study aims to develop alternative treatment regimens for congenital corneal diseases of genetic mutation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from neonatal umbilical cords were transplanted to treat thin and cloudy corneas of lumican null mice. Transplantation of umbilical mesenchymal stem cells significantly improved corneal transparency and increased stromal thickness of lumican null mice, but human umbilical hematopoietic stem cells failed to do the same. Further studies revealed that collagen lamellae were re-organized in corneal stroma of lumican null mice after mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Transplanted umbilical mesenchymal stem cells survived in the mouse corneal stroma for more than 3 months with little or no graft rejection. In addition, these cells assumed a keratocyte phenotype, e.g., dendritic morphology, quiescence, expression of keratocyte unique keratan sulfated keratocan and lumican, and CD34. Moreover, umbilical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improved host keratocyte functions, which was verified by enhanced expression of keratocan and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 3A1 in lumican null mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Umbilical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is a promising treatment for congenital corneal diseases involving keratocyte dysfunction. Unlike donated corneas, umbilical mesenchymal stem cells are easily isolated, expanded, stored, and can be quickly recovered from liquid nitrogen when a patient is in urgent need.

  13. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-jing Zhou; Jian-min Liu; Shu-ming Wei; Yun-hao Zhang; Zhen-hua Qu; Shu-bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administrationvia the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve ifbers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and lfuorogold-labeled nerve ifbers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was mark-edly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.

  14. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-jing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administration via the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve fibers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and fluorogold-labeled nerve fibers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was markedly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.

  15. Clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells for aseptic bone necrosis

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    Tomoki Aoyama

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, we had started clinical trial using mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs for the treatment of aseptic bone necrosis as a first clinical trial permitted by Japanese Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry.Aseptic bone necrosis of the femoral head commonly occurs in patients with two to four decades, causing severe musculoskeletal disability. Although its diagnosis is easy with X-ray and MRI, there has been no gold standard invented for treatment of this disease. MSCs represent a stem cell population in adult tissues that can be isolated and expanded in culture, and differentiate into cells with different nature. Combination with β-tri-calcium phosphate and vascularized bone graft, we succeeded to treat bone necrosis of the femoral head.Regenerative medicine using stem cells is hopeful and shed a light on intractable disease. To become widespread, Basic, Translational, Application, and Developmental study is needed.? From an experience of cell therapy using MSCs, we started to research induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS for clinical application.

  16. A Biological Pacemaker Restored by Autologous Transplantation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiao-qing; PU Jie-lin; ZHANG Shu; MENG Liang; WANG Fang-zheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To restore cardiac autonomic pace function by autologous transplantation and committed differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and explore the technique for the treatment of sick sinus syndrome. Methods:Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from canine bone marrow were culture-expanded and differentiated in vitro by 5-azacytidine. The models of sick sinus syndrome in canines were established by ablating sinus node with radio-frequency technique. Differentiated mesenchymal stem cells labeled by BrdU were autologously transplanted into sinus node area through direct injection. The effects of autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells on cardiac autonomic pace function in sick sinus syndrome models were evaluated by electrocardiography, pathologic and immunohistochemical staining technique.Results:There was distinct improvement on pace function of sick sinus syndrome animal models while differentiated mesenchymal stem cells were auto-transplanted into sinus node area. Mesenchymal stem cells transplanted in sinus node area were differentiated into similar sinus node cells and endothelial cells in vivo, and established gap junction with native cardiomyocytes. Conclusion:The committed-induced mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into sinus node area can differentiate into analogous sinus node cells and improve pace function in canine sick sinus syndrome models.

  17. Myogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for muscle regeneration in urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin; ZHENG Jun-hua; ZHANG Yuan-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article was to review the current status of adult mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for muscle regeneration in urinary tract and propose the future prospect in this field.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed (2000-2013).The search terms were "mesenchymal stem cells","bladder","stress urinary incontinence" and "tissue engineering".Study selection Articles regarding the adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering of bladder and stress urinary incontinence were selected and reviewed.Results Adult mesenchymal stem cells had been identified and well characterized in human bone marrow,adipose tissue,skeletal muscle and urine,and demonstrated the capability of differentiating into smooth muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells under myogenic differentiation conditions in vitro.Multiple preclinical and clinical studies indicated that adult mesenchymal stem cells could restore and maintain the structure and function of urinary muscle tissues after transplanted,and potentially improve the quality of life in patients.Conclusions Smooth or skeletal myogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells with regenerative medicine technology may provide a novel approach for muscle regeneration and tissue repair in urinary tract.The long-term effect and safety of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation should be further evaluated before this approach becomes widely used in patients.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for osteoarthritis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyles CC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cody C Wyles,1 Matthew T Houdek,2 Atta Behfar,3 Rafael J Sierra,21Mayo Medical School, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, 3Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Osteoarthritis (OA is a painful chronic condition with a significant impact on quality of life. The societal burden imposed by OA is increasing in parallel with the aging population; however, no therapies have demonstrated efficacy in preventing the progression of this degenerative joint disease. Current mainstays of therapy include activity modification, conservative pain management strategies, weight loss, and if necessary, replacement of the affected joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a multipotent endogenous population of progenitors capable of differentiation to musculoskeletal tissues. MSCs have a well-documented immunomodulatory role, managing the inflammatory response primarily through paracrine signaling. Given these properties, MSCs have been proposed as a potential regenerative cell therapy source for patients with OA. Research efforts are focused on determining the ideal source for derivation, as MSCs are native to several tissues. Furthermore, optimizing the mode of delivery remains a challenge both for appropriate localization of MSCs and for directed guidance toward stemming the local inflammatory process and initiating a regenerative response. Scaffolds and matrices with growth factor adjuvants may prove critical in this effort. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of MSC-based therapeutics for OA and discuss potential barriers that must be overcome for successful implementation of cell-based therapy as a routine treatment strategy in orthopedics.Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, osteoarthritis, treatment, regenerative medicine, cell therapy

  19. Instant stem cell therapy: Characterization and concentration of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kasten, P; I Beyen; Egermann, M.; AJ Suda; AA Moghaddam; Zimmermann, G; R Luginbühl

    2008-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, there is an approach to avoid expansion of the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) before implantation. The aim of this study was to compare methods for instant MSC therapy by use of a portable, automatic and closed system centrifuge that allows for the concentration of MSCs. The main outcome measures were the amount of MSCs per millilitre of bone marrow (BM), clusters of differentiation (CD), proliferation and differentiation capacities of the MSC. A volume reduction protoc...

  20. [Bone and Stem Cells. The mechanism of osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi

    2014-04-01

    Osteoblasts and osteocytes originate from pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells commit to osteogenic lineage and differentiate into mature osteoblasts and osteocytes through osteoprogenitor cells and preosteoblasts in response to multiple stimuli. The osteoblast commitment, differentiation, and functions are governed by several transcription factors. Among these transcription factors, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is a crucial factor in osteoblast differentiation and controls bone formation. Differentiation toward these osteogenic lineage is controlled by a multitude of cytokines including WNTs, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) , transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) , hedgehog, parathyroid hormone (PTH) /parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) , insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) , fibroblast growth factor (FGF) , and Notch. Although regulation of Runx2 activity is a point of convergence of many of the signal transduction routes, there is also a high degree of cross-talk between these pathways. Thus, the combined action of the signal transduction pathways induced by some cytokines determines the commitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells toward the osteogenic lineage. PMID:24681495

  1. Advances of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and dental tissue in craniofacial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maobin; Zhang, Hongming; Gangolli, Riddhi

    2014-05-01

    Bone and dental tissues in craniofacial region work as an important aesthetic and functional unit. Reconstruction of craniofacial tissue defects is highly expected to ensure patients to maintain good quality of life. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed in the last two decades, and been advanced with the stem cell technology. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most extensively studied post-natal stem cell population, and are widely utilized in cell-based therapy. Dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells are a relatively new stem cell population that isolated from various dental tissues. These cells can undergo multilineage differentiation including osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation, thus provide an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the important issues in mesenchymal stem cell biology including the origin and functions of mesenchymal stem cells, compare the properties of these two types of mesenchymal cells, update recent basic research and clinic applications in this field, and address important future challenges.

  2. Therapeutic Use of Stem Cell Transplantation for Cell Replacement or Cytoprotective Effect of Microvesicle Released from Mesenchymal Stem Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Moonhwan; Ban, Taehyun; Rhim, TaiYoun

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and severe type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), and which is currently no method was developed to restore normal structure and function. There are several reports on therapeutic effects of adult stem cell transplantations in animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is known about how mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) can repair the IPF. In this study, we try to provide the evidence to show that transplanted mesenchymal ...

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Mahato, Ram I

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes has increasingly become a worldwide health problem, causing huge burden on healthcare system and economy. Type 1 diabetes (T1D), traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because of an early onset age, is affecting 5-10% of total diabetic population. Insulin injection, the predominant treatment for T1D, is effective to ameliorate the hyperglycemia but incompetent to relieve the autoimmunity and to regenerate lost islets. Islet transplantation, an experimental treatment for T1D, also suffers from limited supply of human islets and poor immunosuppression. The recent progress in regenerative medicine, especially stem cell therapy, has suggested several novel and potential cures for T1D. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) based cell therapy is among one of them. MSCs are a type of adult stem cells residing in bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, and many other tissues. MSCs, with self-renewal potential and transdifferentiation capability, can be expanded in vitro and directed to various cell lineages with relatively less efforts. MSCs have well-characterized hypoimmunogenicity and immunomodulatory effect. All these features make MSCs attractive for treating T1D. Here, we review the properties of MSCs and some of the recent progress using MSCs as a new therapeutic in the treatment of T1D. We also discuss the strength and limitations of using MSC therapy in human trials.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cardiac Regeneration: Translation to Bedside Reality

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    Mohammad T. Elnakish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, an estimate of 17.3 million people died from CVDs in 2008 and by 2030, the number of deaths is estimated to reach almost 23.6 million. Despite the development of a variety of treatment options, heart failure management has failed to inhibit myocardial scar formation and replace the lost cardiomyocyte mass with new functional contractile cells. This shortage is complicated by the limited ability of the heart for self-regeneration. Accordingly, novel management approaches have been introduced into the field of cardiovascular research, leading to the evolution of gene- and cell-based therapies. Stem cell-based therapy (aka, cardiomyoplasty is a rapidly growing alternative for regenerating the damaged myocardium and attenuating ischemic heart disease. However, the optimal cell type to achieve this goal has not been established yet, even after a decade of cardiovascular stem cell research. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in particular have been extensively investigated as a potential therapeutic approach for cardiac regeneration, due to their distinctive characteristics. In this paper, we focus on the therapeutic applications of MSCs and their transition from the experimental benchside to the clinical bedside.

  5. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

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    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  6. Guidance of mesenchymal stem cells on fibronectin structured hydrogel films.

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    Annika Kasten

    Full Text Available Designing of implant surfaces using a suitable ligand for cell adhesion to stimulate specific biological responses of stem cells will boost the application of regenerative implants. For example, materials that facilitate rapid and guided migration of stem cells would promote tissue regeneration. When seeded on fibronectin (FN that was homogeneously immmobilized to NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO, which otherwise prevents protein binding and cell adhesion, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC revealed a faster migration, increased spreading and a more rapid organization of different cellular components for cell adhesion on fibronectin than on a glass surface. To further explore, how a structural organization of FN controls the behavior of MSC, adhesive lines of FN with varying width between 10 µm and 80 µm and spacings between 5 µm and 20 µm that did not allow cell adhesion were generated. In dependance on both line width and gaps, cells formed adjacent cell contacts, were individually organized in lines, or bridged the lines. With decreasing sizes of FN lines, speed and directionality of cell migration increased, which correlated with organization of the actin cytoskeleton, size and shape of the nuclei as well as of focal adhesions. Together, defined FN lines and gaps enabled a fine tuning of the structural organization of cellular components and migration. Microstructured adhesive substrates can mimic the extracellular matrix in vivo and stimulate cellular mechanisms which play a role in tissue regeneration.

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

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    Devang M. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation into both mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal lineages. The intrinsic properties of these cells make them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. MSCs are of keen interest because they can be isolated from a small aspirate of bone marrow or adipose tissues and can be easily expanded in vitro. Moreover, their ability to modulate immune responses makes them an even more attractive candidate for regenerative medicine as allogeneic transplant of these cells is feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. MSCs secrete various immunomodulatory molecules which provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured tissues or organ to limit the damage and to increase self-regulated tissue regeneration. Autologous/allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream augment the titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury and can accelerate the tissue repair process. MSCs are currently being tested for their potential use in cell and gene therapy for a number of human debilitating diseases and genetic disorders. This paper summarizes the current clinical and nonclinical data for the use of MSCs in tissue repair and potential therapeutic role in various diseases.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells protect from hypoxia-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunhan, Yurdagül; Bernard, Olivier; Marchant, Dominique; Dard, Nicolas; Vanneaux, Valérie; Larghero, Jérôme; Gille, Thomas; Clerici, Christine; Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario; Boncoeur, Emilie; Planès, Carole

    2016-03-01

    Administration of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) reduces lung inflammation, fibrosis, and mortality in animal models of lung injury, by a mechanism not completely understood. We investigated whether hMSC would prevent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by hypoxia in primary rat alveolar epithelial cell (AEC). In AEC cultured on semipermeable filters, prolonged hypoxic exposure (1.5% O2 for up to 12 days) induced phenotypic changes consistent with EMT, i.e., a change in cell morphology, a decrease in transepithelial resistance (Rte) and in the expression of epithelial markers [zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin, AQP-5, TTF-1], together with an increase in mesenchymal markers [vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)]. Expression of transcription factors driving EMT such as SNAIL1, ZEB1, and TWIST1 increased after 2, 24, and 48 h of hypoxia, respectively. Hypoxia also induced TGF-β1 mRNA expression and the secretion of active TGF-β1 in apical medium, and the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), two inducers of EMT. Coculture of AEC with hMSC partially prevented the decrease in Rte and in ZO-1, E-cadherin, and TTF-1 expression, and the increase in vimentin expression induced by hypoxia. It also abolished the increase in TGF-β1 expression and in TGF-β1-induced genes ZEB1, TWIST1, and CTGF. Finally, incubation with human recombinant KGF at a concentration similar to what was measured in hMSC-conditioned media restored the expression of TTF-1 and prevented the increase in TWIST1, TGF-β1, and CTGF in hypoxic AEC. Our results indicate that hMSC prevent hypoxia-induced alveolar EMT through the paracrine modulation of EMT signaling pathways and suggest that this effect is partly mediated by KGF. PMID:26702148

  9. Immunomodulatory functions of mesenchymal stem cells and possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ding, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2016-09-01

    In addition to their well-studied self-renewal capabilities and multipotent differentiation properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to possess profound immunomodulatory functions both in vitro and in vivo. More and more studies have shown that MSCs are capable of interacting closely with almost all subsets of immune cells, such as T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils etc. The immunomodulatory property of MSCs may shed light on the treatment of a variety of autoimmune and inflammation-related diseases. In this article, we will review the studies on the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of MSCs and the mechanisms responsible for the interaction between immune cells and MSCs, which could improve the development of promising approaches for cell-mediated immune therapies. PMID:26932157

  10. Circulating mesenchymal stem cells and their clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is a new cell source for tissue regeneration and tissue engineering. The characteristics of circulating MSCs are similar to those of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs, but they exist at a very low level in healthy individuals. It has been demonstrated that MSCs are able to migrate to the sites of injury and that they have some distinct genetic profiles compared to BM-MSCs. The current review summaries the basic knowledge of circulating MSCs and their potential clinical applications, such as mobilizing the BM-MSCs into circulation for therapy. The application of MSCs to cure a broad spectrum of diseases is promising, such as spinal cord injury, cardiovascular repair, bone and cartilage repair. The current review also discusses the issues of using of allogeneic MSCs for clinical therapy.

  11. Good manufacturing practices production of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Tarte, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs has led to production processes that need to be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). In cellular therapy, safety remains one of the main concerns and refers to donor validation, choice of starting material, processes, and the controls used, not only at the batch release level but also during the development of processes. The culture processes should be reproducible, robust, and efficient. Moreover, they should be adapted to closed systems that are easy to use. Implementing controls during the manufacturing of clinical-grade MSCs is essential. The controls should ensure microbiological safety but also avoid potential side effects linked to genomic instability driving transformation and senescence or decrease of cell functions (immunoregulation, differentiation potential). In this rapidly evolving field, a new approach to controls is needed.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic tool to treat sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleuterio Lombardo; Tom van der Poll; Olga DelaRosa; Wilfried Dalemans

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a clinical syndrome caused by a deregulatedhost response to an infection. Sepsis is the mostfrequent cause of death in hospitalized patients.Although knowledge of the pathogenesis of sepsishas increased substantially during the last decades,attempts to design effective and specific therapiestargeting components of the derailed host responsehave failed. Therefore, there is a dramatic need fornew and mechanistically alternative therapies to treatthis syndrome. Based on their immunomodulatoryproperties, adult mesenchymal stem or stromal cells(MSCs) can be a novel therapeutic tool to treat sepsis.Indeed, MSCs reduce mortality in experimental modelsof sepsis by modulating the deregulated inflammatoryresponse against bacteria through the regulation ofmultiple inflammatory networks, the reprogrammingof macrophages and neutrophils towards a more antiinflammatoryphenotype and the release of antimicrobialpeptides. This report will review the currentknowledge on the effects of MSC treatment in preclinicalexperimental small animal models of sepsis.

  13. Regeneration of the vocal fold using autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Omori, Koichi; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Magrufov, Akhmar; Hiratsuka, Yasuyuki; Hirano, Shigeru; Ito, Juichi; Shimizu, Yasuhiko

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to regenerate the injured vocal fold by means of selective cultured autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Eight adult beagle dogs were used for this experiment. Selective incubation of MSCs from bone marrow was done. These MSCs were submitted to 3-dimensional incubation in 1% hydrochloric acid atelocollagen. Three-dimensional incubated MSCs were injected into the left vocal fold, and atelocollagen only was injected into the right vocal fold of the same dog as a control. Four days after injection, the posterior parts of the vocal folds were incised. The regeneration of the vocal fold was estimated by morphological and histologic evaluations. Our results showed that 3-dimensional incubated MSCs were useful in the regeneration of the injured vocal fold. This study shows that damaged tissues such as an injured vocal fold would be able to be regenerated by tissue engineering. PMID:14653358

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells reduce the irradiation induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from mouse bone and embryo dorsal aorta (DA) area in the treatment of irradiation induced lung injury of mouse model. Methods: The mice were divided into four groups as normal control group, irradiation group,bone MSCs treatment group and DA MSCs treatment group. Immunohistochemical Analysis of lung tissue was observed after 9 months of treatment. Results: Fibrosis and alveolar infiltration were scored in each group. The score for fibrosis and alveolar is 0. 17 in normal control group, 2 in irradiation group, 1 in bone MSCs treat group and 1.38 in DA MSCs treat group. Conclusion: The extent of irradiation Induced Lung Injury could be reduced thorough the treatment of MSCs derived from mouse bone and embryos dorsal aorta ( DA ) area. (authors)

  15. Prenatal transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells to treat osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry KY Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI can be a severe disorder that can be diagnosed before birth. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC has the potential to improve the bone structure, growth and fracture healing. In this review we give an introduction to OI and MSC, and the basis for prenatal and postnatal transplantation in OI. We also summarize the two patients with OI who has received prenatal and postnatal transplantation of MSC.The findings suggest that prenatal transplantation of allogeneic MSC in OI is safe. The cell therapy is of likely clinical benefit with improved linear growth, mobility and reduced fracture incidence. Unfortunately, the effect is transient. For this reason postnatal booster infusions using same-donor MSC have been performed with clinical benefit, and without any adverse events.So far there is limited experience in this specific field and proper studies are required to accurately conclude on clinical benefits of MSC transplantation to treat OI.

  16. Glucocorticoids induce autophagy in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Fan, J.; Lin, Y. S.;

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a widespread clinical complication following glucocorticoid therapy. This irreversible damage to boneforming and resorbing cells is essential in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Autophagy is a physiological process involved in the regulation of cells...... and their responses to diverse stimuli, however, the role of autophagy in glucocorticoidinduced damage to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains unclear. The current study confirmed that glucocorticoid administration impaired the proliferation of BMSCs. Transmission electron microscopy......, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis detected autophagy in vitro and in GIOP model rats (in vivo). With the addition of the autophagy inhibitor 3methyladenine, the proliferative ability of BMSCs was further reduced, while the number of apoptotic BMSCs was significantly increased. The data suggests...

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell ingrowth and differentiation on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Stiehler, Maik; Baatrup, Anette;

    2007-01-01

    Culture of osteogenic cells on a porous scaffold could offer a new solution to bone grafting using autologous human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) from the patient. We compared coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with pore sizes of 200 and 500 microm for expansion and differentiation of hMSCs. We...... polymerase chain reaction for 10 osteogenic markers. The 500-microm scaffolds had increased proliferation rates and accommodated a higher number of cells (shown by DNA content, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy). Thus the porosity of a 3D microporous biomaterial may be used to steer h......MSC in a particular direction. We found that dynamic spinner flask cultivation of hMSC/scaffold constructs resulted in increased proliferation, differentiation and distribution of cells in scaffolds. Therefore, spinner flask cultivation is an easy-to-use inexpensive system for cultivating hMSCs on small...

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Immunomodulators in a Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yur-Ren Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularized composite allotransplantations (VCAs are not routinely performed for tissue reconstruction because of the potentially harmful adverse effects associated with lifelong administration of immunosuppressive agents. Researchers have been eagerly seeking alternative methods that circumvent the long-term use of immunosuppressants. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show promise as an immunomodulatory therapeutic agent and are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical settings as therapies for autoimmune disorders or transplant rejection. The mechanisms by which MSCs modulate the immune response are still under thorough investigation, but these most likely involve expression of local factors influencing T-cell regulation, modulation of cytokine expression (e.g., IL-10, TGF-β, TNF-, INF-γ, etc., and interactions with dendritic or antigen presenting cells. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of immunomodulation achieved by MSC therapies and introduce a possible outline for future clinical applications in VCA.

  19. Patterns of amino acid metabolism by proliferating human mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higuera, G.A.; Schop, D.; Spitters, T.W.; Dijkhuizen, R.; Bracke, M.; Bruijn, J.D.; Martens, D.E.; Karperien, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The nutritional requirements of stem cells have not been determined; in particular, the amino acid metabolism of stem cells is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the amino acid metabolism of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), with focus on two questions: Which amino acids are consume

  20. Transformation of human mesenchymal stem cells in radiation carcinogenesis: long-term effect of ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rikke; Alsner, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence on cancer stem cells suggest that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and consequently can be the origin of many cancers. We have recently established a telomerase-transduced human mesenchymal stem cell line and subsequently irradiated this in order to achieve malignant...

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells are highly resistant to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Annette; Scherer, Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    The effect of sulfur mustard (SM) to the direct injured tissues of the skin, eyes and airways is well investigated. Little is known about the effect of SM to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, this is an interesting aspect. Comparing the clinical picture of SM it is known today that MSC play an important role e.g. in chronic impaired wound healing. Therefore we wanted to get an understanding about how SM affects MSC and if these findings might become useful to get a better understanding of the effect of sulfur mustard gas with respect to skin wounds. We used mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from femoral heads from healthy donors and treated them with a wide range of SM to ascertain the dose-response-curve. With the determined inhibitory concentrations IC1 (1μM), IC5 (10μM), IC10 (20μM) and IC25 (40μM) we did further investigations. We analyzed the migratory ability and the differentiation capacity under influence of SM. Already very low concentrations of SM demonstrated a strong effect to the migratory activity whereas the differentiation capacity seemed not to be affected. Putting these findings together it seems to be likely that a link between MSC and the impaired wound healing after SM exposure might exist. Same as in patients with chronic impaired wound healing MSC had shown a reduced migratory activity. The fact that MSC are able to tolerate very high concentrations of SM and still do not lose their differentiation capacity may reveal new ways of treating wounds caused by sulfur mustard. PMID:23933411

  2. Evaluation of Proliferation and Development of Mesenchymal Stem Cell on Nanoporous PLLA Membrane Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Porghara

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Due to the biodegradable and non-toxic properties of nano PLLA membrane, it could increase the adhesion and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and these effects will exacerbated over time.

  3. Study on phenotypic and cytogenetic characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in myelodysplastic syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋陆茜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate phenotype,cell differentiation and cytogenetic properties of bone marrow(BM) mesenchymal stem cells(MSC)separated from the myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS) patients,and to analyze cytogenetic

  4. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh Anbari; Mohammad Ali Khalili; Ahmad Reza Bahrami; Arezoo Khoradmehr; Fatemeh Sadeghian; Farzaneh Fesahat; Ali Nabi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intrave-nous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and ad-ministered 3 × 106 rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in injured rat cerebral cortex and rat neurological function was improved significant-ly. These findings suggest that intravenously administered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can promote nerve cell regeneration in injured cerebral cortex, which supplement the lost nerve cells.

  5. Chondrogenic potential of human adult mesenchymal stem cells is independent of age or osteoarthritis etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharstuhl, A.; Schewe, B.; Benz, K.; Gaissmaier, C.; Bühring, H.J.; Stoop, R.

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease strongly correlated with history of joint trauma, joint dysplasia, and advanced age. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising cells for biological cartilage regeneration. Conflicting data have been published concerning the availability of MSCs from

  6. Acetylcholine secretion by motor neuron-like cells from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueyuan Liu; Dehua Li; Dong Jiang; Yan Fang

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s were isolated by a double enzyme digestion method. The third passage of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s was induced with heparin and/or basic fi-broblast growth factor. Results confirmed that cel morphology did not change after induction with basic fibroblast growth factor alone. However, neuronal morphology was visible, and microtu-bule-associated protein-2 expression and acetylcholine levels increased fol owing induction with heparin alone or heparin combined with basic fibroblast growth factor. Hb9 and choline acetyl-transferase expression was high fol owing inductive with heparin combined with basic fibroblast growth factor. Results indicate that the inductive effect of basic fibroblast growth factor alone was not obvious. Heparin combined with basic fibroblast growth factor noticeably promoted the differen-tiation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s into motor neuron-like cel s. Simultaneously, um-bilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s could secrete acetylcholine.

  7. Imaging gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells: from small to large animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin;

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of reporter gene imaging in implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in porcine myocardium by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) scanning....

  8. Citalopram increases the differentiation efifcacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Verdi; Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei; Shiva Sharif; Hadi Verdi; Alireza Shoae-Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was decreased in citalopram-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells than in control cells in neurobasal medium. In addition, the cumulative population doubling level of the citalopram-treated cells was signiifcantly increased compared to that of control cells. Also BrdU incorporation was elevated in citalopram-treated cells. These ifndings suggest that citalopram can improve the neuronal-like cell differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing cell proliferation and survival while maintaining their neuronal characteristics.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in lung disorders: pathogenesis of lung diseases and mechanism of action of mesenchymal stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Ajinkya C; Inamdar, Arati A

    2013-10-01

    Lung disorders such as asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), and interstitial lung disease (ILD) show a few common threads of pathogenic mechanisms: inflammation, aberrant immune activity, infection, and fibrosis. Currently no modes of effective treatment are available for ILD or emphysema. Being anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and regenerative in nature, the administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has shown the capacity to control immune dysfunction and inflammation in the lung. The intravenous infusion of MSCs, the common mode of delivery, is followed by their entrapment in lung vasculature before MSCs reach to other organ systems thus indicating the feasible and promising approach of MSCs therapy for lung diseases. In this review, we discuss the mechanistic basis for MSCs therapy for asthma, ARDS, COPD, and ILD. PMID:23992090

  10. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury☆

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chun; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Guoyu

    2013-01-01

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was...

  11. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-jing Zhou; Jian-min Liu; Shu-ming Wei; Yun-hao Zhang; Zhen-hua Qu; Shu-bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administration via the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve fibers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-l...

  12. Citalopram increases the differentiation efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Verdi, Javad; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed AbdolReza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Hadi; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was d...

  13. Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) can be obtained from human amniotic membrane, a highly abundant and readily available tissue. HAMSC sources present fewer ethical issues, have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties, considerable advantageous characteristics, and are considered an attractive potential treatment material in the field of regenerative medicine. We used a co-culture system to determine whether HAMSCs could promote osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). We isolated HAMSCs from discarded amnion samples and collected them using pancreatin/collagenase digestion. We cultured HAMSCs and HBMSCSs in basal medium. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early osteogenesis marker, was increased in the co-culture system compared to the control single cultures, which we also confirmed by ALP staining. We used immunofluorescence testing to investigate the effects of co-culturing with HAMSCs on HBMSC proliferation, which revealed that the co-culturing enhanced EdU expression in HBMSCs. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that co-culturing promoted osteogenesis in HBMSCs. Furthermore, Alizarin red S staining revealed that extracellular matrix calcium levels in mineralized nodule formation produced by the co-cultures were higher than that in the controls. Using the same co-culture system, we further observed the effects of HAMSCs on osteogenic differentiation in primary osteoblasts by Western blotting, which better addressed the mechanism for HAMSCs in bone regeneration. The results showed HAMSCs are osteogenic and not only play a role in promoting HBMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but also in osteoblasts, laying the foundation for new regenerative medicine methods.

  14. Eccentric exercise facilitates mesenchymal stem cell appearance in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Valero

    Full Text Available Eccentric, or lengthening, contractions result in injury and subsequently stimulate the activation and proliferation of satellite stem cells which are important for skeletal muscle regeneration. The discovery of alternative myogenic progenitors in skeletal muscle raises the question as to whether stem cells other than satellite cells accumulate in muscle in response to exercise and contribute to post-exercise repair and/or growth. In this study, stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1 positive, non-hematopoetic (CD45⁻ cells were evaluated in wild type (WT and α7 integrin transgenic (α7Tg mouse muscle, which is resistant to injury yet liable to strain, 24 hr following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Sca-1⁺CD45⁻ stem cells were increased 2-fold in WT muscle post-exercise. The α7 integrin regulated the presence of Sca-1⁺ cells, with expansion occurring in α7Tg muscle and minimal cells present in muscle lacking the α7 integrin. Sca-1⁺CD45⁻ cells isolated from α7Tg muscle following exercise were characterized as mesenchymal-like stem cells (mMSCs, predominantly pericytes. In vitro multiaxial strain upregulated mMSC stem cells markers in the presence of laminin, but not gelatin, identifying a potential mechanistic basis for the accumulation of these cells in muscle following exercise. Transplantation of DiI-labeled mMSCs into WT muscle increased Pax7⁺ cells and facilitated formation of eMHC⁺DiI⁻ fibers. This study provides the first demonstration that mMSCs rapidly appear in skeletal muscle in an α7 integrin dependent manner post-exercise, revealing an early event that may be necessary for effective repair and/or growth following exercise. The results from this study also support a role for the α7 integrin and/or mMSCs in molecular- and cellular-based therapeutic strategies that can effectively combat disuse muscle atrophy.

  15. Clinical Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Farini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraordinary progress in understanding several key features of stem cells has been made in the last ten years, including definition of the niche, and identification of signals regulating mobilization and homing as well as partial understanding of the mechanisms controlling self-renewal, commitment, and differentiation. This progress produced invaluable tools for the development of rational cell therapy protocols that have yielded positive results in preclinical models of genetic and acquired diseases and, in several cases, have entered clinical experimentation with positive outcome. Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are nonhematopoietic cells with multilineage potential to differentiate into various tissues of mesodermal origin. They can be isolated from bone marrow and other tissues and have the capacity to extensively proliferate in vitro. Moreover, MSCs have also been shown to produce anti-inflammatory molecules which can modulate humoral and cellular immune responses. Considering their regenerative potential and immunoregulatory effect, MSC therapy is a promising tool in the treatment of degenerative, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. It is obvious that much work remains to be done to increase our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating development, homeostasis, and tissue repair and thus to provide new tools to implement the efficacy of cell therapy trials.

