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Sample records for autographa californica multiple

  1. Functional characterization of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus gp16 (ac130)

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    Yang, Ming; Huang, Cui; Qian, Duo-Duo; Li, Lu-Lin, E-mail: lilulin@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the function of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) gp16, multiple gp16-knockout and repair mutants were constructed and characterized. No obvious difference in productivity of budded virus, DNA synthesis, late gene expression and morphogenesis was observed between gp16-knockout and repair viruses, but gp16 deletion resulted in six hours of lengthening in ST{sub 50} to the third instar Spodoptera exigua larvae in bioassays. GP16 was fractionated mainly in the light membrane fraction, by subcellular fractionation. A GP16-EGFP fusion protein was predominantly localized close around the nuclear membrane in infected cells, being coincident with formation of the vesicles associated with the nuclear membrane, which hosted nucleocapsids released from the nucleus. These data suggest that gp16 is not required for viral replication, but may be involved in membrane trafficking associated with the envelopment/de-envelopment of budded viruses when they cross over the nuclear membrane and pass through cytoplasm. - Highlights: • gp16 knockout and repair mutants of AcMNPV were constructed and characterized. • AcMNPV gp16 is not essential to virus replication. • Deletion of gp16 resulted in time lengthening to kill S. exigua larvae. • GP16 was localized close around the nuclear membrane of infected cells. • GP16 was fractionated in the light membrane fraction in subcellular fractionation.

  2. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Li Zhaofei; Wu Wenbi; Li Lingling; Yuan Meijin; Pan Lijing; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2008-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc ac53KO-PH-GFP ) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc ac53KO-PH-GFP could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production

  3. Reprogramming the chiA expression profile of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jeffrey J; Arif, Basil M; Krell, Peter J

    2007-09-01

    Expression of chiA and v-cath RNA and enzyme activity in wild-type Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was compared with that of recombinant AcMNPV viruses reprogrammed for expression of the endogenous chiA. To establish a baseline for our recombinant AcMNPV studies, we compared, for the first time, the temporal expression profiles of both AcMNPV chiA transcription and translation simultaneously. The rate of intracellular chitinase accumulation during AcMNPV infection followed the same pattern observed for chiA transcription but was delayed by about 6 h. Replacement of 21 nucleotides containing the native late chiA and v-cath promoters with a selectable polh-EGFP cassette was sufficient to eliminate expression of both chiA and v-cath. Viruses were generated that express chiA from either the late p6.9 or very late polh promoters of AcMNPV, replacing the native chiA promoter. There was a marked difference in the temporal chiA transcription profiles from the native, p6.9 and polh promoters, resulting in respective specific activities of chitinase at 48 h p.i. of 62, 160 and 219 mU (mg lysate total protein)(-1). Based on temporal analysis of v-cath transcription by Northern blot, AcMNPV v-cath was transcribed from 9 h p.i. in Sf21 cells. However, expression of v-cath RNA or enzyme from a reconstructed v-cath promoter in the chiA-reprogrammed viruses was not detected at 48 h of virus replication. Reprogramming for increased chitinase (and putatively cathepsin) expression with native baculovirus promoters might provide a means for designing environmentally benign biological insecticides.

  4. Virus efficacy of recombined Autographa californica M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectropis obliqua is a major tea pest and chitin synthase (CHS) plays a key role in the pest growth and development. A 192 bp conserved domain from E. obliqua CHS gene was cloned and it was used to construct recombined Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) with double-stranded RNA interference ...

  5. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus DNA polymerase C terminus is required for nuclear localization and viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guozhong; Krell, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    The DNA polymerase (DNApol) of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is essential for viral DNA replication. The DNApol exonuclease and polymerase domains are highly conserved and are considered functional in DNA replication. However, the role of the DNApol C terminus has not yet been characterized. To identify whether only the exonuclease and polymerase domains are sufficient for viral DNA replication, several DNApol C-terminal truncations were cloned into a dnapol-null AcMNPV bacmid with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Surprisingly, most of the truncation constructs, despite containing both exonuclease and polymerase domains, could not rescue viral DNA replication and viral production in bacmid-transfected Sf21 cells. Moreover, GFP fusions of these same truncations failed to localize to the nucleus. Truncation of the C-terminal amino acids 950 to 984 showed nuclear localization but allowed for only limited and delayed viral spread. The C terminus contains a typical bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif at residues 804 to 827 and a monopartite NLS motif at residues 939 to 948. Each NLS, as a GFP fusion peptide, localized to the nucleus, but both NLSs were required for nuclear localization of DNApol. Alanine substitutions in a highly conserved baculovirus DNApol sequence at AcMNPV DNApol amino acids 972 to 981 demonstrated its importance for virus production and DNA replication. Collectively, the data indicated that the C terminus of AcMNPV DNApol contains two NLSs and a conserved motif, all of which are required for nuclear localization of DNApol, viral DNA synthesis, and virus production. The baculovirus DNA polymerase (DNApol) is a highly specific polymerase that allows viral DNA synthesis and hence virus replication in infected insect cells. We demonstrated that the exonuclease and polymerase domains of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) alone are insufficient for viral

  6. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Analysis of domain I and V amino acid interactions and membrane fusion activity

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    Yu, Qianlong [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Blissard, Gary W. [Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United State (United States); Liu, Tong-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Zhaofei, E-mail: zhaofeili73@outlook.com [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. Although the post-fusion structure of GP64 has been solved, its pre-fusion structure and the detailed mechanism of conformational change are unknown. In GP64, domain V is predicted to interact with two domain I segments that flank fusion loop 2. To evaluate the significance of the amino acids involved in these interactions, we examined 24 amino acid positions that represent interacting and conserved residues within domains I and V. In several cases, substitution of a single amino acid involved in a predicted interaction disrupted membrane fusion activity, but no single amino acid pair appears to be absolutely required. We identified 4 critical residues in domain V (G438, W439, T452, and T456) that are important for membrane fusion, and two residues (G438 and W439) that appear to be important for formation or stability of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64. - Highlights: • The baculovirus envelope glycoprotein GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. • The detailed mechanism of conformational change of GP64 is unknown. • We analyzed 24 positions that might stabilize the post-fusion structure of GP64. • We identified 4 residues in domain V that were critical for membrane fusion. • Two residues are critical for formation of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64.

  7. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Analysis of domain I and V amino acid interactions and membrane fusion activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qianlong; Blissard, Gary W.; Liu, Tong-Xian; Li, Zhaofei

    2016-01-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. Although the post-fusion structure of GP64 has been solved, its pre-fusion structure and the detailed mechanism of conformational change are unknown. In GP64, domain V is predicted to interact with two domain I segments that flank fusion loop 2. To evaluate the significance of the amino acids involved in these interactions, we examined 24 amino acid positions that represent interacting and conserved residues within domains I and V. In several cases, substitution of a single amino acid involved in a predicted interaction disrupted membrane fusion activity, but no single amino acid pair appears to be absolutely required. We identified 4 critical residues in domain V (G438, W439, T452, and T456) that are important for membrane fusion, and two residues (G438 and W439) that appear to be important for formation or stability of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64. - Highlights: • The baculovirus envelope glycoprotein GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. • The detailed mechanism of conformational change of GP64 is unknown. • We analyzed 24 positions that might stabilize the post-fusion structure of GP64. • We identified 4 residues in domain V that were critical for membrane fusion. • Two residues are critical for formation of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64.

  8. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac66 is required for the efficient egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus, general synthesis of preoccluded virions and occlusion body formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianhao; Wang Jinwen; Deng Riqiang; Wang Xunzhang

    2008-01-01

    Although orf66 (ac66) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is conserved in all sequenced lepidopteran baculovirus genomes, its function is not known. This paper describes generation of an ac66 knockout AcMNPV bacmid mutant and analyses of the influence of ac66 deletion on the virus replication in Sf-9 cells so as to determine the role of ac66 in the viral life cycle. Results indicated that budded virus (BV) yields were reduced over 99% in ac66-null mutant infected cells in comparison to that in wild-type virus infected cells. Optical microscopy revealed that occlusion body synthesis was significantly reduced in the ac66 knockout bacmid-transfected cells. In addition, ac66 deletion interrupted preoccluded virion synthesis. The mutant phenotype was rescued by an ac66 repair bacmid. On the other hand, real-time PCR analysis indicated that ac66 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy revealed that ac66 is not essential for nucleocapsid assembly, but for the efficient transport of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. These results suggested that ac66 plays an important role for the efficient exit of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for BV synthesis as well as for preoccluded virion and occlusion synthesis

  9. Three-dimensional visualization of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus occlusion-derived virion envelopment process gives new clues as to its mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yang; Li, Kunpeng [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Peiping [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Li, Yinyin; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Qinfen, E-mail: lsszqf@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-02-15

    Baculoviruses produce two virion phenotypes, occlusion-derived virion (ODV) and budded virion (BV). ODV envelopment occurs in the nucleus. Morphogenesis of the ODV has been studied extensively; however, the mechanisms underlying microvesicle formation and ODV envelopment in nuclei remain unclear. In this study, we used electron tomography (ET) together with the conventional electron microscopy to study the envelopment of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ODV. Our results demonstrate that not only the inner but also the outer nuclear membrane can invaginate and vesiculate into microvesicles and that intranuclear microvesicles are the direct source of the ODV membrane. Five main events in the ODV envelopment process are summarized, from which we propose a model to explain this process. - Highlights: • Both the inner and outer nuclear membranes could invaginate. • Both the inner and outer nuclear membranes could vesiculate into microvesicles. • Five main events in the ODV envelopment process are summarized. • A model is proposed to explain this ODV envelopment.

  10. Expression of the Cydia pomonella granulovirus matrix metalloprotease enhances Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus virulence and can partially substitute for viral cathepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimwe, Egide; Hodgson, Jeffrey J; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2015-07-01

    The Cydia pomonella granulovirus open reading frame 46 (CpGV-ORF46) contains predicted domains found in matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. We showed that CpGV-MMP was active in vitro. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expressing CpGV-ORF46 replicated similarly to a control virus lacking CpGV-ORF46 in cultured cells. The effects of AcMNPV expressing CpGV-MMP on virus infection in cultured cells and Trichoplusia ni larvae in the presence or absence of other viral degradative enzymes, cathepsin and chitinase, were evaluated. In the absence of cathepsin and chitinase or cathepsin alone, larval time of death was significantly delayed. This delay was compensated by the expression of CpGV-MMP. CpGV-MMP was also able to promote larvae melanization in the absence of cathepsin and chitinase. In addition, CpGV-MMP partially substituted for cathepsin in larvae liquefaction when chitinase, which is usually retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, was engineered to be secreted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-01-01

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  12. A cell clone strain from Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) highly susceptible to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and M. separata NPV (MsNPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Qian; Zheng, Gui-Ling; Zhao, Chuan-De; Wan, Fang-Hao; Li, Chang-You

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we describe a cell line, Ms-10C, cloned from the line QAU-Ms-E-10 (simplified Ms-10), an embryonic line from Mythimna separata. The cloned cell line was significantly more sensitive to nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV). Ms-10C cells were mainly spherical with a diameter of 14.42 ± 2.23 μm. DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) confirmed the profile of PCR-amplified bands of the cloned cell line was consistent with those of the parental cell line, Ms-10. The sequencing result of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCO I) fragment confirmed that the amplified 636-bps mtCOI fragment was 100% identical to that of M. separata. Its chromosomes exhibited the typical characters of lepidopteran cell lines. Its population doubling time was 42.2 h at 27°C. Ms-10C was more sensitive than Ms-10 to both Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and M. separata nucleopolyhedrovirus (MsNPV). At 4 d post infection, the infection rates of two viruses reached 94.2 and 92.3%, respectively. The availability of this cell clone strain will provide a useful tool for the basic research on nucleopolyhedrovirus and for potential application in expression of recombinant proteins with baculovirus expression vector system.

  13. Role of Interactions between Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Procathepsin and Chitinase Chitin-Binding or Active-Site Domains in Viral Cathepsin Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jeffrey J.; Arif, Basil M.

    2013-01-01

    The binding of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus chitinase (CHIA) to viral cathepsin protease progenitor (proV-CATH) governs cellular/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) coretention of CHIA and proV-CATH, thus coordinating simultaneous cellular release of both host tissue-degrading enzymes upon host cell death. CHIA is a proposed proV-CATH folding chaperone because insertional inactivation of chiA causes production of proV-CATH aggregates that are incompetent for proteolytic maturation into active V-CATH enzyme. We wanted to determine whether the N-terminal chitin-binding domain (CBD, 149 residues) and C-terminal CHIA active-site domain (ASD, 402 residues) of CHIA bind to proV-CATH independently of one another and whether either domain is dispensable for CHIA's putative proV-CATH folding chaperone activity. We demonstrate that N-terminally green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused CHIA, ASD, and CBD each colocalize with proV-CATH-RFP in ER-like patterns and that both ASD and CBD independently associate with proV-CATH in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and in vitro using reciprocal nickel-histidine pulldown assays. Altogether, the data from colocalization, BiFC, and reciprocal copurification analyses suggest specific and independent interactions between proV-CATH and both domains of CHIA. These data also demonstrate that either CHIA domain is dispensable for normal proV-CATH processing. Furthermore, in contrast to prior evidence suggesting that a lack of chiA expression causes proV-CATH to become aggregated, insoluble, and unable to mature into V-CATH, a chiA deletion bacmid virus we engineered to express just v-cath produced soluble proV-CATH that was prematurely secreted from cells and proteolytically matured into active V-CATH enzyme. PMID:23302896

  14. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Tamer Z. [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbial Molecular Biology, AGERI, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Division of Biomedical Sciences, Zewail University, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Zhang, Fengrui [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thiem, Suzanne M., E-mail: smthiem@msu.edu [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  15. Functional mapping of regions of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis viral genome required for DNA replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Voeten, J. T.; Goldbach, R. W.; Vlak, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Previous results showed that plasmids containing one of the eight putative origins (ori's) of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) are replicated after transfection into Spodoptera frugiperda cells if essential trans-acting factors are supplied by AcMNPV infection (Kool et al.,

  16. On the origin of the polyhedral protein of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van der C.P.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the origin of the polyhedral protein of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the alfalfa looper, Autographa californica (AcNPV), one of the best characterized viruses of the family Baculoviridae. The present knowledge of the

  17. Reduction of polyhedrin mRNA and protein expression levels in Sf9 and Hi5 cell lines, but not in Sf21 cells, infected with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus fp25k mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin-Hua; Hillman, Christopher C; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    During cell infection, the fp25k gene of baculoviruses frequently mutates, producing the few polyhedra (FP) per cell phenotype with reduced polyhedrin (polh) expression levels compared with wild-type baculoviruses. Here we report that the fp25k gene of the model baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), contains two hypermutable seven-adenine (A7) mononucleotide repeats (MNRs) that were mutated to A8 MNRs and a TTAA site that had host DNA insertions, producing fp25k mutants during Sf21 cell infection. The FP phenotype in Sf9 and Hi5 cells was more pronounced than in Sf21 cells. AcMNPV fp25k mutants produced similar levels of polyhedra or enhanced GFP, which were both under the control of the AcMNPV polh promoter for expression, in Sf21 cells but lower levels in Sf9 and Hi5 cells compared with AcMNPV with an intact fp25k gene. This correlated with the polh mRNA levels detected in each cell line. The majority of Sf21 cells infected with fp25 mutants showed high polh promoter-mediated GFP expression levels. Two cell lines subcloned from Sf21 cells that were infected with fp25k mutants showed different GFP expression levels. Furthermore, a small proportion of Hi5 cells infected with fp25k mutants showed higher production of polyhedra and GFP expression than the rest, and the latter was not correlated with increased m.o.i. Therefore, these data suggest that AcMNPV polh promoter-mediated gene expression activities differ in the three cell lines and are influenced by different cells within the cell line.

  18. Nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of a 7.3 kb region (map unit 47 to 52.5) of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus fragment EcoRI-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Broer, R.; Zuidema, D.; Goldbach, R. W.; Vlak, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of a 7297 bp region within the EcoRI-C fragment of Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) are presented. Eight putative open reading frames were found and their respective amino acid sequences compared with a

  19. The mosaic structure of the polyhedrin gene of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Johannes A

    2004-08-01

    The polyhedrin (polh) gene of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) encodes for the matrix protein of the virus occlusion body and is one of the most conserved baculovirus genes. Previous analyses of different NPV genes and polh genes provided conflicting results indicating that the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is generally a member of the so-called group I NPVs and is most closely related to Rachiplusia ou (Ro) NPV, whereas the AcMNPV polh is more similar to the polh of the group II NPVs. A comparative analysis of the AcMNPV polh and its closest neighbours within group I and group II NPV, the RoMNPV and the Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Thor) NPV, was performed using Hidden Markov Models for detecting recombination. The result provided strong evidence that the AcMNPV polh is a chimerical gene which consists of a mosaic of group I and group II NPV specific sequences.

  20. DNA distribution and respiratory activity of Spodoptera frugiperda populations infected with wild-type and recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, B; Howaldt, M W; Bailey, J E

    1990-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda cells were infected with a wild-type Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus and with a recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. The recombinant virus was derived from the wild-type virus and produced beta-galactosidase instead of polyhedrin. The changes in cell size, cell growth, viability, DNA distribution, and respiratory activity were followed through the time course of the infection. The DNA content as measured by flow cytometry of infected cells increased to approximately 1.8 times the value of uninfected cells and the distributions of single-cell DNA content of the infected cells were strongly deformed. Early in the infection the respiratory activity passed through a maximum. The mitochondrial activity based on Rhodamine 123 labelling of cells infected with the recombinant virus, as determined by flow cytometry, also passed through a maximum at 24 h post infection while the mitochondrial activity of cells infected with the wild-type virus continued to increase. Evolution of single-cell mitochondrial activity was different in uninfected populations and in populations infected with wild-type and with recombinant virus. In all experiments performed, the recombinant virus influenced cell behavior and the measured parameters earlier than the wild-type virus. The influence of the multiplicity of infection was stronger for the wild-type virus than for the recombinant virus.

  1. Autographa californica Multicapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus efficiently infects Sf9 cells and transduces mammalian cells via direct fusion with the plasma membrane at low pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, S.; Wang, M.; Qiu, Z.; Deng, F.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.; Wang, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The budded virus (BV) of the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infects insect cells and transduces mammalian cells mainly through the endocytosis pathway. However, this study revealed that the treatment of the virus bound to Sf9 cells at low pH could efficiently rescue

  2. A single amino acid substitution modulates low-pH-triggered membrane fusion of GP64 protein in Autographa californica and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katou, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Hayato; Ikeda, Motoko; Kobayashi, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that budded viruses of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) enter the cell cytoplasm but do not migrate into the nuclei of non-permissive Sf9 cells that support a high titer of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) multiplication. Here we show, using the syncytium formation assay, that low-pH-triggered membrane fusion of BmNPV GP64 protein (Bm-GP64) is significantly lower than that of AcMNPV GP64 protein (Ac-GP64). Mutational analyses of GP64 proteins revealed that a single amino acid substitution between Ac-GP64 H155 and Bm-GP64 Y153 can have significant positive or negative effects on membrane fusion activity. Studies using bacmid-based GP64 recombinant AcMNPV harboring point-mutated ac-gp64 and bm-gp64 genes showed that Ac-GP64 H155Y and Bm-GP64 Y153H substitutions decreased and increased, respectively, the multiplication and cell-to-cell spread of progeny viruses. These results indicate that Ac-GP64 H155 facilitates the low-pH-triggered membrane fusion reaction between virus envelopes and endosomal membranes.

  3. The pnk/pnl gene (ORF 86) of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus is a non-essential, immediate early gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durantel, D; Croizier, L; Ayres, M D; Croizier, G; Possee, R D; López-Ferber, M

    1998-03-01

    Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ORF 86, located within the HindIII C fragment, potentially encodes a protein which shares sequence similarity with two T4 bacteriophage gene products, RNA ligase and polynucleotide kinase. This AcMNPV gene has been designated pnk/pnl but has yet to be assigned a function in virus replication. It has been classified as an immediate early virus gene, since the promoter was active in uninfected insect cells and mRNA transcripts were detectable from 4 to 48 h post-infection and in the presence of cycloheximide or aphidicolin in virus-infected cells. The extremities of the transcript have been mapped by primer extension and 3' RACE-PCR to positions -18 from the translational start codon and +15 downstream of the stop codon. The function of pnk/pnl was investigated by producing a recombinant virus (Acdel86lacZ) with the coding region replaced with that of lacZ. This virus replicated normally in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf 21) cells, indicating that pnk/pnl is not essential for propagation in these cells. Virus protein production in Acdel86lacZ-infected Sf 21 cells also appeared to be unaffected, with normal synthesis of the IE-1, GP64, VP39 and polyhedrin proteins. Shut-down of host protein synthesis was not abolished in recombinant infection. When other baculovirus genomes were examined for the presence of pnk/pnl by restriction enzyme digestion and PCR, a deletion was found in AcMNPV 1.2, Galleria mellonella NPV (GmMNPV) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV), suggesting that in many isolates this gene has either never been acquired or has been lost during genome evolution. This is one of the first baculovirus immediate early genes that appears to be nonessential for virus survival.

  4. Protection against Amoebic Liver Abscess in Hamster by Intramuscular Immunization with an Autographa californica Baculovirus Driving the Expression of the Gal-Lectin LC3 Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce María Meneses-Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we demonstrated that oral immunization using Autographa californica baculovirus driving the expression of the Gal-lectin LC3 fragment (AcNPV-LC3 of Entamoeba histolytica conferred protection against ALA development in hamsters. In this study, we determined the ability of AcNPV-LC3 to protect against ALA by the intramuscular route as well as the liver immune response associated with protection. Results showed that 55% of hamsters IM immunized with AcNPV-LC3 showed sterile protection against ALA, whereas other 20% showed reduction in the size and extent of abscesses, resulting in some protection in 75% of animals compared to the sham control group. Levels of protection showed a linear correlation with the development and intensity of specific antiamoeba cellular and humoral responses, evaluated in serum and spleen of hamsters, respectively. Evaluation of the Th1/Th2 cytokine patterns expressed in the liver of hamsters showed that sterile protection was associated with the production of high levels of IFNγ and IL-4. These results suggest that the baculovirus system is equally efficient by the intramuscular as well as the oral routes for ALA protection and that the Gal-lectin LC3 fragment is a highly protective antigen against hepatic amoebiasis through the local induction of IFNγ and IL-4.

  5. Effects of deletion and overexpression of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus FP25K gene on synthesis of two occlusion-derived virus envelope proteins and their transport into virus-induced intranuclear membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Acosta, G; Braunagel, S C; Summers, M D

    2001-11-01

    Partial deletions within Autographa californica open reading frame 61 (FP25K) alter the expression and accumulation profile of several viral proteins and the transport of occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-E66 to intranuclear membranes during infection (S. C. Braunagel et al., J. Virol. 73:8559-8570, 1999). Here we show the effects of a full deletion and overexpression of FP25K on the transport and expression of two ODV envelope proteins, ODV-E66 (E66) and ODV-E25 (E25). Deletion and overexpression of FP25K substantially altered the levels of expression of E66 during infection. Compared with cells infected with wild-type (wt) virus, the levels of E66 were reduced fivefold in cells infected with a viral mutant lacking FP25K (DeltaFP25K) and were slightly increased in cells infected with a viral mutant overexpressing FP25K (FP25K(polh)). In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the levels of E25 among wt-, DeltaFP25K-, and FP25K(polh)-infected cells. The changes observed in the levels of E66 among the different viral mutants were not accompanied by changes in either the time of synthesis, membrane association, protein turnover, or steady-state transcript abundance. Deletion of FP25K also substantially altered the transport and localization of E66 during infection. In cells infected with the DeltaFP25K mutant virus, E66 accumulated in localized regions at the nuclear periphery and the outer nuclear membrane and did not traffic to intranuclear membranes. In contrast, in cells infected with the FP25K(polh) mutant virus E66 trafficked to intranuclear membranes. For comparison, E25 was normally transported to intranuclear membranes in both DeltaFP25K- and FP25K(polh)-infected cells. Altogether these studies suggest that FP25K affects the synthesis of E66 at a posttranscriptional level, probably by altering the translation of E66; additionally, the block in transport of E66 at the nuclear envelope in DeltaFP25K-infected cells suggests that the pathway of E66

  6. EF-1α DNA Sequences Indicate Multiple Origins of Introduced Populations of Essigella californica (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théry, Thomas; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Carnegie, Angus J; Chen, Rui; Elms, Stephen R; Hullé, Maurice; Glatz, Richard; Ortego, Jaime; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Turpeau, Évelyne; Favret, Colin