  16. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be obtained from various organs and easily propagated in vitro, are one of the most extensively used types of stem cells and have been shown to be efficacious in a broad set of diseases. The unique and highly desirable properties of MSCs include high migratory capacities toward injured areas, immunomodulatory features, and the natural ability to differentiate into connective tissue phenotypes. These phenotypes include bone and cartilage, and these properties predispose MSCs to be therapeutically useful. In addition, MSCs elicit their therapeutic effects by paracrine actions, in which the metabolism of target tissues is modulated. Genetic engineering methods can greatly amplify these properties and broaden the therapeutic capabilities of MSCs, including transdifferentiation toward diverse cell lineages. However, cell engineering can also affect safety and increase the cost of therapy based on MSCs; thus, the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures should be discussed. In this review, the latest applications of genetic engineering methods for MSCs with regenerative medicine purposes are presented.

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Martínez, Edgar; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro

    2016-01-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells of dental pulp (DPSCs) were isolated and characterized for the first time more than a decade ago as highly clonogenic cells that were able to generate densely calcified colonies. Now, DPSCs are considered to have potential as stem cell source for orthopedic and oral maxillofacial reconstruction, and it has been suggested that they may have applications beyond the scope of the stomatognathic system. To date, most studies have shown that, regardless of their origin in third molars, incisors, or exfoliated deciduous teeth, DPSCs can generate mineralized tissue, an extracellular matrix and structures type dentin, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp, as well as other structures. Different groups worldwide have designed and evaluated new efficient protocols for the isolation, expansion, and maintenance of clinically safe human DPSCs in sufficient numbers for various therapeutics protocols and have discussed the most appropriate route of administration, the possible contraindications to their clinical use, and the parameters to be considered for monitoring their clinical efficacy and proper biological source. At present, DPSC-based therapy is promising but because most of the available evidence was obtained using nonhuman xenotransplants, it is not a mature technology. PMID:26779263

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Ledesma-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells of dental pulp (DPSCs were isolated and characterized for the first time more than a decade ago as highly clonogenic cells that were able to generate densely calcified colonies. Now, DPSCs are considered to have potential as stem cell source for orthopedic and oral maxillofacial reconstruction, and it has been suggested that they may have applications beyond the scope of the stomatognathic system. To date, most studies have shown that, regardless of their origin in third molars, incisors, or exfoliated deciduous teeth, DPSCs can generate mineralized tissue, an extracellular matrix and structures type dentin, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp, as well as other structures. Different groups worldwide have designed and evaluated new efficient protocols for the isolation, expansion, and maintenance of clinically safe human DPSCs in sufficient numbers for various therapeutics protocols and have discussed the most appropriate route of administration, the possible contraindications to their clinical use, and the parameters to be considered for monitoring their clinical efficacy and proper biological source. At present, DPSC-based therapy is promising but because most of the available evidence was obtained using nonhuman xenotransplants, it is not a mature technology.

  19. The sensitivity of human mesenchymal stem cells to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow transplantation patients originate from the host. This clinical observation suggests that MSCs in their niches could be resistant to irradiation. However, the biologic responses of bone marrow MSCs to irradiation have rarely been described in the literature. Methods and Materials: In this study, human bone marrow-derived, clonally expanded MSCs were used to investigate their sensitivity to irradiation in vitro, and the cellular mechanisms that may facilitate resistance to irradiation. The human lung cancer cell line A549 and the breast cancer cell line HCC1937 were used as controls for radiosensitivity; the former line has been shown to be radioresistant and the latter radiosensitive. We then examined their in vitro biologic changes and sensitivities to radiation therapy. Results: Our results suggest that MSCs are characterized as resistant to irradiation. Several cellular mechanisms were demonstrated that may facilitate resistance to irradiation: ATM protein phosphorylation, activation of cell-cycle checkpoints, double-strand break repair by homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), and the antioxidant capacity for scavenging reactive oxygen species. Conclusions: As demonstrated, MSCs possess a better antioxidant reactive oxygen species-scavenging capacity and active double-strand break repair to facilitate their radioresistance. These findings provide a better understanding of radiation-induced biologic responses in MSCs and may lead to the development of better strategies for stem cell treatment and cancer therapy

  20. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be obtained from various organs and easily propagated in vitro, are one of the most extensively used types of stem cells and have been shown to be efficacious in a broad set of diseases. The unique and highly desirable properties of MSCs include high migratory capacities toward injured areas, immunomodulatory features, and the natural ability to differentiate into connective tissue phenotypes. These phenotypes include bone and cartilage, and these properties predispose MSCs to be therapeutically useful. In addition, MSCs elicit their therapeutic effects by paracrine actions, in which the metabolism of target tissues is modulated. Genetic engineering methods can greatly amplify these properties and broaden the therapeutic capabilities of MSCs, including transdifferentiation toward diverse cell lineages. However, cell engineering can also affect safety and increase the cost of therapy based on MSCs; thus, the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures should be discussed. In this review, the latest applications of genetic engineering methods for MSCs with regenerative medicine purposes are presented. PMID:26140302

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for osteoarthritis: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Cody C; Houdek, Matthew T; Behfar, Atta; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful chronic condition with a significant impact on quality of life. The societal burden imposed by OA is increasing in parallel with the aging population; however, no therapies have demonstrated efficacy in preventing the progression of this degenerative joint disease. Current mainstays of therapy include activity modification, conservative pain management strategies, weight loss, and if necessary, replacement of the affected joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent endogenous population of progenitors capable of differentiation to musculoskeletal tissues. MSCs have a well-documented immunomodulatory role, managing the inflammatory response primarily through paracrine signaling. Given these properties, MSCs have been proposed as a potential regenerative cell therapy source for patients with OA. Research efforts are focused on determining the ideal source for derivation, as MSCs are native to several tissues. Furthermore, optimizing the mode of delivery remains a challenge both for appropriate localization of MSCs and for directed guidance toward stemming the local inflammatory process and initiating a regenerative response. Scaffolds and matrices with growth factor adjuvants may prove critical in this effort. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of MSC-based therapeutics for OA and discuss potential barriers that must be overcome for successful implementation of cell-based therapy as a routine treatment strategy in orthopedics.

  2. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder.

  3. Mesenchymal stromal cells and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Maria Ester; Fibbe, Willem E

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) comprise a heterogeneous population of multipotent cells that can be isolated from various human tissues and culture-expanded ex vivo for clinical use. Due to their immunoregulatory properties and their ability to secrete growth factors, MSCs play a key role in the regulation of hematopoiesis and in the modulation of immune responses against allo- and autoantigens. In light of these properties, MSCs have been employed in clinical trials in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to facilitate engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and to prevent graft failure, as well as to treat steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The available clinical evidence derived from these studies indicates that MSC administration is safe. Moreover, promising preliminary results in terms of efficacy have been reported in some clinical trials, especially in the treatment of acute GvHD. In this review we critically discuss recent advances in MSC therapy by reporting on the most relevant studies in the field of HSCT.

  4. Suitability of human mesenchymal stem cells for gene therapy depends on the expansion medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great hope is set in the use of mesenchymal stem cells for gene therapy and regenerative medicine. Since the frequency of this subpopulation of stem cells in bone marrow is low, mesenchymal stem cells are expanded ex vivo and manipulated prior to experimental or clinical use. Different methods for isolation and expansion are available, but the particular effect on the stem cell character is unclear. While the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells by density centrifugation followed by selection of the plastic adherent fraction is frequently used, the composition of expansion media differs. Thus, in the present study we cultured mesenchymal stem cells isolated from five healthy young volunteers in three widely used expansion media and performed a detailed analysis of the effect on morphology, proliferation, clonogenicity, passaging, differentiation and senescence. By this way we clearly show that the type of expansion medium used determines the stem cell character and time of senescence which is critical for future gene therapeutic and regenerative approaches using mesenchymal stem cells

  5. The hematopoietic growth factor "erythropoietin" enhances the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairallah, M I; Kassem, L A; Yassin, N A; El Din, M A Gamal; Zekri, M; Attia, M

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by cognitive dysfunction and by deposition of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The study investigated the therapeutic effect of combined mesenchymal stem cells and erythropoietin on Alzheimer's disease. Five groups of mice were used: control group, Alzheimer's disease was induced in four groups by a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.8 mg kg(-1) lipopolysaccharide and divided as follows: Alzheimer's disease group, mesenchymal stem cells treated group by injecting mesenchymal stem cells into the tail vein (2 x 10(6) cells), erythropoietin treated group (40 microg kg(-1) b.wt.) injected intraperitoneally 3 times/week for 5 weeks and mesenchymal stem cells and erythropoietin treated group. Locomotor activity and memory were tested using open field and Y-maze. Histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical studies, morphometric measurements were examined in brain sections of all groups. Choline transferase activity, brain derived neurotrophic factor expression and mitochondrial swellings were assessed in cerebral specimens. Lipopolysaccharide decreased locomotor activity, memory, choline transferase activity and brain derived neurotrophic factor. It increased mitochondrial swelling, apoptotic index and amyloid deposition. Combined mesenchymal stem cells and erythropoietin markedly improved all these parameters. This study proved the effective role of mesenchymal stem cells in relieving Alzheimer's disease symptoms and manifestations; it highlighted the important role of erythropoietin in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Use of FK506 and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for rat hind limb allografts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youxin Song; Zhujun Wang; Zhixue Wang; Hong Zhang; Xiaohui Li; Bin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Dark Agouti rat donor hind limbs were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis rat recipients to verify the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neural regeneration and functional recovery of allotransplanted limbs in the microenvironment of immunotolerance. bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were intramuscularly (gluteus maximus) injected with FK506 (tacrolimus) daily, and were transplanted to the injured nerves. Results indicated that the allograft group not receiving therapy showed severe rejection, with transplanted limbs detaching at 10 days after transplantation with complete necrosis. The number of myelinated axons and Schwann cells in the FK506 and FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells groups were significantly increased. We observed a lesser degree of gastrocnemius muscle degeneration, and increased polymorphic fibers along with other pathological changes in the FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group. The FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group showed significantly better recovery than the autograft and FK506 groups. The results demonstrated that FK506 improved the immune microenvironment. FK506 combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly promoted sciatic nerve regeneration, and improved sensory recovery and motor function in hind limb allotransplant.

  7. Cardiac differentiation and electrophysiology characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-wu; AI Shi-yi; L(U) An-lin; HOU Jing; HUANG Wei; LI Yao; HOU Zhao-lei; HOU Hong; DA Jing; YANG Na

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the progress of cardiac differentiation and electrophysiological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.Data sources The databases of PubMed,Springer Link,Science Direct and CNKI were retrieved for papers published from January 2000 to January 2012 with the key words of “bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells,cardiac or heart,electrophysiology or electrophysiological characteristics”.Study selection The articles concerned cardiac differentiation and electrophysiological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were collected.After excluding papers that study purposes are not coincident with this review or contents duplicated,56 papers were internalized at last.Results For the treatment of myocardial infarction and myocardiac disease,the therapeutic effects of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells which have the ability to develop into functional myocardial cells by lots of methods have been proved by many researches.But the arrhythmogenic effect on ventricles affer transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived myocardial cells is still controversial in animal models.Certainly,the low differentiation efficiency and heterogeneous development of electricial function could be the most important risk for proarrhythmia.Conclusion Many studies of cardiac differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have paid attention to improve the cardiac differentiation rate,and the electrophysiology characteristics of the differentiated cells should be concerned for the risk for proarrhythmia as well.

  8. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor induces spermatogonial stem cell marker genes in chicken mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozarpour, Sohrab; Matin, Maryam M; Momeni-Moghaddam, Madjid; Dehghani, Hesam; Mahdavi-Shahri, Naser; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad; Heirani-Tabasi, Asieh; Irfan-Maqsood, Muhammad; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known with the potential of multi-lineage differentiation. Advances in differentiation technology have also resulted in the conversion of MSCs to other kinds of stem cells. MSCs are considered as a suitable source of cells for biotechnology purposes because they are abundant, easily accessible and well characterized cells. Nowadays small molecules are introduced as novel and efficient factors to differentiate stem cells. In this work, we examined the potential of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for differentiating chicken MSCs toward spermatogonial stem cells. MSCs were isolated and characterized from chicken and cultured under treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or glial cell derived neurotrophic factor. Expression analysis of specific genes after 7days of RA treatment, as examined by RT-PCR, proved positive for some germ cell markers such as CVH, STRA8, PLZF and some genes involved in spermatogonial stem cell maintenance like BCL6b and c-KIT. On the other hand, GDNF could additionally induce expression of POU5F1, and NANOG as well as other genes which were induced after RA treatment. These data illustrated that GDNF is relatively more effective in diverting chicken MSCs towards Spermatogonial stem cell -like cells in chickens and suggests GDNF as a new agent to obtain transgenic poultry, nevertheless, exploitability of these cells should be verified by more experiments.

  9. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a New Host Cell in Latent Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N.

    2011-01-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs hav...

  10. Function of mesenchymal stem cells following loading of gold nanotracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    et al

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Laura M Ricles1, Seung Yun Nam1,2, Konstantin Sokolov3,1, Stanislav Y Emelianov1,3, Laura J Suggs11Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 3Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USABackground: Stem cells can differentiate into multiple cell types, and therefore can be used for cellular therapies, including tissue repair. However, the participation of stem cells in tissue repair and neovascularization is not well understood. Therefore, implementing a noninvasive, long-term imaging technique to track stem cells in vivo is needed to obtain a better understanding of the wound healing response. Generally, we are interested in developing an imaging approach to track mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in vivo after delivery via a polyethylene glycol modified fibrin matrix (PEGylated fibrin matrix using MSCs loaded with gold nanoparticles as nanotracers. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of loading MSCs with gold nanoparticles on cellular function.Methods: In this study, we utilized various gold nanoparticle formulations by varying size and surface coatings and assessed the efficiency of cell labeling using darkfield microscopy. We hypothesized that loading cells with gold nanotracers would not significantly alter cell function due to the inert and biocompatible characteristics of gold. The effect of nanoparticle loading on cell viability and cytotoxicity was analyzed using a LIVE/DEAD stain and an MTT assay. The ability of MSCs to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes after nanoparticle loading was also examined. In addition, nanoparticle loading and retention over time was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS.Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that loading MSCs with gold nanotracers does not alter cell function and, based on the ICP

  11. Immortalized mesenchymal stem cells: an alternative to primary mesenchymal stem cells in neuronal differentiation and neuroregeneration associated studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Min

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be induced to differentiate into neuronal cells under appropriate cellular conditions and transplanted in brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases animal models for neuroregeneration studies. In contrast to the embryonic stem cells (ESCs, MSCs are easily subject to aging and senescence because of their finite ability of self-renewal. MSCs senescence seriously affected theirs application prospects as a promising tool for cell-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In the present study, we established a reversible immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (IMSCs line by using SSR#69 retrovirus expressing simian virus 40 large T (SV40T antigen as an alternative to primary MSCs. Methods The retroviral vector SSR#69 expressing simian virus 40 large T (SV40T antigen was used to construct IMSCs. IMSCs were identified by flow cytometry to detect cell surface makers. To investigate proliferation and differentiation potential of IMSCs, cell growth curve determination and mesodermal trilineage differentiation tests were performed. Neuronal differentiation characteristics of IMSCs were detected in vitro. Before IMSCs transplantation, we excluded its tumorigenicity in nude mice firstly. The Morris water maze tests and shuttle box tests were performed five weeks after HIBD models received cells transplantation therapy. Results In this study, reversible IMSCs were constructed successfully and had the similar morphology and cell surface makers as primary MSCs. IMSCs possessed better ability of proliferation and anti-senescence compared with primary MSCs, while maintained multilineage differentiation capacity. Neural-like cells derived from IMSCs had similar expressions of neural-specific genes, protein expression patterns and resting membrane potential (RMP compared with their counterparts derived from primary MSCs. There was no bump formation in nude mice subcutaneously injected with IMSCs. IMSCs

  12. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting axonal growth and anti-autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Fei; Meng, Chunyang; Lu, Rifeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Hao; Qin, Yonggang; Guo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neurons and astrocytes after transplantation in the spinal cord of rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Although bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are known to protect against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through anti-apoptotic effects, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and proliferated, then transplanted into rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury...

  13. Transplantation of neurotrophin-3-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yuzhen; Yang, Libin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Hongxing; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation has been shown to be therapeutic in the repair of spinal cord injury. However, the low survival rate of transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vivo remains a problem. Neurotrophin-3 promotes motor neuron survival and it is hypothesized that its transfection can enhance the therapeutic effect. We show that in vitro transfection of neurotrophin-3 gene increases the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the region of spinal ...

  14. Células-tronco mesenquimais Mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia Souza Monteiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre todas as células-tronco estudadas até o presente momento, as mesenquimais (MSC destacam-se por sua elevada plasticidade, podendo originar tecidos mesodermais e não mesodermais. Além disso, possuem características imunomoduladoras e imunossupressoras que ampliam as possibilidades de utilização terapêutica. As MSC secretam uma grande variedade de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias e fatores de crescimento e, por meio dessas moléculas bioativas, proporcionam a modulação da resposta inflamatória, o restabelecimento do suprimento vascular e a reparação adequada do tecido, contribuindo para a homeostasia tissular e imunológica sob condições fisiológicas. Também podem induzir as demais células presentes no nicho tecidual a secretarem outros fatores solúveis que estimulam a diferenciação dessas células indiferenciadas, favorecendo o processo de reparação. A terapia celular com MSC é uma alternativa terapêutica promissora, porém a compreensão da biologia dessas células ainda é uma ciência em formação. Este artigo tem por objetivo realizar uma breve revisão sobre as células mesenquimais indiferenciadas.Of all the stem cells studied so far, the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC stand out for their high plasticity and capacity of generating mesodermal and non-mesodermal tissues. In addition, immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive features that expand possibilities for therapeutic use are present in these cells. A variety of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors are secrete for MSC and provide a modulation of inflammatory response, re-establishment of vascular supply and adequate repair of the tissue, contributing to tissue homeostasis under physiologic conditions. Therefore, they can induce secretion of soluble factors that stimulate their differentiation by other cells present at the niche's tissue, promoting the repair process. Cell therapy using MSC is a promises therapeutic alternative, but

  15. Stemness Evaluation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Placentas According to Developmental Stage: Comparison to Those from Adult Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Hwa Jung; Hong, Soon Cheol; Yoo, Ji Hyun; Oh, Jee Hyun; Shin, Hye Jin; Choi, In Young; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Kim, Sun Haeng; Park, Yong; Kim, Byung Soo

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from placenta according to the development stage and to compare the results to those from adult bone marrow (BM). Based on the source of hMSCs, three groups were defined: group I included term placentas, group II included first-trimester placentas, and group III included adult BM samples. The stemness was evaluated by the proliferation capacity, immunophenotypic expression, mesoderm differentiation, e...

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolay, Nils H., E-mail: n.nicolay@dkfz.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Trinh, Thuy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sisombath, Sonevisay [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  18. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem;

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...... bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106 and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (FACS) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of h...

  19. Visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-ping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T 7-8 . Superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord via the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic field was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to the lesion site. Prussian blue staining showed that more bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells reached the lesion site in these rats than in those without magnetic guidance or superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling, and immunofluorescence revealed a greater number of complete axons at the lesion site. Moreover, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale scores were the highest in rats with superparamagnetic labeling and magnetic guidance. Our data confirm that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles effectively label bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and impart sufficient magnetism to respond to the external magnetic field guides. More importantly, superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be dynamically and non-invasively tracked in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells coupled with magnetic guidance offers a promising avenue for the clinical treatment of spinal cord injury.

  20. visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-ping Zhang; Cheng Xu; Yin Liu; Jian-ding Li; Jun Xie

    2015-01-01

    An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T7–8. Superparamagnet-ic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cordvia the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic ifeld was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to the lesion site. Prussian blue staining showed that more bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells reached the lesion site in these rats than in those without magnetic guidance or superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling, and immunolfuorescence revealed a greater number of complete axons at the lesion site. Moreover, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale scores were the highest in rats with superparamagnetic labeling and magnetic guid-ance. Our data conifrm that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles effectively label bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and impart sufficient magnetism to respond to the external magnetic ifeld guides. More importantly, superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be dynamically and non-invasively trackedin vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells coupled with magnetic guidance offers a promising avenue for the clinical treatment of spinal cord injury.

  1. 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini; Mohammad Farahmandnia; Zahra Razi; Somayeh Delavarifar; Benafsheh Shakibajahromi

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy using stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia has been reported. However, it remains controversial regarding the optimal time for cell transplantation and the transplantation route. Rat models of cerebral ischemia were established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 1, 12 hours, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after cerebral ischemia, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected via the tail vein. At 28 days after cerebral ischemia, rat neurological function was evaluated using a 6-point grading scale and the pathological change of ischemic cerebral tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under the lfuorescence microscope, the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was examined by PKH labeling. Caspase-3 activity was measured using spectrophotometry. The optimal neurological function recovery, lowest degree of ischemic cerebral damage, greatest number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrating to peri-ischemic area, and lowest caspase-3 activity in the ischemic cerebral tissue were observed in rats that underwent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation at 12 hours after cerebral ischemia. These ifndings suggest that 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for tail vein injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia, and the strongest neuroprotective effect of this cell therapy appears at this time.

  2. 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy using stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia has been reported. However, it remains controversial regarding the optimal time for cell transplantation and the transplantation route. Rat models of cerebral ischemia were established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 1, 12 hours, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after cerebral ischemia, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected via the tail vein. At 28 days after cerebral ischemia, rat neurological function was evaluated using a 6-point grading scale and the pathological change of ischemic cerebral tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under the fluorescence microscope, the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was examined by PKH labeling. Caspase-3 activity was measured using spectrophotometry. The optimal neurological function recovery, lowest degree of ischemic cerebral damage, greatest number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrating to peri-ischemic area, and lowest caspase-3 activity in the ischemic cerebral tissue were observed in rats that underwent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation at 12 hours after cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for tail vein injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia, and the strongest neuroprotective effect of this cell therapy appears at this time.

  3. Factors affecting directional migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the injured spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xia; Su Pan; Jieping Cheng; Maoguang Yang; Zhiping Qi; Tingting Hou; Xiaoyu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B plays an important role in axon guidance and neuronal migration. In the present study, we sought to discover the mechanisms underlying microtu-bule-associated protein 1B mediation of axon guidance and neuronal migration. We exposed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to okadaic acid or N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (an inhibitor and stimulator, respectively, of protein phosphatase 2A) for 24 hours. The expression of the phosphorylated form of type I microtubule-associated protein 1B in the cells was greater after exposure to okadaic acid and lower after N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine. We then injected the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the ear vein into rabbit models of spinal cord contusion. The migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards the injured spinal cord was poorer in cells exposed to okadaic acid-and N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine than in non-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, we blocked phosphatidylinosi-tol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using the inhibitors LY294002 and U0126, respectively. LY294002 resulted in an elevated expression of phosphorylated type I microtubule-associated protein 1B, whereas U0126 caused a reduction in expression. The present data indicate that PI3K and ERK1/2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells modulate the phosphorylation of micro-tubule-associated protein 1B via a cross-signaling network, and affect the migratory efifciency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards injured spinal cord.

  4. IFNγ and B7-H1 in the immunology of mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in multiple organs in the fetus,cord blood and adult tissues [1]. However, in adults, the bone marrow is the major source of these stem cells. MSCs surround the blood vessels of bone marrow and are also in contact with the trabeculae [2].

  5. Tissue distribution and engraftment of human mesenchymal stem cells immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, J F; Stenderup, K; Hansen, F D;

    2005-01-01

    Engraftment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in peripheral tissues for replenishing of local stem cell function has been proposed as a therapeutic approach to degenerative diseases. We have previously reported the development of an immortalized human telomerase reverse transcriptase transduced MSC...

  6. Radiation response of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and human pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human pluripotent stem cells are comparable with bone marrow-derived MSCs in their function and immunophenotype. The purpose of this exploratory study was comparative evaluation of the radiation responses of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow- (BMMSCs) and from human embryonic stem cells (hESMSCs). BMMSCs and hESMSCs were irradiated at 0 Gy (control) to 16 Gy using a linear accelerator commonly used for cancer treatment. Cells were harvested immediately after irradiation, and at 1 and 5 days after irradiation. Cell cycle analysis, colony forming ability (CFU-F), differentiation ability, and expression of osteogenic-specific runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), oxidative stress-specific dismutase-1 (SOD1) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) were analyzed. Irradiation arrested cell cycle progression in BMMSCs and hESMSCs. Colony formation ability of irradiated MSCs decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Irradiated hESMSCs showed higher adipogenic differentiation compared with BMMSCs, together with an increase in the adipogenic PPARγ expression. PPARγ expression was upregulated as early as 4 h after irradiation, along with the expression of SOD1. More than 70% downregulation was found in Wnt3A, Wnt4, Wnt7A, Wnt10A and Wnt11 in BMMSCs, but not in hESMSCs. hESMSCs are highly proliferative but radiosensitive compared with BMMSCs. Increased PPARγ expression relative to RUNX2 and downregulation of Wnt ligands in irradiated MSCs suggest Wnt mediated the fate determination of irradiated MSCs. (author)

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Aggregate Formation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosh, Thomas J.; Ylostalo, Joni H.

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) isolated from various adult tissues show remarkable therapeutic potential and are being employed in clinical trials for the treatment of numerous diseases (Prockop et al., 2010). While routes of cell administration vary, profound beneficial effects of MSCs in animal models have been observed following intraperitoneal injections of the cells (Roddy et al., 2011). Similar to MSC spheres formed in culture under conditions where attachment to plastic is not permitted (Bartosh et al., 2010), MSCs injected into the peritoneum of mice spontaneously aggregate into 3D sphere-like structures (Bartosh et al., 2013). During the process of sphere assembly and compaction, MSCs upregulate expression of numerous therapeutic anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory factors. Here we describe the method we previously used for the generation of human bone marrow-derived MSC aggregates/spheres in vivo (Bartosh et al., 2013). By tagging the MSCs with green fluorescent protein (GFP), the aggregates formed can be easily visualized, collected and analyzed for changes in cellular properties and interactions with host immune cells.

  8. Immunomodulatory effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella eFranquesa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research on T cell immunosuppression therapies has attracted most of the attention in clinical transplantation. However, B cells and humoral immune responses are increasingly acknowledged as crucial mediators of chronic allograft rejection. Indeed, humoral immune responses can lead to renal allograft rejection even in patients whose cell-mediated immune responses are well controlled. On the other hand, newly studied B cell subsets with regulatory effects have been linked to tolerance achievement in transplantation. Better understanding of the regulatory and effector B cell responses may therefore lead to new therapeutic approaches.Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC are arising as a potent therapeutic tool in transplantation due to their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. The research on MSCs has mainly focused on their effects on T cells and although data regarding the modulatory effects of MSCs on alloantigen-specific humoral response in humans is scarce, it has been demonstrated that MSCs significantly affect B cell functioning. In the present review we will analyze and discuss the results in this field.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells: potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Tanmay; Sachan, Vatsal

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Marrow Stromal Cells (MSCs) have long been viewed as a potent tool for regenerative cell therapy. MSCs are easily accessible from both healthy donor and patient tissue and expandable in vitro on a therapeutic scale without posing significant ethical or procedural problems. MSC based therapies have proven to be effective in preclinical studies for graft versus host disease, stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary fibrosis, autoimmune disorders and many other conditions and are currently undergoing clinical trials at a number of centers all over the world. MSCs are also being extensively researched as a therapeutic tool against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MSCs have been discussed with regard to two aspects in the context of neurodegenerative diseases: their ability to transdifferentiate into neural cells under specific conditions and their neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects. When transplanted into the brain, MSCs produce neurotrophic and growth factors that protect and induce regeneration of damaged tissue. Additionally, MSCs have also been explored as gene delivery vehicles, for example being genetically engineered to over express glial-derived or brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the brain. Clinical trials involving MSCs are currently underway for MS, ALS, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and stroke. In the present review, we explore the potential that MSCs hold with regard to the aforementioned neurodegenerative diseases and the current scenario with reference to the same.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Nanette; Annett, Geralyn; Wirthlin, Louisa; Olson, Scott; Bauer, Gerhard; Nolta, Jan A

    2010-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells/marrow stromal cells (MSCs) present a promising tool for cell therapy, and are currently being tested in US FDA-approved clinical trials for myocardial infarction, stroke, meniscus injury, limb ischemia, graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune disorders. They have been extensively tested and proven effective in preclinical studies for these and many other disorders. There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of MSCs to treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular for those that are fatal and difficult to treat, such as Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proposed regenerative approaches to neurological diseases using MSCs include cell therapies in which cells are delivered via intracerebral or intrathecal injection. Upon transplantation into the brain, MSCs promote endogenous neuronal growth, decrease apoptosis, reduce levels of free radicals, encourage synaptic connection from damaged neurons and regulate inflammation, primarily through paracrine actions. MSCs transplanted into the brain have been demonstrated to promote functional recovery by producing trophic factors that induce survival and regeneration of host neurons. Therapies will capitalize on the innate trophic support from MSCs or on augmented growth factor support, such as delivering brain-derived neurotrophic factor or glial-derived neurotrophic factor into the brain to support injured neurons, using genetically engineered MSCs as the delivery vehicles. Clinical trials for MSC injection into the CNS to treat traumatic brain injury and stroke are currently ongoing. The current data in support of applying MSC-based cellular therapies to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  11. Expression of Neural Markers by Undifferentiated Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Foudah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous expression of neural markers by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been considered to be a demonstration of MSCs’ predisposition to differentiate towards neural lineages. In view of their application in cell therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, it is very important to deepen the knowledge about this distinctive biological property of MSCs. In this study, we evaluated the expression of neuronal and glial markers in undifferentiated rat MSCs (rMSCs at different culture passages (from early to late. rMSCs spontaneously expressed neural markers depending on culture passage, and they were coexpressed or not with the neural progenitor marker nestin. In contrast, the number of rMSCs expressing mesengenic differentiation markers was very low or even completely absent. Moreover, rMSCs at late culture passages were not senescent cells and maintained the MSC immunophenotype. However, their differentiation capabilities were altered. In conclusion, our results support the concept of MSCs as multidifferentiated cells and suggest the existence of immature and mature neurally fated rMSC subpopulations. A possible correlation between specific MSC subpopulations and specific neural lineages could optimize the use of MSCs in cell transplantation therapy for the treatment of neurological diseases.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subpopulations: Application for Orthopedic Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Morales, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Research on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) continues to progress rapidly. Nevertheless, the field faces several challenges, such as inherent cell heterogeneity and the absence of unique MSCs markers. Due to MSCs' ability to differentiate into multiple tissues, these cells represent a promising tool for new cell-based therapies. However, for tissue engineering applications, it is critical to start with a well-defined cell population. Additionally, evidence that MSCs subpopulations may also feature distinct characteristics and regeneration potential has arisen. In this report, we present an overview of the identification of MSCs based on the expression of several surface markers and their current tissue sources. We review the use of MSCs subpopulations in recent years and the main methodologies that have addressed their isolation, and we emphasize the most-used surface markers for selection, isolation, and characterization. Next, we discuss the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation from MSCs subpopulations. We conclude that MSCs subpopulation selection is not a minor concern because each subpopulation has particular potential for promoting the differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The accurate selection of the subpopulation advances possibilities suitable for preclinical and clinical studies and determines the safest and most efficacious regeneration process. PMID:27725838

  13. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Morphology and Migration on Microtextured Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Brittany L.; Riley, Thomas R.; Platt, Christina J.; Brown, Justin L.