    2017-06-01

    Aphids in the pine-feeding Nearctic genus Essigella (Sternorrhyncha, Aphididae, Lachninae) have been introduced in Europe, North Africa, Oceania, and South America. Mitochondrial, nuclear, and endosymbiont DNA sequences of 12 introduced populations from three continents confirm they all belong to Essigella californica (Essig, 1909). Intron sequence variation of the nuclear gene EF-1α has revealed the existence of four distinct groups. Group I gathers one population from China, where the species is newly reported, and several from Europe (France and Italy); Group II is represented by one population from Argentina; Group III includes two populations from Southern Australia with one from New Zealand; and Group IV corresponds to five populations from Eastern and South-Eastern Australia. These results indicate that introduced populations of E. californica have at least four source populations. They also show that intron variation of EF-1α can be a method to discriminate populations of asexually reproducing aphids. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Functional analysis of Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in multiple activation states by SSM-based electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, K V; Muschik, S; Langguth, F; Rappenglück, S; Seeger, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2016-04-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPC), i.e. nerve agents or pesticides, are highly toxic due to their strong inhibition potency against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Inhibited AChE results in accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and thus the desensitisation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the postsynaptic membrane is provoked. Direct targeting of nAChR to reduce receptor desensitisation might be an alternative therapeutic approach. For drug discovery, functional properties of potent therapeutic candidates need to be investigated in addition to affinity properties. Solid supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology is useful for functional characterisation of ligand-gated ion channels like nAChRs, as charge translocations via capacitive coupling of the supporting membrane can be measured. By varying the agonist (carbamoylcholine) concentration, different functional states of the nAChR were initiated. Using plasma membrane preparations obtained from Torpedo californica electric organ, functional properties of selected nAChR ligands and non-oxime bispyridinium compounds were investigated. Depending on overall-size, the bispyridinium compounds enhanced or inhibited cholinergic signals induced by 100 μM carbamoylcholine. Applying excessive concentrations of the agonist carbamoylcholine provoked desensitisation of the nAChRs, whereas addition of bispyridinium compounds bearing short alkyl linkers exhibited functional recovery of previously desensitised nAChRs. The results suggest that these non-oxime bispyridinium compounds possibly interacted with nAChR subtypes in a manner of a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). The described newly developed functional assay is a valuable tool for the assessment of functional properties of potential compounds such as nAChR modulating ligands, which might be a promising approach in the therapeutically treatment of OPC-poisonings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immediate-Early Protein ME53 Forms Foci and Colocalizes with GP64 and the Major Capsid Protein VP39 at the Cell Membranes of Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus-Infected Cells ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jondavid; Theilmann, David A.; Arif, Basil M.; Krell, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    me53 is an immediate-early/late gene found in all lepidopteran baculoviruses sequenced to date. Deletion of me53 results in a greater-than-1,000-fold reduction in budded-virus production in tissue culture (J. de Jong, B. M. Arif, D. A. Theilmann, and P. J. Krell, J. Virol. 83:7440-7448, 2009). We investigated the localization of ME53 using an ME53 construct fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). ME53:GFP adopted a primarily cytoplasmic distribution at early times postinfection and a primarily nuclear distribution at late times postinfection. Additionally, at late times ME53:GFP formed distinct foci at the cell periphery. These foci colocalized with the major envelope fusion protein GP64 and frequently with VP39 capsid protein, suggesting that these cell membrane regions may represent viral budding sites. Deletion of vp39 did not influence the distribution of ME53:GFP; however, deletion of gp64 abolished ME53:GFP foci at the cell periphery, implying an association between ME53 and GP64. Despite the association of ME53 and GP64, ME53 fractionated with the nucleocapsid only after budded-virus fractionation. Together these findings suggest that ME53 may be providing a scaffold that bridges the viral envelope and nucleocapsid. PMID:21775466

  9. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas

    2010-12-06

    Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal novel molecular components associated with life history transitions. Specifically, we identify more than 20 signal peptides, putative hormones, and transcription factors in association with early development and metamorphic stages-many of which seem to be evolutionarily conserved elements of signal transduction pathways. We also characterize genes related to biomineralization-a critical process of molluscan development. In summary, our experiment provides the first large-scale survey of gene expression in mollusc development, and complements previous studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying body plan patterning and the formation of larval and juvenile structures. This study serves as a resource for further functional annotation of transcripts and genes in Aplysia, specifically and molluscs in general. A comparison of the Aplysia developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms that are likely a consequence of the different developmental modes of these organisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Antibacterial activity of native California medicinal plant extracts isolated from Rhamnus californica and Umbellularia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Maria G; Sevigny, Mary B; Banerjee, Debashree; Fox-Cubley, Lacie

    2015-05-23

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to global public health. Medicinal plants have long been used as remedies for infectious diseases by native cultures around the world and have the potential for providing effective treatments for antibiotic-resistant infections. Rhamnus californica (Rhamnaceae) and Umbellularia californica (Lauraceae) are two indigenous California plant species historically used by Native Americans to treat skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This study aimed to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of leaves and bark of R. and U. californica against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts of leaves and bark of R. and U. californica were prepared by soxhlet extraction and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Chemical profiling of the extracts was performed using standard methods. All extracts inhibited the growth of MRSA and other Gram-positive bacteria with MICs of 3.3-6.0 mg/ml. Gram-negative organisms were unaffected by these extracts. U. californica extracts (leaves and bark) had the lowest MIC values. Chemical profiling detected the presence of quinones, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardenolides, tannins and saponins in these extracts. Our study is the first to report the antimicrobial properties of R. and U. californica and illustrates their promising anti-MRSA potential. Our results give scientific credence to the traditional medicinal uses of these plants by the indigenous peoples of California. Further investigation of the secondary metabolites responsible for the antimicrobial activity of these extracts against MRSA is warranted.

  11. Functional and structural analysis of GP64, the major envelope glycoprotein of the Budded Virus phenotype of Autographa californica and Orgyia pseudotsugata Multicapsid Nucleopolyhedroviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A.G.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Baculoviridae are a family of large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses, that cause severe disease in the larvae of mostly lepidopteran insects. Baculoviruses have been studied with the aim of developing alternatives to chemical pest control, and later for their potential as systems

  12. Dietary metal toxicity to the marine sea hare, Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Capo, Thomas R; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-01-01

    Metal pollution from anthropogenic inputs is a concern in many marine environments. Metals accumulate in tissue and in excess cause toxicity in marine organisms. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of dietary metals in a macroinvertebrate. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to two concentrations (100 or 1000 μg/L) of five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn). Additionally, U. lactuca was exposed to 10 μg/L of the metal mixture as well as 10 or 100 μg/L of each metal individually for 48 h. The seaweeds were then used as food for the sea hare, Aplysia californica for two to three weeks depending on the exposure concentration. Body mass of A. californica was measured weekly, and at the end of the exposure duration, metal concentrations were quantified in dissected organs (mouth, esophagus, crop, gizzard, ovotestis, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, and the carcass). Metal distribution and accumulation in the organs of A. californica varied with the metal. A. californica fed the metal-exposed diets had significantly reduced body weight by the end of the exposure periods, as compared to controls; however, differences were observed in the extent of growth reductions, dependent on exposure concentration, duration, and exposure regime (metal mixture versus individual metal-exposed diet). Metal mixture diets decreased A. californica growth more so than comparable individual metal diets, despite more metal accumulating in the individual metal diets. Additionally, Zn- and Cu-contaminated algal diets decreased control-normalized growth of A. californica significantly more than comparable Cd-, Pb-, or Ni-contaminated diets. The seaweed diets in this study contained environmentally relevant tissue metal burdens. Therefore, these results have implications for metals in marine systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs of Aplysia californica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The opisthobranch gastropod Aplysia californica serves as a model organism in experimental neurobiology because of its simple and well-known nervous system. However, its nervous periphery has been less intensely studied. We have reconstructed the ontogeny of the cephalic sensory organs (labial te...... of FMRFamide-like peptides in the modulation of peripheral sensory processes. This study is the first concerning the neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs in A. californica and may serve as a basis for future studies of neuronal elements in gastropod molluscs....

  14. Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Compounds from Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, L.; Macáková, K.; Kuneš, J.; Kurfürst, Milan; Opletal, L.; Cvačka, Josef; Chlebek, J.; Blunden, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 7 (2010), s. 1035-1038 ISSN 1934-578X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : eschscholzia californica * papaveraceae * isoquinoline Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2010

  15. Microbiomes of Muricea californica and M. fruticosa: Comparative Analyses of Two Co-occurring Eastern Pacific Octocorals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Johanna B; Heidelberg, Karla B

    2016-01-01

    Octocorals are sources of novel but understudied microbial diversity. Conversely, scleractinian or reef-building coral microbiomes have been heavily examined in light of the threats of climate change. Muricea californica and Muricea fruticosa are two co-occurring species of gorgonian octocoral abundantly found in the kelp forests of southern California, and thus provide an excellent basis to determine if octocoral microbiomes are host specific. Using Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing and replicate samples, we evaluated the microbiomes collected from multiple colonies of both species of Muricea to measure both inter- and intra-colony microbiome variabilities. In addition, microbiomes from overlying sea water and nearby zoanthids (another benthic invertebrate) were also included in the analysis to evaluate whether bacterial taxa specifically associate with octocorals. This is also the first report of microbiomes from these species of Muricea. We show that microbiomes isolated from each sample type are distinct, and specifically, that octocoral species type had the greatest effect on predicting the composition of the Muricea microbiome. Bacterial taxa contributing to compositional differences include distinct strains of Mycoplasma associated with either M. californica or M. fruticosa, an abundance of Spirochaetes observed on M. californica, and a greater diversity of γ-Proteobacteria associated with M. fruticosa. Many of the bacterial taxa contributing to these differences are known for their presence in photosymbiont-containing invertebrate microbiomes.

  16. Modulatory Effects of Eschscholzia californica Alkaloids on Recombinant GABAA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Fedurco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham. contains a variety of natural compounds including several alkaloids found exclusively in this plant. Because of the sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic effects, this herb is currently sold in pharmacies in many countries. However, our understanding of these biological effects at the molecular level is still lacking. Alkaloids detected in E. californica could be hypothesized to act at GABAA receptors, which are widely expressed in the brain mainly at the inhibitory interneurons. Electrophysiological studies on a recombinant α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor showed no effect of N-methyllaurotetanine at concentrations lower than 30 μM. However, (S-reticuline behaved as positive allosteric modulator at the α3, α5, and α6 isoforms of GABAA receptors. The depressant properties of aerial parts of E. californica are assigned to chloride-current modulation by (S-reticuline at the α3β2γ2 and α5β2γ2 GABAA receptors. Interestingly, α1, α3, and α5 were not significantly affected by (R-reticuline, 1,2-tetrahydroreticuline, codeine, and morphine—suspected (S-reticuline metabolites in the rodent brain.

  17. Baculoviruses Modulate a Proapoptotic DNA Damage Response To Promote Virus Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan K.

    2012-01-01

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) initiates apoptosis in diverse insects through events triggered by virus DNA (vDNA) replication. To define the proapoptotic pathway and its role in antivirus defense, we investigated the link between the host's DNA damage response (DDR) and apoptosis. We report here that AcMNPV elicits a DDR in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Replication of vDNA activated DDR kinases, as evidenced by ATM-driven phosphorylation of the Drosophila histone H2AX homolog (H2Av), a critical regulator of the DDR. Ablation or inhibition of ATM repressed H2Av phosphorylation and blocked virus-induced apoptosis. The DDR kinase inhibitors caffeine and KU55933 also prevented virus-induced apoptosis in cells derived from the permissive AcMNPV host, Spodoptera frugiperda. This block occurred at a step upstream of virus-mediated depletion of the cellular inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein, an event that initiates apoptosis in Spodoptera and Drosophila. Thus, the DDR is a conserved, proapoptotic response to baculovirus infection. DDR inhibition also repressed vDNA replication and reduced virus yields 100,000-fold, demonstrating that the DDR contributes to virus production, despite its recognized antivirus role. In contrast to virus-induced phosphorylation of Drosophila H2Av, AcMNPV blocked phosphorylation of the Spodoptera H2AX homolog (SfH2AX). Remarkably, AcMNPV also suppressed SfH2AX phosphorylation following pharmacologically induced DNA damage. These findings indicate that AcMNPV alters canonical DDR signaling in permissive cells. We conclude that AcMNPV triggers a proapoptotic DDR that is subsequently modified, presumably to stimulate vDNA replication. Thus, manipulation of the DDR to facilitate multiplication is an evolutionarily conserved strategy among DNA viruses of insects and mammals. PMID:23035220

  18. Baculovirus F-Box Protein LEF-7 Modifies the Host DNA Damage Response To Enhance Virus Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan K.; Byers, Nathaniel M.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) of a host organism represents an effective antiviral defense that is frequently manipulated and exploited by viruses to promote multiplication. We report here that the large DNA baculoviruses, which require host DDR activation for optimal replication, encode a conserved replication factor, LEF-7, that manipulates the DDR via a novel mechanism. LEF-7 suppresses DDR-induced accumulation of phosphorylated host histone variant H2AX (γ-H2AX), a critical regulator of the DDR. LEF-7 was necessary and sufficient to block γ-H2AX accumulation caused by baculovirus infection or DNA damage induced by means of pharmacological agents. Deletion of LEF-7 from the baculovirus genome allowed γ-H2AX accumulation during virus DNA synthesis and impaired both very late viral gene expression and production of infectious progeny. Thus, LEF-7 is essential for efficient baculovirus replication. We determined that LEF-7 is a nuclear F-box protein that interacts with host S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1), suggesting that LEF-7 acts as a substrate recognition component of SKP1/Cullin/F-box (SCF) complexes for targeted protein polyubiquitination. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that LEF-7's N-terminal F-box is necessary for γ-H2AX repression and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) replication events. We concluded that LEF-7 expedites virus replication most likely by selective manipulation of one or more host factors regulating the DDR, including γ-H2AX. Thus, our findings indicate that baculoviruses utilize a unique strategy among viruses for hijacking the host DDR by using a newly recognized F-box protein. PMID:24027328

  19. A Novel Betabaculovirus Isolated from the Monocot Pest Mocis latipes (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and the Evolution of Multiple-Copy Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. P. Ardisson-Araújo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we described the genome of a novel baculovirus isolated from the monocot insect pest Mocis latipes, the striped grass looper. The genome has 134,272 bp in length with a G + C content of 38.3%. Based on the concatenated sequence of the 38 baculovirus core genes, we found that the virus is a betabaculovirus closely related to the noctuid-infecting betabaculoviruses including Pseudaletia unipuncta granulovirus (PsunGV, Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV, Helicoverpa armigera granulovirus (HearGV, and Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV. The virus may constitute a new Betabaculovirus species tentatively named Mocis latipes granulovirus (MolaGV. After gene content analysis, five open reading frames (ORFs were found to be unique to MolaGV and several auxiliary genes were found including iap-3, iap-5, bro-a, bro-b, and three enhancins. The virus genome lacked both chitinase and cathepsin. We then looked at the evolutionary history of the enhancin gene and found that betabaculovirus acquired this gene from an alphabaculovirus followed by several duplication events. Gene duplication also happened to an endonuclease-like gene. Genomic and gene content analyses revealed both a strict collinearity and gene expansion into the genome of the MolaGV-related species. We also characterized the granulin gene using a recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV and found that occlusion bodies were produced into the nucleus of infected cells and presented a polyhedral shape and no occluded virions within. Overall, betabaculovirus genome sequencing is of importance to the field as few genomes are publicly accessible. Mocis latipes is a secondary pest of maize, rice, and wheat crops in Brazil. Certainly, both the discovery and description of novel baculoviruses may lead to development of greener and safer pesticides in order to counteract and effectively control crop damage-causing insect populations

  20. Stabilization of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase by reversible inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Lev; Shnyrov, Valery L; Konstantinovskii, Leonid; Roth, Esther; Ashani, Yacov; Silman, Israel

    2009-01-27

    The dimeric form of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase provides a valuable experimental system for studying transitions between native, partially unfolded, and unfolded states since long-lived partially unfolded states can be generated by chemical modification of a nonconserved buried cysteine residue, Cys 231, by denaturing agents, by oxidative stress, and by thermal inactivation. Elucidation of the 3D structures of complexes of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase with a repertoire of reversible inhibitors permits their classification into three categories: (a) active-site directed inhibitors, which interact with the catalytic anionic subsite, at the bottom of the active-site gorge, such as edrophonium and tacrine; (b) peripheral anionic site inhibitors, which interact with a site at the entrance to the gorge, such as propidium and d-tubocurarine; and (c) elongated gorge-spanning inhibitors, which bridge the two sites, such as BW284c51 and decamethonium. The effects of these three categories of reversible inhibitors on the stability of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase were investigated using spectroscopic techniques and differential scanning calorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters obtained calorimetrically permitted quantitative comparison of the effects of the inhibitors on the enzyme's thermal stability. Peripheral site inhibitors had a relatively small effect, while gorge-spanning ligands and those binding at the catalytic anionic site, had a much larger stabilizing effect. The strongest effect was, however, observed with the polypeptide toxin, fasciculin II (FasII), even though, in terms of its binding site, it belongs to the category of peripheral site ligands. The stabilizing effect of the ligands binding at the anionic subsite of the active site, like that of the gorge-spanning ligands, may be ascribed to their capacity to stabilize the interaction between the two subdomains of the enzyme. The effect of fasciculin II may be ascribed to the

  1. Effects of Hypergravity on Statocyst Development in Embryonic Aplysia californica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrozo, Hugo A.; Wiederhold, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    Aplysia californica is a marine gastropod mollusc with bilaterally paired statocysts as gravity-reccptor organs. Data from three experiments in which embryonic Aplysia californica were exposed to 2 x g arc discussed. The experimental groups were exposed to excess gravity until hatching (9-12 day), whereas control groups were maintained at normal gravity. Body diameter was measured before exposure to 2 x g. Statocyst, statolith and body diameter were each determined for samples of 20 embryos from each group on successive days. Exposure to excess gravity led to an increase in body size. Statocyst size was not affected by exposure to 2 x g. Statolith size decreased with treatment as indicated by smaller statolith-to-body ratios observed in the 2 x g group in all three experiments. Mean statolith diameter was significantly smaller for the 2 x g group in Experiment 1 but not in Experiments 2 and 3. Defective statocysts, characterized by very small or no statoliths, were found in the 2 x g group in Experiments 1 and 2.

  2. Sampling Buprestidae (Coleoptera in Washington state with Cerceris californica Cresson (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beetle-hunting habits of ground nesting wasps in the genus Cerceris Latreille have been recently exploited as a survey technique for exotic and native Buprestidae, particularly Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash-borer. While such methods have been developed for the wide-ranging eastern Cerceris fumipennis Say, the survey potential of western buprestid-hunting Cerceris spp. has not been explored. Cerceris californica Cresson is the most well-studied of the western buprestid feeders, and the only one known to occur in Washington state. Here we report the results of surveys conducted in Washington in 2012–2013 for C. californica colonies, and numbers of buprestid beetles collected from monitored colonies. Eight C. californica colonies were found through visual search of 228 baseball fields and sandy clearings, but only four were large enough to monitor. Fifty-four beetles were recovered from the four colonies, comprising five native species. Four of these are new prey records for C. californica, and one (Chrysobothris quadriimpressa Gory & Laporte is newly recorded from Washington. Cerceris californica colonies do not appear to be large or common enough in Washington to be a significant exotic buprestid survey strategy. However, even the limited monitoring resulted in more buprestid captures than nearby purple sticky traps, and monitoring C. californica nests may be a locally useful supplement for general buprestid surveys.

  3. Studies of the silencing of Baculovirus DNA binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadt, I.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Knebel-Morsdorf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus DNA binding protein (DBP) binds preferentially single-stranded DNA in vitro and colocalizes with viral DNA replication sites. Here, its putative role as viral replication factor has been addressed by RNA interference. Silencing of DBP in Autographa californica multiple

  4. Response of gypsy moth larvae to homologous and heterologous nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Shields; Edward M. Dougherty

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is not particularly susceptible to baculoviruses other than the nuclear polyhedrosis virus originally isolated from the species (LdMNPV). The multiple enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica (AcMNPV), a very virulent baculovirus that replicates in a large number of...

  5. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  6. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced 155 Eu: 3+ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor

  7. Targeted oxidation of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase by singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Lev; Roth, Esther; Silman, Israel

    2011-01-01

    The photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB), is a strong reversible inhibitor of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the dark. Under illumination it causes irreversible inactivation. Loss of fluorescence of the singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) trap, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, was retarded in the presence of AChE, and the rate of photo-inactivation was increased in the presence of D(2)O, indicating that inactivation was due to (1)O(2) generated by the photosensitizer. CD revealed slightly reduced far-UV ellipticity, and slightly enhanced binding of an amphiphilic probe, indicating limited unfolding of the photo-oxidized AChE. However, both near-UV ellipticity and intrinsic fluorescence were markedly reduced, suggesting photo-oxidative damage to tryptophans, (Trp) supported by appearance of novel emission peaks ascribed to N'-formylkynurenine and/or kynurenine. Like other partially unfolded forms, the photo-oxidized AChE was sensitive to proteolysis. Photosensitized inactivation produced exclusively chemically cross-linked dimers, whereas irradiation of a partially unfolded state generated higher-order oligomers. The active-site gorge of AChE contains Trp in inhibitor-binding sites that might be targets for photo-oxidation. Indeed, reversible inhibitors retard photo-inactivation, and photo-inactivation destroys their binding sites. An excess of AChE protects paraoxonase from photo-inactivation by sequestering the photosensitizer. Affinity photo-oxidation of AChE by MB thus provides a valuable model for studying site-specific photo-inactivation of enzymes in both fundamental and clinical contexts. © 2010 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2010 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Modulation of CYPs, P-gp, and PXR by Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) and its alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschscholzia californica Cham., a native US plant, is traditionally used as a sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic herb. With the rapid rise in the use of herbal supplements together with over the counter (OTC) and prescription drugs, the risk for potential herb-drug interactions is also increasing. M...

  9. First case of synophthalmia and albinism in the Pacific angel shark Squatina californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Sánchez, O; Moreno-Sánchez, X G; Aguilar-Cruz, C A; Abitia-Cárdenas, L A

    2014-08-01

    The first record in Mexican waters of albinism and synophthalmia (partial cyclopia) in the Pacific angel shark, Squatina californica is presented. Albinism is not lethal, but synophthalmia may cause the death of the individual immediately after birth. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Mercury Concentrations in Pacific Angel Sharks (Squatina californica) and Prey Fishes from Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Sánchez, O; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Moreno-Sánchez, X G; Romo-Piñera, A K; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were quantified in muscle tissues of the Pacific angel shark, Squatina californica sampled from Southern Gulf of California, Mexico, considering total length, sex, diet and the dietary risk assessment. High Hg levels are typically associated with carnivorous fishes, however S. californica showed low Hg concentrations ( 0.05). Hg concentrations were highest in the darkedge mishipman: Porichthys analis (0.14 ± 0.08 µg g(-1)) and red-eye round herring Etrumeus teres (0.13 ± 0.05 µg g(-1)) relative to other prey species, which could suggest that Hg concentrations in S. californica were influenced by these species. Given the relatively low concentration of Hg across age-classes and sex, consumption of S. californica's muscle tissue poses limited risk to humans.

  11. INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE CORALLIMORPHARIAN CORYNACTIS CALIFORNICA (CNIDARIA: ANTHOZOA): EFFECTS ON SYMPATRIC CORALS AND SEA ANEMONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Nanette E

    1987-08-01

    Corallimorpharians are sessile cnidarians that are morphologically similar to the actiniarian sea anemones and scleractinian corals. This study describes for the first time the behavioral mechanism and effects of aggression by a corallimorpharian. Polyps of the temperate clonal corallimorpharian Corynactis californica extruded their mesenteries and associated filaments onto members of certain species of sea anemones and corals. They did not exhibit this behavior intraspecifically, and members of different clones of C. californica remained expanded upon contact. In contrast, members of four species of corals and zoanthids responded to contact with C. californica by contracting their tentacles, and members of three sea anemone species bent or moved away, detached from the substrate, or attacked using their aggressive structures. When interspecific contact was prolonged, individuals of C. californica extruded filaments onto, and killed polyps of, the sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and Metridium senile within 3 weeks, and the corals Astrangia lajollaensis and Balanophyllia elegans within 4-10 months under laboratory conditions. The use of extruded mesenterial filaments by C. californica to attack members of other anthozoan species is similar to the aggressive behavior exhibited by many scleractinian reef corals. Field observations suggest that C. californica may use this agonistic behavior during interspecific competition for space on hard marine substrate.

  12. The significance of midsummer movements of Autographa gamma: Implications for a mechanistic understanding of orientation behavior in a migrant moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. CHAPMAN, Ka S. LIM, Don R. REYNOLDS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The silver Y moth Autographa gamma undertakes windborne spring and fall migrations between winter breeding regions around the Mediterranean and summer breeding regions in northern Europe. Flight behaviors facilitating these migrations include: (i selection of seasonally-favorable tailwinds; (ii flying at the altitude of the fastest winds; (iii adopting flight headings that partially counteract crosswind drift; and (iv seasonal reversal of preferred directions between spring and fall. In the UK, radar measurements indicate that migratory activity is pronounced during the spring and fall, but is usually very low during midsummer (July. However, an atypically intense period of high-altitude flight was recorded during July 2006, and in this study we compare the flight behavior of A. gamma during these midsummer movements with the more typical spring and fall migrations. During July 2006, activity was most intense at significantly lower altitudes than occurred in spring or fall, and was not associated with the height of the fastest winds; consequently displacement speeds were significantly slower. The most striking difference was an absence of tailwind selectivity in July with windborne movements occurring on almost every night of the month and on tailwinds from all directions. Finally, orientation behavior was quantitatively different during July, with significantly greater dispersion of flight headings and displacements than observed in spring and fall. We discuss mechanisms which could have caused these differences, and conclude that a lack of appropriate photoperiod cues during development of the summer generation resulted in randomly-oriented ‘dispersive’ movements that were strikingly different from typical seasonal migrations [Current Zoology 59 (3: 360–370, 2013].