    2016-01-01

    The implant used in spinal fusion procedures is an essential component to achieving successful arthrodesis. At the cellular level, the implant impacts healing and fusion through a series of steps: first, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) need to adhere and proliferate to cover the implant; second, the MSCs must differentiate into osteoblasts; third, the osteoid matrix produced by the osteoblasts needs to generate new bone tissue, thoroughly integrating the implant with the vertebrate above and below. Previous research has demonstrated that microtextured titanium is advantageous over smooth titanium and PEEK implants for both promoting osteogenic differentiation and integrating with host bone tissue; however, no investigation to date has examined the early morphology and migration of MSCs on these surfaces. This study details cell spreading and morphology changes over 24 h, rate and directionality of migration 6–18 h post-seeding, differentiation markers at 10 days, and the long-term morphology of MSCs at 7 days, on microtextured, acid-etched titanium (endoskeleton), smooth titanium, and smooth PEEK surfaces. The results demonstrate that in all metrics, the two titanium surfaces outperformed the PEEK surface. Furthermore, the rough acid-etched titanium surface presented the most favorable overall results, demonstrating the random migration needed to efficiently cover a surface in addition to morphologies consistent with osteoblasts and preosteoblasts. PMID:27243001

  14. [Immunoregulatory role of mesenchymal stem cells in bone reparation processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubov, D O

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) including osteoblast progenitor cells. When culturedunder conditions promoting an osteoblastic phenotype,MSC proliferate to form colonies that produce alkaline phosphatase and, subsequently, a mature osteoblastic phenotype. Transplantation of cultured autologous MSC to patients with non-healing bone fractures gives a good result leading to complete bone fracture consolidation. The aim of the study is to determine a quantitative production of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha by cultured uncommitted and committed osteogenic MSC. The results showed that the cytokine profile consisting of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha is secreted by cultured MSC. The secretion of IL-1beta and IL-2 by cultured MSC together with hyper production of IL-6 (up to 276.5 pg/ml, pactivators of bone resorption, inflammation and some immunological reactions in the process of altered osteoreparation. PMID:18756772

  15. Clopidogrel Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation Following Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, L S; Steffens, J P; Alsadun, S; Albiero, M L; Rossa, C; Pignolo, R J; Spolidorio, L C; Graves, D T

    2015-12-01

    Bone formation is dependent on the differentiation of osteoblasts from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition to serving as progenitors, MSCs reduce inflammation and produce factors that stimulate tissue formation. Upon injury, MSCs migrate to the periodontium, where they contribute to regeneration. We examined the effect of clopidogrel and aspirin on MSCs following induction of periodontitis in rats by placement of ligatures. We showed that after the removal of ligatures, which induces resolution of periodontal inflammation, clopidogrel had a significant effect on reducing the inflammatory infiltrate. It also increased the number of osteoblasts and MSCs. Mechanistically, the latter was linked to increased proliferation of MSCs in vivo and in vitro. When given prior to inducing periodontitis, clopidogrel had little effect on MSC or osteoblasts numbers. Applying aspirin before or after induction of periodontitis did not have a significant effect on the parameters measured. These results suggest that clopidogrel may have a positive effect on MSCs in conditions where a reparative process has been initiated.

  16. PPAR-γ Signaling Crosstalk in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Takada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR superfamily of ligand-activated transcriptional factors. Among other functions, PPAR-γ acts as a key regulator of the adipogenesis. Since several cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, TGF-β had been known to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, we examined the effect of these cytokines on the transactivation function of PPAR-γ. We found that the TNF-α/IL-1-activated TAK1/TAB1/NIK (NFκB-inducible kinase signaling cascade inhibited both the adipogenesis and Tro-induced transactivation by PPAR-γ by blocking the receptor binding to the cognate DNA response elements. Furthermore, it has been shown that the noncanonical Wnts are expressed in MSCs and that Wnt-5a was capable to inhibit transactivation by PPAR-γ. Treatment with Wnt5a-activated NLK (nemo-like kinase induced physical association of the endogenous NLK and H3K9 histone methyltransferase (SETDB1 protein complexes with PPAR-γ. This resulted in histoneH3K9 tri-methylation at PPAR-γ target gene promoters. Overall, our data show that cytokines and noncanonical Wnts play a crucial role in modulation of PPAR-γ regulatory function in its target cells and tissues.

  17. The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eYagi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in cancer development is still controversial. MSCs may promote tumor progression through immune modulation, but other tumor suppressive effects of MSCs have also been described. The discrepancy between these results may arise from issues related to different tissue sources, individual donor variability, and injection timing of MSCs. The expression of critical receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR is variable at each time point of treatment, which may also determine the effects of MSCs on tumor progression. However, factors released from malignant cells, as well as surrounding tissues and the vasculature, are still regarded as a black box. Thus, it is still difficult to clarify the specific role of MSCs in cancer development. Whether MSCs support or suppress tumor progression is currently unclear, but it is clear that systemically administered MSCs can be recruited and migrate toward tumors. These findings are important because they can be used as a basis for initiating studies to explore the incorporation of engineered MSCs as novel anti-tumor carriers, for the development of tumor-targeted therapies.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Respond to Hypoxia by Increasing Diacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Kinga; Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Merkely, Béla; Nolta, Jan A; Fierro, Fernando A

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently being tested clinically for a plethora of conditions, with most approaches relying on the secretion of paracrine signals by MSC to modulate the immune system, promote wound healing, and induce angiogenesis. Hypoxia has been shown to affect MSC proliferation, differentiation, survival and secretory profile. Here, we investigate changes in the lipid composition of human bone marrow-derived MSC after exposure to hypoxia. Using mass spectrometry, we compared the lipid profiles of MSC derived from five different donors, cultured for two days in either normoxia (control) or hypoxia (1% oxygen). Hypoxia induced a significant increase of total triglycerides, fatty acids and diacylglycerols (DG). Remarkably, reduction of DG levels using the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor D609 inhibited the secretion of VEGF and Angiopoietin-2, but increased the secretion of interleukin-8, without affecting significantly their respective mRNA levels. Functionally, incubation of MSC in hypoxia with D609 inhibited the potential of the cells to promote migration of human endothelial cells in a wound/scratch assay. Hence, we show that hypoxia induces in MSC an increase of DG that may affect the angiogenic potential of these cells. PMID:26212931

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as skeletal therapeutics - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hamid; Ahsan, Muhammad; Saleem, Zikria; Iqtedar, Mehwish; Islam, Muhammad; Danish, Zeeshan; Khan, Asif Manzoor

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells hold the promise to treat not only several congenital and acquired bone degenerative diseases but also to repair and regenerate morbid bone tissues. Utilizing MSCs, several lines of evidences advocate promising clinical outcomes in skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue repair/regeneration. In this context, both, autologous and allogeneic cell transfer options have been utilized. Studies suggest that MSCs are transplanted either alone by mixing with autogenous plasma/serum or by loading onto repair/induction supportive resorb-able scaffolds. Thus, this review is aimed at highlighting a wide range of pertinent clinical therapeutic options of MSCs in the treatment of skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue regeneration. Additionally, in skeletal disease and regenerative sections, only the early and more recent preclinical evidences are discussed followed by all the pertinent clinical studies. Moreover, germane post transplant therapeutic mechanisms afforded by MSCs have also been conversed. Nonetheless, assertive use of MSCs in the clinic for skeletal disorders and repair is far from a mature therapeutic option, therefore, posed challenges and future directions are also discussed. Importantly, for uniformity at all instances, term MSCs is used throughout the review. PMID:27084089

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells and cancer: friends or enemies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In-Sun; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2014-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate and engraft into tumor sites and exert stimulatory effects on cancer cell growth, invasion and even metastasis through direct and/or indirect interaction with tumor cells. However, these pro-tumorigenic effects of MSCs are still being discovered and may even involve opposing effects. MSCs can be friends or enemies of cancer cells: they may stimulate tumor development by regulating immune surveillance, growth, and angiogenesis. On the other hand, they may inhibit tumor growth by inhibiting survival signaling such as Wnt and Akt pathway. MSCs have also been proposed as an attractive candidate for the delivery of anti-tumor agents, owing to their ability to home into tumor sites and to secrete cytokines. Detailed information about the mutual interactions between tumor cells and MSCs will undoubtedly lead to safer and more effective clinical therapy for tumors. In this article, we summarize a number of findings to provide current information on the potential roles of MSCs in tumor development; we then discuss the therapeutic potential of engineered MSCs to reveal any meaningful clinical applications.

  1. Pattern Recognition Receptors as modulators of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eDelaRosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have differentiation and immunomodulatory properties that make them interesting tools for the treatment of degenerative disorders, allograft rejection or inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Biological properties of MSCs can be modulated by the inflammatory microenvironment they face at the sites of injury or inflammation. Indeed, MSCs do not constitutively exert their immunomodulating properties but have to be primed by inflammatory mediators released from immune cells and inflamed tissue. A polarization process, mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, towards either an anti-inflammatory or a pro-inflammatory phenotype has been described for MSCs. PRRs, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs and NOD-like receptors (NLRs, have been linked to allograft rejection and the perpetuation of chronic inflammatory diseases (e.g. Crohn´s disease, rheumatoid arthritis through the recognition of conserved pathogen-derived components or endogenous ligands (danger signals produced upon injury. Interest in understanding the effects of PRR activation on MSCs has greatly increased in the last few years since MSCs will likely encounter PRRs ligands at sites of injury, and it has been proven that the activation of PRRs in MSCs can modulate their function and therapeutic effect.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Hou, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for end-stage renal disease, but its implementation is limited by organ shortage and immune rejection. Side effects of current immunosuppressive drugs, such as nephrotoxicity, opportunistic infection, and tumorigenic potential, influence long-term graft outcomes. In recent years, continued research and subsequent discoveries concerning the properties and potential utilization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have aroused considerable interest and expectations. Biological characteristics of MSCs, including multi-lineage differentiation, homing potential, paracrine effect and immunomodulation, have opened new horizons for applications in kidney transplantation. However, many studies have shown that the biological activity of MSCs depends on internal inflammatory conditions, and the safety and efficacy of the clinical application of MSCs remain controversial. This review summarizes the findings of a large number of studies and aims to provide an objective viewpoint based on a comprehensive analysis of the presently established benefits and obstacles of implementing MSC-based therapy in kidney transplantation, and to promote its clinical translation. PMID:26852923

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of aortic aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aika; Yamawaki-Ogata; Ryotaro; Hashizume; Xian-Ming; Fu; Akihiko; Usui; Yuji; Narita

    2014-01-01

    An aortic aneurysm(AA) is a silent but life-threatening disease that involves rupture. It occurs mainly in aging and severe atherosclerotic damage of the aortic wall. Even though surgical intervention is effective to prevent rupture, surgery for the thoracic and thoraco-abdom-inal aorta is an invasive procedure with high mortality and morbidity. Therefore, an alternative strategy for treatment of AA is required. Recently, the molecular pathology of AA has been clarified. AA is caused by an imbalance between the synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrices in the aortic wall. Chronic inflam-mation enhances the degradation of matrices directly and indirectly, making control of the chronic inflamma-tion crucial for aneurysmal development. Meanwhile, mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) are known to be ob-tained from an adult population and to differentiate into various types of cells. In addition, MSCs have not only the potential anti-inflammatory and immunosuppres-sive properties but also can be recruited into damagedtissue. MSCs have been widely used as a source for celltherapy to treat various diseases involving graft-versus-host disease, stroke, myocardial infarction, and chronicinflammatory disease such as Crohn’s disease clinically.Therefore, administration of MSCs might be availableto treat AA using anti-inflammatory and immnosup-pressive properties. This review provides a summary ofseveral studies on "Cell Therapy for Aortic Aneurysm"including our recent data, and we also discuss the pos-sibility of this kind of treatment.

  4. mTOR and the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Xiang; Jing Zhao; Geyang Xu; Yin Li; Weizhen Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine protein kinase,belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-related kinase family, which contains a lipid kinase-like domain within their C-terminal region. Recent studies have revealed that mTOR as a critical intracellular molecule can sense the extracellular energy status and regulate the cell growth and proliferation in a variety of cells and tissues. This review summarizes our current understanding about the effects of mTOR on cell differentiation and tissue development, with an emphasis on the lineage determination of mesenchymal stem cells, mTOR can promote adipogenesis in white adipocytes, brown adipocytes, and muscle satellite cells, while rapamycin inhibits the adipogenic function of mTOR. mTOR signaling may function to affect osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, however, rapamycin has been reported to either inhibit or promote osteogenesis. Although the precise mechanism remains unclear, mTOR is indispensable for myogenesis. Depending on the cell type, rapamycin has been reported to inhibit, promote, or have no effect on myogenesis.

  5. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment Induces Specific Alloantibodies in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D. Owens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unknown whether horses that receive allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs injections develop specific humoral immune response. Our goal was to develop and validate a flow cytometric MSC crossmatch procedure and to determine if horses that received allogeneic MSCs in a clinical setting developed measurable antibodies following MSC administration. Methods. Serum was collected from a total of 19 horses enrolled in 3 different research projects. Horses in the 3 studies all received unmatched allogeneic MSCs. Bone marrow (BM or adipose tissue derived MSCs (ad-MSCs were administered via intravenous, intra-arterial, intratendon, or intraocular routes. Anti-MSCs and anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies were detected via flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Results. Overall, anti-MSC antibodies were detected in 37% of the horses. The majority of horses (89% were positive for anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA antibodies prior to and after MSC injection. Finally, there was no correlation between the amount of anti-BSA antibody and the development of anti-MSC antibodies. Conclusion. Anti allo-MSC antibody development was common; however, the significance of these antibodies is unknown. There was no correlation between either the presence or absence of antibodies and the percent antibody binding to MSCs and any adverse reaction to a MSC injection.

  6. Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Jeffrey L; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Gregory, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of research directed toward better understanding of the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) function during rescue and repair of injured organs and tissues. In addition to delineating cell-cell signaling and molecular controls for MSC differentiation, the field has made particular progress in defining several other mechanisms through which administered MSCs can promote tissue rescue/repair. These include: 1) paracrine activity that involves secretion of proteins/peptides and hormones; 2) transfer of mitochondria by way of tunneling nanotubes or microvesicles; and 3) transfer of exosomes or microvesicles containing RNA and other molecules. Improved understanding of MSC function holds great promise for the application of cell therapy and also for the development of powerful cell-derived therapeutics for regenerative medicine. Focusing on these three mechanisms, we discuss MSC-mediated effects on immune cell responses, cell survival, and fibrosis and review recent progress with MSC-based or MSC-derived therapeutics. PMID:27581859

  7. Oxidative stress induces senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandl, Anita [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Meyer, Matthias; Bechmann, Volker [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Nerlich, Michael [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Angele, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Angele@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair in vivo and form an attractive cell source for tissue engineering. Their regenerative potential is impaired by cellular senescence. The effects of oxidative stress on MSCs are still unknown. Our studies were to investigate into the proliferation potential, cytological features and the telomere linked stress response system of MSCs, subject to acute or prolonged oxidant challenge with hydrogen peroxide. Telomere length was measured using the telomere restriction fragment assay, gene expression was determined by rtPCR. Sub-lethal doses of oxidative stress reduced proliferation rates and induced senescent-morphological features and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase positivity. Prolonged low dose treatment with hydrogen peroxide had no effects on cell proliferation or morphology. Sub-lethal and prolonged low doses of oxidative stress considerably accelerated telomere attrition. Following acute oxidant insult p21 was up-regulated prior to returning to initial levels. TRF1 was significantly reduced, TRF2 showed a slight up-regulation. SIRT1 and XRCC5 were up-regulated after oxidant insult and expression levels increased in aging cells. Compared to fibroblasts and chondrocytes, MSCs showed an increased tolerance to oxidative stress regarding proliferation, telomere biology and gene expression with an impaired stress tolerance in aged cells.

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subpopulations: Application for Orthopedic Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pérez-Silos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs continues to progress rapidly. Nevertheless, the field faces several challenges, such as inherent cell heterogeneity and the absence of unique MSCs markers. Due to MSCs’ ability to differentiate into multiple tissues, these cells represent a promising tool for new cell-based therapies. However, for tissue engineering applications, it is critical to start with a well-defined cell population. Additionally, evidence that MSCs subpopulations may also feature distinct characteristics and regeneration potential has arisen. In this report, we present an overview of the identification of MSCs based on the expression of several surface markers and their current tissue sources. We review the use of MSCs subpopulations in recent years and the main methodologies that have addressed their isolation, and we emphasize the most-used surface markers for selection, isolation, and characterization. Next, we discuss the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation from MSCs subpopulations. We conclude that MSCs subpopulation selection is not a minor concern because each subpopulation has particular potential for promoting the differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The accurate selection of the subpopulation advances possibilities suitable for preclinical and clinical studies and determines the safest and most efficacious regeneration process.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell printing and process regulated cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica; Rin Son, Ae; Hamid, Qudus; Wang, Chengyang; Lui, Yigong; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This topical review with original analysis and empirical results compares cell sensitivity to physical stress during printing. The objective is to frame a reproducible causation between printing environment and printed cell morphology, viability and phenotype stability. Content includes: (1) a topical review classifies the overlap between physical stress vectors during printing and mesenchymal stem cell sensitivities. (2) Original flow analysis frames the feasible range of stress duration and intensity during manufacturing. (3) Preliminary empirical results define cell properties as a function of minimum, mean and maximum stress conditions. The review and analytical characterization serve as an essential precursor to interpret surprising empirical results. Results identify key cell properties are stress-dependent and controllable based on printing process parameter selection. Printing's minimum stress condition preserves cell viability. The maximum stress increases heterogeneity of cell response, induces inelastic ultra-structural distortion of the cell membrane and chromatin, and increases necrotic subpopulations post-printing. The review, analysis and preliminary results support the feasibility of modulating cell properties during fabrication by prescriptively tuning the stress environment. The process control over cell morphology, health and the rate of differentiation is both a direct result of strain during printing and an in-direct result of increased distress signaling from necrotic sub-populations. PMID:26696405

  10. [Mesenchymal stem cells - The challenge of a good therapeutic product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (or stromal cells) have been initially characterized in bone marrow, but since, they have been identified in almost every tissue. Their multiple properties, namely differentiative capacity, production of cytokines and trophic molecules, and their immunosuppressive potential undoubtedly offer many therapeutic advantages, both for regenerative medecine or to relieve immune or inflammatory diseases. This is illustrated by the high number (> 100) of ongoing clinical trials with these cells. However, a prerequsite for their safe use in clinics is to guarantee that their production meet the good manufacturing practices, and that the final product is validated by adequate controls. It is thus quite a challenge to move from procedures defined for a research use to large scale production that fits with the national and international rules in terms of standardisation and controls. This underlines the importance of developping interacting networks between research teams, physicians and the industrial R&D departments. This fruitful collaboration will ensure the definition of appropriate and safe procedures for a successful therapeutic application.

  11. Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Microcarrier Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ang-Chen; Ma, Teng

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are considered as a primary candidate in cell therapy owing to their self-renewability, high differentiation capabilities, and secretions of trophic factors. In clinical application, a large quantity of therapeutically competent hMSCs is required that cannot be produced in conventional petri dish culture. Bioreactors are scalable and have the capacity to meet the production demand. Microcarrier suspension culture in stirred-tank bioreactors is the most widely used method to expand anchorage dependent cells in a large scale. Stirred-tank bioreactors have the potential to scale up and microcarriers provide the high surface-volume ratio. As a result, a spinner flask bioreactor with microcarriers has been commonly used in large scale expansion of adherent cells. This chapter describes a detailed culture protocol for hMSC expansion in a 125 mL spinner flask using microcarriers, Cytodex I, and a procedure for cell seeding, expansion, metabolic sampling, and quantification and visualization using microculture tetrazolium (MTT) reagent. PMID:27032950

  12. Generation of Insulin-Producing Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Park, Si-Nae; Suh, Hwal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of current experiment is the generation of insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic source for the cure of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is generally caused by insulin deficiency accompanied by the destruction of islet β-cells. In various trials for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, cell-based gene therapy using stem cells is considered as one of the most useful candidate for the treatment. In this experiment, human mesenchymal stem cells were transduced wi...

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic tool in tissue and organ regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bajek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that offers new opportunities for regeneration of diseased and damaged tissue with the use of many different cell types,including adult stem cells. In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine the most popular are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs isolated from bone marrow. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are a potential source of progenitor cells for osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, skeletal muscles and cardiomyocytes. It has also been shown that these cells can differentiate into ecto- and endodermal cells, e.g. neuronal cells, glial cells, keratinocytes and hepatocytes. The availability of autologous MSCs, their proliferative potential and multilineage differentiation capacity make them an excellent tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The aim of this publication is to present characteristic and biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow.

  14. The Role of Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Skin Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostamzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Context Stem cell therapy, especially in the segment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, is one of the most promising areas of regenerative medicine. Evidence Acquisition According to research conducted by various researchers, Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs have several advantages compared to others sources, in regenerative medicine: WJMSCs are more primary cells; WJMSCs can be easily isolated and without invasive procedures; WJMSCs have no ethical problems; WJMSCs are more cost effective than other sources of MSCs. Also, WJMSCs were demonstrated to express stem cell mesenchymal markers. Results Similar to bone marrow MSCs, WJMSCs express major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I molecules. Conclusions Although the aforementioned challenges must still be addressed, the potential of WJMSCs in skin regenerative clinical treatments is promising.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  16. The Three-Dimensional Collagen Scaffold Improves the Stemness of Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sufang Han; Yannan Zhao; Zhifeng Xiao; Jin Han; Bing Chen; Lei Chen; Jianwu Dai

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show the great promise for the treatment of a variety of diseases because of their self-renewal and multipotential abilities.MSCs are generally cultured on two-dimensional (2D) substrate in vitro.There are indications that they may simultaneously lose their stemness and multipotentiality as the result of prolonged 2D culture.In this study,we used three-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffolds as rat MSCs carrier and compared the properties of MSCs on 3D collagen scaffolds with monolayer cultured MSCs.The results demonstrated that collagen scaffolds were suitable for rat MSCs adherence and proliferation.More importantly,compared to MSCs under 2D culture,3D MSCs significantly maintained higher expression levels of stemness genes (Oct4,Sox2,Rex-1 and Nanog),yielded high frequencies of colony-forming units-fibroblastic (CFU-F) and showed enhanced osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation efficiency upon induction.Thus,3D collagen scaffolds may be beneficial for expanding rat MSCs while maintaining the stem cell properties in vitro.

  17. Dorsal root ganglion neurons promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-xun Zhang; Xiao-rui Jiang; Lei Wang; Fang-min Chen; Lin Xu; Fei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary animal experiments have conifrmed that sensory nerve ifbers promote osteoblast differentiation, but motor nerve ifbers have no promotion effect. Whether sensory neurons pro-mote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains unclear. No results at the cellular level have been reported. In this study, dorsal root ganglion neurons (sensory neurons) from Sprague-Dawley fetal rats were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with green lfuorescent protein 3 weeks after osteo-genic differentiationin vitro, while osteoblasts derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells served as the control group. The rat dorsal root ganglion neurons promoted the prolifera-tion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts at 3 and 5 days of co-culture, as observed by lfuorescence microscopy. The levels of mRNAs for osteogenic differentiation-re-lated factors (including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2) in the co-culture group were higher than those in the control group, as detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Our ifndings indicate that dorsal root ganglion neurons promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which pro-vides a theoretical basis forin vitro experiments aimed at constructing tissue-engineered bone.

  18. CD271 as a marker to identify mesenchymal stem cells fromdiverse sources before culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María álvarez-Viejo; Yolanda Menéndez-Menéndez; Jesús Otero-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells, due to their characteristicsare ideal candidates for cellular therapy. Currently,in culture these cells are defined by their adherenceto plastic, specific surface antigen expression andmultipotent differentiation potential. However, thein vivo identification of mesenchymal stem cells,before culture, is not so well established. Pre-cultureidentification markers would ensure higher purity thanthat obtained with selection based on adherence toplastic. Up until now, CD271 has been described asthe most specific marker for the characterization andpurification of human bone marrow mesenchymal stemcells. This marker has been shown to be specificallyexpressed by these cells. Thus, CD271 has beenproposed as a versatile marker to selectively isolatedand expand multipotent mesenchymal stem cells withboth immunosuppressive and lymphohematopoieticengraftment-promoting properties. This reviewfocuses on this marker, specifically on identificationof mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues.Literature revision suggests that CD271 should not bedefined as a universal marker to identify mesenchymalstem cells before culture from different sources. In thecase of bone marrow or adipose tissue, CD271 couldbe considered a quite suitable marker; however thismarker seems to be inadequate for the isolation ofmesenchymal stem cells from other tissues such asumbilical cord blood or wharton's jelly among others.

  19. In vitro cardiomyogenic potential of human umbilical vein-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiomyocyte loss in the ischemically injured human heart often leads to irreversible defects in cardiac function. Recently, cellular cardiomyoplasty with mesenchymal stem cells, which are multipotent cells with the ability to differentiate into specialized cells under appropriate stimuli, has emerged as a new approach for repairing damaged myocardium. In the present study, the potential of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into cells with characteristics of cardiomyocyte was investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from endothelial/subendothelial layers of the human umbilical cords using a method similar to that of human umbilical vein endothelial cell isolation. Isolated cells were characterized by transdifferentiation ability to adipocytes and osteoblasts, and also with flow cytometry analysis. After treatment with 5-azacytidine, the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were morphologically transformed into cardiomyocyte-like cells and expressed cardiac differentiation markers. During the differentiation, cells were monitored by a phase contrast microscope and their morphological changes were demonstrated. Immunostaining of the differentiated cells for sarcomeric myosin (MF20), desmin, cardiac troponin I, and sarcomeric α-actinin was positive. RT-PCR analysis showed that these differentiated cells express cardiac-specific genes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a cardiomyocyte-like ultrastructure and typical sarcomers. These observations confirm that human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be chemically transformed into cardiomyocytes and can be considered as a source of cells for cellular cardiomyoplasty

  20. Investigation of toxicity of various nanoparticles on cord originated mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ersöz, Melike; Allahverdiyev, Adil

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Some of the commonly used stem cell components are bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood and cord matrix. Isolated cord derived using various methods (cord matrix ) high proliferation potential of mesenchymal stem cells can be applied to toxicity studies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide, titanium silver, silver and zinc on mesencyhmal stem cells obtained from cord matrix in order to be used in tissue engineering.

  1. Isolation and Culture of Rabbit Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionRepair of tissues like bone, cartilage, muscle, etc., is a tough problem in clinical treatment. The recent research show that there are plenty of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myeloid tissue besides hemopoietic stem cells(HSCs).Just as the pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell can give bone marrow tissue excellent hemopoietic ability and maintain the metabolism of, MSCs can give potential repair ability to bone, cartilage tissue injury~([1]).But compared with the HSCs, the content of MSCs in...

  2. Stiffening of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Spheroid Microenvironments Induced by Incorporation of Gelatin Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Baraniak, Priya R.; Cooke, Marissa T; Saeed, Rabbia; Kinney, Melissa A.; Krista M Fridley; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    Culturing multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells as 3D aggregates augments their differentiation potential and paracrine activity. One caveat of stem cell spheroids, though, can be the limited diffusional transport barriers posed by the inherent 3D structure of the multicellular aggregates. In order to circumvent such limitations, polymeric microparticles have been incorporated into stem cell aggregates as a means to locally control the biochemical and physical properties of the 3D microenv...

  3. Effects of Hypoxia and Chitosan on Equine Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Griffon, D. J.; Cho, J.; Wagner, J. R.; Charavaryamath, C.; Wei, J.; Wagoner Johnson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan opens new perspectives in regenerative medicine as it enhances the properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through formation of spheroids. Hypoxia has also been proposed to enhance stemness and survival of MSCs after in vivo implantation. These characteristics are relevant to the development of an off-the-shelf source of allogenic cells for regenerative therapy of tendinopathies. Umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCM-MSCs) offer an abundant source of immature and immunoprivileged stem...

  4. Generation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells through Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Pierre Morel; Marjory Lièvre; Clémence Thomas; George Hinkal; Stéphane Ansieau; Alain Puisieux

    2008-01-01

    Recently, two novel concepts have emerged in cancer biology: the role of so-called "cancer stem cells" in tumor initiation, and the involvement of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the metastatic dissemination of epithelial cancer cells. Using a mammary tumor progression model, we show that cells possessing both stem and tumorigenic characteristics of "cancer stem cells" can be derived from human mammary epithelial cells following the activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The acquis...

  5. Heterogeneous Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Extended Culture in Extracellular Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A Santiago; Pogemiller, Ryan; Ogle, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins (ECMs) guide differentiation of adult stem cells, but the temporal distribution of differentiation (i.e., heterogeneity) in a given population has not been investigated. We tested the effect of individual ECM proteins on lineage commitment of human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) over time. We exposed stem cell populations to ECM proteins representing the primary tissue structures of the body (i.e., collagens type I, III, IV; laminin; and fibron...

  6. Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Contribution of Muse Cells, a Novel Pluripotent Stem Cell Type that Resides in Mesenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Dezawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. MSCs exert trophic, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, and tissue regeneration effects in a variety of tissues and organs, but their entity remains an enigma. Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord as adherent cells, MSCs comprise crude cell populations and are heterogeneous. The specific cells responsible for each effect have not been clarified. The most interesting property of MSCs is that, despite being adult stem cells that belong to the mesenchymal tissue lineage, they are able to differentiate into a broad spectrum of cells beyond the boundary of mesodermal lineage cells into ectodermal or endodermal lineages, and repair tissues. The broad spectrum of differentiation ability and tissue-repairing effects of MSCs might be mediated in part by the presence of a novel pluripotent stem cell type recently found in adult human mesenchymal tissues, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse cells. Here we review recently updated studies of the regenerative effects of MSCs and discuss their potential in regenerative medicine.

  7. Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Contribution of Muse Cells, a Novel Pluripotent Stem Cell Type that Resides in Mesenchymal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakao, Shohei; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Ogura, Fumitaka; Shigemoto, Taeko; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-11-08

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. MSCs exert trophic, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, and tissue regeneration effects in a variety of tissues and organs, but their entity remains an enigma. Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord as adherent cells, MSCs comprise crude cell populations and are heterogeneous. The specific cells responsible for each effect have not been clarified. The most interesting property of MSCs is that, despite being adult stem cells that belong to the mesenchymal tissue lineage, they are able to differentiate into a broad spectrum of cells beyond the boundary of mesodermal lineage cells into ectodermal or endodermal lineages, and repair tissues. The broad spectrum of differentiation ability and tissue-repairing effects of MSCs might be mediated in part by the presence of a novel pluripotent stem cell type recently found in adult human mesenchymal tissues, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells. Here we review recently updated studies of the regenerative effects of MSCs and discuss their potential in regenerative medicine.

  8. Role of Wnt-5a in the Determination of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Preadipocytes*

    OpenAIRE

    Bilkovski, Roman; Schulte, Dominik M.; Oberhauser, Frank; Gomolka, Matthias; Udelhoven, Michael; Hettich, Moritz M.; Roth, Bernhard; Heidenreich, Axel; Gutschow, Christian; Krone, Wilhelm; Laudes, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Increasing adipocyte size as well as numbers is important in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with adipocytes being generated from mesenchymal precursor cells. This process includes the determination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into preadipocytes (PA) and the differentiation of PA into mature fat cells. Although the process of differentiation has been highly investigated, the determination in humans is poorly understood. In this study, we compared human MSC and human commit...