  13. Storage Effect on Phenols and on the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Anemopsis californica and Inhibition of Elastase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of total phenols and flavonoids and the antioxidant activity of leaf, stem, and rhizome methanolic extracts from a commonly consumed Anemopsis californica under different storage conditions were investigated. Storage conditions were at 50, 25, 4, and −20°C, protected or not from light, during 180 days. The inhibition of the elastase enzyme was also evaluated. The results demonstrated that leaf, stem, and rhizome methanolic extracts of Anemopsis californica maintain approximately up to 97 and 95% stability in phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively, when stored during 60 days at −20°C in the dark. Additionally, these extracts, principally from leaf and rhizome, showed an elastase inhibitory effect by 75 and 71.8%, respectively. Therefore, this study provides the basis for further research on the anti-inflammatory activity. On the other hand, Anemopsis californica could comprise a good alternative of use as antioxidant in foods.

  14. Clathrin-independent entry of baculovirus triggers uptake of E. coli in non-phagocytic human cells

    OpenAIRE

    Laakkonen, Johanna P; Mäkelä, Anna R; Kakkonen, Elina; Turkki, Paula; Kukkonen, Sari; Peränen, Johan; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Airenne, Kari J; Oker-Blom, Christian; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2009-01-01

    The prototype baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, an insect pathogen, holds great potential as a gene therapy vector. To develop transductional targeting and gene delivery by baculovirus, we focused on characterizing the nature and regulation of its uptake in human cancer cells. Baculovirus entered the cells along fluid-phase markers from the raft areas into smooth-surfaced vesicles devoid of clathrin. Notably, regulators associated with macropinocytosis, namely...

  15. Baculovirus DNA Replication-Specific Expression Factors Trigger Apoptosis and Shutoff of Host Protein Synthesis during Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Friesen, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important antivirus defense. To define the poorly understood pathways by which invertebrates respond to viruses by inducing apoptosis, we have identified replication events that trigger apoptosis in baculovirus-infected cells. We used RNA silencing to ablate factors required for multiplication of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Transfection with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) complementary to the AcMNPV late expression factors (lefs) that are des...

  16. Development of Screening Trials to Rank Pinus radiata Genotypes for Resistance to Defoliation by Monterey Pine Aphid (Essigella californica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Elms; Peter Ades; Nick Collet

    2012-01-01

    The Monterey pine aphid (Essigella californica) is a recent arrival in Australia, having first been detected in 1998. It quickly spread throughout the national radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation estate, causing seasonal defoliation and compromising tree growth in many areas. Selection of resistant radiata...

  17. Factors influencing Phytophthora ramorum infectivity on Umbellularia californica and testing of a defoliation-based control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Windsor Colijn; Michael Cohen; Steve Johnston; Whalen Dillon; Nathan Rank

    2013-01-01

    The primary foliar host for Phytophthora ramorum is California bay laurel, Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt., a main reservoir for the pathogen in California woodlands. We investigated environmental and pathogen-mediated influences on incidence and severity of P. ramorum infection of

  18. Probing Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase catalytic gorge with two novel bis-functional galanthamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Cecilia; Haller, Lars A; Jordis, Ulrich; Fels, Gregor; Lamba, Doriano

    2010-01-28

    N-Piperidinopropyl-galanthamine (2) and N-saccharinohexyl-galanthamine (3) were used to investigate interaction sites along the active site gorge of Torpedo californica actylcholinesterase (TcAChE). The crystal structure of TcAChE-2 solved at 2.3 A showed that the N-piperidinopropyl group in 2 is not stretched along the gorge but is folded over the galanthamine moiety. This result was unexpected because the three carbon alkyl chain is just long enough for the bulky piperidine group to be placed above the bottleneck (Tyr121, Phe330) midway down the gorge. The crystal structure of TcAChE-3 at 2.2 A confirmed that a dual interaction with the sites at the bottom, and at the entrance of the gorge, enhances inhibitory activity: a chain of six carbon atoms has, in this class of derivatives, the correct length for optimal interactions with the peripheral anionic site (PAS).

  19. Aging in Sensory and Motor Neurons Results in Learning Failure in Aplysia californica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kempsell

    Full Text Available The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT. Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia.

  20. Climatic niche conservatism and biogeographical non-equilibrium in Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae, an invasive plant in the Chilean Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco T Peña-Gómez

    Full Text Available Species climate requirements are useful for predicting their geographic distribution. It is often assumed that the niche requirements for invasive plants are conserved during invasion, especially when the invaded regions share similar climate conditions. California and central Chile have a remarkable degree of convergence in their vegetation structure, and a similar Mediterranean climate. Such similarities make these geographic areas an interesting natural experiment for testing climatic niche dynamics and the equilibrium of invasive species in a new environment. We tested to see if the climatic niche of Eschscholzia californica is conserved in the invaded range (central Chile, and we assessed whether the invasion process has reached a biogeographical equilibrium, i.e., occupy all the suitable geographic locations that have suitable conditions under native niche requirements. We compared the climatic niche in the native and invaded ranges as well as the projected potential geographic distribution in the invaded range. In order to compare climatic niches, we conducted a Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Species Distribution Models (SDMs, to estimate E. californica's potential geographic distribution. We also used SDMs to predict altitudinal distribution limits in central Chile. Our results indicated that the climatic niche occupied by E. californica in the invaded range is firmly conserved, occupying a subset of the native climatic niche but leaving a substantial fraction of it unfilled. Comparisons of projected SDMs for central Chile indicate a similarity, yet the projection from native range predicted a larger geographic distribution in central Chile compared to the prediction of the model constructed for central Chile. The projected niche occupancy profile from California predicted a higher mean elevation than that projected from central Chile. We concluded that the invasion process of E. californica in central Chile is consistent with

  1. Number of conspecifics and reproduction in the invasive plant Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae): is there a pollinator-mediated Allee effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, V; Henríquez, C A; Abades, S R; Bustamante, R O

    2015-05-01

    The component Allee effect has been defined as 'a positive relationship between any measure of individual fitness and the number or density of conspecifics'. Larger plant populations or large patches have shown a higher pollinator visitation rate, which may give rise to an Allee effect in reproduction of the plants. We experimentally tested the effect of number of conspecifics on reproduction and pollinator visitation in Eschscholzia californica Cham., an invasive plant in Chile. We then built patches with two, eight and 16 flowering individuals of E. californica (11 replicates per treatment) in an area characterised by dominance of the study species. We found that E. californica exhibits a component Allee effect, as the number of individuals of this species has a positive effect on individual seed set. However, individual fruit production was not affected by the number of plants examined. Pollinator visitation rate was also independent of the number of plants, so this factor would not explain the Allee effect. This rate was positively correlated with the total number of flowers in the patches. We also found that the number of plants did not affect the seed mass or proportion of germinated seeds in the patches. Higher pollen availability in patches with 16 plants and pollination by wind could explain the Allee effect. The component Allee effect identified could lead to a weak demographic Allee effect that might reduce the rate of spread of E. californica. Knowledge of this would be useful for management of this invasive plant in Chile. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Population Genetic Structure of Arctomecon californica Torrey & Fremont (Papaveraceae) in Fragmented and Unfragmented Habitat(Population Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    LAURA L., HICKERSON; PAUL G., WOLF; Department of Biology, Utah State University; Department of Biology, Utah State University

    1998-01-01

    Arctomecon californica (the Las Vegas bearpoppy) is endemic to gypsum outcrops of the northern Mojave Desert. Native habitat of this plant in the Las Vegas Valley has been severely fragmented, while relatively undisturbed, unfragmented habitat still exists in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Allozyme data from seven loci for 16 populations indicate high levels of genetic variability. Nei's genetic identity and G_ values suggest that populations in fragmented habitat are more differenti...

  3. Climatic niche conservatism and biogeographical non-equilibrium in Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae), an invasive plant in the Chilean Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Gómez, Francisco T; Guerrero, Pablo C; Bizama, Gustavo; Duarte, Milén; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2014-01-01

    Species climate requirements are useful for predicting their geographic distribution. It is often assumed that the niche requirements for invasive plants are conserved during invasion, especially when the invaded regions share similar climate conditions. California and central Chile have a remarkable degree of convergence in their vegetation structure, and a similar Mediterranean climate. Such similarities make these geographic areas an interesting natural experiment for testing climatic niche dynamics and the equilibrium of invasive species in a new environment. We tested to see if the climatic niche of Eschscholzia californica is conserved in the invaded range (central Chile), and we assessed whether the invasion process has reached a biogeographical equilibrium, i.e., occupy all the suitable geographic locations that have suitable conditions under native niche requirements. We compared the climatic niche in the native and invaded ranges as well as the projected potential geographic distribution in the invaded range. In order to compare climatic niches, we conducted a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Species Distribution Models (SDMs), to estimate E. californica's potential geographic distribution. We also used SDMs to predict altitudinal distribution limits in central Chile. Our results indicated that the climatic niche occupied by E. californica in the invaded range is firmly conserved, occupying a subset of the native climatic niche but leaving a substantial fraction of it unfilled. Comparisons of projected SDMs for central Chile indicate a similarity, yet the projection from native range predicted a larger geographic distribution in central Chile compared to the prediction of the model constructed for central Chile. The projected niche occupancy profile from California predicted a higher mean elevation than that projected from central Chile. We concluded that the invasion process of E. californica in central Chile is consistent with climatic niche

  4. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Margosan, D; Michailides, T J; Xiao, C L

    2016-01-01

    The Botrytis cinerea species complex comprises two cryptic species, originally referred to Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping. Group I was described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea During a survey of Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Valley of California, six isolates, three from blueberries and three from table grapes, were placed in Group I but had a distinct morphological character with conidiophores significantly longer than those of B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea We compared these with B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea by examining morphological and physiological characters, sensitivity to fenhexamid and phylogenetic analysis inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the three partial gene sequences encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) supported the proposal of a new Botrytis species, B. californica, which is closely related genetically to B. cinerea, B. pseudocinerea and B. sinoviticola, all known as causal agents of gray mold of grapes. Botrytis californica caused decay on blueberry and table grape fruit inoculated with the fungus. This study suggests that B. californica is a cryptic species sympatric with B. cinerea on blueberries and table grapes in California. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Multiplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)(criminal statute prohibiting interracial marriages held unconstitutional violation of the Equal Protection and Due Process...such sentences does not violate the Constitution."°2 7 In effect , the double jeopardy protection from multiple punishments is coextensive with...unaware of what it accomplished . . . . In effect , the Blockburger test establishes a presumption of legislative intent: if each of two statutes

  6. Synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica and from the central nervous system of Mus musculus contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huinan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic vesicles (SVs are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS of Mus musculus (mouse contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤50 nucleotides (Scientific Reports, 5:1–14(14918 Li et al. (2015 [1]. Our previous publication provided the five most abundant sequences associated with the T. californica SVs, and the ten most abundant sequences associated with the mouse SVs, representing 59% and 39% of the total sRNA reads sequenced, respectively. We provide here a full repository of the SV sRNAs sequenced from T. californica and the mouse deposited in the NCBI as biosamples. Three data studies are included: SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques, SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques with an additional affinity purification step, and finally, SVs isolated from the CNS of mouse. The three biosamples are available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample/ SRS1523467, SRS1523466, and SRS1523472 respectively.

  7. Integrated genomics and proteomics of the Torpedo californica electric organ: concordance with the mammalian neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mate Suzanne E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During development, the branchial mesoderm of Torpedo californica transdifferentiates into an electric organ capable of generating high voltage discharges to stun fish. The organ contains a high density of cholinergic synapses and has served as a biochemical model for the membrane specialization of myofibers, the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. We studied the genome and proteome of the electric organ to gain insight into its composition, to determine if there is concordance with skeletal muscle and the NMJ, and to identify novel synaptic proteins. Results Of 435 proteins identified, 300 mapped to Torpedo cDNA sequences with ≥2 peptides. We identified 14 uncharacterized proteins in the electric organ that are known to play a role in acetylcholine receptor clustering or signal transduction. In addition, two human open reading frames, C1orf123 and C6orf130, showed high sequence similarity to electric organ proteins. Our profile lists several proteins that are highly expressed in skeletal muscle or are muscle specific. Synaptic proteins such as acetylcholinesterase, acetylcholine receptor subunits, and rapsyn were present in the electric organ proteome but absent in the skeletal muscle proteome. Conclusions Our integrated genomic and proteomic analysis supports research describing a muscle-like profile of the organ. We show that it is a repository of NMJ proteins but we present limitations on its use as a comprehensive model of the NMJ. Finally, we identified several proteins that may become candidates for signaling proteins not previously characterized as components of the NMJ.