  9. Distribution and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in tumor tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-feng; CHEN Jun; XU Zhi-shun; ZHANG Ke-qin

    2009-01-01

    Background Tumor has an ability to become enriched in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and of guiding MSCs to migrate to tumor tissue. But there are lack of relevant reports on the distribution and differentiation of MSCs in tumor tissue and the effect on tumor growth after MSCs engrafted in tumor tissue. In this study, we observed the distribution of bone marrow MSCs in tumor tissue and the possibility of MSCs differentiating into myofibroblast under the induction of local tumor microenvironment.Methods Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were randomly classified into the control group and the test group. MSCs were isolated and cultured for each animal, vx-2 tumor tissue was transplanted under the bladder mucosa of each animal. One week after the transplantation, the self F2 passage MSCs marked by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole were transplanted into tumor tissue in the test group while only Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-low glucose was infused into the control group. Ultrasonography was performed for each animal 1,2, 3 and 4 week(s) after the vx-2 tumor mass was transplanted. The maximum bladder tumor diameter of each animal was recorded and the mean value of each group was calculated. One animal from each group was sacrificed in the third week and the remaining animals in the fourth week to observe the tumor development. Another animal treated the same as the test group was sacrificed to observe the distribution of MSCs in tumor tissue one week after self MSCs transplantation. Immunofluorescence was used to trace MSCs in tumor tissue. The double labeling immunofluorescence for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin was performed to identify whether the MSCs can differentiate into myofibroblast.Results The ultrasonography showed no tumor mass one week after the vx-2 tumor mass transplantation. The mean maximum tumor diameter of the control group and test group was (0.70±0.14) cm and (0.78±0.14) cm, respectively, and there was no significant difference (t=1

  10. Irradiation sensitivity of human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and combinations thereof are a plethora of possible treatment modalities of head and neck malignancies. Treatment regimens including radiotherapy however put jaws at risk of subsequent osteoradionecrosis. Besides cancer cells, irradiation impacts on all tissue-inherent cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since it is the bone and bone marrow MSC, which contributes to bone regeneration through proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of its progeny, the influence of irradiation on MSC viability and the respective differentiation capacity appears to be critical. However to date, only a few reports picked MSCs role out as a pivotal topic. As a first attempt, we irradiated human bone derived MSC in vitro. With increasing doses the cells self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Notably however, the mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and preadipocytes. Next, the mandibles of Sus scrofa domestica were irradiated with a total dose of 18 Gy. At different time points post radiatio, MSCs were isolated from bone autopsies. In comparison between irradiated and non- irradiated samples, no significant differences regarding the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of tissue specific MSC became apparent Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with doses of 9 and 18 Gy, and MSCs were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and bone irradiated with 9 Gy with respect of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were observed. Cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a greatly reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first two weeks proliferation rates of explanted cells were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed proliferation behaviour comparable to control samples. These results imply that MSCs can cope with irradiation up to relatively high doses

  11. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: adjuvants for human cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robb; Betancur, Monica; Boissel, Laurent; Tuncer, Hande; Cetrulo, Curtis; Klingemann, Hans

    2007-12-01

    The Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord is rich in mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) that fulfill the criteria for MSCs. Here we describe a novel, simple method of obtaining and cryopreserving UC-MSCs by extracting the Wharton's jelly from a small piece of cord, followed by mincing the tissue and cryopreserving it in autologous cord plasma to prevent exposure to allogeneic or animal serum. This direct freezing of cord microparticles without previous culture expansion allows the processing and freezing of umbilical cord blood (UCB) and UC-MSCs from the same individual on the same day on arrival in the laboratory. UC-MSCs produce significant concentrations of hematopoietic growth factors in culture and augment hematopoietic colony formation when co-cultured with UCB mononuclear cells. Mice undergoing transplantation with limited numbers of human UCB cells or CD34(+) selected cells demonstrated augmented engraftment when UC-MSCs were co-transplanted. We also explored whether UC-MSCs could be further manipulated by transfection with plasmid-based vectors. Electroporation was used to introduce cDNA and mRNA constructs for GFP into the UC-MSCs. Transfection efficiency was 31% for cDNA and 90% for mRNA. These data show that UC-MSCs represent a reliable, easily accessible, noncontroversial source of MSCs. They can be prepared and cryopreserved under good manufacturing practices (GMP) conditions and are able to enhance human hematopoietic engraftment in SCID mice. Considering their cytokine production and their ability to be easily transfected with plasmid-based vectors, these cells should have broad applicability in human cell-based therapies. PMID:18022578

  12. Defining human mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Tracey L; Nolan Koloze, Mary T; Lennon, Donald P; Caplan, Arnold I

    2010-01-01

    Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can suppress graft versus host disease (GvHD) and have profound anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity in stroke, infarct, spinal cord injury, meniscus regeneration, tendinitis, acute renal failure, and heart disease in human and animal models of disease. There is significant clinical hMSC variability in efficacy and the ultimate response in vivo. The challenge in hMSC based therapy is defining the efficacy of hMSC in vivo. Models which may provide insight into hMSC bioactivity in vivo would provide a means to distinguish hMSCs for clinical utility. hMSC function has been described as both regenerative and trophic through the production of bioactive factors. The regenerative component involves the multi-potentiality of hMSC progenitor differentiation. The secreted factors generated by the hMSCs are milieu and injury specific providing unique niches for responses in vivo. These bioactive factors are anti-scarring, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic as well as regenerative. Further, from an immunological standpoint, hMSC's can avoid host immune response, providing xenographic applications. To study the in vivo immuno-regulatory effectiveness of hMSCs, we used the ovalbumin challenge model of acute asthma. This is a quick 3 week in vivo pulmonary inflammation model with readily accessible ways of measuring effectiveness of hMSCs. Our data show that there is a direct correlation between the traditional ceramic cube score to hMSCs attenuation of cellular recruitment due to ovalbumin challenge. The results from these studies verify the in vivo immuno-modulator effectiveness of hMSCs and support the potential use of the ovalbumin model as an in vivo model of hMSC potency and efficacy. Our data also support future directions toward exploring hMSCs as an alternative therapeutic for the treatment of airway inflammation associated with asthma. PMID:20974000

  13. Immunological aspects of allogeneic and autologous mesenchymal stem cell therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogduijn, M J; Roemeling-van Rhijn, M; Korevaar, S S; Engela, A U; Weimar, W; Baan, C C

    2011-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential for therapeutic application as an immunomodulatory and regenerative agent. The immunogenicity and survival of MSCs after infusion are, however, not clear and evidence suggests that allogeneic but also autologous MSCs disappear rapidly after infusion. This may be associated with the susceptibility of MSCs to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells, possibly a result of culture-induced stress. In the present study we examined whether NK cell-mediated lysis of MSCs could be inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs. Human MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue and expanded in culture. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were activated with interleukin (IL)-2 (200 U/ml) and IL-15 (10 ng/ml) for 7 days. CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(+) NK cells were then isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and added to europium-labeled MSCs for 4 hr in the presence or absence of immunosuppressive drugs. Lysis of MSCs was determined by spectrophotometric measurement of europium release. Nonactivated NK cells were not capable of lysing MSCs. Cytokine-activated NK cells showed upregulated levels of granzyme B and perforin and efficiently lysed allogeneic and autologous MSCs. Addition of tacrolimus, rapamycin or sotrastaurin to the lysis assay did not inhibit MSC killing. Furthermore, preincubation of activated NK cells with the immunosuppressive drugs for 24 hr before exposure to MSCs had no effect on MSC lysis. Last, addition of the immunosuppressants before and during the activation of NK cells, reduced NK cell numbers but did not affect their capacity to lyse MSCs. We conclude that the immunosuppressive drugs tacrolimus, rapamycin, and sotrastaurin are not capable of inhibiting the lysis of allogeneic and autologous MSCs by activated NK cells. Other approaches to controlling lysis of MSCs should be investigated, as controlling lysis may determine the efficacy of MSC therapy. PMID:21732766

  14. Secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines by mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobroslav; Kyurkchiev; Ivan; Bochev; Ekaterina; Ivanova-Todorova; Milena; Mourdjeva; Tsvetelina; Oreshkova; Kalina; Belemezova; Stanimir; Kyurkchiev

    2014-01-01

    According to the minimal criteria of the International Society of Cellular Therapy, mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) are a population of undifferentiated cells defined by their ability to adhere to plastic surfaces when cultured under standard conditions, express a certain panel of phenotypic markers and can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages when cultured in specific inducing media. In parallel with their major role as undifferentiated cell reserves, MSCs have immunomodulatory functions which are exerted by direct cell-to-cell contacts, secretion of cytokines and/or by a combination of both mechanisms. There are no convincing data about a principal difference in the profile of cytokines secreted by MSCs isolated from different tissue sources, although some papers report some quantitative but not qualitative differences in cytokine secretion. The present review focuses on the basic cytokines secreted by MSCs as described in the literature by which the MSCs exert immunodulatory effects. It should be pointed out that MSCs themselves are objects of cytokine regulation. Hypothetical mechanisms by which the MSCs exert their immunoregulatory effects are also discussed in this review. These mechanisms may either influence the target immune cells directly or indirectly by affecting the activities of predominantly dendritic cells. Chemokines are also discussed as participants in this process by recruiting cells of the immune systems and thus making them targets of immunosuppression. This review aims to present and discuss the published data and the personal experience of the authors regarding cytokines secreted by MSCs and their effects on the cells of the immune system.

  15. Defining human mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennon Donald P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can suppress graft versus host disease (GvHD and have profound anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity in stroke, infarct, spinal cord injury, meniscus regeneration, tendinitis, acute renal failure, and heart disease in human and animal models of disease. There is significant clinical hMSC variability in efficacy and the ultimate response in vivo. The challenge in hMSC based therapy is defining the efficacy of hMSC in vivo. Models which may provide insight into hMSC bioactivity in vivo would provide a means to distinguish hMSCs for clinical utility. hMSC function has been described as both regenerative and trophic through the production of bioactive factors. The regenerative component involves the multi-potentiality of hMSC progenitor differentiation. The secreted factors generated by the hMSCs are milieu and injury specific providing unique niches for responses in vivo. These bioactive factors are anti-scarring, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic as well as regenerative. Further, from an immunological standpoint, hMSC's can avoid host immune response, providing xenographic applications. To study the in vivo immuno-regulatory effectiveness of hMSCs, we used the ovalbumin challenge model of acute asthma. This is a quick 3 week in vivo pulmonary inflammation model with readily accessible ways of measuring effectiveness of hMSCs. Our data show that there is a direct correlation between the traditional ceramic cube score to hMSCs attenuation of cellular recruitment due to ovalbumin challenge. The results from these studies verify the in vivo immuno-modulator effectiveness of hMSCs and support the potential use of the ovalbumin model as an in vivo model of hMSC potency and efficacy. Our data also support future directions toward exploring hMSCs as an alternative therapeutic for the treatment of airway inflammation associated with asthma.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells and collagen patches for anteriorcruciate ligament repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Gantenbein; Neha Gadhari; Samantha CW Chan; Sandro Kohl; Sufian S Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate collagen patches seeded withmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and/or tenocytes (TCs)with regards to their suitability for anterior cruciateligament (ACL) repair.METHODS: Dynamic intraligamentary stabilizationutilizes a dynamic screw system to keep ACL remnantsin place and promote biological healing, supplementedby collagen patches. How these scaffolds interact withcells and what type of benefit they provide has not yetbeen investigated in detail. Primary ACL-derived TCsand human bone marrow derived MSCs were seededonto two different types of 3D collagen scaffolds,Chondro-Gide? (CG) and Novocart? (NC). Cells wereseeded onto the scaffolds and cultured for 7 d eitheras a pure populations or as "premix" containing a 1:1ratio of TCs to MSCs. Additionally, as controls, cells wereseeded in monolayers and in co-cultures on both sidesof porous high-density membrane inserts (0.4 μm). Weanalyzed the patches by real time polymerase chainreaction, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), DNA and hydroxyproline(HYP) content. To determine cell spreadingand adherence in the scaffolds microscopic imagingtechniques, i.e. , confocal laser scanning microscopy(cLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wereapplied.RESULTS: CLSM and SEM imaging analysis confirmedcell adherence onto scaffolds. The metabolic cellactivity revealed that patches promote adherenceand proliferation of cells. The most dramatic increasein absolute metabolic cell activity was measuredfor CG samples seeded with tenocytes or a 1:1 cellpremix. Analysis of DNA content and cLSM imagingalso indicated MSCs were not proliferating as nicely astenocytes on CG. The HYP to GAG ratio significantlychanged for the premix group, resulting from a slightlylower GAG content, demonstrating that the cells aremodifying the underlying matrix. Real-time quantitative Gantenbein B et al . Mesenchymal stem cells for ACL repair polymerase chain reaction data indicated that MSCs

  17. Placenta Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes Confer Plasticity on Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooi, Masayuki; Komaki, Motohiro; Morioka, Chikako; Honda, Izumi; Iwasaki, Kengo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Ayame, Hirohito; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2016-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) has been reported to enhance wound healing. Exosomes contain nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, and function as an intercellular communication vehicle for mediating some paracrine effects. However, the function of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-exo) remains elusive. In this study, we isolated human placenta MSC (PlaMSC)-derived exosomes (PlaMSC-exo) and examined their function in vitro. PlaMSCs were isolated from human term placenta using enzymatic digestion. PlaMSC-exo were prepared from the conditioned medium of PlaMSC (PlaMSC-CM) by ultracentrifugation. The expression of stemness-related genes, such as OCT4 and NANOG, in normal adult human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) after incubation with PlaMSC-exo was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analysis (real-time PCR). The effect of PlaMSC-exo on OCT4 transcription activity was assessed using Oct4-EGFP reporter mice-derived dermal fibroblasts. The stimulating effects of PlaMSC-exo on osteoblastic and adipocyte-differentiation of NHDF were evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Alizarin red S- and oil red O-staining, respectively. The expression of osteoblast- and adipocyte-related genes was also assessed by real-time PCR. The treatment of NHDF with PlaMSC-exo significantly upregulated OCT4 and NANOG mRNA expression. PlaMSC-exo also enhanced OCT4 transcription. The NHDF treated with PlaMSC-exo exhibited osteoblastic and adipocyte-differentiation in osteogenic and adipogenic induction media. PlaMSC-exo increase the expression of OCT4 and NANOG mRNA in fibroblasts. As a result, PlaMSC-exo influence the differentiation competence of fibroblasts to both osteoblastic and adipocyte-differentiation. It shows a new feature of MSCs and the possibility of clinical application of MSC-exo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1658-1670, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26640165

  18. Migration capacity of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells towards glioma in vivo*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cungang Fan; Dongliang Wang; Qingjun Zhang; Jingru Zhou

    2013-01-01

    High-grade glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. The poor prognosis of glioma, combined with a resistance to currently available treatments, necessitates the ment of more effective tumor-selective therapies. Stem cel-based therapies are emerging as novel cel-based delivery vehicle for therapeutic agents. In the present study, we successful y isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s by explant culture. The human umbilical cord senchymal stem cel s were adherent to plastic surfaces, expressed specific surface phenotypes of mesenchymal stem cel s as demonstrated by flow cytometry, and possessed multi-differentiation potentials in permissive induction media in vitro. Furthermore, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s demonstrated excel ent glioma-specific targeting capacity in established rat glioma models after intratumoral injection or contralateral ventricular administration in vivo. The excellent glioma-specific targeting ability and extensive intratumoral distribution of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s indicate that they may serve as a novel cel ular vehicle for delivering the-rapeutic molecules in glioma therapy.

  19. Gene expression profiles of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆柳; 朴英杰; 邹飞

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the gene expression profiles of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells.Methods Total RNA extracted from human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells underwent reverse transcription, and the products were labeled with α-32P dCTP. The cDNA probes of total RNA were hybridized to cDNA microarray with 1176 genes, and then the signals were analyzed by AtlasImage analysis software Version 1.01a.Results Fifteen genes associated with cell proliferation and signal transduction were up-regulated, and one gene that takes part in cell-to-cell adhesion was down-regulated in tendon cells.Conclusion The 15 up-regulated and one down-regulated genes may be beneficial to the orientational differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into tendon cells.

  20. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Yang; Yanxiang Wu; Xinping Liu; Yifeng Xu; Naiwu Lü; Yibin Zhang; Hongmei Wang; Xin Lü; Jiping Cui; Jinxu Zhou; Hong Shan

    2011-01-01

    Due to their relative abundance, stable biological properties and excellent reproductive activity,umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells have previously been utilized for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which is a muscular atrophy disease. Three patients who were clinically and pathologically diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were transplanted with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by intravenous infusion, in combination with multi-point intramuscular injection. They were followed up for 12 months after cell transplantation. Results showed that clinical symptoms significantly improved, daily living activity and muscle strength were enhanced,the sero-enzyme, electromyogram, and MRI scans showed improvement, and dystrophin was expressed in the muscle cell membrane. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of a muscle biopsy revealed that muscle fibers were well arranged, fibrous degeneration was alleviated, and fat infiltration was improved. These pieces of evidence suggest that umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can be considered as a new regimen for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  1. Characterization of neural stemness status through the neurogenesis process for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Maeda H; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M; Al-Juboory, Ahmad Adnan; Yaseen, Nahi Y

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro isolation, identification, differentiation, and neurogenesis characterization of the sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated to produce two types of cells in culture: neural cells and neural stem cells (NSCs). These types of stem cells were used as successful sources for the further treatment of central nervous system defects and injuries. The mouse bone marrow MSCs were used as the source of the stem cells in this study. β-Mercaptoethanol (BME) was used as the main inducer of the neurogenesis pathway to induce neural cells and to identify NSCs. Three types of neural markers were used: nestin as the immaturation stage marker, neurofilament light chain as the early neural marker, and microtubule-associated protein 2 as the maturation marker through different time intervals in the neurogenesis process starting from the MSCs, (as undifferentiated cells), NSCs, production stages, and toward neuron cells (as differentiated cells). The results of different exposure times to BME of the neural markers analysis done by immunocytochemistry and real time-polymerase chain reaction helped us to identify the exact timing for the neural stemness state. The results showed that the best exposure time that may be used for the production of NSCs was 6 hours. The best maintenance media for NSCs were also identified. Furthermore, we optimized exposure to BME with different times and concentrations, which could be an interesting way to modulate specific neuronal differentiation and obtain autologous neuronal phenotypes. This study was able to characterize NSCs in culture under differentiation for neurogenesis in the pathway of the neural differentiation process by studying the expressed neural genes and the ability to maintain these NSCs in culture for further differentiation in thousands of functional neurons for the treatment of brain and spinal cord injuries and defects. PMID:27143939

  2. Notch signaling: targeting cancer stem cells and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza I

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ingrid Espinoza,1,2 Radhika Pochampally,1,2 Fei Xing,1 Kounosuke Watabe,1,3 Lucio Miele1,4 1Cancer Institute, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Microbiology, 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in cell fate control during development, stem cell self-renewal, and postnatal tissue differentiation. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, the biology of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT have been reported. This review describes the role of Notch in the “stemness” program in cancer cells and in metastases, together with a brief update on the Notch inhibitors currently under investigation in oncology. These agents may be useful in targeting cancer stem cells and to reverse the EMT process. Keywords: Notch signaling, EMT, cancer stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, metastases, Notch inhibitors

  3. Towards Personalized Regenerative Cell Therapy: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Bolund, Lars; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with the capacity of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, and can be isolated from several adult tissues. However, isolating MSCs from adult tissues for cell therapy is hampered by the invasive procedure, the rarity of the cells and their attenuated proliferation capacity when cultivated and expanded in vitro. Human MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-MSCs) have now evolved as a promising alternative cell source for MSCs and regenerative medicine. Several groups, including ours, have reported successful derivation of functional iPSC-MSCs and applied these cells in MSC-based therapeutic testing. Still, the current experience and understanding of iPSC-MSCs with respect to production methods, safety and efficacy are primitive. In this review, we highlight the methodological progress in iPSC-MSC research, describing the importance of choosing the right sources of iPSCs, iPSC reprogramming methods, iPSC culture systems, embryoid body intermediates, pathway inhibitors, basal medium, serum, growth factors and culture surface coating. We also highlight some progress in the application of iPSC-MSCs in direct cell therapy, tissue engineering and gene therapy.

  4. Stem cells for hepatic regeneration: the role of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Banas, Agnieszka; Hagiwara, Keitaro; Iwaguro, Hideki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2010-06-01

    Severe hepatic dysfunctions including hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma are life-threatening conditions for which effective medical treatments are needed. With the only effective treatment to date being orthotropic liver transplantation, alternative approaches are needed because of the limited number of donors and the possibility of immune-rejection. One alternative is regenerative medicine, which holds promise for the development of a cell-based therapy enabling hepatic regeneration through transplantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) or hepatocyte-like cells generated from AT-MSCs. When compared with embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, the use of AT-MSCs as regenerative cells would be advantageous in regard to ethical and safety issues since AT-MSCs are somatic cells and have the potential to be used without in vitro culture. These autologous cells are immuno-compatible and exhibit controlled differentiation and multi-functional abilities and do not undergo post-transplantation rejection or unwanted differentiation such as formation of teratomas. AT-MSC-based therapies may provide a novel approach for hepatic regeneration and hepatocyte differentiation and thereby support hepatic function in diseased individuals.

  5. Plasticity between Epithelial and Mesenchymal States Unlinks EMT from Metastasis-Enhancing Stem Cell Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerling, Evelyne; Seinstra, Daniëlle; de Wit, Elzo; Kester, Lennart; van der Velden, Daphne; Maynard, Carrie; Schäfer, Ronny; van Diest, Paul; Voest, Emile; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Vrisekoop, Nienke; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Forced overexpression and/or downregulation of proteins regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to alter metastasis by changing migration and stem cell capacity of tumor cells. However, these manipulations artificially keep cells in fixed states, while in vivo cells may adapt transient and reversible states. Here, we have tested the existence and role of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in metastasis of mammary tumors without artificially modifying EMT regulators. In these tumors, we found by intravital microscopy that the motile tumor cells have undergone EMT, while their epithelial counterparts were not migratory. Moreover, we found that epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity renders any EMT-induced stemness differences, as reported previously, irrelevant for metastatic outgrowth, because mesenchymal cells that arrive at secondary sites convert to the epithelial state within one or two divisions, thereby obtaining the same stem cell potential as their arrived epithelial counterparts. We conclude that epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity supports migration but additionally eliminates stemness-enhanced metastatic outgrowth differences. PMID:26947068

  6. Plasticity between Epithelial and Mesenchymal States Unlinks EMT from Metastasis-Enhancing Stem Cell Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Beerling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forced overexpression and/or downregulation of proteins regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT has been reported to alter metastasis by changing migration and stem cell capacity of tumor cells. However, these manipulations artificially keep cells in fixed states, while in vivo cells may adapt transient and reversible states. Here, we have tested the existence and role of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in metastasis of mammary tumors without artificially modifying EMT regulators. In these tumors, we found by intravital microscopy that the motile tumor cells have undergone EMT, while their epithelial counterparts were not migratory. Moreover, we found that epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity renders any EMT-induced stemness differences, as reported previously, irrelevant for metastatic outgrowth, because mesenchymal cells that arrive at secondary sites convert to the epithelial state within one or two divisions, thereby obtaining the same stem cell potential as their arrived epithelial counterparts. We conclude that epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity supports migration but additionally eliminates stemness-enhanced metastatic outgrowth differences.

  7. Mesenchymal traits are selected along with stem features in breast cancer cells grown as mammospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgna, Silvia; Armellin, Michela; di Gennaro, Alessandra; Maestro, Roberta; Santarosa, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that invasive properties of breast cancers rely on gain of mesenchymal and stem features, which has suggested that the dual targeting of these phenotypes may represent an appealing therapeutic strategy. It is known that the fraction of stem cells can be enriched by culturing breast cancer cells as mammospheres (MS), but whether these pro-stem conditions favor also the expansion of cells provided of mesenchymal features is still undefined. In the attempt to shed light on this issue, we compared the phenotypes of a panel of 10 breast cancer cell lines representative of distinct subtypes (luminal, HER2-positive, basal-like and claudin-low), grown in adherent conditions and as mammospheres. Under MS-proficient conditions, the increment in the fraction of stem-like cells was associated to upregulation of the mesenchymal marker Vimentin and downregulation of the epithelial markers expressed by luminal cells (E-cadherin, KRT18, KRT19, ESR1). Luminal cells tended also to upregulate the myoepithelial marker CD10. Taken together, our data indicate that MS-proficient conditions do favor mesenchymal/myoepithelial features, and indicate that the use of mammospheres as an in vitro tumor model may efficiently allow the exploitation of therapeutic approaches aimed at targeting aggressive tumors that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PMID:23095640

  8. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  9. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  10. Effects of high glucose on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yu-Ming; Schilling, Tatjana; Benisch, Peggy;

    2007-01-01

    High glucose (HG) concentrations impair cellular functions and induce apoptosis. Exposition of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to HG was reported to reduce colony forming activity and induce premature senescence. We characterized the effects of HG on human MSC in vitro using telomerase-immortalized ......High glucose (HG) concentrations impair cellular functions and induce apoptosis. Exposition of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to HG was reported to reduce colony forming activity and induce premature senescence. We characterized the effects of HG on human MSC in vitro using telomerase...

  11. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jindou Jiang; Xingyao Bu; Meng Liu; Peixun Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Results from the present study demonstrated that transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the lesion site in rat brain significantly ameliorated brain tissue pathological changes and brain edema, attenuated glial cell proliferation, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. In addition, the number of cells double-labeled for 5-bromodeoxyuridine/glial fibrillary acidic protein and cells expressing nestin increased. Finally, blood vessels were newly generated, and the rats exhibited improved motor and cognitive functions. These results suggested that transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promoted brain remodeling and improved neurological functions following traumatic brain injury.

  12. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  13. Instant stem cell therapy: Characterization and concentration of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kasten

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In regenerative medicine, there is an approach to avoid expansion of the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC before implantation. The aim of this study was to compare methods for instant MSC therapy by use of a portable, automatic and closed system centrifuge that allows for the concentration of MSCs. The main outcome measures were the amount of MSCs per millilitre of bone marrow (BM, clusters of differentiation (CD, proliferation and differentiation capacities of the MSC. A volume reduction protocol was compared to the traditional laboratory methods of isolation using a Ficoll gradient and native BM. Fifty millilitres of BM were obtained from haematologically healthy male Caucasians (n=10, age 8 to 49 years. The number of colony forming units-fibroblast (CFU-F/ml BM was highest in the centrifuge volume reduction protocol, followed by the native BM (not significant, the centrifuge Ficoll (p=0.042 and the manual Ficoll procedure (p=0.001. The MSC of all groups could differentiate into the mesenchymal lineages without significant differences between the groups. The CD pattern was identical for all groups: CD13+; CD 44+; CD73 +; CD90+; CD105+; HLA-A,B,C+; CD14-; CD34-; CD45-; CD271-; HLA-DR-. In a further clinical pilot study (n=5 with 297 ml BM (SD 18.6, the volume reduction protocol concentrated the MSC by a factor of 14: there were 1.08 x 102 MSC/ml BM (standard deviation (SD 1.02 x 102 before concentration, 14.8 x 102 MSC/ ml BM (SD 12.4 x 102 after concentration, and on average 296 x 102 MSC (SD 248.9 x 102, range 86.4-691.5 x 102 were available for MSC therapy. The volume reduction protocol of the closed centrifuge allows for the highest concentration of the MSC, and therefore, is a promising candidate for instant stem cell therapy.

  14. Overexpression of microRNA-124 promotes the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Defeng; Chen, Yi; Han, Yaxin; Lv, Chen; Tu, Guanjun

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important regulatory role in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. In this study, we examined the effects of miRNA-124 (miR-124) overexpression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, we focused on the effect of overexpression on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neurons. First, we used GeneChip technology to analyze the expression of miRNAs in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, neural...

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Is Mesenchymal Stem Cell Personalized Therapy the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Siniscalco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. They are enigmatic conditions that have their origins in the interaction of genes and environmental factors. ASDs are characterized by dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, in addition to repetitive and stereotypic verbal and nonverbal behaviours. Immune dysfunction has been confirmed with autistic children. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis or curative therapy presently available. Indeed, ASDs are still untreatable. Available treatments for autism can be divided into behavioural, nutritional, and medical approaches, although no defined standard approach exists. Nowadays, stem cell therapy represents the great promise for the future of molecular medicine. Among the stem cell population, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show probably best potential good results in medical research. Due to the particular immune and neural dysregulation observed in ASDs, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation could offer a unique tool to provide better resolution for this disease.

  16. Therapeutic Use of Stem Cell Transplantation for Cell Replacement or Cytoprotective Effect of Microvesicle Released from Mesenchymal Stem Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moonhwan; Ban, Taehyun; Rhim, Taiyoun

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and severe type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), and which is currently no method was developed to restore normal structure and function. There are several reports on therapeutic effects of adult stem cell transplantations in animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is known about how mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) can repair the IPF. In this study, we try to provide the evidence to show that transplanted mesenchymal stem cells directly replace fibrosis with normal lung cells using IPF model mice. As results, transplanted MSC successfully integrated and differentiated into type II lung cell which express surfactant protein. In the other hand, we examine the therapeutic effects of microvesicle treatment, which were released from mesenchymal stem cells. Though the therapeutic effects of MV treatment is less than that of MSC treatment, MV treat-ment meaningfully reduced the symptom of IPF, such as collagen deposition and inflammation. These data suggest that stem cell transplantation may be an effective strategy for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis via replacement and cytoprotective effect of microvesicle released from MSCs. PMID:24598998

  17. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles label human bone marrow and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yan; Zhang De-qing; Chen Le; Wang Jian; Zhang Xue; Hou Yan; Bi Xiao-juan; Yang Rong; Hu An-hua

    2012-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Nowadays, it is becoming more and more important to optimize safety of human derived cel s, label cel s efficiently and track cel s after cel s transplantation both in basic research and clinic application. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cel viability, labeling efficiency and imaging effect of the T2* weight image (WI) magnetic resonance (MR) between the human bone marrow and umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s labeled with the superparamaganetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as wel as to optimize their treatment efficiency. METHODS: The third generation of human bone marrow and umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s were cultured, and labeled with 5-30 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ and protamine sulfate. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The viability of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cel s was similar with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s (P >0.05). There was no significant difference of labeling rate between the bone marrow msenchymal stem cel s labeled with 5-30 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ(P >0.05); while there was significant difference of labeling rate between the umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s labeled with 5 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ and 20 and 30 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ(P <0.05); the positive labeling rate of umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s was lower than that of bone marrow msenchymal stem cel s after labeled with 10 mg/L FeridexⅣ(P <0.05). When two sources of cel s were labeled with Feridex Ⅳ more than 2 mg/L, the iron oxide particles were found in the cel suspension and could not be removed by elution and filtration. The signal intensity from 3.0T MR GRE T2*WI scan was decreased with the increasing of Feridex Ⅳ concentration in both cel types. It is safe and effective to label the two tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cel s with 10 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ-protamine sulfate complex, and can be observed with T2*WI MR.

  18. Stemness gene expression profile analysis in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ming-Yao; Pang, Wei; Jiang, Li-Hong; Liu, Yun-Hong; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Xie, Yan-Hua; Yu, Hai-Dong; Hou, Zong-Liu

    2012-06-01

    Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have several advantages for clinical therapy: the material is easily obtainable, the donation procedure is painless and there is low risk of viral contamination. UC-MSCs play important roles in tissue regeneration, tissue damage repair, autoimmune disease and graft-versus-host disease. In this study, we investigated the normal mRNA expression profile of UC-MSCs, and analyzed the candidate proteins responsible for the signaling pathway that may affect the differentiation characteristics of UC-MSCs. UC-MSCs were isolated by mincing UC samples into fragments and placing them in growth medium in a six-well plate. The immunophenotype characteristics and multilineage differentiation potential of the UC-MSCs were measured by flow cytometry and immunohistochemical assays. In addition, the pathway-focused gene expression profile of UC-MSCs was compared with those of normal or tumorous cells by realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We successfully isolated and cultured UC-MSCs and analyzed the appropriate surface markers and their capacity for osteogenic, adipogenic and neural differentiation. In total, 168 genes focusing on signal pathways were examined. We found that the expression levels of some genes were much higher or lower than those of control cells, either normal or tumorous. UC-MSCs exhibit a unique mRNA expression profile of pathway-focused genes, especially some stemness genes, which warrants further investigation. PMID:22728706

  19. Chinese preparation Xuesaitong promotes the mobilization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rats with cerebral infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-xia Zhang; Jin-sheng Zhang; Mei-mei Du; Xiao-ya Wang; Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    After cerebral ischemia, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are mobilized and travel from the bone marrow through peripheral circulation to the focal point of ischemia to initiate tissue regeneration. However, the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells mobilized into peripheral circulation is not enough to exert therapeutic effects, and the method by which blood circulation is promoted to remove blood stasis influences stem cell homing. The main ingredient of Xuesaitong capsules is Pana...

  20. All-trans retinoic acid promotes smooth muscle cell differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhong-yuan; Ying LI; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells, an attractive resource for regenerative medicine. Accumulating evidence suggests that all-trans retinoic acid plays a key role in the development and differentiation of smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into smooth muscle cells upon the treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. All-trans retinoic acid increased t...

  1. Expression of mesenchymal stem cell marker CD90 on dermal sheath cells of the anagen hair follicle in canine species

    OpenAIRE

    Gargiulo, A.M.; Pedini, V.; C. Dall’Aglio; Ceccarelli, P.; L. Pascucci; F Mercati

    2009-01-01

    The dermal sheath (DS) of the hair follicle is comprised by fibroblast-like cells and extends along the follicular epithelium, from the bulb up to the infundibulum. From this structure, cells with stem characteristics were isolated: they have a mesenchymal origin and express CD90 protein, a typical marker of mesenchymal stem cells. It is not yet really clear in which region of hair follicle these cells are located but some experimental evidence suggests that dermal stem cells are localized pr...

  2. Visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rui-ping Zhang; Cheng Xu; Yin Liu; Jian-ding Li; Jun Xie

    2015-01-01

    An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T 7-8 . Superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord via the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic field was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to...

  3. Pelvic Organ Distribution of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected Intravenously after Simulated Childbirth Injury in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Cruz; Charuspong Dissaranan; Anne Cotleur; Matthew Kiedrowski; Marc Penn; Margot Damaser

    2011-01-01

    The local route of stem cell administration utilized presently in clinical trials for stress incontinence may not take full advantage of the capabilities of these cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate if intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) home to pelvic organs after simulated childbirth injury in a rat model. Female rats underwent either vaginal distension (VD) or sham VD. All rats received 2 million GFP-labeled MSCs intravenously 1 hour after injury. Four or 10 days...

  4. Cardiogenic and Myogenic Gene Expression in Mesenchymal Stem Cells After 5-Azacytidine Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aungkura Supokawej; Pakpoom Kheolamai; Kuneerat Nartprayut; Yaowalak U-pratya; Sirikul Manochantr; Methichit Chayosumrit; Surapol Issaragrisil

    2013-01-01

    Objective: 5-Azacytidine is a hypomethylating agent that is used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. This histone modifier is widely employed and plays a nonspecific role in influencing the differentiation capability of stem cells. The ability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into cardiomyocyte- and myocyte-like cells after exposure to 3 different doses of 5-azacytidine has been evaluated and compared. The aim of the study was to optimize the effective dose of...

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Immune-Mediated Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Christina Kastrinaki; Konstantia Pavlaki; Batsali, Aristea K.; Elisavet Kouvidi; Irene Mavroudi; Charalampos Pontikoglou; Papadaki, Helen A

    2013-01-01

    Immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) are characterized by ineffective marrow haemopoiesis and subsequent peripheral cytopenias. Ineffective haemopoiesis is the result of a complex marrow deregulation including genetic, epigenetic, and immune-mediated alterations in haemopoietic stem/progenitor cells, as well as abnormal haemopoietic-to-stromal cell interactions, with abnormal release of haemopoietic growth factors, chemokines, and inhibitors. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MS...

  6. Mesenchymal and haematopoietic stem cells form a unique bone marrow niche

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Michurina, Tatyana V.; Ferraro, Francesca; Amin R Mazloom; MacArthur, Ben D; Lira, Sergio A.; Scadden, David T.; Ma’ayan, Avi; Enikolopov, Grigori N.; Frenette, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular constituents forming the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow are unclear, with studies implicating osteoblasts, endothelial and perivascular cells. Here we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), identified using nestin expression, constitute an essential HSC niche component. Nestin+ MSCs contain all the bone-marrow colony-forming-unit fibroblastic activity and can be propagated as non-adherent ‘mesenspheres’ that can self-renew and expand in serial tr...

  7. 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini; Mohammad Farahmandnia; Zahra Razi; Somayeh Delavarifar; Benafsheh Shakibajahromi

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy using stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia has been reported. However, it remains controversial regarding the optimal time for cell transplantation and the transplantation route. Rat models of cerebral ischemia were established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 1, 12 hours, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after cerebral ischemia, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected via the tail vein. At 28 days after cerebral ischemia, rat neurological function was eva...

  8. BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS ARE PROGENITORS IN VITRO FOR INNER EAR HAIR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Sang-Jun; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells have been demonstrated in the inner ear but they do not spontaneously divide to replace damaged sensory cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow have been reported to differentiate into multiple lineages including neurons, and we therefore asked whether MSCs could generate sensory cells. Overexpression of the prosensory transcription factor, Math1, in sensory epithelial precursor cells induced expression of myosin VIIa, espin, Brn3c, p27Kip, and jagged2, indicating diff...

  9. Stem cells of the suture mesenchyme in craniofacial bone development, repair and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jeong, Jaeim; Sheu, Tzong-jen; Hsu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The suture mesenchyme serves as a growth centre for calvarial morphogenesis and has been postulated to act as the niche for skeletal stem cells. Aberrant gene regulation causes suture dysmorphogenesis resulting in craniosynostosis, one of the most common craniofacial deformities. Owing to various limitations, especially the lack of suture stem cell isolation, reconstruction of large craniofacial bone defects remains highly challenging. Here we provide the first evidence for an Axin2-expressin...

  10. Tissue-based Identification of Stem Cells and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Talha; Kleer, Celina G.

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists have recognized breast cancer heterogeneity for decades, but its causes were unknown. In recent years, basic science and translational studies have demonstrated that cancer stem cells contribute to the heterogeneous histological and functional characteristics of breast cancer. Even more recently, the ability of breast epithelial cells to undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) transition has been linked to the acquisition of stem cells properties, and enhanced tumor invasion, ...

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Angiogenesis: Potencial Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Merino-González, Consuelo; Zuñiga, Felipe A.; Escudero, Carlos; Ormazabal, Valeska; Reyes, Camila; Nova-Lamperti, Estefanía; Salomón, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells that are able to differentiate into multiple specialized cell types including osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSCs exert different functions in the body and have recently been predicted to have a major clinical/therapeutic potential. However, the mechanisms of self-renewal and tissue regeneration are not completely understood. It has been shown that the biological effect depends mainly on its paracrine action. Furthermor...

  12. Advances in mesenchymal stem cell-based strategies for cartilage repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Pei, Ming; Hui, James Hoi Po

    2014-10-01

    Significant research efforts have been undertaken in the last decade in the development of stem cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. Among the various stem cell sources, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) demonstrate great promise and clinical efficacy in cartilage regeneration. With a deeper understanding of stem cell biology, new therapeutics and new bioengineering approaches have emerged and showed potential for further developments. Of note, there has been a paradigm shift in applying MSCs for tissue regeneration from the use of stem cells for transplantation to the use of stem cell-derived matrix and secretome components as therapeutic tools and agents for cartilage regeneration. In this review, we will discuss the emerging role of MSCs in cartilage regeneration and the most recent advances in development of stem cell-based therapeutics for cartilage regeneration.

  13. 2012478 Biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and JAK2 mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田竑

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) and detect JAK2 mutation in BMSCs from myeloproliferative neoplasms(MPN) patients. Methods JAK2 V617F mutation and exon 12 mutation in 70 MPN patients’ blood or bone marrow samples were detected.

  14. Quantifying in vitro growth and metabolism kinetics of human mesenchymal stem cells using a mathematical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higuera-Sierra, G.; Schop, D.; Janssen, F.; Dijkhuizen-Radersma, R.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Better quantitative understanding of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) metabolism is needed to identify, understand, and subsequently optimize the processes in expansion of hMSCs in vitro. For this purpose, we analyzed growth of hMSCs in vitro with a mathematical model based on the mass balances

  15. Quantifying In Vitro Growth and Metabolism Kinetics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using a Mathematical Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higuera, Gustavo; Schop, Deborah; Janssen, Frank; Dijkhuizen-Radersma, van Riemke; Boxtel, van Ton; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.

    2009-01-01

    Better quantitative understanding of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) metabolism is needed to identify, understand, and subsequently optimize the processes in expansion of hMSCs in vitro. For this purpose, we analyzed growth of hMSCs in vitro with a mathematical model based on the mass balances

  16. Enhanced adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Until now, the isolation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bBM-MSCs) have not been established, which prompted us to optimize the differentiation protocol for bBM-MSCs. In this study, bBM-MSCs were freshly isolated from three 6-month-old cattle and used for p...

  17. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates axonal injur y in stroke rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Xu; Shiwei Du; Xinguang Yu; Xiao Han; Jincai Hou; Hao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural functional recovery after stroke, but the neurorestorative mechanisms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that functional recovery of myelinated axons may be one of underlying mechanisms. In this study, an ischemia/reperfusion rat model was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion method. Rats were used to test the hypothesis that in-travenous transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the femoral vein could exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia via a mechanism associated with the ability to attenuate axonal injury. The results of behavioral tests, infarction volume analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that cerebral ischemia caused severe damage to the myelin sheath and axons. After rats were intravenously transplanted with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the levels of axon and myelin sheath-related proteins, including mi-crotubule-associated protein 2, myelin basic protein, and growth-associated protein 43, were elevated, infarct volume was decreased and neural function was improved in cerebral ischemic rats. These ifndings suggest that intravenously transplanted human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote neural function. Possible mechanisms underlying these beneifcial effects in-clude resistance to demyelination after cerebral ischemia, prevention of axonal degeneration, and promotion of axonal regeneration.

  18. Interaction between adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.U. Engela (Anja); C.C. Baan (Carla); A. Peeters (Anna); W. Weimar (Willem); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immunosuppressive capabilities, which have evoked interest in their application as cell therapy in transplant patients. So far it has been unclear whether allogeneic MSCs and host regulatory T-cells (Tregs) functionally influence each other. We inves

  19. Intranasal mesenchymal stem cell treatment for neonatal brain damage : long-term cognitive and sensorimotor improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donega, Vanessa; van Velthoven, Cindy T J; Nijboer, Cora H; van Bel, Frank; Kas, Martien J H; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration via the intranasal route could become an effective therapy to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. We analyzed long-term effects of intranasal MSC treatment on lesion size, sensorimotor and cognitive behavior, and determined the therapeutic wi

  20. Characterization of lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive adipocytes differentiated from immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prawitt, Janne; Niemeier, Andreas; Kassem, Moustapha;

    2008-01-01

    There is a great demand for cell models to study human adipocyte function. Here we describe the adipogenic differentiation of a telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell line (hMSC-Tert) that maintains numerous features of terminally differentiated adipocytes even after prolonged...

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Protection and Repair of Injured Vital Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poll, D.; Parekkadan, B.; Rinkes, I. H. M. Borel; Tilles, A. W.; Yarmush, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been a paradigm shift in what is considered to be the therapeutic promise of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in diseases of vital organs. Originally, research focused on MSCs as a source of regenerative cells by differentiation of transplanted cells into lost cell types. It is now c

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Vocal Fold Scarring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Vibe Lindeblad; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Jensen, David H;

    2016-01-01

    the biomechanical properties of injured vocal folds. This study evaluated the biomechanical effects of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of vocal fold scarring. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched. METHODS: Controlled studies that assessed...

  3. Airway Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevents Arrested Alveolar Growth in Neonatal Lung Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    van Haaften, Timothy; Byrne, Roisin; Bonnet, Sebastien; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Akabutu, John; Bouchentouf, Manaf; Rey-Parra, Gloria J.; Galipeau, Jacques; Haromy, Alois; Eaton, Farah; Chen, Ming; Hashimoto, Kyoko; Abley, Doris; Korbutt, Greg; Archer, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and emphysema are characterized by arrested alveolar development or loss of alveoli; both are significant global health problems and currently lack effective therapy. Bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) prevent adult lung injury, but their therapeutic potential in neonatal lung disease is unknown.

  4. Cerebral transplantation of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells improves cellular pathology after experimental traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heile, Anna M B; Wallrapp, Christine; Klinge, Petra M;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: "Naked" human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are neuro-protective in experimental brain injury (TBI). In a controlled cortical impact (CCI) rat model, we investigated whether encapsulated MSC (eMSC) act similarly, and whether efficacy is augmented using cells transfected to produce the neu...

  5. Recent advances in mesenchymal stem cell immunomodulation: the role of microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierabracci, Alessandra; Del Fattore, Andrea; Luciano, Rosa; Muraca, Marta; Teti, Anna; Muraca, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are the most widely used cell phenotype for therapeutic applications, the main reasons being their well-established abilities to promote regeneration of injured tissues and to modulate immune responses. Efficacy was reported in the treatment of several animal models of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and, in clinical settings, for the management of disorders such as GVHD, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The effects of mesenchymal stem cells are believed to be largely mediated by paracrine signals, and several secreted molecules have been identified as contributors to the net biological effect. Recently, it has been recognized that bioactive molecules can be shuttled from cell to cell packed in microvesicles, tiny portions of cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane. Coding and noncoding RNAs are also carried in such microvesicles, transferring relevant biological activity to target cells. Several reports indicate that the regenerative effect of mesenchymal stem cells can be reproduced by microvesicles isolated from their culture medium. More recent evidence suggests that the immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells are also at least partially mediated by secreted microvesicles. These findings allow better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell interaction and may have interesting implications for the development of novel therapeutic tools in place of the parent cells.

  6. Tumour microenvironment and radiation response in sarcomas originating from tumourigenic human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Andrea, Filippo Peder; Safwat, Akmal Ahmed; Burns, Jorge S.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Resistance to radiation therapy remains a serious impediment to cancer therapy. We previously reported heterogeneity for clonogenic survival when testing in vitro radiation resistance among single cell derived clones from a human mesenchymal cancer stem cell model (hMSC). Here we aimed...

  7. The effect of marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄坤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the possible mechanisms of marrow mesenchymal stem cells(MSC) in therapy of bleomycin(BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Methods Fifty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group,a BLM group and a MSC group. The control group receivel intratracheal normal

  8. Stiffening of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Spheroid Microenvironments Induced by Incorporation of Gelatin Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniak, Priya R.; Cooke, Marissa T.; Saeed, Rabbia; Kinney, Melissa A.; Fridley, Krista M.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    Culturing multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells as 3D aggregates augments their differentiation potential and paracrine activity. One caveat of stem cell spheroids, though, can be the limited diffusional transport barriers posed by the inherent 3D structure of the multicellular aggregates. In order to circumvent such limitations, polymeric microparticles have been incorporated into stem cell aggregates as a means to locally control the biochemical and physical properties of the 3D microenvironment. However, the introduction of biomaterials to the 3D stem cell microenvironment could alter the mechanical forces sensed by cells within aggregates, which in turn could impact various cell behaviors and overall spheroid mechanics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of biomaterial incorporation within mesenchymal stem cell spheroids on aggregate structure and mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrate that although gelatin microparticle incorporation results in similar multi-cellular organization within human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids, the introduction of gelatin materials significantly impacts spheroid mechanical properties. The marked differences in spheroid mechanics induced by microparticle incorporation may hold major implications for in vitro directed differentiation strategies and offer a novel route to engineer the mechanical properties of tissue constructs ex vivo. PMID:22658155

  9. In vitro mesenchymal stem cell response to a CO2 laser modified polymeric material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, D G; Hussain, I; Lawrence, J; Smith, G C; Cosgrove, D; Toccaceli, C

    2016-10-01

    With an ageing world population it is becoming significantly apparent that there is a need to produce implants and platforms to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. This is needed to meet the socio-economic demands of many countries worldwide. This paper details one of the first ever studies in to the manipulation of stem cell growth on CO2 laser surface treated nylon 6,6 highlighting its potential as an inexpensive platform to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. Through CO2 laser surface treatment discrete changes to the surfaces were made. That is, the surface roughness of the nylon 6,6 was increased by up to 4.3μm, the contact angle was modulated by up to 5° and the surface oxygen content increased by up to 1atom %. Following mesenchymal stem cell growth on the laser treated samples, it was identified that CO2 laser surface treatment gave rise to an enhanced response with an increase in viable cell count of up to 60,000cells/ml when compared to the as-received sample. The effect of surface parameters modified by the CO2 laser surface treatment on the mesenchymal stem cell response is also discussed along with potential trends that could be identified to govern the mesenchymal stem cell response. PMID:27287173

  10. Sox10 Regulates Stem/Progenitor and Mesenchymal Cell States in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dravis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To discover mechanisms that mediate plasticity in mammary cells, we characterized signaling networks that are present in the mammary stem cells responsible for fetal and adult mammary development. These analyses identified a signaling axis between FGF signaling and the transcription factor Sox10. Here, we show that Sox10 is specifically expressed in mammary cells exhibiting the highest levels of stem/progenitor activity. This includes fetal and adult mammary cells in vivo and mammary organoids in vitro. Sox10 is functionally relevant, as its deletion reduces stem/progenitor competence whereas its overexpression increases stem/progenitor activity. Intriguingly, we also show that Sox10 overexpression causes mammary cells to undergo a mesenchymal transition. Consistent with these findings, Sox10 is preferentially expressed in stem- and mesenchymal-like breast cancers. These results demonstrate a signaling mechanism through which stem and mesenchymal states are acquired in mammary cells and suggest therapeutic avenues in breast cancers for which targeted therapies are currently unavailable.

  11. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Niamh M. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Joyce, Myles R. [Department of Colorectal Surgery, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy [Regenerative Medicine Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kerin, Michael J. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Dwyer, Roisin M., E-mail: roisin.dwyer@nuigalway.ie [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial-induced neuroglial cell differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoguang Luo; Chunlin Ge; Yan Ren; Hongmei Yu; Zhe Wu; Qiushuang Wang; Chaodong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microglia are very sensitive to environmental changes, often becoming activated by pathological conditions. Activated microglia can exert a dual role in injury and repair in various diseases of the central nervous system, including cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: An immortal microglial cell line, BV2, was treated with varying concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce a pathological situation. Supernatant was harvested and incubated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and, concomitantly, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation was observed. DESIGN: A controlled observation, in vitro experiment. SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. MATERIALS: Five male 2-3-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were purchased from Animal Laboratory Center of China Medical University and included in this study. The protocol was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals. The microglial cell line BV2 was produced by Cell Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences. LPS was produced by Sigma Company, USA. METHODS: This study was performed in the Central Laboratory of China Medical University from September 2006 to March 2007. Rat femoral and tibial bone marrow was collected for separation and primary culture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell cultures were divided into 5 groups: control group, non-activated group, as well as low-, medium-, and high-dose LPS groups. In the control group, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (volume fraction 0.1). In the non-activated group, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were incubated with non-activated BV2 supernatant. In the low-, medium-, and high-dose LPS groups, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were incubated with LPS (0.01, 0.1 and 1

  13. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Saravana Kumar Sampath; Perumal, Saraswathi; Rajagopalan, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for pos...

  14. Neuronal-like cell differentiation of non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuxin; Zhang, Jinghan; Ben, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells from C57BL/6J mice were separated and cultured using the “pour-off” method. Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells developed colony-forming unit-fibroblasts, and could be expanded by supplementation with epidermal growth factor. Immunocytochemistry showed that the non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to basic fibroblast growth factor/epidermal growth factor/nerve growth factor ex...

  15. Platelet-rich fibrin-induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into osteoblast-like cells and neural cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Li; Yajun Geng; Lei Lu; Tingting Yang; Mingrui Zhang; Yanmin Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were allowed to develop for 14 days in a platelet-rich fibrin environment. Results demonstrated that platelet-rich fibrin significantly promoted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell proliferation. In addition, there was a dose-dependent increase in Runt-related transcription factor-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 mRNA expression, as well as neuron-specific enolase and glial acidic protein. Results showed that platelet-rich fibrin promoted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastlike cells and neural cells in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Tumorigenic heterogeneity in cancer stem cells evolved from long-term cultures of telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Jorge S; Abdallah, Basem M; Guldberg, Per;

    2005-01-01

    Long-term cultures of telomerase-transduced adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) may evolve spontaneous genetic changes leading to tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice (e.g., hMSC-TERT20). We wished to clarify whether this unusual phenotype reflected a rare but dominant subpopulation...... or if the stem cell origin allowed most cells to behave as cancer stem cells. Cultures of the hMSC-TERT20 strain at population doubling 440 were highly clonogenic (94%). From 110 single-cell clones expanded by 20 population doublings, 6 underwent detailed comparison. Like the parental population, each clone had...... tumorigenicity correlated with good viability plus capillary morphogenesis on serum starvation and high cyclin D1 expression. Thus, hMSC-TERT20 clones represent cancer stem cells with hierarchical tumorigenicity, providing new models to explore the stem cell hypothesis for cancer....

  17. Overexpression of microRNA-124 promotes the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Defeng Zou; Yi Chen; Yaxin Han; Chen Lv; Guanjun Tu

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important regulatory role in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. In this study, we examined the effects of miRNA-124 (miR-124) overexpression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, we focused on the effect of overexpression on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neurons. First, we used GeneChip technology to analyze the expression of miRNAs inbone marrow-derived mesen-chymal stem cells, neural stem cells and neurons. miR-124 expression was substantially reduced inbone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells compared with the other cell types. We con-structed a lentiviral vector overexpressing miR-124 and transfected it intobone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Intracellular expression levels of the neuronal early markersβ-III tu-bulin and microtubule-associated protein-2 were signiifcantly increased, and apoptosis induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation was reduced in transfected cells. After miR-124-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord, a large number of cells positive for the neuronal marker neurofilament-200 were observed in the transplanted region. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotion scores showed that the motor function of the hind limb of rats with spinal cord injury was substantially improved. These re-sults suggest that miR-124 plays an important role in the differentiation ofbone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neurons. Our ifndings should facilitate the development of novel strategies for enhancing the therapeutic efifcacy ofbone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for spinal cord injury.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Adipose and Other Tissues: Basic Biological Properties and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Orbay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells that were initially isolated from bone marrow. However, subsequent research has shown that other adult tissues also contain MSCs. MSCs originate from mesenchyme, which is embryonic tissue derived from the mesoderm. These cells actively proliferate, giving rise to new cells in some tissues, but remain quiescent in others. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types including adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Isolation and induction of these cells could provide a new therapeutic tool for replacing damaged or lost adult tissues. However, the biological properties and use of stem cells in a clinical setting must be well established before significant clinical benefits are obtained. This paper summarizes data on the biological properties of MSCs and discusses current and potential clinical applications.

  19. The Potential for Resident Lung Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Functional Tissue Regeneration: Understanding Microenvironmental Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Majka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, pulmonary fibrosis (PF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases.

  20. The potential for resident lung mesenchymal stem cells to promote functional tissue regeneration: understanding microenvironmental cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronjy, Robert F; Majka, Susan M

    2012-12-01

    Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases. PMID:23626909

  1. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Fu-jiang; FENG Shi-qing

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the recent studies about human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and advances in the treatment of spinal cord injury, Data sources Published articles (1983-2007) about hUCMSCs and spinal cord injury were selected using Medline. Study selection Articles selected were relevant to development of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation in spinal cord injury therapy. Of 258 originally identifiied arises 51 were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Results Recent work has revealed that hUCMSCs share most of the characteristics with MSCs derived from bone marrow and are more appropriate to transplantation for cell based therapies. Conclusions Human umbilical cord could be regarded as a source of MSCs for experimental and clinical needs. In addition, as a peculiar source of stem cells, hUCMSCs may play an important role in the treatment of spinal cord injury.

  2. β-Catenin Does Not Confer Tumorigenicity When Introduced into Partially Transformed Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Piperdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, its cell of origin and the genetic alterations are unclear. Previous studies have shown that serially introducing hTERT, SV40 large TAg, and H-Ras transforms human mesenchymal stem cells into two distinct sarcomas cell populations, but they do not form osteoid. In this study, β-catenin was introduced into mesenchymal stem cells already containing hTERT and SV40 large TAg to analyze if this resulted in a model which more closely recapitulated osteosarcoma. Results. Regardless of the level of induced β-catenin expression in the stable transfectants, there were no marked differences induced in their phenotype or invasion and migration capacity. Perhaps more importantly, none of them formed tumors when injected into immunocompromised mice. Moreover, the resulting transformed cells could be induced to osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation but not to adipogenic differentiation. Conclusions. β-catenin, although fostering osteogenic differentiation, does not induce the malignant features and tumorigenicity conveyed by oncogenic H-RAS when introduced into partly transformed mesenchymal stem cells. This may have implications for the role of β-catenin in osteosarcoma pathogenesis. It also may suggest that adipogenesis is an earlier branch point than osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in normal mesenchymal differentiation.

  3. Expression of Odontogenic Genes in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Sara Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tooth loss is a common problem and since current tooth replacement methods cannot counter balance with biological tooth structures, regenerating natural tooth structures has become an ideal goal. A challenging problem in tooth regeneration is to find a proper clinically feasible cell to seed.This study was designed to investigate the odontogenic potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs for seeding in tooth regeneration.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD rats were used at the eleventh embryonic day and rat fetuses were removed surgically using semilunar flap under general anesthesia. The primary mandible was cut using a stereomicroscope. The epithelial and mesenchymal components were separated and the dissected oral epithelium was cultured for 3 days. We used flow cytometry analysis to confirm presence of mesenchymal stem cells and not hematopoietic cells and to demonstrate the presence of oral epithelium. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and cultured oral epithelium were then co-cultured for 14 days. BMSCs cultured alone were used as controls. Expression of two odontogenic genes Pax9 and DMP1 was assessed using quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.Results: Expression of two odontogenic genes, Pax9 and DMP1, were detected in BMSCs co-cultured with oral epithelium but not in the control group.Conclusion: Expression of Pax9 and DMP1 by human BMSCs in the proximity of odontogenic epithelium indicates odontogenic potential of these cells.

  4. Four Step Differentiation of Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Within Hydrogel Scaffold Into Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Azandeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to increasing demand for liver tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D liver cells culture techniques have been proposed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the cells isolation and expansion of umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells and in vitro 2D and 3D hepatocyte differentiation.Alsofunctional characteristics of hepatocytes were analyzedMethods: The study performed in several phases. In the first umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained and isolated, thereafter cellss expanded. Determination of Immunophenotype using Flow. Cytometry performed by DAKO – Galaxy Hepatic differentiation UC-MSCs was performed by four step sequential method using FGF-4, ITS, HGF, dexamethasone, glucagon, OSM and TSA. Urea production was quantified by ELISA.Section of tissue constructs stained with hematoxyllin and eosin for histological examinationResults: MSCs isolated from umbilical cord expressed mesenchymal surface antigen such as CD73, but were negative against CD31. Several cell clusters mainly between the round cells were observed in alginate scaffold after 3d differentiation. Urea production was increased time- dependable and was significantly higher in the experimental group of 3D culture (P=0.001. Tissue construct of 3D culture revealed multicellular tissue with several euchromatin cell plates.Conclusion: The finding of the present study indicated that four step differentiation of umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells within hydrogel scaffold induced functionally and morphologically characteristics of hepatocytes such as urea production and cell plates.

  5. Senescence in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Functional Changes and Implications in Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinetto, Valentina; Vitale, Emanuela; Giachino, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is extensively interested in developing cell therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with applications to several aging-associated diseases. For successful therapies, a substantial number of cells are needed, requiring extensive ex vivo cell expansion. However, MSC proliferation is limited and it is quite likely that long-term culture evokes continuous changes in MSCs. Therefore, a substantial proportion of cells may undergo senescence. In the present review, we will first present the phenotypic characterization of senescent human MSCs (hMSCs) and their possible consequent functional alterations. The accumulation of oxidative stress and dysregulation of key differentiation regulatory factors determine decreased differentiation potential of senescent hMSCs. Senescent hMSCs also show a marked impairment in their migratory and homing ability. Finally, many factors present in the secretome of senescent hMSCs are able to exacerbate the inflammatory response at a systemic level, decreasing the immune modulation activity of hMSCs and promoting either proliferation or migration of cancer cells. Considering the deleterious effects that these changes could evoke, it would appear of primary importance to monitor the occurrence of senescent phenotype in clinically expanded hMSCs and to evaluate possible ways to prevent in vitro MSC senescence. An updated critical presentation of the possible strategies for in vitro senescence monitoring and prevention constitutes the second part of this review. Understanding the mechanisms that drive toward hMSC growth arrest and evaluating how to counteract these for preserving a functional stem cell pool is of fundamental importance for the development of efficient cell-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:27447618

  6. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells prevent allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue-Qi; Deng, Meng-Xia; He, Jia; Zeng, Qing-Xiang; Wen, Weiping; Wong, David S H; Tse, Hung-Fat; Xu, Geng; Lian, Qizhou; Shi, Jianbo; Fu, Qing-Ling

    2012-12-01

    We previously found that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) exerted immunomodulatory effects on Th2-mediated allergic rhinitis in vitro. However, their contribution to the asthma and allergic rhinitis in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we developed a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in both the upper and lower airways and evaluated the effects of the systemic administration of human iPSC-MSCs and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on allergic inflammation. Our results showed that treatments with both the iPSC-MSCs and BM-MSCs before the challenge phase protected the animals from the majority of allergy-specific pathological changes. This protection included an inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus production in the lung, a reduction in eosinophil infiltration in the nose, and a decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration in both the bronchoalveolar and nasal lavage fluids. In addition, treatment with iPSC-MSCs or BM-MSCs before the challenge phase resulted in reduced serum levels of Th2 immunoglobulins (e.g., IgE) and decreased levels of Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, or IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar and/or nasal lavage fluids. Similar therapeutic effects were observed when the animals were pretreated with human iPSC-MSCs before the sensitization phase. These data suggest that iPSC-MSCs may be used as an alternative strategy to adult MSCs in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:22987325

  7. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Seeding on Biofunctionalized Calcium Phosphate Cements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WahWah TheinHan; Jun Liu; Minghui Tang; Wenchuan Chen; Linzhao Cheng; Hockin H. K. Xu

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have great potential due to their proliferation and differentiation capability. The objectives of this study were to generate iPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSC-MSCs), and investigate iPSC-MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing biofunctional agents for the first time. Human iPSCs were derived from marrow CD34+ cells which were reprogrammed by a single episomal vector. iPSCs were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and MSCs migrated out of EBs. Five biofunctional agents were incorporated into CPC:RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides, fibronectin (Fn), fibronectin-like engineered polymer protein (FEPP), extracellular matrix Geltrex, and platelet concentrate. iPSC-MSCs were seeded on five biofunctionalized CPCs:CPC-RGD, CPC-Fn, CPC-FEPP, CPC-Geltrex, and CPC-Platelets. iPSC-MSCs on biofunctional CPCs had enhanced proliferation, actin fiber expression, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization, compared to control. Cell proliferation was greatly increased on biofunctional CPCs. iPSC-MSCs underwent osteogenic differentiation with increased alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and collagen-I expressions. Mineral synthesis by iPSC-MSCs on CPC-Platelets was 3-fold that of CPC control. In conclusion, iPSCs showed high potential for bone engineering. iPSC-MSCs on biofunctionalized CPCs had cell proliferation and bone mineralization that were much better than traditional CPC. iPSC-MSC-CPC constructs are promising to promote bone regeneration in craniofacial/orthopedic repairs.

  8. Identification of regulatory factors for mesenchymal stem cell-derived salivary epithelial cells in a co-culture system.

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    Yun-Jong Park

    Full Text Available Patients with Sjögren's syndrome or head and neck cancer patients who have undergone radiation therapy suffer from severe dry mouth (xerostomia due to salivary exocrine cell death. Regeneration of the salivary glands requires a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms by which stem cells differentiate into exocrine cells. In our study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with primary salivary epithelial cells from C57BL/6 mice. Co-cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells clearly resembled salivary epithelial cells, as confirmed by strong expression of salivary gland epithelial cell-specific markers, such as alpha-amylase, muscarinic type 3 receptor, aquaporin-5, and cytokeratin 19. To identify regulatory factors involved in this differentiation, transdifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells were analyzed temporarily by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis, which detected 58 protein spots (>1.5 fold change, p<0.05 that were further categorized into 12 temporal expression patterns. Of those proteins only induced in differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, ankryin-repeat-domain-containing-protein 56, high-mobility-group-protein 20B, and transcription factor E2a were selected as putative regulatory factors for mesenchymal stem cell transdifferentiation based on putative roles in salivary gland development. Induction of these molecules was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blotting on separate sets of co-cultured mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify differentially expressed proteins that are implicated in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into salivary gland epithelial cells. Further investigation to elucidate regulatory roles of these three transcription factors in mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming will provide a critical foundation for a novel cell-based regenerative therapy for patients with xerostomia.

  9. Secretome of Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem Cell, a Multiple Potential Stem Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lite; Jiang, Miao; Duan, Da; Wang, Zijun; Qi, Linyu; Teng, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Ping; He, Xijing; Lu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nasal olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) have the ability to promote regeneration in the nervous system in vivo. Moreover, with view to the potential for clinical application, OM-MSCs have the advantage of being easily accessible from patients and transplantable in an autologous manner, thus eliminating immune rejection and contentious ethical issues. So far, most studies have been focused on the role of OM-MSCs in central nervous system replacement. However, the secreted proteomics of OM-MSCs have not been reported yet. Here, proteins secreted by OM-MSCs cultured in serum-free conditions were separated on SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS. As a result, a total of 274 secreted proteins were identified. These molecules are known to be important in neurotrophy, angiogenesis, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and inflammation which were highly correlated with the repair of central nervous system. The proteomic profiling of the OM-MSCs secretome might provide new insights into their nature in the neural recovery. However, proteomic analysis for clinical biomarkers of OM-MSCs needs to be further studied. PMID:26949398

  10. Effect of F68 on cryopreservation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human tooth germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Yalvaç, Mehmet Emir; Yılmaz, Aysu; Rizvanov, Albert; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2013-12-01

    The use of stem-cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine and in the treatment of disorders such as Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, spinal cord injuries, and cancer has been shown to be promising. Among all stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were reported to have anti-apoptotic, immunomodulatory, and angiogenic effects which are attributed to the restorative capacity of these cells. Human tooth germ stem cells (HTGSCs) having mesenchymal stem cell characteristics have been proven to exert high proliferation and differentiation capacity. Unlike bone-marrow-derived MSCs, HTGSCs can be easily isolated, expanded, and cryopreserved, which makes them an alternative stem cell source. Regardless of their sources, the stem cells are exposed to physical and chemical stresses during cryopreservation, hindering their therapeutic capacity. Amelioration of the side effects of cryopreservation on MSCs seems to be a priority in order to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of these cells. In this study, we tested the effect of Pluronic 188 (F68) on HTGSCs during long-term cryopreservation and repeated freezing and defrosting cycles. Our data revealed that F68 has a protective role on survival and differentiation of HTGSCs in long-term cryopreservation.