  8. Integrated genomics and proteomics of the Torpedo californica electric organ: concordance with the mammalian neuromuscular junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background During development, the branchial mesoderm of Torpedo californica transdifferentiates into an electric organ capable of generating high voltage discharges to stun fish. The organ contains a high density of cholinergic synapses and has served as a biochemical model for the membrane specialization of myofibers, the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We studied the genome and proteome of the electric organ to gain insight into its composition, to determine if there is concordance with skeletal muscle and the NMJ, and to identify novel synaptic proteins. Results Of 435 proteins identified, 300 mapped to Torpedo cDNA sequences with ≥2 peptides. We identified 14 uncharacterized proteins in the electric organ that are known to play a role in acetylcholine receptor clustering or signal transduction. In addition, two human open reading frames, C1orf123 and C6orf130, showed high sequence similarity to electric organ proteins. Our profile lists several proteins that are highly expressed in skeletal muscle or are muscle specific. Synaptic proteins such as acetylcholinesterase, acetylcholine receptor subunits, and rapsyn were present in the electric organ proteome but absent in the skeletal muscle proteome. Conclusions Our integrated genomic and proteomic analysis supports research describing a muscle-like profile of the organ. We show that it is a repository of NMJ proteins but we present limitations on its use as a comprehensive model of the NMJ. Finally, we identified several proteins that may become candidates for signaling proteins not previously characterized as components of the NMJ. PMID:21798097

  9. Re-caching by Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica cannot be attributed to stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Thom

    Full Text Available Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica live double lives, storing food for the future while raiding the stores of other birds. One tactic scrub-jays employ to protect stores is "re-caching"-relocating caches out of sight of would-be thieves. Recent computational modelling work suggests that re-caching might be mediated not by complex cognition, but by a combination of memory failure and stress. The "Stress Model" asserts that re-caching is a manifestation of a general drive to cache, rather than a desire to protect existing stores. Here, we present evidence strongly contradicting the central assumption of these models: that stress drives caching, irrespective of social context. In Experiment (i, we replicate the finding that scrub-jays preferentially relocate food they were watched hiding. In Experiment (ii we find no evidence that stress increases caching. In light of our results, we argue that the Stress Model cannot account for scrub-jay re-caching.

  10. Two 'new' renicolid trematodes (Trematoda: Digenea: Renicolidae) from the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica (Haldeman, 1840) (Gastropoda: Potamididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F; Miura, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript describes the daughter parthenitae (sporocysts) and cercariae of two species of renicolid xiphidiocercaria that infect the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica, which serves as first intermediate host for a diverse and ecologically important guild of digenean trematode parasitic castrators. The two species described here have previously been considered to be a single morphospecies in ecological and evolutionary research. We provide provisional species names to respect that digenean alpha taxonomy is currently focused on sexual (adult) stages, while simultaneously respecting the spirit and utility of formal nomenclature in providing unambiguously unique, species-level names that also clarify to the extent possible species' taxonomic affiliations. The first species, Renicola sp. "polychaetophila" is most readily distinguishable from previously described renicolid xiphidiocercariae by a combination of (1) having a penetration gland duct arrangement of 2[(1+3+1)+1], (2) having one pair of penetration glands positioned anteriorly to the main gland cluster, (3) lacking tegmental spines, and (4) infecting Cerithidea californica. The second species, Renicola sp. "martini", is most readily distinguishable from other renicolid xiphidiocercariae that also have tegmental spines by a combination of (1) having a simple, bullet-shaped oral stylet sclerotized for 50-80% of its length, (2) having a cystogenous-gland field with an anterior-most extent about half way between the oral and ventral suckers, and (3) in infecting Cerithidea californica. Phylogenetic analyses using DNA (COI and ITS1) sequence data support that these two trematodes represent distinct species of Renicola. We also (1) provide an emended diagnosis for renicolid cercariae, (2) highlight a few morphological characters that may be useful for future taxonomic work involving renicolid xiphidiocercariae, and (3) suggest that future descriptive work involving trematode parthenitae include

  11. Fecundity of the crustacean Mysidopsis californica (Mysida, Mysidae under semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando A Ortega-Salas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mysid crustaceans are frequently used in the laboratory to feed cephalopods and fish, but not along the Pacific coast, where they are scarce. There is no commercial aquaculture of mysids in the Pacific Ocean. To change this situation, we calculate fecundity, survival, and sex ratio of Mysidopsis californica under semi-controlled conditions. Mysids were collected manually using a 500 µm-mesh net along the rocky coast of Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico. They were transferred to three 30 L seawater aquaria in the laboratory, and fed (ad libitum Artemia nauplii and rotifers. Two generations were obtained. The relationship between the number of juveniles born and parent female lengths showed a rate of 1.56 juveniles released per each unit of increasing parent female length. An average parent female length of 6.92 mm (SD=0.82 gave 9.96 (SD=4.29 released juveniles. The frequency of female length showed a mean of 7.3 mm (SD=0.54, whereas that of juveniles showed a mean of 1.7 mm (SD=0.16. Survival and sex ratios (females-males varied from 77.7 % to 88.6 % and 2.5:1 to 3.0:1, respectively. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 535-539. Epub 2008 June 30.El objetivo de este trabajo fue calcular la fecundidad, supervivencia y la proporción de sexos de Mysidopsis californica en condiciones semi-controladas. Los animales fueron recolectados manualmente utilizando una red con malla de 500 µm a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México. Una vez en el laboratorio fueron colocados en tres acuarios de 30 L cada uno y alimentados con nauplios de Artemia y rotíferos; estudiándose dos generaciones. La relación entre el número de jóvenes nacidos y la longitud de las madres dio una tasa de 1.56 jóvenes nacidos por cada unidad de incremento de la longitud de la hembra. En promedio, hembras de 6.92 mm (SD=0.82 producían 9.96 (SD=4.29 jóvenes. La frecuencia de la longitud promedio de la hembra fue de 7.3 mm (SD=0.54, mientras que los jóvenes medían en promedio

  12. A model for short alpha-neurotoxin bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvintsev, Dmitry Y; Polyak, Yakov L; Kuzmine, Dmitry A; Levtsova, Olga V; Tourleigh, Yegor V; Kasheverov, Igor E

    2006-01-01

    Short- and long-chain alpha-neurotoxins from snake venoms are potent blockers of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Short alpha-neurotoxins consist of 60-62 amino acid residues and include 4 disulfide bridges, whereas long alpha-neurotoxins have 66-75 residues and 5 disulfides. The spatial structure of these toxins is built by three loops, I-III "fingers," confined by four disulfide bridges; the fifth disulfide of long-chain alpha-neurotoxins is situated close to the tip of central loop II. An accurate knowledge of the mode of alpha-neurotoxin-nAChR interaction is important for rational design of new nAChR agonists and antagonists for medical purposes. Ideas on the topography of toxin-nAChR complexes were based until recently on nAChR interactions with selectively labeled alpha-neurotoxins, mutations in toxins, nAChR, or both. Recently, crystal structures have been solved for the Torpedo marmorata nAChR (4A[Unwin, 2005]) and for the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) complexed with mollusk alpha-conotoxin (2.4 A[Celie et al., 2005]) or alpha-cobratoxin, long-chain alpha-neurotoxin (4 A [Bourne et al., 2005]). However, there were no angstrom-resolution models for complexes of short-chain alpha-neurotoxins. Here, we report the model of the Torpedo californica nAChR extracellular domain complexed to a short-chain alpha-neurotoxin II (NTII) from Naja oxiana cobra venom.

  13. Shading decreases the abundance of the herbivorous California horn snail, Cerithidea californica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorda, Julio; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the intertidal zone in estuaries of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico is covered with vascular vegetation. Shading by these vascular plants influences abiotic and biotic processes that shape benthic community assemblages. We present data on the effects of shading on the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica. This species is important because it is the most common benthic macrofaunal species in these systems and acts as an obligate intermediate host of several species of rematode parasites that infect several other species. Using observational and experimental studies, we found a negative effect of shade on the distribution and abundance of the California horn snail. We hypothesized that shading reduces the abundance of the epipelic diatoms that the snails feeds on, causing snails to leave haded areas. We observed a negative relationship between vascular plant cover, sub-canopy light levels, and snail density in Mugu Lagoon. Then we experimentally manipulated light regimes, by clipping vegetation and adding shade structures, and found higher snail densities at higher light levels. In Goleta Slough, we isolated the effect of shade from vegetation by documenting a negative relationship between the shade created by two bridges and diatom and snail densities. We also found that snails moved the greatest distances over shaded channel banks compared to unshaded channel banks. Further, we documented the effect of water depth and channel bank orientation on shading in this system. An additional effect of shading is the reduction of temperature, providing an alternative explanation for some of our results. These results broaden our knowledge of how variation in the light environment influences the ecology of estuarine ecosystems.

  14. HPLC Analysis and Biochemical Characterization of LOX from Eschscholtzia californica Cham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Kollárová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant lipoxygenases (LOXs, EC 1.13.11.12 are involved in lipid degradation, regulation of growth and development, senescence, and defence reactions. LOX represents the starting enzyme of the octadecanoid pathway. The aim of the work was to purify LOX from California poppy (Eschscholtzia californica Cham., to determine its biochemical properties and to identify and quantify the products of LOX reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. Methods: LOX from California poppy seedlings was purified by hydrophobic chromatography (Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and by ion-exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose. The isolated LOX was incubated with linoleic acid used as a substrate. The HPLC experiments were performed with the Agilent Technologies 1050 series HPLC system. For the preparative separation of a mixture of hydroxy fatty acids from the sample matrix, the RP-HPLC method was used (column 120-5 Nucleosil C18. Then, the NP-HPLC analysis (separation, identification, and determination of hydroxy fatty acid isomers was carried out on a Zorbax Rx-SIL column. Results: The purified LOX indicates the presence of a nontraditional plant enzyme with dual positional specificity (a ratio of 9- and 13-hydroperoxide products 1:1, a relative molecular mass of 85 kDa, a pH optimum of 6.5, an increasing activity stimulation by CaCl2 till 2 mM, and a high substrate reactivity to linoleic acid with kinetic values of KM 2.6 mM and Vmax 3.14 μM/min/mg. Conclusions: For the first time, the LOX from California poppy seedlings was partially purified and the biochemical properties of the enzyme were analyzed. A dual positional specificity of the LOX found from California poppy seedlings is in agreement with the results obtained for LOXs isolated from other Papaveraceaes. A 1:1 ratio of 9-/13-HODE is attractive for the simultaneous investigation of both biotic stress responses (indicated by the 9-HODE marker and the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and jasmonates (indicated by

  15. Isolation and characterization of acetylcholinesterase and other particulate proteins in the hemolymph of Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelaqua, F A; Kim, K S; Kumarasiri, M H; Schwartz, J H

    1975-01-25

    Hemolymph of the marine mollusc, Aplysia californica, contains four large particles: acetylcholinesterase, hemocyanin, a hemagglutinin, and a structure tentatively identified as erythrocurorin. We purified the acetylcholinesterase 20-fold by differential centrifugation and filtration through a column of 4% agarose. The freshly isolated esterase complex was found to have a sedimentation coefficient of 69, but the negatively stained enzyme lacked a definite structure in the electron microscope, and appeared as irregular aggregates of a 60 A subunit. The complex was unstable below pH 5 or during storage at 7 degrees. Under these conditions, enzymatic activity remained essentially unchanged. Treatment of the purified enzyme with trichloroacetic acid, organic solvents, and sodium dodecyl sulfate broke the complex down into two major subunits with molecular weights of about 70,000. Exposure of the enzyme to [3H]diisopropylfluorophosphate resulted in the labeling of one of these subunits. Although similar in specificity, the cholinesterase of the blood differed from the enzyme in Aplysia nervous tissue, which is associated with membrane. Treatment with sodium deoxycholate activated the membrane-associated enzyme but inhibited slightly that of the hemolymph; tyrocidine inhibited the hemolymph enzyme but not the enzyme of nervous tissue; and mild digestion with trypsin released the membrane-bound enzyme in an active, soluble form, but inactivated the enzyme of hemolymph. The other particulates of Aplysia hemolymph were partially characterized. Aplysia hemocyanin was similar in structure to other molluscan hemocyanins. When negatively stained, the unit particle appeared to be a disc with a diameter of 280 A and a width of 45 A. These discs were stacked to form long cylindrical arrays. The purified hemocyanin was found to contain 0.26% copper (dry weight). Using differential centrifugation and gel filtration we also obtained a 9-fold purification of Aplysia hemagglutinin