  11. Use of adipose tissue as a source of mesenchymal stem cells

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    Katarzyna Jezierska-Woźniak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Enormous expectations are associated with stem cells with regard to cell therapy and tissue engineering. Stem cells have unlimited potential for self-renewal and develop into various cell types. For the mesodermal tissue engineering such a source of cells is the bone marrow stroma. However, isolation of the bone marrow requires general or spinal anesthesia and yields low number of mesodermal stem cells (MSCs upon processing (1 MSC per 105 adherent stromal cells. An alternative source of autologous stem cells seems to be, apart from bone marrow: periosteum, muscular tissue or synovial membrane and adipose tissue. The adipose tissue is derived from the embryonic mesenchyme, contains a large number of stromal stem cells and is relatively easy to obtain in large quantities. It covers a widespread area of human body, and can be classified as white and brown adipose tissue in terms of location and function. Specimens of the adipose tissue are usually obtained from elective, laparoscopic or liposuction surgeries. Stromal stem cells, isolated from this tissue, exhibit characteristics common to mesodermal tissues, including: adherence to plastic, formation of fibroblastic- like colonies, extensive proliferative capacity, ability to differentiate into several mesodermal lineages (including bone, cartilage, muscle and fat, and expression of several common cell surface antigens. Recent evidence suggest that these cells can also form non-mesodermal tissues – neuron-like cells. The aim of this publication is to describe the application of the adipose tissue as a source of mesenchymal stem cells based on current literature data.

  12. Eccentric Exercise Facilitates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Appearance in Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    M Carmen Valero; Huntsman, Heather D.; Jianming Liu; Kai Zou; Boppart, Marni D.

    2012-01-01

    Eccentric, or lengthening, contractions result in injury and subsequently stimulate the activation and proliferation of satellite stem cells which are important for skeletal muscle regeneration. The discovery of alternative myogenic progenitors in skeletal muscle raises the question as to whether stem cells other than satellite cells accumulate in muscle in response to exercise and contribute to post-exercise repair and/or growth. In this study, stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) positive, non-hemat...

  13. Depolarization Alters Phenotype, Maintains Plasticity of Predifferentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sundelacruz, Sarah; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Although adult stem cell transplantation has been implemented as a therapy for tissue repair, it is limited by the availability of functional adult stem cells. A potential approach to generate stem and progenitor cells may be to modulate the differentiated status of somatic cells. Therefore, there is a need for a better understanding of how the differentiated phenotype of mature cells is regulated. We hypothesize that bioelectric signaling plays an important role in the maintenance of the dif...

  14. Epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells from the umbilical cord lining membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ivor J; Phan, Toan Thang

    2014-01-01

    Intense scientific research over the past two decades has yielded much knowledge about embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, as well as epithelial stem cells from the skin and cornea. However, the billions of dollars spent in this research have not overcome the fundamental difficulties intrinsic to these stem cell strains related to ethics (embryonic stem cells), as well as to technical issues such as accessibility, ease of cell selection and cultivation, and expansion/mass production, while maintaining consistency of cell stemness (all of the stem cell strains already mentioned). Overcoming these technical hurdles has made stem cell technology expensive and any potential translational products unaffordable for most patients. Commercialization efforts have been rendered unfeasible by this high cost. Advanced biomedical research is on the rise in Asia, and new innovations have started to overcome these challenges. The Nobel Prize-winning Japanese development of iPSCs has effectively introduced a possible replacement for embryonic stem cells. For non-embryonic stem cells, cord lining stem cells (CLSCs) have overcome the preexisting difficulties inherent to mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow as well as epithelial stem cells from the skin and cornea, offering a realistic, practical, and affordable alternative for tissue repair and regeneration. This novel CLSC technology was developed in Singapore in 2004 and has 22 international patents granted to date, including those from the US and UK. CLSCs are derived from the umbilical cord outer lining membrane (usually regarded as medical waste) and is therefore free from ethical dilemmas related to its collection. The large quantity of umbilical cord lining membrane that can be collected translates to billions of stem cells that can be grown in primary stem cell culture and therefore very rapid and inexpensive cell cultivation and expansion for clinical translational therapies. Both

  15. Epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells from the umbilical cord lining membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ivor J; Phan, Toan Thang

    2014-01-01

    Intense scientific research over the past two decades has yielded much knowledge about embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, as well as epithelial stem cells from the skin and cornea. However, the billions of dollars spent in this research have not overcome the fundamental difficulties intrinsic to these stem cell strains related to ethics (embryonic stem cells), as well as to technical issues such as accessibility, ease of cell selection and cultivation, and expansion/mass production, while maintaining consistency of cell stemness (all of the stem cell strains already mentioned). Overcoming these technical hurdles has made stem cell technology expensive and any potential translational products unaffordable for most patients. Commercialization efforts have been rendered unfeasible by this high cost. Advanced biomedical research is on the rise in Asia, and new innovations have started to overcome these challenges. The Nobel Prize-winning Japanese development of iPSCs has effectively introduced a possible replacement for embryonic stem cells. For non-embryonic stem cells, cord lining stem cells (CLSCs) have overcome the preexisting difficulties inherent to mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow as well as epithelial stem cells from the skin and cornea, offering a realistic, practical, and affordable alternative for tissue repair and regeneration. This novel CLSC technology was developed in Singapore in 2004 and has 22 international patents granted to date, including those from the US and UK. CLSCs are derived from the umbilical cord outer lining membrane (usually regarded as medical waste) and is therefore free from ethical dilemmas related to its collection. The large quantity of umbilical cord lining membrane that can be collected translates to billions of stem cells that can be grown in primary stem cell culture and therefore very rapid and inexpensive cell cultivation and expansion for clinical translational therapies. Both

  16. Heterologous mesenchymal stem cells successfully treat femoral pseudarthrosis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Manoel; Silva Paulo; Alvarez Silva Lucas; Bonfim Danielle; Conilho Macedo Müller Lucas; Espósito Christiano; Schanaider Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of treating pseudarthrosis in rats by using bone marrow cell suspensions or cultures of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells Methods Thirty-eight specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1, Control, without surgical intervention; Group 2 (Placebo), experimental model of femoral pseudarthrosis treated only with saline solution; Group 3, experimental model of femoral pseudarthrosis treated with ...

  17. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing for repair of spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyuan Li; Zhanxiu Zhang; Lili Zhao; Hui Li; Suxia Wang; Yong Shen

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that RNA interference to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells before transplantation might further improve neurological function in rats with spinal cord transection injury. After 2 weeks, the number of neurons and BrdU-positive cells in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group was higher than in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group, and significantly greater compared with the model group. After 4 weeks, behavioral performance was signiifcantly enhanced in the model group. Af-ter 8 weeks, the number of horseradish peroxidase-labeled nerve ifbers was higher in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group than in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group, and signiifcantly higher than in the model group. The newly formed nerve ifbers and myelinated ner ve ifbers were detectable in the central transverse plane section in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group and in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group.

  18. Transplantation of neurotrophin-3-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhen Dong; Libin Yang; Lin Yang; Hongxing Zhao; Chao Zhang; Dapeng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation has been shown to be therapeutic in the repair of spinal cord injury. However, the low survival rate of transplanted bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells in vivo remains a problem. Neurotrophin-3 promotes motor neuron survival and it is hypothesized that its transfection can enhance the therapeutic effect. We show that in vitro transfection of neurotrophin-3 gene increases the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the region of spinal cord injury. These results indicate that neurotrophin-3 can promote the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into the region of spinal cord injury and potentially enhance the therapeutic effect in the repair of spinal cord injury.

  19. An experimental study of preventing and treating acute radioactive enteritis with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Wang; Wei Yuan; Qiang Zhao; Peng Song; Ji Yue; Shi-De Lin; Ting-Bao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To test the curative effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells on rat acute radioactive enteritis and thus to provide clinical therapeutic basis for radiation sickness.Methods:Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultivatedin vitro and the model of acute radioactive enteritis of rats was established.Then, the umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the rats via tail vein.Visual and histopathological changes of the experimental rats were observed.Results:After the injection, the rats in the prevention group and treatment group had remarkably better survival status than those in the control group.The histological observations revealed that the former also had better intestinal mucosa structure, more regenerative cells and stronger proliferation activity than the latter.Conclusions:Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells have a definite therapeutic effect on acute radioactive enteritis in rats.

  20. Gelatin-Based Hydrogels Promote Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

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    Achim Salamon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the weak regeneration potential of cartilage, there is a high clinical incidence of articular joint disease, leading to a strong demand for cartilaginous tissue surrogates. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gelatin-based hydrogel for its suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Gelatin-based hydrogels are biodegradable, show high biocompatibility, and offer possibilities to introduce functional groups and/or ligands. In order to prove their chondrogenesis-supporting potential, a hydrogel film was developed and compared with standard cell culture polystyrene regarding the differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells. Cellular basis for this study were human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which exhibit differentiation potential along the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage. The results obtained show a promotive effect of gelatin-based hydrogels on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and therefore encourage subsequent in vivo studies.

  1. Local transplantation of osteogenic pre-differentiated autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells may accelerate non-union fracture healing with limited pro-metastatic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Duanyang; Han, Na; Zhang, Peixun; Jiang, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Fracture non-union is a serious complication in orthopedic clinical practice. Mesenchymal stem cells are believed to play a vital role in fracture healing process. Among various origins of mesenchymal stem cell, adipose derived stem cells hold great promise especially in clinical milieu. However, the wide spread application of mesenchymal stem cell based therapy is impeded by the pro-metastasis nature of the mesenchymal stem cell itself. Based on the findings from previous studies, we hypothesize that local transplanted osteogenic pre-differentiatiated adipose stem cell may promote the non-union fracture healing. Moreover, the pre-differnetiation stem cells by down-regulating the expression of CCL5 and CCL2. This novel osteogenic pre-differnetiation technique may help clinical orthopedists to resolve the refractory non-union cases and shed new light on other stem cell based therapies to counteract to avoid the pro-metastasis nature of the mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25785146

  2. Comparison of viability of adipose-derived Mesenchymal stem cells on agarose and fibrin glue scaffolds

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    Farzaneh Tafvizi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Utilizing tissue engineering techniques and designing similar structures of the damaged tissues require the use of tools such as scaffolds, cells, and bioactive molecules in vitro. Meanwhile, appropriate cell cultures with the ability to divide and differentiate on the natural scaffolds lacking features like immunogenicity and tumorgenesis is particularly important. Adipose tissue has attracted researchers’ attention due to its abundance of mesenchymal stem cells and its availability through a liposuction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and viability of the adipose-derived stem cells on natural scaffolds of fibrin glue and agarose. Methods: In the present experimental study, the isolation and identification of the mesenchymal stem cells was performed on tissue obtained from liposuction. The tissues were extensively washed with PBS and were digested with collagenase I, then the mesenchymal stem cells were isolated. The cells were cultured in RPMI medium supplemented with antibiotic. Subsequently, the expression of cell surface markers including CD34, CD44, CD90, and CD105 were analyzed by flow cytometry to confirm the mesenchymal cells. After preparing fibrin glue and agarose scaffolds, the viability and proliferation of the adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were examined at the period of 24, 48, and 72 hours by MTT and ELISA assays. The obtained results were analyzed by SPSS ver.19. Results: The results of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells culture on the fibrin glue and agarose scaffolds indicated that cell viability on fibrin glue and agarose scaffold were 68.22% and 89.75% in 24 hrs, 64.04% and 66.97% in 48 hours, 222.87% and 1089.68% in 72 hours respectively. Significant proliferation and viability cells on a synthesized agarose scaffold were seen compared to the fibrin glue scaffold after 72 hrs. The viability of the cells significantly increased on the

  3. Mesenchymal and induced pluripotent stem cells: general insights and clinical perspectives

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    Zomer HD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Helena D Zomer,1 Atanásio S Vidane,1 Natalia N Gonçalves,1 Carlos E Ambrósio2 1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells have awakened a great deal of interest in regenerative medicine due to their plasticity, and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. They are high-yield and can be acquired through noninvasive methods from adult tissues. Moreover, they are nontumorigenic and are the most widely studied. On the other hand, induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be derived directly from adult cells through gene reprogramming. The new iPS technology avoids the embryo destruction or manipulation to generate pluripotent cells, therefore, are exempt from ethical implication surrounding embryonic stem cell use. The pre-differentiation of iPS cells ensures the safety of future approaches. Both mesenchymal stem cells and iPS cells can be used for autologous cell transplantations without the risk of immune rejection and represent a great opportunity for future alternative therapies. In this review we discussed the therapeutic perspectives using mesenchymal and iPS cells. Keywords: cell transplantation, cell therapy, iPS, MSC

  4. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cryopreservation and Thawing Decrease α4-Integrin Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irioda, Ana Carolina; Cassilha, Rafael; Zocche, Larissa; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Cunha, Ricardo Correa; Ferreira, Priscila Elias; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Ferreira, Reginaldo Justino; Mogharbel, Bassam Felipe; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Souza, Daiany; Beltrame, Mirian Perlingeiro; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The effects of cryopreservation on adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not clearly documented, as there is a growing body of evidence about the importance of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to analyze human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells phenotypic expression (CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD49d), colony forming unit ability, viability, and differentiation potential before and after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods. 12 samples of the adipose tissue were collected from a healthy donor using the liposuction technique. The cell isolation was performed by enzymatic digestion and then the cells were cultured up to passage 2. Before and after cryopreservation the immunophenotype, cellular viability analysis by flow cytometer, colony forming units ability, differentiation potential into adipocytes and osteoblasts as demonstrated by Oil Red O and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Results. The immunophenotypic markers expression was largely preserved, and their multipotency was maintained. However, after cryopreservation, the cells decreased α4-integrin expression (CD49d), cell viability, and number of colony forming units. Conclusions. These findings suggest that ADMSC transplanted after cryopreservation might compromise the retention of transplanted cells in the host tissue. Therefore, further studies are warranted to standardize protocols related to cryopreservation to attain full benefits of stem cell therapy. PMID:26981129

  5. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cryopreservation and Thawing Decrease α4-Integrin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Irioda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effects of cryopreservation on adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not clearly documented, as there is a growing body of evidence about the importance of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to analyze human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells phenotypic expression (CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD49d, colony forming unit ability, viability, and differentiation potential before and after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods. 12 samples of the adipose tissue were collected from a healthy donor using the liposuction technique. The cell isolation was performed by enzymatic digestion and then the cells were cultured up to passage 2. Before and after cryopreservation the immunophenotype, cellular viability analysis by flow cytometer, colony forming units ability, differentiation potential into adipocytes and osteoblasts as demonstrated by Oil Red O and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Results. The immunophenotypic markers expression was largely preserved, and their multipotency was maintained. However, after cryopreservation, the cells decreased α4-integrin expression (CD49d, cell viability, and number of colony forming units. Conclusions. These findings suggest that ADMSC transplanted after cryopreservation might compromise the retention of transplanted cells in the host tissue. Therefore, further studies are warranted to standardize protocols related to cryopreservation to attain full benefits of stem cell therapy.

  6. Detonation nanodiamond complexes with cancer stem cells inhibitors or paracrine products of mesenchymal stem cells as new potential medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplyannikov, A. G.; Alekseenskiy, A. E.; Zlotin, S. G.; Smirnov, B. B.; Kalsina, S. Sh.; Lepehina, L. A.; Semenkova, I. V.; Agaeva, E. V.; Baboyan, S. B.; Rjumshina, E. A.; Nosachenko, V. V.; Konoplyannikov, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Combined use of complexes of the most active chemotherapeutic drugs and detonation nanodiamonds (DND) is a new trend in cancer therapy, which is probably related to selective chemotherapeutic drug delivery by DND to the zone of so-called cancer stem cells (CSC). Stable DND complexes of 4-5 nm size with salinomycin—a strong CSC inhibitor—have been obtained (as a suspension). It has been demonstrated that a complex administration considerably increases the drug antitumor effect on the transplantable tumor of LLC mice. A similar effect has been observed in CSC models in vivo, obtained by exposure of stem cells of normal mice tissues to a carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. It has also been found out, that administration of DND complexes with the conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) cultures to mice results in a considerable stimulation of stem cell pools in normal mice tissues, which can be used in regenerative medicine.

  7. Mesenchymal morphogenesis of embryonic stem cells dynamically modulates the biophysical microtissue niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Melissa A.; Saeed, Rabbia; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell fate and function are dynamically modulated by the interdependent relationships between biochemical and biophysical signals constituting the local 3D microenvironment. While approaches to recapitulate the stem cell niche have been explored for directing stem cell differentiation, a quantitative relationship between embryonic stem cell (ESC) morphogenesis and intrinsic biophysical cues within three-dimensional microtissues has not been established. In this study, we demonstrate that mesenchymal embryonic microtissues induced by BMP4 exhibited increased stiffness and viscosity accompanying differentiation, with cytoskeletal tension significantly contributing to multicellular stiffness. Perturbation of the cytoskeleton during ESC differentiation led to modulation of the biomechanical and gene expression profiles, with the resulting cell phenotype and biophysical properties being highly correlated by multivariate analyses. Together, this study elucidates the dynamics of biophysical and biochemical signatures within embryonic microenvironments, with broad implications for monitoring tissue dynamics, modeling pathophysiological and embryonic morphogenesis and directing stem cell patterning and differentiation. PMID:24598818

  8. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a new host cell in latent leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N

    2011-09-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs have been isolated, cultured, characterized, and infected with different species of Leishmania parasites (L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum). Infectivity was examined by Giemsa staining, microculture, and polymerase chain reaction methods. As a result, infectivity of ADMSCs by Leishmania parasites has been determined for the first time in this study. According to our findings, it is very important that donors are screened for Leishmania parasites before stem cell transplantations in regions where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:21896818

  9. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing for repair of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhanxiu; Zhao, Lili; LI Hui; Wang, Suxia; Shen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that RNA interference to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells before transplantation might further improve neurological function in rats with spinal cord transection injury. After 2 weeks, the number of neurons and BrdU-positive cells in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group was higher than in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group, and significantly greater compared with the model group. After 4 weeks, behavioral performance ...

  10. Effect of intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neurotransmitters and synapsins in rats with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Wu, Bilian; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, purified and cultured in vitro by Percoll density gradient centrifugation combined with the cell adherence method. Passages 3–5 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into rats with traumatic spinal cord injury via the caudal vein. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores indicate that neurological function of experimental rats was significantly improved over transplantation time (1–5 weeks). Expressions of choline acetyltransferase, gluta...

  11. The Use of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushkevich, Yu N; Kosmacheva, S M; Zabrodets, G V; Ignatenko, S I; Goncharova, N V; Severin, I N; Likhachev, S A; Potapnev, M P

    2015-08-01

    We studied a new method of treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells were injected intravenously (intact cells) or via lumbar puncture (cells committed to neuronal differentiation). Evaluation of the results of cell therapy after 12-month follow-up revealed slowing down of the disease progression in 10 patients in comparison with the control group consisting of 15 patients. The cell therapy was safe for the patients.

  12. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianchao Li; Wensheng Hou; Xiaoying Wu; Wei Jiang; Haiyan Chen; Nong Xiao; Ping Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hy-poxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efifciencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600-1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migra-tion and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2, an increasing number of green lfuorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 106 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2 for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental ifndings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypox-ic-ischemic brain damage.

  13. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianchao; Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Ping

    2014-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600-1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migration and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2), an increasing number of green fluorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 10(6) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2) for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental findings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  14. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells reduce systemic inflammation and attenuate LPS-induced acute lung injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jianjun; Li Dong; Liu Xiaomei; Tang Shuhai; Wei Fengcai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties and simultaneously lack the ability to illicit immune responses. Hence, MSCs have emerged as a promising candidate for cellular therapeutics for inflammatory diseases. Within the context of this study, we investigated whether human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) could ameliorate lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in a rat model. Methods ALI was induced ...

  15. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianchao; Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600–1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the tr...

  16. Scintigraphic tracking of mesenchymal stem cells after portal, systemic intravenous and splenic administration in healthy beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, Mathieu; Hunt, Geraldine B; Walker, Naomi J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed to treat liver disease in the dog. The objective of this study was to compare portal, systemic intravenous and splenic injections for administration of mesenchymal stem cells to target the liver in healthy beagle dogs. Four healthy beagle dogs were included in the study. Each dog received mesenchymal stem cells via all three delivery methods in randomized order, 1 week apart. Ten million fat-derived allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells labeled with Technetium-99m (99mTc)-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime(HMPAO) were used for each injection. Right lateral, left lateral, ventral, and dorsal scintigraphic images were obtained with a gamma camera equipped with a low-energy all-purpose collimator immediately after injection and 1, 6, and 24 h later. Mesenchymal stem cells distribution was assessed subjectively using all four views. Pulmonary, hepatic, and splenic uptake was quantified from the right lateral view, at each time point. Portal injection resulted in diffuse homogeneous high uptake through the liver, whereas the systemic intravenous injection led to mesenchymal stem cell trapping in the lungs. After splenic injection, mild splenic retention and high homogeneous diffuse hepatic uptake were observed. Systemic injection of mesenchymal stem cells may not be a desirable technique for liver therapy due to pulmonary trapping. Splenic injection represents a good alternative to portal injection. Scintigraphic tracking with 99mTc-HMPAO is a valuable technique for assessing mesenchymal stem cells distribution and quantification shortly after administration. Data obtained at 24 h should be interpreted cautiously due to suboptimal labeling persistence. PMID:25582730

  17. Autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are involved in rat liver regeneration following repeat partial hepatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; MU, HONG; Shen, Zhongyang; SONG, ZHUOLUN; Chen, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuliang

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been considered to be attractive and readily available adult mesenchymal stem cells, and they are becoming increasingly popular for use in regenerative cell therapy, as they are readily accessible through minimally invasive techniques. The present study investigated whether autologous ADSC transplantation promoted liver regeneration following a repeat partial hepatectomy in rats. The rats were divided into three groups as follows: 70%...

  18. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Limb Bud Can Differentiate into All Three Embryonic Germ Layers Lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Fei; Wang, Juan; Dong, Zhao-lun; Wu, Min-juan; Zhao, Ting-bao; Li, Dan-Dan; Xin WANG

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from many sources, including adults and fetuses. Previous studies have demonstrated that, compared with their adult counterpart, fetal MSCs with several remarkable advantages may be a better resource for clinical applications. In this study, we successfully isolated a rapidly proliferating cell population from limb bud of aborted fetus and termed them “human limb bud–derived mesenchymal stem cells” (hLB-MSCs). Characteristics of their morpholog...

  19. Origins and properties of dental, thymic, and bone marrow mesenchymal cells and their stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiya Komada

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal cells arise from the neural crest (NC or mesoderm. However, it is difficult to distinguish NC-derived cells from mesoderm-derived cells. Using double-transgenic mouse systems encoding P0-Cre, Wnt1-Cre, Mesp1-Cre, and Rosa26EYFP, which enabled us to trace NC-derived or mesoderm-derived cells as YFP-expressing cells, we demonstrated for the first time that both NC-derived (P0- or Wnt1-labeled and mesoderm-derived (Mesp1-labeled cells contribute to the development of dental, thymic, and bone marrow (BM mesenchyme from the fetal stage to the adult stage. Irrespective of the tissues involved, NC-derived and mesoderm-derived cells contributed mainly to perivascular cells and endothelial cells, respectively. Dental and thymic mesenchyme were composed of either NC-derived or mesoderm-derived cells, whereas half of the BM mesenchyme was composed of cells that were not derived from the NC or mesoderm. However, a colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F assay indicated that CFU-Fs in the dental pulp, thymus, and BM were composed of NC-derived and mesoderm-derived cells. Secondary CFU-F assays were used to estimate the self-renewal potential, which showed that CFU-Fs in the teeth, thymus, and BM were entirely NC-derived cells, entirely mesoderm-derived cells, and mostly NC-derived cells, respectively. Colony formation was inhibited drastically by the addition of anti-platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β antibody, regardless of the tissue and its origin. Furthermore, dental mesenchyme expressed genes encoding critical hematopoietic factors, such as interleukin-7, stem cell factor, and cysteine-X-cysteine (CXC chemokine ligand 12, which supports the differentiation of B lymphocytes and osteoclasts. Therefore, the mesenchymal stem cells found in these tissues had different origins, but similar properties in each organ.

  20. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saravana Kumar Sampath Kumar; Saraswathi Perumal; Vijayaraghavan Rajagopalan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mes-enchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by lfow cytometry for positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD45. Once CD44 and CD90 positive expression was achieved, the cells were cultured again to 90% conlfuence for later experiments. Twenty-four rats aged 8 weeks old were randomly and evenly divided into normal control, cold water swim stress (cold stress), cold stress + PBS (intra-venous infusion), and cold stress + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106; intravenous infusion) groups. The total period of study was 60 days which included 1 month stress period followed by 1 month treatment. Behavioral functional test was performed during the entire study period. After treatment, rats were sacriifced for histological studies. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells signiifcantly increased the number of neuronal cells in hippocampal CA1 region. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected by intravenous administration show potential therapeutic effects in cognitive decline associated with stress-related lesions.

  1. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells retain immunomodulatory and anti-oxidative activities after neural induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Li; Dong Li; Xiuli Ju; Qing Shi; Dakun Wang; Fengcai Wei

    2012-01-01

    The immunomodulatory and anti-oxidative activities of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells contribute to their therapeutic efficacy in cell-replacement therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human umbilical cord and induced to differentiate with basic fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor, epidermal growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and forskolin. The mesenchymal stem cells became rounded with long processes and expressed the neural markers, Tuj1, neurofilament 200, microtubule-associated protein-2 and neuron-specific enolase. Nestin expression was significantly reduced after neural induction. The expression of immunoregulatory and anti-oxidative genes was largely unchanged prior to and after neural induction in mesenchymal stem cells. There was no significant difference in the effects of control and induced mesenchymal stem cells on lymphocyte proliferation in co-culture experiments. However, the expression of human leukocyte antigen-G decreased significantly in induced neuron-like cells. These results suggest that growth factor-based methods enable the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell toward immature neuronal-like cells, which retain their immunomodulatory and anti-oxidative activities.

  2. Investigation of the Mesenchymal Stem Cell Compartment by Means of a Lentiviral Barcode Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigildeev, A E; Cornils, K; Aranyossy, T; Sats, N V; Petinati, N A; Shipounova, I N; Surin, V L; Pshenichnikova, O S; Riecken, K; Fehse, B; Drize, N I

    2016-04-01

    The hematopoietic bone marrow microenvironment is formed by proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The MSC compartment has been less studied than the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. To characterize the structure of the MSC compartment, it is necessary to trace the fate of distinct mesenchymal cells. To do so, mesenchymal progenitors need to be marked at the single-cell level. A method for individual marking of normal and cancer stem cells based on genetic "barcodes" has been developed for the last 10 years. Such approach has not yet been applied to MSCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using such barcoding strategy to mark MSCs and their descendants, colony-forming units of fibroblasts (CFU-Fs). Adherent cell layers (ACLs) of murine long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMCs) were transduced with a lentiviral library with barcodes consisting of 32 + 3 degenerate nucleotides. Infected ACLs were suspended, and CFU-F derived clones were obtained. DNA was isolated from each individual colony, and barcodes were analyzed in marked CFU-F-derived colonies by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Barcodes were identified in 154 marked colonies. All barcodes appeared to be unique: there were no two distinct colonies bearing the same barcode. It was shown that ACLs included CFU-Fs with different proliferative potential. MSCs are located higher in the hierarchy of mesenchymal progenitors than CFU-Fs, so the presented data indicate that MSCs proliferate rarely in LTBMCs. A method of stable individual marking and comparing the markers in mesenchymal progenitor cells has been developed in this work. We show for the first time that a barcoded library of lentiviruses is an effective tool for studying stromal progenitor cells. PMID:27293094

  3. In vitro evaluation of three different biomaterials as scaffolds for canine mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Câmara Marques Pereira-Junior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro ability the of three different biomaterials - purified hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix and castor oil-based polyurethane - as biocompatible 3D scaffolds for canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC intending bone tissue engineering. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow, characterized and cultivated for seven days with the biomaterials. Cell proliferation and adhesion to the biomaterial surface were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy while differentiation into osteogenic lineage was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and Sp7/Osterix surface antibody marker. RESULTS: The biomaterials allowed cellular growth, attachment and proliferation. Osteogenic differentiation occurred in the presence of hydroxyapatite, and matrix deposition commenced in the presence of the castor oil-based polyurethane. CONCLUSION: All the tested biomaterials may be used as mesenchymal stem cell scaffolds in cell-based orthopedic reconstructive therapy.

  4. Reconstruction of the adenosine system by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huicong Kang; Qi Hu; Xiaoyan Liu; Yinhe Liu; Feng Xu; Xiang Li; Suiqiang Zhu

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the CA3 area of the hippocampus of chronic epilepsy rats kindled by lithium chloride-pilocarpine. Immunofluorescence and western blotting revealed an increase in adenosine A1 receptor expression and a decrease in adenosine A2a receptor expression in the brain tissues of epileptic rats 3 months after transplantation. Moreover, the imbalance in the A1 adenosine receptor/A2a adenosine receptor ratio was improved. Electroencephalograms showed that frequency and amplitude of spikes in the hippocampus and frontal lobe were reduced. These results suggested that mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can reconstruct the normal function of the adenosine system in the brain and greatly improve epileptiform discharges.

  5. Osteogenic commitment of mesenchymal stem cells in apatite nanorod-aligned ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Sun, Zhihui; Li, Yanyan; Hong, Youliang

    2014-12-24

    It is significant to process the clinically used biomaterials into a scaffold with specific nanotopographies, which can act as physical cues to regulate the osteogenic commitment of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) was considered as the processed objective and a facile, hydrothermal method was developed to grow the vertically oriented HAP nanorods in porous HAP ceramics. Experiments demonstrated that the formation of the HAP nanorods in porous ceramics was decided by a novel epitaxial growth mechanism and length of nanorods could be well-controlled by the growth time. Cell experiments demonstrated that such novel stereotopographical cues could regulate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into the osteogenic lineage, thereby displaying that the porous ceramics with the HAP nanorods-aligned stereotopographies have a good prospect for applications in regenerative medicine of hard tissues.

  6. Adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on titanium nanopores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lavenus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are widely used in orthopaedic and dental surgery. Surface properties play a major role in cell and tissue interactions. The adhesion and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells were studied as a function of nanostructures. Titanium surfaces with nanopores 30, 150 and 300 nm in diameter were prepared by physical vapour deposition. PCR arrays indicated that the expression of integrins was modulated by the nanopore size. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs exhibited more branched cell morphology on Ti30 than on other surfaces. Ti30 and Ti150 induced osteoblastic differentiation while Ti300 had a limited effect. Overall, nanopores of 30 nm may promote early osteoblastic differentiation and, consequently, rapid osseointegration of titanium implants.

  7. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells increase dopamine synthesis in the injured striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Huang; Cheng Chang; Jiewen Zhang; Xiaoqun Gao

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that tyrosine hydroxylase or neurturin gene-modified cells transplanted into rats with Parkinson's disease significantly improved behavior and increased striatal dopamine content. In the present study, we transplanted tyrosine hydroxylase and neurturin gene-modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the damaged striatum of Parkinson's disease model rats. Several weeks after cell transplantation, in addition to an improvement of motor function, tyrosine hydroxylase and neurturin proteins were up-regulated in the injured striatum, and importantly, levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid increased significantly. Furthermore, the density of the D2 dopamine receptor in the postsynaptic membranes of dopaminergic neurons was decreased. These results indicate that transplantation of tyrosine hydroxylase and neurturin gene-modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells increases dopamine synthesis and significantly improves the behavior of rats with Parkinson's disease.