  16. Organochlorine contaminants and maternal offloading in the lecithotrophic Pacific angel shark (Squatina californica) collected from southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Lowe, Christopher G

    2015-08-15

    Pacific angel sharks (Squatina californica) are a benthic elasmobranch that occupy intermediate trophic level positions in coastal food webs. Angel sharks' life history characteristics make them susceptible to accumulating high amounts of contaminants. Four angel sharks were opportunistically captured in southern California and their liver and uterine contents were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs and other pesticides. High DDT:PCB ratios were found in the sharks indicating direct or indirect foraging near a local EPA Superfund Site. Organic contaminants were measured in ovulated eggs, indicating that females are able to maternally offload contaminants. Despite the potential mismatch between ovarian and uterine fecundity, we estimated females to offload approximately 13±5% of their total body load, which represents the upper limit of this capability. Although low in sample size, the initial findings from this study suggest that habitat use might play an important role in contaminant accumulation in this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with dieback and canker disease of bay laurel in northern California with the description of Dothiorella californica sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Daniel P; Peduto Hand, Francesca; Gubler, W Douglas; Trouillas, Florent P

    2017-04-01

    Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae are cosmopolitan fungi that may exist as seemingly innocuous endophytes or as destructive pathogens of numerous woody hosts, including fruit and nut crops, urban ornamental trees and shrubs, and forest trees. Surveys of bay laurel in northern California have revealed symptoms of dieback and branch canker of unknown aetiology. The goals of this study were to identify and clarify the species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with these symptoms and to confirm their pathogenicity. To understand the role of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae in the dieback and canker disease of bay laurel, 23 isolates were isolated from symptomatic wood. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS, translation elongation factor 1-α, and beta-tubulin revealed three species: Botryosphaeria dothidea, Neofusicoccum nonquaesitum, and the newly described and typified species Dothiorella californica sp. nov. When select isolates were inoculated to 2- to 3-year-old branches of Umbellularia californica in a natural forest, both B. dothidea and N. nonquaesitum were pathogenic with N. nonquaesitum producing the largest lesions at 12- and 18-months post inoculation, respectively, while Do. californica did not cause wood lesions significantly greater than the mock-inoculated controls. This study represents the first attempt to identify and test the pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with dieback and canker disease of bay laurel in a northern California forest. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  18. A conformational change in the peripheral anionic site of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase induced by a bis-imidazolium oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Patricia M; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Millard, Charles B

    2015-09-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to design improved nerve agent antidotes, two X-ray crystal structures of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) bound to the bis-pyridinium oxime, Ortho-7, or its experimental bis-imidazolium analogue, 2BIM-7, were determined. Bis-oximes contain two oxime groups connected by a hydrophobic linker. One oxime group of Ortho-7 binds at the entrance to the active-site gorge near Trp279, and the second binds at the bottom near Trp84 and Phe330. In the Ortho-7-TcAChE complex the oxime at the bottom of the gorge was directed towards the nucleophilic Ser200. In contrast, the oxime group of 2BIM-7 was rotated away from Ser200 and the oxime at the entrance induced a significant conformational change in the peripheral anionic site (PAS) residue Trp279. The conformational change alters the surface of the PAS and positions the imidazolium oxime of 2BIM-7 further from Ser200. The relatively weaker binding and poorer reactivation of VX-inhibited, tabun-inhibited or sarin-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase by 2BIM-7 compared with Ortho-7 may in part be owing to the unproductively bound states caught in crystallo. Overall, the reactivation efficiency of 2BIM-7 was comparable to that of 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), but unlike 2-PAM the bis-imidazolium oxime lacks a fixed charge, which may affect its membrane permeability.

  19. Kinetics of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase inhibition by bisnorcymserine and crystal structure of the complex with its leaving group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Cecilia; Stojan, Jure; Yu, Qian-sheng; Greig, Nigel H; Lamba, Doriano

    2012-06-01

    Natural and synthetic carbamates act as pseudo-irreversible inhibitors of AChE (acetylcholinesterase) as well as BChE (butyrylcholinesterase), two enzymes involved in neuronal function as well as in the development and progression of AD (Alzheimer's disease). The AChE mode of action is characterized by a rapid carbamoylation of the active-site Ser(200) with release of a leaving group followed by a slow regeneration of enzyme action due to subsequent decarbamoylation. The experimental AD therapeutic bisnorcymserine, a synthetic carbamate, shows an interesting activity and selectivity for BChE, and its clinical development is currently being pursued. We undertook detailed kinetic studies on the activity of the carbamate bisnorcymserine with Tc (Torpedo californica) AChE and, on the basis of the results, crystallized the complex between TcAChE and bisnorcymserine. The X-ray crystal structure showed only the leaving group, bisnoreseroline, trapped at the bottom of the aromatic enzyme gorge. Specifically, bisnoreseroline interacts in a non-covalent way with Ser(200) and His(440), disrupting the existing interactions within the catalytic triad, and it stacks with Trp(84) at the bottom of the gorge, giving rise to an unprecedented hydrogen-bonding contact. These interactions point to a dominant reversible inhibition mechanism attributable to the leaving group, bisnoreseroline, as revealed by kinetic analysis.

  20. Structural and functional characterization of the interaction of the photosensitizing probe methylene blue with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Aviv; Roth, Esther; Ashani, Yacov; Xu, Yechun; Shnyrov, Valery L; Sussman, Joel L; Silman, Israel; Weiner, Lev

    2012-08-01

    The photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB), generates singlet oxygen that irreversibly inhibits Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE). In the dark, it inhibits reversibly. Binding is accompanied by a bathochromic absorption shift, used to demonstrate displacement by other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors interacting with the catalytic "anionic" subsite (CAS), the peripheral "anionic" subsite (PAS), or bridging them. MB is a noncompetitive inhibitor of TcAChE, competing with reversible inhibitors directed at both "anionic" subsites, but a single site is involved in inhibition. MB also quenches TcAChE's intrinsic fluorescence. It binds to TcAChE covalently inhibited by a small organophosphate (OP), but not an OP containing a bulky pyrene. Differential scanning calorimetry shows an ~8° increase in the denaturation temperature of the MB/TcAChE complex relative to native TcAChE, and a less than twofold increase in cooperativity of the transition. The crystal structure reveals a single MB stacked against Trp279 in the PAS, oriented down the gorge toward the CAS; it is plausible that irreversible inhibition is associated with photooxidation of this residue and others within the active-site gorge. The kinetic and spectroscopic data showing that inhibitors binding at the CAS can impede binding of MB are reconciled by docking studies showing that the conformation adopted by Phe330, midway down the gorge, in the MB/TcAChE crystal structure, precludes simultaneous binding of a second MB at the CAS. Conversely, binding of ligands at the CAS dislodges MB from its preferred locus at the PAS. The data presented demonstrate that TcAChE is a valuable model for understanding the molecular basis of local photooxidative damage. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  1. Caracterización fenotípica y molecular de poblaciones de zacate punta blanca (Digitaria californica (Benth. Henr.

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    Carlos Raúl Morales Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró y caracterizó la diversidad fenotípica y genotípica de poblaciones del pasto punta blanca [Digitaria californica (Benth. Henr.], en pastizales de Chihuahua. Se realizó análisis de componentes principales y conglomerados. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P<0.05 entre variables, indicando alta diversidad fenotípica y molecular entre poblaciones. Los tres primeros componentes explicaron 79 % de la variación morfológica mostrada por los 91 ecotipos. Para el CP1, las variables que mejor explicaron la variabilidad morfológica fueron densidad de tallos, rendimiento de forraje y altura de forraje, las cuales se caracterizan por agrupar variables relacionadas con producción de forraje. Al analizar la correlación del CP1 con rendimiento de forraje, se observó que a medida que la densidad de tallos se incrementó, el rendimiento de forraje se incrementó casi en la misma proporción (r= 0.94. Efecto similar ocurrió sobre rendimiento de forraje con altura de forraje (r= 0.77, altura de planta (r= 0.72 y diámetro de macollo (r= 0.72. Los marcadores moleculares presentaron 179 bandas, donde el 86.6 % presentan polimorfismo y 13.7 % monomorfismo. El número de bandas polimórficas fue de 38, 38, 38 y 40 para las combinaciones de iniciadores EcoRI-AAG+MseI-CTG, EcoRI-ACT+MseI-CTG, EcoRI-AGG+MseI-CAG y EcoRI AAC+MseI-CAG, respectivamente. El dendograma presentó cuatro grupos. Los valores de similitud, muestran a los ecotipos PB-270 y PB-277 por un lado y PB-313 y PB-337 como los de mayor heterogeneidad genética, al presentar el valor más bajo de similitud (0.14. Se identificaron y seleccionaron los ecotipos 505 y 596 por su alto potencial forrajero de acuerdo a su variabilidad morfológica.

  2. The Sea Slug, Pleurobranchaea californica: A Signpost Species in the Evolution of Complex Nervous Systems and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Rhanor; Brown, Jeffrey W

    2015-12-01

    How and why did complex brain and behavior evolve? Clues emerge from comparative studies of animals with simpler morphology, nervous system, and behavioral economics. The brains of vertebrates, arthropods, and some annelids have highly derived executive structures and function that control downstream, central pattern generators (CPGs) for locomotion, behavioral choice, and reproduction. For the vertebrates, these structures-cortex, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus-integrate topographically mapped sensory inputs with motivation and memory to transmit complex motor commands to relay stations controlling CPG outputs. Similar computations occur in the central complex and mushroom bodies of the arthropods, and in mammals these interactions structure subjective thought and socially based valuations. The simplest model systems available for comparison are opisthobranch molluscs, which have avoided selective pressure for complex bodies, brain, and behavior through potent chemical defenses. In particular, in the sea-slug Pleurobranchaea californica the functions of vertebrates' olfactory bulb and pallium are performed in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of the chemotactile oral veil. Functions of hypothalamus and basal ganglia are combined in Pleurobranchaea's feeding motor network. The actions of basal ganglia on downstream locomotor regions and spinal CPGs are analogous to Pleurobranchaea's feeding network actions on CPGs for agonist and antagonist behaviors. The nervous systems of opisthobranch and pulmonate gastropods may conserve or reflect relations of the ancestral urbilaterian. Parallels and contrasts in neuronal circuits for action selection in Pleurobranchaea and vertebrates suggest how a basic set of decision circuitry was built upon in evolving segmentation, articulated skeletons, sociality, and highly invested reproductive strategies. They suggest (1) an origin of olfactory bulb and pallium from head-region PNS; (2) modularization of an ancestral feeding

  3. Interaction of bispyridinium compounds with the orthosteric binding site of human α7 and Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, K V; Tattersall, J E H; Timperley, C M; Bird, M; Green, C; Seeger, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2011-09-25