  8. Carriers in mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast mineralization-State-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Hørberg, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Tissue engineering is a new way to regenerate bone tissue, where osteogenic capable cells combine with an appropriate scaffolding material. Our aim was in a Medline Search to evaluate osteoblast mineralization in vitro and in vivo including gene expressing combining mesenchymal stem cells...... (MSCs) and five different carriers, titanium, collagen, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate and polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer for purpose of a meta-or a descriptive analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search included the following MeSH words in different combinations-mesenchymal stem...... cells, alkaline phosphatase, bone regeneration, tissue engineering, drug carriers, tissue scaffolds, titanium, collagen, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphates and polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer. RESULTS: Two out of 80 articles included numerical values and as control, carriers and cells...

  9. Cultivation and differentiation change nuclear localization of chromosome centromeres in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana I Voldgorn

    Full Text Available Chromosome arrangement in the interphase nucleus is not accidental. Strong evidences support that nuclear localization is an important mechanism of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The purpose of this research was to identify differences in the localization of centromeres of chromosomes 6, 12, 18 and X in human mesenchymal stem cells depending on differentiation and cultivating time. We analyzed centromere positions in more than 4000 nuclei in 19 mesenchymal stem cell cultures before and after prolonged cultivation and after differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic directions. We found a centromere reposition of HSAX at late passages and after differentiation in osteogenic direction as well as of HSA12 and HSA18 after adipogenic differentiation. The observed changes of the nuclear structure are new nuclear characteristics of the studied cells which may reflect regulatory changes of gene expression during the studied processes.

  10. Perspectives on the Use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Plock

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructive transplantation has emerged as clinical reality over the past decade. Utilizing standard immunosuppressive drugs has proven feasible in face and hand transplantation to achieve long-term graft acceptance. As vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation is not a life-saving procedure compared to solid organ transplantation alternative protocols with less long-term side effects are even more desirable. Allograft tolerance is the holy grail of many cell-based concepts and recent data in the field is most promising. Immunomodulation with mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue has shown high potential in this respect. This article is aiming at giving an overview on the experimental studies available, the scientific background and clinical applications. Furthermore we address essential questions prior to the use of mesenchymal stem cells in reconstructive allotransplantation.

  11. Hydrogel-Based Nanocomposites and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Promising Synergistic Strategy for Neurodegenerative Disorders Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Albani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel-based materials are widely employed in the biomedical field. With regard to central nervous system (CNS neurodegenerative disorders, the design of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels for in situ drug or cell release represents an interesting and minimally invasive solution that might play a key role in the development of successful treatments. In particular, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels can be designed as specific injectable tools and loaded with nanoparticles (NPs, to improve and to tailor their viscoelastic properties upon injection and release profile. An intriguing application is hydrogel loading with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that are a very promising therapeutic tool for neurodegenerative or traumatic disorders of the CNS. This multidisciplinary review will focus on the basic concepts to design acellular and cell-loaded materials with specific and tunable rheological and functional properties. The use of hydrogel-based nanocomposites and mesenchymal stem cells as a synergistic strategy for nervous tissue applications will be then discussed.

  12. Reprogramming of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into functional insulin-producing cells by chemical regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiwei; Ye, Lingling; Liu, Hong; Liu, Xingmao; Li, Shichong; Chen, Zhaolie

    2012-01-01

    Beta-cell transplantation is considered to be the most effective approach to cure type 1 diabetes (T1D). Unfortunately, the scarce availability of donor tissue limits the applicability of this therapy. Recent stem cell research progress shows stem cell therapy may be a potential means to solve this problem. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewable and multipotent adult stem cells which can differentiate into the three germ layers. Here we aimed to investigate wheth...

  13. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with minocycline improve spinal cord injury in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dayong; Zeng, Wei; Fu, Yunfeng; Gao, Meng; Lv, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combination with minocycline improve spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat model. In the present study, the Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, SCI group, BMSCs group, Minocycline group and BMSCs + minocycline group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and MPO activity were used to assess the effect of combination therapy on locomotion and neutrophil infiltration. ...

  14. Factors affecting directional migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the injured spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Cheng, Jieping; Yang, Maoguang; Qi, Zhiping; Hou, Tingting; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B plays an important role in axon guidance and neuronal migration. In the present study, we sought to discover the mechanisms underlying microtubule-associated protein 1B mediation of axon guidance and neuronal migration. We exposed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to okadaic acid or N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (an inhibitor and stimulator, respectively, of protein phosphatase 2A) for 24 hours. The expression of the phosphorylated form of type I microtubul...

  15. Spinal cord injury in rats treated using bone marrow mesenchymal stem-cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu-Bing; Jia, Quan-Zhang; Li, Dong-Jun; Sun, Jing-Hai; Xi, Shuang; Liu, Li-ping; Gao, De-Xuan; Jiang, Da-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem-cell transplantation (BMSCs) in repairing acute spinal cord damage in rats and to examine the potential beneficial effects. 192 Wistar rats were randomized into 8 groups. Spinal cord injury was created. Behavior and limb functions were scored. Repairing effects of BMSCs transplantation was evaluated and compared. In vitro 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-tagged BMSCs were observed, and whether they migrated t...

  16. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A New Therapeutic Option for Tooth Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanwei Chen; Yongchun Yu; Lin Chen; Lanfeng Ye; Junhui Cui; Quan Sun; Kaide Li; Zhiyong Li; Lei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Tooth regeneration is considered to be an optimistic approach to replace current treatments for tooth loss. It is important to determine the most suitable seed cells for tooth regeneration. Recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been regarded as a promising candidate for tissue regeneration. However, it has not been reported whether hUCMSCs can be employed in tooth regeneration. Here, we report that hUCMSCs can be induced into odontoblast-like cells in vitro and ...

  17. Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells induce mechanically stable posterior spine fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sheyn, D; Rüthemann, M; Mizrahi, O; Kallai, I; Zilberman, Y.; Tawackoli, W; Kanim, L E A; Zhao, L; Bae, H; Pelled, G.; Snedeker, J G; Gazit, D.

    2010-01-01

    Most spine fusion procedures involve the use of prosthetic fixation devices combined with autologous bone grafts rather than biological treatment. We had shown that spine fusion could be achieved by injection of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the paraspinal muscle. In this study, we hypothesized that posterior spinal fusion achieved using genetically modified MSCs would be mechanically comparable to that realized using a mechanical fixation....

  18. Expressions of Collagen I and III in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Co-cultured with Ligament Fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Said; SLIMANI

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe poor or failed healing of some tendons and ligaments leads to the requirement of surgical replacement of grafts. Tissue engineering offers the appealing potential to improve the reconstruction of tissues presenting acceptable biological and mechanical properties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to differentiate into several cells. The implantation of MSCs into damaged rabbit Achilles tendons significantly improved the structural properties of the neo-tissues, which suggests t...

  19. Congenic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Reverses Hyperglycemia in Experimental Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jurewicz, Mollie; Yang, Sunmi; Augello, Andrea; Jonathan G Godwin; Moore, Robert F.; Azzi, Jamil; Fiorina, Paolo; Atkinson, Mark; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Abdi, Reza

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A number of clinical trials are underway to test whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are effective in treating various diseases, including type 1 diabetes. Although this cell therapy holds great promise, the optimal source of MSCs has yet to be determined with respect to major histocompatibility complex matching. Here, we examine this question by testing the ability of congenic MSCs, obtained from the NOR mouse strain, to reverse recent-onset type 1 diabetes in NOD mice, as well a...

  20. HNF-4α determines hepatic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mong-Liang; Chen; Kuan-Der; Lee; Huei-Chun; Huang; Yue-Lin; Tsai; Yi-Chieh; Wu; Tzer-Min; Kuo; Cheng-Po; Hu; Chungming; Chang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation status and key factors to facilitate hepatic differentiation of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). METHODS: Human MSCs derived from bone marrow were induced into hepatocyte-like cells following a previously published protocol. The differentiation status of the hepatocyte-like cells was compared with various human hepatoma cell lines. Overexpression of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α was mediated by adenovirus infection of these hepatocyte-like...

  1. Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated after Manual or Water-jet-Assisted Liposuction Display Similar Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bony, Claire; Cren, Mailys; Domergue, Sophie; Toupet, Karine; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation in many clinical trials for their therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. One of the main sources of MSCs is the adipose tissue, which is mainly obtained by manual liposuction using a cannula linked to a syringe. However, in the past years, a number of devices for fat liposuction intended for clinical use have been commercialized but few papers have compared these procedure...

  2. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Reactions in Macrophages and Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dequan Li; Cong Wang; Chuang Chi; Yuanyuan Wang; Jing Zhao; Jun Fang; Jingye Pan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) accompanied by trauma can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and even death. Early inhibition of the inflammation is necessary for damage control. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as a novel therapy modality, have been shown to reduce inflammatory responses in human and animal models. Methods. In this study, we used Western blot, quantitative PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the a...

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell spheroids exhibit enhanced in-vitro and in-vivo osteoregenerative potential

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Ohno, Jun; Sato, Ayako; Kido, Hirofumi; Fukushima, Tadao

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a favored cell source for regenerative medicine because of their multilinage potential. However, the conventional monolayer technique used to culture MSCs, inadequately overcomes their low differentiation capacity. Culture of MSCs in multicellular spheroids, more accurately mimics the in-vivo microenvironment; thus, resolving this problem. In this study, we assessed whether the osteoregenerative potential of MSC spheroids is greater than that of mo...

  4. Effects of 5-Azacytidine on Differentiation of Ovine Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani L; Rahmani H; Joupari MD; Ghaneialvar H; Amirhossein Mahdavi; Shamsara M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential of self-renewal and differentiation into many cell types and can be used for cells therapy. Addition of epigenetic drugs can also convert these cells into cardiomyocytes. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5-azacytidine on differentiation of sheep fetal bone marrow MSCs into cardiomyocytes. Materials and Methods: Isolated bone sheep fetal marrow MSCs was cultured in DMEM: F12 medium. Passaged-...

  5. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in mineralized alginate matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Marita Westhrin; Minli Xie; Olderøy, Magnus Ø.; Pawel Sikorski; Strand, Berit L; Therese Standal

    2015-01-01

    Mineralized biomaterials are promising for use in bone tissue engineering. Culturing osteogenic cells in such materials will potentially generate biological bone grafts that may even further augment bone healing. Here, we studied osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an alginate hydrogel system where the cells were co-immobilized with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for gradual mineralization of the microenvironment. MSC were embedded in unmodified alginate beads and ...

  6. Neural-Induced Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Cochlear Cell Regeneration in Deaf Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sujeong; Cho, Hyong-Ho; Kim, Song-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Jun, Jae Yeoul; Park, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Han-Seong; Cho, Yong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In mammals, cochlear hair cell loss is irreversible and may result in a permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Secondary to this hair cell loss, a progressive loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is presented. In this study, we have investigated the effects of neural-induced human mesenchymal stem cells (NI-hMSCs) from human bone marrow on sensory neuronal regeneration from neomycin treated deafened guinea pig cochleae. Methods HMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow which was ob...

  7. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with immunosuppressive activity can be easily isolated from dental pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierdomenico, Laura; Bonsi, Laura; Calvitti, Mario;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently being investigated in preclinical and clinical settings because of their multipotent differentiative capacity or, alternatively, their immunosuppressive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental pulp (DP) as a potent...... characteristics of DP-MSCs may prompt future studies aimed at using these cells in the treatment or prevention of T-cell alloreactivity in hematopoietic or solid organ allogeneic transplantation....

  8. MRI of magnetically labeled mesenchymal stem cells in hepatic failure model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyu; Ri; Son; Se; Young; Chung; Hyo-Cheol; Kim; Hoe; Suk; Kim; Seung; Hong; Choi; Jeong; Min; Lee; Woo; Kyung; Moon

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To track intravascularly transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an experimental rabbit model of hepatic failure.METHODS:Human MSCs labeled with FDA-approved SPIO particles (Feridex) were transplanted via the mes-enteric vein into rabbits (n=16) with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure.Magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were performed with a 3.0 T clinical scanner immediately before and 2 h and 1,...

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells improve cardiac conduction by upregulation of connexin 43 through paracrine signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Mureli, Shwetha; Gans, Christopher P.; Bare, Dan J; Geenen, David L.; Kumar, Nalin M.; Banach, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were shown to improve cell survival and alleviate cardiac arrhythmias when transplanted into cardiac tissue; however, little is known about the mechanism by which MSCs modify the electrophysiological properties of cardiac tissue. We aimed to distinguish the influence of cell-cell coupling between myocytes and MSCs from that of MSC-derived paracrine factors on the spontaneous activity and conduction velocity (θ) of multicellular cardiomyocyte preparations. HL-1 ce...

  10. Canine and Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Grown in Serum Free Media Have Altered Immunophenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Kaitlin C.; Kol, Amir; Shahbenderian, Salpi; Granick, Jennifer L.; Walker, Naomi J.; Borjesson, Dori L.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is being increasingly used to treat dogs and horses with naturally-occurring diseases. However these animals also serve as critical large animal models for ongoing translation of cell therapy products to the human market. MSC manufacture for clinical use mandates improvement in cell culture systems to meet demands for higher MSC numbers and removal of xeno-proteins (i.e. fetal bovine serum, FBS). While serum-free media (SFM) is commercially available, its a...

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells: paracrine signaling and differentiation during cutaneous wound repair

    OpenAIRE

    Hocking, Anne M.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous wounds persist as a health care crisis in spite of increased understanding of the cellular and molecular responses to injury. Contributing significantly to this crisis is the lack of reliable therapies for treatment of wounds that are slow to heal including chronic wounds and deep dermal wounds that develop hypertrophic scars. This article will review the growing evidence demonstrating the promise of multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal (MSCs) for the treatment of impaired wound hea...

  12. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells protect against retinal ganglion cell loss in aged rats with glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Y; Tan HB; Wang XM; Rong H; Cui HP; Cui H

    2013-01-01

    Ying Hu,1,2 Hai Bo Tan,1 Xin Mei Wang,3 Hua Rong,1 Hong Ping Cui,1 Hao Cui2 Departments of Ophthalmology, 1Shanghai East Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, 2First Affiliated Hospital, 3Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People's Republic of China Abstract: Glaucoma is a common eye disease in the aged population and has severe consequences. The present study examined the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation i...

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell-laden anti-inflammatory hydrogel enhances diabetic wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Shixuan Chen; Junbin Shi; Min Zhang; Yinghua Chen; Xueer Wang; Lei Zhang; Zhihui Tian; Yuan Yan; Qinglin Li; Wen Zhong; Malcolm Xing; Lu Zhang; Lin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to permit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to reach their full potential in the treatment of chronic wounds. A biocompatible multifunctional crosslinker based temperature sensitive hydrogel was developed to deliver BMSCs, which improve the chronic inflammation microenvironments of wounds. A detailed in vitro investigation found that the hydrogel is suitable for BMSC encapsulation and can promote BMSC secretion of TGF-β1 and bFGF. In vivo, full-thickness...

  14. Biodistribution of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in a Preclinical Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Sensebé; Sandrine Fleury-Cappellesso

    2013-01-01

    Due to their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treatment of immune disorders and tissue repair. The increasing uses of MSCs lead to the development of production processes that need to be in accordance with good manufacturing practices (GMP). In Europe, MSCs are somatic cell-therapy products, referred to as advanced-therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), and in the United States MSCs must comply with current good ti...

  15. Concise Review: Clinical Translation of Wound Healing Therapies Based on Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Wesley M.; Nesti, Leon J.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2011-01-01

    There is enormous worldwide demand for therapies to promote the efficient resolution of hard-to-heal wounds with minimal appearance of scarring. Recent in vitro studies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have identified numerous mechanisms by which these cells can promote the process of wound healing, and there is significant interest in the clinical translation of an MSC-based therapy to promote dermal regeneration. This review provides a systematic analysis of recent preclinical and clinica...

  16. Activity of mesenchymal stem cells in therapies for chronic skin wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Nuschke, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic or non-healing skin wounds present an ongoing challenge in advanced wound care, particularly as the number of patients increases while technology aimed at stimulating wound healing in these cases remains inefficient. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have proved to be an attractive cell type for various cell therapies due to their ability to differentiate into various cell lineages, multiple donor tissue types, and relative resilience in ex-vivo expansion, as well as immunomodulatory effe...

  17. Synovial fluid and synovial membrane mesenchymal stem cells: latest discoveries and therapeutic perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Neto, Vivaldo Moura; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, and even myoblasts. Most studies have focused on finding MSCs in different parts of the body for medical treatment. Every joint structure, including bone, joint fat, articular cartilage, and synovium, potentially contains resident MSCs. Recently, a progenitor cell population has been found in synovial fluid and showed similarities with both bone marrow and synovial membrane MSCs. Synov...

  18. Mechanical fibrinogen-depletion supports heparin-free mesenchymal stem cell propagation in human platelet lysate

    OpenAIRE

    Laner-Plamberger, Sandra; Lener, Thomas; Schmid, Doris; Streif, Doris A.; Salzer, Tina; Öller, Michaela; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Fischer, Thorsten; Jacobs, Volker R.; Schallmoser, Katharina; Gimona, Mario; Rohde, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) is an efficient alternative to xenogenic supplements for ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in clinical studies. Currently, porcine heparin is used in pHPL-supplemented medium to prevent clotting due to plasmatic coagulation factors. We therefore searched for an efficient and reproducible medium preparation method that avoids clot formation while omitting animal-derived heparin. Methods We established a protocol to deplete fibrino...

  19. Transcriptomic portrait of human Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem cells isolated from bone marrow and placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Roson-Burgo, Beatriz; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin; del Cañizo, Consuelo; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent cells that behave in a highly plastic manner, inhabiting the stroma of several tissues. The potential utility of MSCs is nowadays strongly investigated in the field of regenerative medicine and cell therapy, although many questions about their molecular identity remain uncertain. Results MSC primary cultures from human bone marrow (BM) and placenta (PL) were derived and verified by their immunophenotype standard patt...

  20. Micropatterned 3-Dimensional Hydrogel System to Study Human Endothelial-Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Trkov, Sasa; Eng, George; Di Liddo, Rosa; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    The creation of vascularized engineered tissues of clinically relevant size is a major challenge of tissue engineering. While it is known that endothelial and mural vascular cells are integral to the formation of stable blood vessels, the specific cell type and optimal conditions for engineered vascular networks are poorly understood. To this end, we investigated the vasculogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations derived from three different sources: (i) bone marrow a...

  1. Mechanical unloading of bone in microgravity reduces mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Blaber

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading of mammalian tissues is a potent promoter of tissue growth and regeneration, whilst unloading in microgravity can cause reduced tissue regeneration, possibly through effects on stem cell tissue progenitors. To test the specific hypothesis that mechanical unloading alters differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell lineages, we studied cellular and molecular aspects of how bone marrow in the mouse proximal femur responds to unloading in microgravity. Trabecular and cortical endosteal bone surfaces in the femoral head underwent significant bone resorption in microgravity, enlarging the marrow cavity. Cells isolated from the femoral head marrow compartment showed significant down-regulation of gene expression markers for early mesenchymal and hematopoietic differentiation, including FUT1(−6.72, CSF2(−3.30, CD90(−3.33, PTPRC(−2.79, and GDF15(−2.45, but not stem cell markers, such as SOX2. At the cellular level, in situ histological analysis revealed decreased megakaryocyte numbers whilst erythrocytes were increased 2.33 fold. Furthermore, erythrocytes displayed elevated fucosylation and clustering adjacent to sinuses forming the marrow–blood barrier, possibly providing a mechanistic basis for explaining spaceflight anemia. Culture of isolated bone marrow cells immediately after microgravity exposure increased the marrow progenitor's potential for mesenchymal differentiation into in-vitro mineralized bone nodules, and hematopoietic differentiation into osteoclasts, suggesting an accumulation of undifferentiated progenitors during exposure to microgravity. These results support the idea that mechanical unloading of mammalian tissues in microgravity is a strong inhibitor of tissue growth and regeneration mechanisms, acting at the level of early mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

  2. Tracking Intravenous Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Model of Elastase-Induced Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, You-sun; Kim, Ji-Young; Shin, Dong-Myung; Huh, Jin Won; Lee, Sei Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow or adipose tissue can successfully repair emphysematous animal lungs, which is a characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we describe the cellular distribution of MSCs that were intravenously injected into mice with elastase-induced emphysema. The distributions were also compared to the distributions in control mice without emphysema. Methods We used fluorescence optical imaging with quantum dots (QDs) to...

  3. Exosomes Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Acute Myocardial Ischemic Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Zhao; Xiaoxian Sun; Wenming Cao; Jie Ma; Li Sun; Hui Qian; Wei Zhu; Wenrong Xu

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating whether human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell- (hucMSC-) derived exosomes (hucMSC-exosomes) have a protective effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Exosomes were characterized under transmission electron microscopy and the particles of exosomes were further examined through nanoparticle tracking analysis. Exosomes (400 μg protein) were intravenously administrated immediately following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arte...

  4. Neuronal Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Exosomes Derived from Differentiating Neuronal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Yuji S.; Qiaobing Xu

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes deliver functional proteins and genetic materials to neighboring cells, and have potential applications for tissue regeneration. One possible mechanism of exosome-promoted tissue regeneration is through the delivery of microRNA (miRNA). In this study, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from neuronal progenitor cells contain miRNAs that promote neuronal differentiation. We treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) daily with exosomes derived from PC12 cells, a neuronal cell line, for 1...

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Protect Against Acute Tubular Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Stefania; Grange, Cristina; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Calogero, Raffaele A.; Saviozzi, Silvia; Collino, Federica; Morando, Laura; Busca, Alessandro; Falda, Michele; Bussolati, Benedetta; Tetta, Ciro; Camussi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improves the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). The mechanism may involve paracrine factors promoting proliferation of surviving intrinsic epithelial cells, but these factors remain unknown. In the current study, we found that microvesicles derived from human bone marrow MSCs stimulated proliferation in vitro and conferred resistance of tubular epithelial cells to apoptosis. The biologic action of microvesicles required their CD44- and β1-...

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tumor-Targeted Gene Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Niess, Hanno; Conrad, Claudius; Schwarz, Bettina; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Huss, Ralf; Peter J Nelson; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem (or stromal) cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic progenitor cells that can be obtained from bone marrow aspirates or adipose tissue, expanded and genetically modified in vitro, and then used for cancer therapeutic strategies in vivo. Here, we review available data regarding the application of MSC-based tumor-targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer, provide an overview of the general history of MSC-based gene therapy in cancer research, and discuss potential problems associa...

  7. The modulation of canine mesenchymal stem cells by nano-topographic cues

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Joshua A.; Ly, Irene; Borjesson, Dori L.; Nealey, Paul F.; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cellular therapeutic for the treatment of a variety of disorders. On transplantation, MSCs interact with diverse extracellular matrices (ECMs) that vary dramatically in topographic feature type, size and surface order. In order to investigate the impact of these topographic cues, surfaces were fabricated with either isotropically ordered holes or anisotropically ordered ridges and grooves. To simulate the biologically relevant nano through m...

  8. Osteogenic Differentiation of Miniature Pig Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 2D and 3D Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Juhásová, J. (Jana); Juhás, Š. (Štefan); Klíma, J.; Strnádel, J. (Ján); Holubová, M. (Monika); Motlík, J. (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been repeatedly shown to be able to repair bone defects. The aim of this study was to characterize the osteogenic differentiation of miniature pig MSCs and markers of this differentiation in vitro. Flow-cytometrically characterized MSCs were seeded on cultivation plastic (collagen I and vitronectin coated/uncoated) or plasma clot (PC)/plasma-alginate clot (PAC) scaffolds and differentiated in osteogenic medium. During three weeks of differentiation, the form...

  9. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates axonal injury in stroke rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei; Yu, Xinguang; HAN, XIAO; Hou, Jincai; Guo, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural functional recovery after stroke, but the neurorestorative mechanisms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that functional recovery of myelinated axons may be one of underlying mechanisms. In this study, an ischemia/reperfusion rat model was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion method. Rats were used to test the hypothesis that intravenous transplantation of human ...

  10. Comparative characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from different age groups of cynomolgus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Y.Alex

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BM-MSCs) are a potential tool for cell therapy and tissue engineering.In this study,we carried on a comparative study of the characteristics of MSCs from different age cynomolgus monkeys.A variety of factors,including donor age,must be considered before further applications,and various tests should be used to properly assess MSCs before the clinical application,especially when a prolonged culture and ex vivo expansion is necessary.

  11. [THE AGING OF MICROVASCULAR NETWORK FORMED IN CORTEX FOLLOWING INTRACEREBRAL TRANSPLANTATION OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, I B; Anisimov, S V; Puzanov, M V; Sergeev, I V; Dvoretskiĭ, D P

    2015-01-01

    Using a TV device to study microcirculation in brain we found that intracerebral transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells to 12-months old rats led to a significant increase (circa 1,5-fold times) of microvascular density in pia tissue and to increased constriction reactions of pia arterioles in response to noradrenalin application on a brain surface. Both microvascular density and pia arterioles reactivity was completely preserved in aging until 22-24 months. PMID:26390610

  12. β-Cell Regeneration Mediated by Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Milanesi; Jang-Won Lee; Zhenhua Li; Stefano Da Sacco; Valentina Villani; Vanessa Cervantes; Laura Perin; Yu, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to ameliorate diabetes in animal models. The mechanism, however, remains largely unknown. An unanswered question is whether BMSCs are able to differentiate into β-cells in vivo, or whether BMSCs are able to mediate recovery and/or regeneration of endogenous β-cells. Here we examined these questions by testing the ability of hBMSCs genetically modified to transiently express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or pancreatic-duode...

  13. Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Si, Yiling; Zhao, Yali; Hao, Haojie; Liu, Jiejie; Guo, Yelei; Mu, Yiming; Shen, Jing; Cheng, Yu; Fu, Xiaobing; Han, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to effectively lower blood glucose in diabetic individuals, but the mechanism involved could not be adequately explained by their potential role in promoting islet regeneration. We therefore hypothesized that infused MSCs might also contribute to amelioration of the insulin resistance of peripheral insulin target tissues. To test the hypothesis, we induced a diabetic rat model by high-fat diet/streptozotocin (STZ) administration, perfor...

  14. Hijacking the Cellular Mail: Exosome Mediated Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuvaran Narayanan; Chun-Chieh Huang; Sriram Ravindran

    2016-01-01

    Bone transplantation is one of the most widely performed clinical procedures. Consequently, bone regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and tissue engineering strategies is one of the most widely researched fields in regenerative medicine. Recent scientific consensus indicates that a biomimetic approach is required to achieve proper regeneration of any tissue. Exosomes are nanovesicles secreted by cells that act as messengers that influence cell fate. Although exosomal function has been st...

  15. Karyotype stability of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells during in vitro culture

    OpenAIRE

    RUAN, ZHONG-BAO; Zhu, Li; YIN, YI-GANG; Chen, Ge-cai

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chromosomes of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) change following in vitro culture for several generations. In the present study, umbilical cords from two healthy infants following cesarean delivery were collected aseptically and hUCMSCs were isolated by digestion with collagenase and trypsin, and then cultured in vitro. hUCMSCs with fibroblastic morphology were presented from the human umbilical cord tissue afte...

  16. Laser Phototherapy Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survival in Response to the Dental Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Márcia Alves Diniz; Adriana Bona Matos; Márcia Martins Marques

    2015-01-01

    Background. We investigated the influence of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the survival of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) submitted to substances leached from dental adhesives. Method. MSCs were isolated and characterized. Oral mucosa fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells were used as comparative controls. Cultured medium conditioned with two adhesive systems was applied to the cultures. Cell monolayers were exposed or not to LPT. Laser irradiations were performed using a red laser (GaAlAs...

  17. Differentiation of adipocytes and osteocytes from human adipose and placental mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahra; Afshari, Jalil Tavakkol; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Alamdari, Daryoush Hamidi; Ganjibakhsh, Meysam; Zarmehri, Azam Moradi; Jangjoo, Ali; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ameri, Masoumeh Arab; Moinzadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be isolated from adult tissues such as adipose tissue and other sources. Among these sources, adipose tissue (because of easy access) and placenta (due to its immunomodulatory properties, in addition to other useful properties), have attracted more attention in terms of research. The isolation and comparison of MSC from these two sources provides a proper source for clinical experimentation. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristic...

  18. Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell: A Source for Cell-Based Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ayatollahi, M.; Geramizadeh, B; Zakerinia, M; M Ramzi; Yaghobi, R.; Hadadi, P.; Rezvani, A. R.; Aghdai, M.; N Azarpira; Karimi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into many cell types, and modulate immune responses, makes them an attractive therapeutic tool for cell transplantation and tissue engineering. Objective: This project was designed for isolation, culture, and characterization of human marrow-derived MSCs based on the immunophenotypic markers and the differentiation potential. Methods: Bone marrow of healthy donors was aspirated from the iliac crest. Mononuclear cells we...

  19. Isolation, culture and characterization of postnatal human umbilical vein-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Kadivar; Shohreh Khatami; Yousef Mortazavi; Masoud Soleimani; Mohammad Taghikhani; Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of reports that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from the placenta/umbilical cord stroma, the present study was undertaken to isolate and characterize MSCs from the human umbilical cord veins. In this investigation, a cell population was isolated which was derived from the endothelium/subendothelium layers of 20 umbilical cord veins obtained from term deliveries using a solution of 0.1% collagenase type IV. Results suggest that these cells possess morphological, immu...

  20. Inhibition of Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Exosomes Secreted from Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Zhang; Meng Xiang; Dan Meng; Ning Sun; Sifeng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes secreted by mesenchymal stem cells have shown great therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. In this study, we performed meta-analysis to assess the clinical effectiveness of using exosomes in ischemia/reperfusion injury based on the reports published between January 2000 and September 2015 and indexed in the PUBMED and Web of Science databases. The effect of exosomes on heart function was evaluated according to the following parameters: the area at risk as a percentage of the...

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemann, Ronald, E-mail: ronald.biemann@medizin.uni-halle.de [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Anne [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Alexander [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Riemann, Dagmar [Department of Immunology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Knelangen, Julia [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Koch, Holger [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Bernd [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  2. Neural Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Cerebrospinal Fluid

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    Shirin FARIVAR*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: : Farivar S, Mohamadzade Z, Shiari R, Fahimzad AR. Neural Differentiation of Human Umbilical CordMesenchymal Stem Cells by Cerebrospinal Fluid. . Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter; 9(1:87-93.  Abstract Objective Wharton’s jelly (WJ is the gelatinous connective tissue from the umbilical cord. It is composed of mesenchymal stem cells, collagen fibers, and proteoglycans. The stem cells in WJ have properties that are interesting for research. For example, they are simple to harvest by noninvasive methods, provide large numbers of cells without risk to the donor, the stem cell population may be expanded in vitro, cryogenically stored, thawed, genetically manipulated, and differentiated in vitro. In our study, we investigated the effect of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF on neural differentiation of human WJ stem cells.Material & Methods The cells in passage 2 were induced into neural differentiation with different concentrations of human cerebrospinal fluid. Differentiation along with neural lineage was documented by expression of three neural markers: Nestin, Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 (MAP2, and Glial Fibrillary Astrocytic Protein (GFAP for 21 days. The expression of the identified genes was confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR.Results Treatment with 100 and 200μg/ml CSF resulted in the expression of GFAP and glial cells marker on days 14 and 21. The expression of neural-specific genes following CSF treatment was dose-dependent and time-dependent. Treatment of the cells with a twofold concentration of CSF, led to the expression of MAP2 on day 14 of induction. No expression of GFAP was detected before day 14 or MAP2 before day 21, which shows the importance of the treatment period. In the present study, expression analysis for the known neural markers: Nestin, GFAP, and MAP2 using RT-PCR were performed. The data demonstrated that CSF could play a role as a strong inducer.Conclusion RT-PCR showed that

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells with rhBMP-2 inhibits the growth of canine osteosarcoma cells

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    Grassi Rici Rose

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to a unique group of proteins that includes the growth factor TGF-β. BMPs play important roles in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and inhibition of cell growth. They also participate in the maturation of several cell types, depending on the microenvironment and interactions with other regulatory factors. Depending on their concentration gradient, the BMPs can attract various types of cells and act as chemotactic, mitogenic, or differentiation agents. BMPs can interfere with cell proliferation and the formation of cartilage and bone. In addition, BMPs can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into various cell types, including chondroblasts and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of treatment with rhBMP-2 on the proliferation of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs and the tumor suppression properties of rhBMP-2 in canine osteocarcoma (OST cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were isolated from biopsies and excisions of animals with osteosarcoma and were characterized by the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute. The mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of canine fetuses (cMSCs and belong to the University of São Paulo, College of Veterinary Medicine (FMVZ-USP stem cell bank. After expansion, the cells were cultured in a 12-well Transwell system; cells were treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with rhBMP2. Expression of the intracytoplasmic and nuclear markers such as Caspase-3, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Ki-67, p53, Oct3/4, Nanog, Stro-1 were performed by flow citometry. Results We evaluated the regenerative potential of in vitro treatment with rhBMP-2 and found that both osteogenic induction and tumor regression occur in stem cells from canine bone marrow. rhBMP-2 inhibits the proliferation capacity of OST cells by mechanisms of apoptosis and tumor suppression mediated by p

  4. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Zhang; Xijing He; Haopeng Li; Guoyu Wang

    2013-01-01

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was injected on the next day in the combination group. At 14 days, the mean Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score of the rats in the combination group was higher than other groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the necrotic area was significantly reduced in the combination group compared with other groups. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan double staining showed that the damage zone of astrocytic scars was significantly reduced without the cavity in the combination group. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/growth associated protein-43 double immunostaining revealed that positive fibers traversed the damage zone in the combination group. These results suggest that the combination of chondroitinase ABC and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury.

  5. Clinical Grade Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Banking

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    Bagher Larijani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, our aim was to produce a generation of GMP-grade adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for clinical applications. According to our results, we fulfill to establish consistent and also reproducible current good manufacturing practice (cGMP compliant adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells from five female donors. The isolated cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and characterized by standard methods. Moreover, karyotyping was performed to evaluate chromosomal stability. Mean of donors’ age was 47.6 ± 8.29 year, mean of cell viability was 95.6 ± 1.51%, and cell count was between 9×106 and 14×106 per microliter with the mean of 12.2×106 ± 2863564.21 per microliter. The main aim of this project was demonstrating the feasibility of cGMP-compliant and clinical grade adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells preparation and banking for clinical cell transplantation trials.

  6. Mesenchymal and stemness circulating tumor cells in early breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial event likely involved in dissemination of epithelial cancer cells. This process enables them to acquire migratory/invasive properties, contributing to tumor and metastatic spread. To know if this event is an early one in breast cancer, we developed a clinical trial. The aim of this protocol was to detect circulating tumor cells endowed with mesenchymal and/or stemness characteristics, at the time of initial diagnosis. Breast cancer patients (n = 61), without visceral or bone metastasis were enrolled and analysis of these dedifferentiated circulating tumor cells (ddCTC) was realized. AdnaGen method was used for enrichment cell selection. Then, ddCTC were characterized by RT-PCR study of the following genes: PI3Kα, Akt-2, Twist1 (EMT markers) and ALDH1, Bmi1 and CD44 (stemness indicators). Among the studied primary breast cancer cohort, presence of ddCTC was detected in 39% of cases. This positivity is independant from tumor clinicopathological factors apart from the lymph node status. Our data uniquely demonstrated that in vivo EMT occurs in the primary tumors and is associated with an enhanced ability of tumor cells to intravasate in the early phase of cancer disease. These results suggest that analysis of circulating tumor cells focused on cells showing mesenchymal or stemness characteristics might facilitate assessment of new drugs in clinical trials

  7. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-11-09

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model.

  8. Neuromuscular Regeneration: Perspective on the Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Secretion Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Tiago; Ivanova, Galya; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are posing as a promising character in the most recent therapeutic strategies and, since their discovery, extensive knowledge on their features and functions has been gained. In recent years, innovative sources have been disclosed in alternative to the bone marrow, conveying their associated ethical concerns and ease of harvest, such as the umbilical cord tissue and the dental pulp. These are also amenable of cryopreservation and thawing for desired purposes, in benefit of the donor itself or other patients in pressing need. These sources present promising possibilities in becoming useful cell sources for therapeutic applications in the forthcoming years. Effective and potential applications of these cellular-based strategies for the regeneration of peripheral nerve are overviewed, documenting recent advances and identified issues for this research area in the near future. Finally, besides the differentiation capacities attributed to mesenchymal stem cells, advances in the recognition of their effective mode of action in the regenerative theatre have led to a new area of interest: the mesenchymal stem cells' secretome. The paracrine modulatory pathway appears to be a major mechanism by which these are beneficial to nerve regeneration and comprehension on the specific growth factors, cytokine, and extracellular molecules secretion profiles is therefore of great interest.

  9. Neuromuscular Regeneration: Perspective on the Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Secretion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Caseiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells are posing as a promising character in the most recent therapeutic strategies and, since their discovery, extensive knowledge on their features and functions has been gained. In recent years, innovative sources have been disclosed in alternative to the bone marrow, conveying their associated ethical concerns and ease of harvest, such as the umbilical cord tissue and the dental pulp. These are also amenable of cryopreservation and thawing for desired purposes, in benefit of the donor itself or other patients in pressing need. These sources present promising possibilities in becoming useful cell sources for therapeutic applications in the forthcoming years. Effective and potential applications of these cellular-based strategies for the regeneration of peripheral nerve are overviewed, documenting recent advances and identified issues for this research area in the near future. Finally, besides the differentiation capacities attributed to mesenchymal stem cells, advances in the recognition of their effective mode of action in the regenerative theatre have led to a new area of interest: the mesenchymal stem cells’ secretome. The paracrine modulatory pathway appears to be a major mechanism by which these are beneficial to nerve regeneration and comprehension on the specific growth factors, cytokine, and extracellular molecules secretion profiles is therefore of great interest.

  10. Transplanted Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Memory in Rat Models of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Babaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs grafts on cognition deficit in chemically and age-induced Alzheimer's models of rats. In the first experiments aged animals (30 months were tested in Morris water maze (MWM and divided into two groups: impaired memory and unimpaired memory. Impaired groups were divided into two groups and cannulated bilaterally at the CA1 of the hippocampus for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (500×103/ and PBS (phosphate buffer saline. In the second experiment, Ibotenic acid (Ibo was injected bilaterally into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM of young rats (3 months and animals were tested in MWM. Then, animals with memory impairment received the following treatments: MSCs (500×103/ and PBS. Two months after the treatments, cognitive recovery was assessed by MWM in relearning paradigm in both experiments. Results showed that MSCs treatment significantly increased learning ability and memory in both age- and Ibo-induced memory impairment. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells show promise in treating cognitive decline associated with aging and NBM lesions.

  11. Neuromuscular Regeneration: Perspective on the Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Secretion Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Tiago; Ivanova, Galya; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are posing as a promising character in the most recent therapeutic strategies and, since their discovery, extensive knowledge on their features and functions has been gained. In recent years, innovative sources have been disclosed in alternative to the bone marrow, conveying their associated ethical concerns and ease of harvest, such as the umbilical cord tissue and the dental pulp. These are also amenable of cryopreservation and thawing for desired purposes, in benefit of the donor itself or other patients in pressing need. These sources present promising possibilities in becoming useful cell sources for therapeutic applications in the forthcoming years. Effective and potential applications of these cellular-based strategies for the regeneration of peripheral nerve are overviewed, documenting recent advances and identified issues for this research area in the near future. Finally, besides the differentiation capacities attributed to mesenchymal stem cells, advances in the recognition of their effective mode of action in the regenerative theatre have led to a new area of interest: the mesenchymal stem cells' secretome. The paracrine modulatory pathway appears to be a major mechanism by which these are beneficial to nerve regeneration and comprehension on the specific growth factors, cytokine, and extracellular molecules secretion profiles is therefore of great interest. PMID:26880998

  12. Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation to Adipogenic Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chani, Baldeep; Puri, Veena; Chander Sobti, Ranbir; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, with this aim, the present study was designed to determine the effect of EGCG on mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells differentiation into adipocytes. To understand this process, the cells were incubated with varying concentrations of EGCG (1 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, 50 μM) in the presence and /or absence of adipogenic medium for 9 days. The results demonstrated that, EGCG inhibited the cells proliferation, migration and also prevented their differentiation to adipogenic lineage. These effects were analyzed through the inhibition of wound healing activity, reduction in Oil red O stained cells, together with decrease in the expression of Adipisin gene following EGCG treatment. These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity. PMID:27397998

  13. Replication of Infectious Bronchitis Virus in the Chicken Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    M.H. Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the chicken mesenchymal stem cells to infectious bronchitis virus was characterized after twenty consecutive passages in chicken mesenchymal stemm cells. Virus replication was monitored by cytopathic observation, indirect immunoperoxidase, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. At 72 h post-infection (p.i. in third passage, the cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding up of cell, monolayer detachment, intracytoplasmic brownish colouration was readily observed by from 24h p.i in third passage, and at all times the extracted viral RNA from IBV-infected monolayers was demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Tissue culture effective dose50 was used to measure virus titration performed on chicken mesenchymal stem cells and the titres in twenty passages was 108.6 TID50/ml. The results obtained in this study suggested that the chicken mesenhymal stem cells can be used for adaptation IBV and may be considered a step forward for the use of these cells in the future for IBV vaccine production

  14. Biocompatibility Studies on Fibrin Glue Cultured with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方煌; 彭松林; 陈安民; 黎逢峰; 任凯; 胡宁

    2004-01-01

    Summary: By culturing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of rabbits with fibrin glue in vitro,the biocompatibility of fibrin glue was investigated to study whether this material can be used as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. After 2-months old New Zealand rabbits had been anesthetized, about 4-6 ml of bone marrow were aspirated from rabbit femoral trochanter. The monocytes suspension was aspirated after bone marrow was centrifuged with lymphocyte separating medium and cultured primarily. Then the cells were divided into two groups: one was cultured with complete medium and the other with induced medium. The cells of the two groups were collected and inoculated to the culture plate containing fibrin glue. In the control group, cells were inoculated without fibrin glue. The implanted cells and materials were observed at different stages under a phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. MTT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grew on the surface of fibrin glue and adhered to it gradually. Cells light absorption value (A value) and the ALP content showed no significant difference. Fibrin glue had no inhibitory effect on cell morphology, growth, proliferation and differentiation. It has good biocompatibility and can be used as scaffold materials for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in bone tissue engineering.

  15. Comparison Between Transepicardial Cell Transplantations: Autologous Undifferentiated Versus Differentiated Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Farid Azmoudeh Ardalan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been heralded as a source of great promise for the regeneration of the infarcted heart. There are no clear data as to whether or not in vitro differentiation of MSCs into major myocardial cells can increase the beneficial effects of MSCs. The aim of this study was to address this issue.Methods: To induce MSCs to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, 5-Azacytidine and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were used, respectively. Myocardial infarction in rabbits was generated by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. The animals were divided into three experimental groups: I control group, II undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell transplantation group, and III differentiated mesenchymal stem cell transplantation group. The three groups received peri-infarct injections of culture media, autologous undifferentiated MSCs, and autologous differentiated MSCs, respectively. Echocardiography and pathology were performed in order to search for improvement in the cardiac function and reduction in the infarct size. Results: Improvements in the left ventricular function and reductions in the infarcted area were observed in both cell transplanted groups (Groups II and III to the same degree. Conclusions: There is no need for prior differentiation induction of marrow-derived MSCs before transplantation, and peri-infarct implantation of MSCs can effectively reduce the size of the infarct and improve the cardiac function.

  16. Growth factor-defined culture medium for human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Sumiyo; Kimura, Naohiro; Hirata, Mitsuhi; Tateyama, Daiki; Hayashida, Midori; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kohara, Arihiro; Nikawa, Hiroki; Okamoto, Tetsuji; Furue, Miho K

    2011-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are potential cellular sources of therapeutic stem cells as they have the ability to proliferate and differentiate into a wide array of mesenchymal cell types such as osteoblasts, chondroblasts and adipocytes. hMSCs have been used clinically to treat patients with graft vs. host disease, osteogenesis imperfect, or alveolar cleft, suggesting that transplantation of hMSCs is comparatively safe as a stem cell-based therapy. However, conventional culture medium for hMSCs contains fetal bovine serum (FBS). In the present study, we developed a growth factor-defined, serum-free medium for culturing hMSCs. Under these conditions, TGF-beta1 promoted proliferation of hMSCs. The expanded hMSC population expressed the human pluripotency markers SSEA-3, -4, NANOG, OCT3/4 and SOX2. Furthermore, double positive cells for SSEA-3 and a mesenchymal cell marker, CD105, were detected in the population. The potential to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes was confirmed. This work provides a useful tool to understand the basic biological properties of hMSCs in culture. PMID:21305471

  17. Phlorotannin-incorporated Mesenchymal Stem Cells and their Promising Role in Osteogenesis Imperfecta

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    Tehseen Fatima Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta as the name suggests, is a bone disorder characterised by imperfect bone mineralisation and development. The key defect lies in the osteoblast–osteoid cycle, leading to insufficient calcification and consequently weak bones. Osteogenesis imperfecta patients are prone to fractures. Till date, numerous growth hormone/synthetic analogues have been used therapeutically in osteogenesis imperfecta patients and they do provide temporary relief, but not without numerous unwanted side effects. The intervention offered by such treatments is mainly at the symptomatic level, with temporary pain relief and some degree of mineralisation of available osteoids; but the root cause of the disease remains unattended. Such treatment modalities fail to promote mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation and tackle the fundamental deficiency of osteoids. This paper suggests a unique and hitherto unimplemented approach for treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta at the cellular level through application of a natural source, ‘Brown algae isolated phlorotannins’, which promote mesenchymal stem cell differentiation by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity, calcific mineralisation and total protein and collagen synthesis. This natural extract, when integrated directly with mesenchymal stem cells, will boost cellular differentiation into healthy bone-forming cells. The modality will strengthen the bone intrinsically and without the adverse reactions of routine pharmacotherapeutic agents.

  18. Sheep, wolf, or werewolf: cancer stem cells and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey T; Mani, Sendurai A

    2013-11-28

    Multiple cancers contain subpopulations that exhibit characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs), the ability to self-renew and seed heterogeneous tumors. Recent evidence suggests two potentially overlapping models for these phenotypes: one where stem cells arise from multipotent progenitor cells, and another where they are created via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Unraveling this issue is critical, as it underlies phenomena such as metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, there is intense interest in understanding these two types of CSSs, how they differ from differentiated cancer cells, the mechanisms that drive their phenotypes, and how that knowledge can be incorporated into therapeutics.

  19. MIR146A inhibits JMJD3 expression and osteogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Huszar, Jessica M.; Payne, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling is important for cell differentiation. Histone methyltransferase EZH2 and histone demethylase JMJD3 (KDM6B) modulate levels of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Interplay between the two modulators influence lineage specification in stem cells. Here, we identified microRNA MIR146A to be a negative regulator of JMJD3. In the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), we observed an upregulation of JMJD3 and a downregulation of MIR146A...

  20. How to Improve the Survival of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Ischemic Heart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangpeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC is an intensely studied stem cell type applied for cardiac repair. For decades, the preclinical researches on animal model and clinical trials have suggested that MSC transplantation exerts therapeutic effect on ischemic heart disease. However, there remain major limitations to be overcome, one of which is the very low survival rate after transplantation in heart tissue. Various strategies have been tried to improve the MSC survival, and many of them showed promising results. In this review, we analyzed the studies in recent years to summarize the methods, effects, and mechanisms of the new strategies to address this question.

  1. Cell viability and dopamine secretion of 6-hydroxydopamine-treated PC12 cells co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells☆

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yue; Cui, Yongchun; Luo, Fuliang; Liu, Xiaopeng; Wang, XiaoJuan; Wu, Aili; Zhao, Junwei; Tian, Zhong; Wu, Like

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, PC12 cells induced by 6-hydroxydopamine as a model of Parkinson's Disease, were used to investigate the protective effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity and to verify whether the mechanism of action relates to abnormal α-synuclein accumulation in cells. Results showed that co-culture with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhanced PC12 cell viability and do...

  2. The Potential of Wharton's Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruczkowski, D; Gładysz, D; Demkow, U; Pawelec, K

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening autosomal recessive multi-organ disorder with the mean incidence of 0.737 per 10,000 people worldwide. Despite many advances in therapy, patients fail to have a satisfactory quality of life. The end-stage lung disease still accounts for significant mortality and puts patients in the need of lung transplantation. Even though the disease is monogenic, the trials of topical gene transfer into airway epithelial cells have so far been disappointing. It is proven that stem cells can be differentiated into type II alveolar epithelial cells. Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from non-CF carrier third-party donors could be an effective alternative to bone marrow or embryonic stem cells. The harvesting process is an easy and ethically uncontroversial procedure. The MSC cell should be applied through repetitive infusions due to rapid lung epithelial cell turnover. However, the low stem cell incorporation remains a problem. Pre-clinical studies imply that even 6-10% of the wild-type cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression could be enough to restore chloride secretion. The route of administration, the optimal dose, as well as the intervals between infusions have yet to be determined. This review discusses the clinical potential of mesenchymal stem cell in CF patients. PMID:25248343

  3. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Zheng-wei Li; Min Luo; Ya-jun Li; Ke-qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some re-spects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the poly-lactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve ifbers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylac-tic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is ben-eifcial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the

  4. Mesenchymal and embryonic characteristics of stem cells obtained from mouse dental pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Cruz, Gabriela Silva; de Jesus, Alan Araújo;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have demonstrated that human dental pulp is a source of mesenchymal stem cells. To better understand the biological properties of these cells we isolated and characterized stem cells from the dental pulp of EGFP transgenic mice. METHODS: The pulp tissue was gently...... separated from the roots of teeth extracted from C57BL/6 mice, and cultured under appropriate conditions. Flow cytometry, RT-PCR, light microscopy (staining for alkaline phosphatase) and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the expression of stem cell markers. The presence of chromosomal...... abnormalities was evaluated by G banding. RESULTS: The mouse dental pulp stem cells (mDPSC) were highly proliferative, plastic-adherent, and exhibited a polymorphic morphology predominantly with stellate or fusiform shapes. The presence of cell clusters was observed in cultures of mDPSC. Some cells were...

  5. Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Wound Healing: A Clinical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunalp Uzun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review clinical studies on the use of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of chronic wounds. A search on PubMed was performed on April 30th, 2014 to identify the relevant clinical studies. We reviewed 13 articles that reported the use adipose derived stem cells in the treatment of different types of wounds. Adipose derived stem cells have the potential to be used in the treatment of chronic wounds. However, standard methods for isolation, storage and application of these cells are needed. New materials to transfer these stem cells to injured tissues should be investigated. [Dis Mol Med 2014; 2(4.000: 57-64

  6. Could Metabolic Syndrome, Lipodystrophy, and Aging Be Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exhaustion Syndromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mansilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES. The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies.

  7. Glucose metabolite glyoxal induces senescence in telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn; Kassem, Moustapha; Rattan, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    -immortalised mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-TERT we have observed that an exposure of cells to 0.75 mM and 1 mM GO induces irreversible cellular senescence within 3 days. Induction of senescence in hMSC-TERT was demonstrated by a variety of markers, including characteristic cell morphology and enlargement, vacuolisation......). Furthermore, the in vitro differentiation potential of hMSC-TERT to become functional osteoblasts was highly reduced in GO-treated stem cells, as determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized matrix (MM) formation. Conclusions The results of our study imply that an imbalanced glucose...... metabolism can reduce the functioning ability of stem cells in vivo both during ageing and during stem cell-based therapeutic interventions....

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Potent Cell Source for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zomorodian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While small bone defects heal spontaneously, large bone defects need surgical intervention for bone transplantation. Autologous bone grafts are the best and safest strategy for bone repair. An alternative method is to use allogenic bone graft. Both methods have limitations, particularly when bone defects are of a critical size. In these cases, bone constructs created by tissue engineering technologies are of utmost importance. Cells are one main component in the manufacture of bone construct. A few cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs, adult osteoblast, and adult stem cells, can be used for this purpose. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, as adult stem cells, possess characteristics that make them good candidate for bone repair. This paper discusses different aspects of MSCs that render them an appropriate cell type for clinical use to promote bone regeneration.

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanical properties related to the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Park, Hun-Kuk; Kim, Kyung Sook

    2016-05-01

    Diverse intrinsic and extrinsic mechanical factors have a strong influence on the regulation of stem cell fate. In this work, we examined recent literature on the effects of mechanical environments on stem cells, especially on differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We provide a brief review of intrinsic mechanical properties of single MSC and examined the correlation between the intrinsic mechanical property of MSC and the differentiation ability. The effects of extrinsic mechanical factors relevant to the differentiation of MSCs were considered separately. The effect of nanostructure and elasticity of the matrix on the differentiation of MSCs were summarized. Finally, we consider how the extrinsic mechanical properties transfer to MSCs and then how the effects on the intrinsic mechanical properties affect stem cell differentiation.

  10. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Normal and Dysplastic Hematopoiesis-Masters of Survival and Clonality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, Lisa; Valent, Peter; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders that have the capacity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Accumulating evidence suggests that the altered bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in general, and in particular the components of the stem cell niche, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny, play a pivotal role in the evolution and propagation of MDS. We here present an overview of the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of MDS, with emphasis on cellular interactions in the BM microenvironment and related stem cell niche concepts. MSCs have potent immunomodulatory capacities and communicate with diverse immune cells, but also interact with various other cellular components of the microenvironment as well as with normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, compared to normal MSCs, MSCs in MDS and AML often exhibit altered gene expression profiles, an aberrant phenotype, and abnormal functional properties. These alterations supposedly contribute to the "reprogramming" of the stem cell niche into a disease-permissive microenvironment where an altered immune system, abnormal stem cell niche interactions, and an impaired growth control lead to disease progression. The current article also reviews molecular targets that play a role in such cellular interactions and possibilities to interfere with abnormal stem cell niche interactions by using specific targeted drugs. PMID:27355944

  11. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Normal and Dysplastic Hematopoiesis—Masters of Survival and Clonality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Pleyer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders that have the capacity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Accumulating evidence suggests that the altered bone marrow (BM microenvironment in general, and in particular the components of the stem cell niche, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and their progeny, play a pivotal role in the evolution and propagation of MDS. We here present an overview of the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of MDS, with emphasis on cellular interactions in the BM microenvironment and related stem cell niche concepts. MSCs have potent immunomodulatory capacities and communicate with diverse immune cells, but also interact with various other cellular components of the microenvironment as well as with normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, compared to normal MSCs, MSCs in MDS and AML often exhibit altered gene expression profiles, an aberrant phenotype, and abnormal functional properties. These alterations supposedly contribute to the “reprogramming” of the stem cell niche into a disease-permissive microenvironment where an altered immune system, abnormal stem cell niche interactions, and an impaired growth control lead to disease progression. The current article also reviews molecular targets that play a role in such cellular interactions and possibilities to interfere with abnormal stem cell niche interactions by using specific targeted drugs.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Normal and Dysplastic Hematopoiesis—Masters of Survival and Clonality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, Lisa; Valent, Peter; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders that have the capacity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Accumulating evidence suggests that the altered bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in general, and in particular the components of the stem cell niche, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny, play a pivotal role in the evolution and propagation of MDS. We here present an overview of the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of MDS, with emphasis on cellular interactions in the BM microenvironment and related stem cell niche concepts. MSCs have potent immunomodulatory capacities and communicate with diverse immune cells, but also interact with various other cellular components of the microenvironment as well as with normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, compared to normal MSCs, MSCs in MDS and AML often exhibit altered gene expression profiles, an aberrant phenotype, and abnormal functional properties. These alterations supposedly contribute to the “reprogramming” of the stem cell niche into a disease-permissive microenvironment where an altered immune system, abnormal stem cell niche interactions, and an impaired growth control lead to disease progression. The current article also reviews molecular targets that play a role in such cellular interactions and possibilities to interfere with abnormal stem cell niche interactions by using specific targeted drugs. PMID:27355944

  13. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells express keratinocyte lineage markers in a co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan-Maqsood, M; Matin, M M; Heirani-Tabasi, A; Bahrami, M; Naderi-Meshkin, H; Mirahmadi, M; Hassanzadeh, H; Sanjar Moussavi, N; Raza-Shah, H; Raeesolmohaddeseen, M; Bidkhori, H; Bahrami, A R

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing is a complex type of biological event involving proliferation, differentiation, reprograming, trans/de-differentiation, recruitment, migration, and apoptosis of a number of cells (keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerve cells and stem cells) to regenerate a multi-layered tissue that is damaged by either internal or external factors. The exact regeneration mechanism of damaged skin is still unknown but the epithelial and other kinds of stem cells located in skin play crucial roles in the healing process. In this work, a co-culture model composed of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and keratinocytes was developed to understand the cellular differentiation behaviour in wound healing. Human mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from waste lipoaspirates. Keratinocytes were isolated from neonatal rats skin as well from human adult skin. Both types of cells were cultured and their culturing behaviour was observed microscopically under regular intervals of time. The identity of both cells was confirmed by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. Cells were co-cultured under the proposed co-culturing model and the model was observed for 7, 14 and 21 days. The cellular behaviour was studied based on change in morphology, colonization, stratification, migration and expression of molecular markers. Expression of molecular markers was studied at transcriptional level and change in cellular morphology and migration capabilities was observed under the invert microscope regularly. Successfully isolated and characterized mesenchymal stem cells were found to express keratinocyte lineage markers i.e. K5, K10, K14, K18, K19 and Involucrin when co-cultured with keratinocytes after 14 and 21 days. Their expression was found to increase by increasing the time span of cell culturing. The keratinocyte colonies started to disappear after 10 days of culturing which might be due to stratification process initiated by possibly transdifferentiated stem cells. It can

  14. Axes of differentiation in breast cancer: untangling stemness, lineage identity, and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granit, Roy Z; Slyper, Michal; Ben-Porath, Ittai

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation-associated regulatory programs are central in determining tumor phenotype, and contribute to heterogeneity between tumors and between individual cells within them. The transcriptional programs that control luminal and basal lineage identity in the normal mammary epithelium, as well as progenitor and stem cell function, are active in breast cancers, and show distinct associations with different disease subtypes. Also active in some tumors is the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program, which endows carcinoma cells with mesenchymal as well as stem cell traits. The differentiation state of breast cancer cells is thus dictated by the complex combination of regulatory programs, and these can dramatically affect tumor growth and metastatic capacity. Breast cancer differentiation is often viewed along an axis between a basal–mesenchymal–stem cell state and a luminal–epithelial–differentiated state. Here we consider the links, as well as the distinctions, between the three components of this axis: basal versus luminal, mesenchymal versus epithelial, and stem cell versus differentiated identity. Analysis on a multidimensional scale, in which each of these axes is assessed separately, may offer increased resolution of tumor differentiation state. Cancer cells possessing a high degree of stemness would display increased capacity to shift between positions on such a multidimensional scale, and to acquire intermediate phenotypes on its different axes. Further molecular analysis of breast cancer cells with a focus on single-cell profiling, and the development of improved tools for dissection of the circuits controlling gene activity, are essential for the elucidation of the programs dictating breast cancer differentiation state.

  15. Regulated genes in mesenchymal stem cells and gastriccancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihori Tanabe; Kazuhiko Aoyagi; Hiroshi Yokozaki; Hiroki Sasaki

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the genes regulated in mesenchymalstem cells (MSCs) and diffuse-type gastric cancer (GC),gene expression was analyzed.METHODS: Gene expression of MSCs and diffuse-typeGC cells were analyzed by microarray. Genes relatedto stem cells, cancer and the epithelial-mesenchymaltransition (EMT) were extracted from human genelists using Gene Ontology and reference information.Gene panels were generated, and messenger RNAgene expression in MSCs and diffuse-type GC cells wasanalyzed. Cluster analysis was performed using the NCSSsoftware.RESULTS: The gene expression of regulator of G-proteinsignaling 1 (RGS1) was up-regulated in diffuse-type GCcells compared with MSCs. A panel of stem-cell relatedgenes and genes involved in cancer or the EMT wereexamined. Stem-cell related genes, such as growtharrest-specific 6, musashi RNA-binding protein 2 andhairy and enhancer of split 1 (Drosophila), NOTCHfamily genes and Notch ligands, such as delta-like 1(Drosophila) and Jagged 2, were regulated.CONCLUSION: Expression of RGS1 is up-regulated,and genes related to stem cells and NOTCH signalingare altered in diffuse-type GC compared with MSCs.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells: biological characteristics and potential clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2004-01-01

    are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Several studies have demonstrated the possible use of MSC in systemic transplantation for systemic diseases, local implantation for local tissue defects, as a vehicle for genes in gene therapy protocols or to generate transplantable tissues...

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells-based therapy as a potential treatment in neurodegenerative disorders: is the escape from senescence an answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, Alessandro; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Marzagalli, Rubina; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Aging is the most prominent risk factor contributing to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. In the United States, over 35 million of elderly people suffer from age-related diseases. Aging impairs the self-repair ability of neuronal cells, which undergo progressive deterioration. Once initiated, this process hampers the already limited regenerative power of the central nervous system, making the search for new therapeutic strategies particularly difficult in elderly affected patients. So far, mesenchymal stem cells have proven to be a viable option to ameliorate certain aspects of neurodegeneration, as they possess high proliferative rate and differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages. However, accumulating data have demonstrated that during long-term culture, mesenchymal stem cells undergo spontaneous transformation. Transformed mesenchymal stem cells show typical features of senescence, including the progressive shortening of telomers, which results in cell loss and, as a consequence, hampered regenerative potential. These evidences, in line with those observed in mesenchymal stem cells isolated from old donors, suggest that senescence may represent a limit to mesenchymal stem cells exploitation in therapy, prompting scholars to either find alternative sources of pluripotent cells or to arrest the age-related transformation. In the present review, we summarize findings from recent literature, and critically discuss some of the major hurdles encountered in the search of appropriate sources of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as benefits arising from their use in neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we provide some insights that may aid in the development of strategies to arrest or, at least, delay the aging of mesenchymal stem cells to improve their therapeutic potential.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells-based therapy as a potential treatment in neurodegenerative disorders: is the escape from senescence an answer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Castorina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the most prominent risk factor contributing to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. In the United States, over 35 million of elderly people suffer from age-related diseases. Aging impairs the self-repair ability of neuronal cells, which undergo progressive deterioration.Once initiated, this process hampers the already limited regenerative power of the central nervous system, making the search for new therapeutic strategies particularly difficult in elderly affected patients. So far, mesenchymal stem cells have proven to be a viable option to ameliorate certain aspects of neurodegeneration, as they possess high proliferative rate and differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages. However, accumulating data have demonstrated that during long-term culture, mesenchymal stem cells undergo spontaneous transformation. Transformed mesenchymal stem cells show typical features of senescence, including the progressive shortening of telomers, which results in cell loss and, as a consequence, hampered regenerative potential. These evidences, in line with those observed in mesenchymal stem cells isolated from old donors, suggest that senescence may represent a limit to mesenchymal stem cells exploitation in therapy, prompting scholars to either find alternative sources of pluripotent cells or to arrest the age-related transformation. In the present review, we summarize findings from recent literature, and critically discuss some of the major hurdles encountered in the search of appropriate sources of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as benefits arising from their use in neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we provide some insights that may aid in the development of strategies to arrest or, at least, delay the aging of mesenchymal stem cells to improve their therapeutic potential.

  19. Differential bone-forming capacity of osteogenic cells from either embryonic stem cells or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Sanne K.; Apeldoorn, van Aart A.; Jukes, Jojanneke M.; Englund, Mikael C.O.; Hyllner, Johan; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.; Boer, de Jan

    2011-01-01

    For more than a decade, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been used in bone tissue-engineering research. More recently some of the focus in this field has shifted towards the use of embryonic stem cells. While it is well known that hMSCs are able to form bone when implanted subcutaneously in

  20. Influence of oxygen in the cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells in simulated microgravity: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Versari; J. Klein-Nulend; J. van Loon; S. Bradamante

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AT-MSCs) cultured in simulated microgravity (sim-μg) in standard laboratory incubators alter their proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies on the stem cell (SC) niches and the influence of oxygen on SC pro