    Standard treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents with atropine and oximes lacks efficacy with different nerve agents. A direct pharmacologic intervention at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was proposed as an alternative therapeutic approach and promising in vitro and in vivo results were obtained with the bispyridinium compound SAD-128. In addition, a number of SAD-128 analogues improved neuromuscular transmission of soman-poisoned diaphragms in vitro. We investigated the interaction of six of these SAD-128 analogues with the orthosteric binding site of the human α7 nAChR and Torpedo californica nAChR with a high-throughput assay using radioactive ligands. The determined affinity constants indicate a weak interaction of three test compounds (K(i) in the micromolar range) with both receptors, but no interaction could be recorded with the other three test compounds. The six SAD-128 analogues showed a low intrinsic inhibitory potency with human acetylcholinesterase (IC₅₀ > 400 μM). In conclusion, the results of the present study do not indicate a correlation between the affinity to the orthosteric binding site and the functional improvement of neuromuscular transmission and it is assumed that other mechanisms contribute to the therapeutic effect of the tested compounds. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Standardization of the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) model by immunization of rats with Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptors--Recommendations for methods and experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Mario; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar; Molenaar, Peter C; Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Tzartos, Socrates; Brenner, Talma; Duan, Rui-Sheng; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon; Kusner, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is characterized by a chronic, fatigable weakness of voluntary muscles. The production of autoantibodies involves the dysregulation of T cells which provide the environment for the development of autoreactive B cells. The symptoms are caused by destruction of the postsynaptic membrane and degradation of the AChR by IgG autoantibodies, predominantly of the G1 and G3 subclasses. Active immunization of animals with AChR from mammalian muscles, AChR from Torpedo or Electrophorus electric organs, and recombinant or synthetic AChR fragments generates a chronic model of MG, termed experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). This model covers cellular mechanisms involved in the immune response against the AChR, e.g. antigen presentation, T cell-help and regulation, B cell selection and differentiation into plasma cells. Our aim is to define standard operation procedures and recommendations for the rat EAMG model using purified AChR from the Torpedo californica electric organ, in order to facilitate more rapid translation of preclinical proof of concept or efficacy studies into clinical trials and, ultimately, clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Lipid-Analog Detergent Solubilization on the Functionality and Lipidic Cubic Phase Mobility of the Torpedo californica Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Morales, Luis F.; Morales-Pérez, Claudio L.; De La Cruz-Rivera, Pamela C.; Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo; Báez-Pagán, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been one of the most extensively studied membrane protein systems. However, the effects of detergent solubilization on nAChR stability and function are poorly understood. The use of lipid-analog detergents for nAChR solubilization has been shown to preserve receptor stability and functionality. The present study used lipid-analog detergents from phospholipid-analog and cholesterol-analog detergent families for solubilization and affinity purification of the receptor and probed nAChR ion channel function using planar lipid bilayers (PLBs) and stability using analytical size exclusion chromatography (A-SEC) in the detergent-solubilized state. We also examined receptor mobility on the lipidic cubic phase (LCP) by measuring the nAChR mobile fraction and diffusion coefficient through fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments using lipid-analog and non-lipid-analog detergents. Our results show that it is possible to isolate stable and functional nAChRs using lipid-analog detergents, with characteristic ion channel currents in PLBs and minimal aggregation as observed in A-SEC. Furthermore, fractional mobility and diffusion coefficient values observed in FRAP experiments were similar to the values observed for these parameters in the recently LCP-crystallized β2-adrenergic receptor. The overall results show that phospholipid-analog detergents with 16 carbon acyl-chains support nAChR stability, functionality and LCP mobility. PMID:21922299

  6. Standardization of the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) model by immunization of rats with Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptors — Recommendations for methods and experimental designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Mario; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar; Molenaar, Peter C.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Tzartos, Socrates; Brenner, Talma; Duan, Rui-Sheng; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon; Kusner, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is characterized by a chronic, fatigable weakness of voluntary muscles. The production of autoantibodies involves the dysregulation of T cells which provide the environment for the development of autoreactive B cells. The symptoms are caused by destruction of the postsynaptic membrane and degradation of the AChR by IgG autoantibodies, predominantly of the G1 and G3 subclasses. Active immunization of animals with AChR from mammalian muscles, AChR from Torpedo or Electrophorus electric organs, and recombinant or synthetic AChR fragments generates a chronic model of MG, termed experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). This model covers cellular mechanisms involved in the immune response against the AChR, e.g. antigen presentation, T cell-help and regulation, B cell selection and differentiation into plasma cells. Our aim is to define standard operation procedures and recommendations for the rat EAMG model using purified AChR from the Torpedo californica electric organ, in order to facilitate more rapid translation of preclinical proof of concept or efficacy studies into clinical trials and, ultimately, clinical practice. PMID:25796590

  7. Characterization of Baculovirus Insecticides Expressing Tailored Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(b) Crystal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, John W M; Knoester, Marga; Weijts, Franci; Groffen, Sander J A; Hu, Zhihong; Bosch, Dirk; Vlak, Just M.

    1995-01-01

    Full-length, truncated, and mature forms of the CryIA(b) insecticidal crystal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis were engineered into the p10 locus of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV). A signal sequence of Heliothis virescens juvenile hormone esterase was introduced at

  8. Effects of population size on virus evolution: a baculovirus perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the population genetics of the baculovirus infection process and the consequences for virus evolution. Using Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and lepidopteran insect larvae as a model system, we attempt to characterize (1) elemental virus-host and

  9. Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis reveals distortions in the helical structure of the δM4 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Nunez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2012-01-01

    The lipid-protein interface is an important domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that has recently garnered increased relevance. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, there is still a need to gain insight into the mechanism by which lipid-protein interactions regulate the function and conformational transitions of the nAChR. In this study, we extended the tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (TrpScanM) approach to dissect secondary structure and monitor the conformational changes experienced by the δM4 transmembrane domain (TMD) of the Torpedo californica nAChR, and to identify which positions on this domain are potentially linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The difference in oscillation patterns between the closed- and open-channel states suggests a substantial conformational change along this domain as a consequence of channel activation. Furthermore, TrpScanM revealed distortions along the helical structure of this TMD that are not present on current models of the nAChR. Our results show that a Thr-Pro motif at positions 462-463 markedly bends the helical structure of the TMD, consistent with the recent crystallographic structure of the GluCl Cys-loop receptor which reveals a highly bent TMD4 in each subunit. This Thr-Pro motif acts as a molecular hinge that delineates two gating blocks in the δM4 TMD. These results suggest a model in which a hinge-bending motion that tilts the helical structure is combined with a spring-like motion during transition between the closed- and open-channel states of the δM4 TMD.

  10. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and (125)I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300-301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery.

  11. Tryptophan Substitutions at Lipid-exposed Positions of the Gamma M3 Transmembrane Domain Increase the Macroscopic Ionic Current Response of the Torpedo californica Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martín, A.; Mercado, J.L.; Rojas, L.V.; McNamee, M.G.; Lasalde-Dominicci, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous amino-acid substitutions at the postulated lipid-exposed transmembrane segment M4 of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR) focused on the alpha subunit. In this study we have extended the mutagenesis analysis using single tryptophan replacements in seven positions (I288, M291, F292, S294, L296, M299 and N300) near the center of the third transmembrane domain of the gamma subunit (γM3). All the tryptophan substitution mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes following mRNA injections at levels close to wild type. The functional response of these mutants was evaluated using macroscopic current analysis in voltage-clamped oocytes. For all the substitutions the concentration for half-maximal activation, EC50, is similar to wild type using acetylcholine. For F292W, L296W and M299W the normalized macroscopic responses are 2- to 3-fold higher than for wild type. Previous photolabeling studies demonstrated that these three positions were in contact with membrane lipids. Each of these M3 mutations was co-injected with the previously characterized αC418W mutant to examine possible synergistic effects of single lipid-exposed mutations on two different subunits. For the γM3/αM4 double mutants, the EC50s were similar to those measured for the αC418W mutant alone. Tryptophan substitutions at positions that presumably face the interior of the protein (S294 and M291) or neighboring helices (I288) did not cause significant inhibition of channel function or surface expression of AChRs. PMID:11547353

  12. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, José D

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300–301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery. PMID:21785268

  13. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  14. Multiple sclerosis; Multiple Sklerose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shariat, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Kostopoulos, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Multiple Sklerose (MS) ist die haeufigste chronisch-entzuendliche Erkrankung des Myelins mit eingesprengten Laesionen im Bereich der weissen Substanz des zentralen Nervensystems. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat bei der Diagnosestellung und Verlaufskontrolle eine Schluesselrolle. Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit Hauptcharakteristika der MR-Bildbebung. (orig.)

  15. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Theilmann, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC ac142REP-ac143KO ). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC ac142REP-ac143KO is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC ac142REP-ac143KO was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC ac142REP-ac143KO transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription

  16. Floral homeotic C function genes repress specific B function genes in the carpel whorl of the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yellina Aravinda L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG confers stamen and carpel identity and is involved in the regulation of floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis ag mutants show complete homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and carpels into sepals as well as indeterminacy of the floral meristem. Gene function analysis in model core eudicots and the monocots rice and maize suggest a conserved function for AG homologs in angiosperms. At the same time gene phylogenies reveal a complex history of gene duplications and repeated subfunctionalization of paralogs. Results EScaAG1 and EScaAG2, duplicate AG homologs in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica show a high degree of similarity in sequence and expression, although EScaAG2 expression is lower than EScaAG1 expression. Functional studies employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS demonstrate that knock down of EScaAG1 and 2 function leads to homeotic conversion of stamens into petaloid structures and defects in floral meristem termination. However, carpels are transformed into petaloid organs rather than sepaloid structures. We also show that a reduction of EScaAG1 and EScaAG2 expression leads to significantly increased expression of a subset of floral homeotic B genes. Conclusions This work presents expression and functional analysis of the two basal eudicot AG homologs. The reduction of EScaAG1 and 2 functions results in the change of stamen to petal identity and a transformation of the central whorl organ identity from carpel into petal identity. Petal identity requires the presence of the floral homeotic B function and our results show that the expression of a subset of B function genes extends into the central whorl when the C function is reduced. We propose a model for the evolution of B function regulation by C function suggesting that the mode of B function gene regulation found in Eschscholzia is ancestral and the C-independent regulation as

  17. Effect of osmotic stress and post-stress recovery on the content of phenolics and properties of antioxidants in germinating seeds of grapevine Vitis californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The tested material consisted of grapevine Vitis californica stratified seeds germinated under optimum conditions (+25°C in water, under osmotic stress (-0.2 MPa in PEG solution and submitted to recovery after stress (+25°C in water. The germinating seeds were determined to contain tannins, catechins and the following phenolic acids: gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic. The acids occurred in free, ester- and glycoside-bound forms. The dominant form of phenolic acids was the ester-bound fraction. Gallic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in germinating seeds, while ferulic acid appeared in the smallest amounts. Our analysis of tannins demonstrated that osmotic stress depressed their concentration. Presence of catechin group compounds such as catechin and epicatechin was also determined. In each sample epicatechin was dominant. The total concentration of catechin increased under stress conditions and declined during post-stress recovery. Catechins are a constituent of tannins and their increase under osmotic stress is most probably caused by the breakdown of some tannins in seeds germinating under stress conditions. Samples submitted to osmotic stress were also found to contain less of total phenolic compounds, whereas in samples which underwent post-stress recovery the total level of phenolic compounds increased. Compared to extracts from seeds germinating under optimum conditions, osmotic stress depressed the capacity of extract to scavenge DPPH● (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS●+ – 2,2-Azino-bis (3-etylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals, but the antioxidant activity rose in seeds submitted to recovery after stress. Positive correlation was therefore demonstrated between the total content of phenolic acids in germinating grapevine seeds and the reducing power of extracts obtained from these seeds and their free radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that osmotic stress inhibits the activity of

  18. A model for short alpha-neurotoxin bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica: comparison with long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and alpha-conotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvintsev, D Yu; Polyak, Ya L; Levtsova, O V; Tourleigh, Ye V; Kasheverov, I E; Shaitan, K V; Utkin, Yu N; Tsetlin, V I

    2005-12-01

    Short-chain alpha-neurotoxins from snakes are highly selective antagonists of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Although their spatial structures are known and abundant information on topology of binding to nAChR is obtained by labeling and mutagenesis studies, the accurate structure of the complex is not yet known. Here, we present a model for a short alpha-neurotoxin, neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana (NTII), bound to Torpedo californica nAChR. It was built by comparative modeling, docking and molecular dynamics using 1H NMR structure of NTII, cross-linking and mutagenesis data, cryoelectron microscopy structure of Torpedo marmorata nAChR [Unwin, N., 2005. Refined structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at 4A resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 346, 967-989] and X-ray structures of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) with agonists [Celie, P.H., van Rossum-Fikkert, S.E., van Dijk, W.J., Brejc, K., Smit, A.B., Sixma, T.K., 2004. Nicotine and carbamylcholine binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as studied in AChBP crystal structures. Neuron 41 (6), 907-914] and antagonists: alpha-cobratoxin, a long-chain alpha-neurotoxin [Bourne, Y., Talley, T.T., Hansen, S.B., Taylor, P., Marchot, P., 2005. Crystal structure of Cbtx-AChBP complex reveals essential interactions between snake alpha-neurotoxins and nicotinic receptors. EMBO J. 24 (8), 1512-1522] and alpha-conotoxin [Celie, P.H., Kasheverov, I.E., Mordvintsev, D.Y., Hogg, R.C., van Nierop, P., van Elk, R., van Rossum-Fikkert, S.E., Zhmak, M.N., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V., Sixma, T.K., Smit, A.B., 2005. Crystal structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor homolog AChBP in complex with an alpha-conotoxin PnIA variant. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 12 (7), 582-588]. In complex with the receptor, NTII was located at about 30 A from the membrane surface, the tip of its loop II plunges into the ligand-binding pocket between the alpha/gamma or alpha/delta nAChR subunits, while the loops I and III

  19. Crystal structure of thioflavin T bound to the peripheral site of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase reveals how thioflavin T acts as a sensitive fluorescent reporter of ligand binding to the acylation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Michal; Sonoda, Leilani K; Silman, Israel; Sussman, Joel L; Rosenberry, Terrone L

    2008-06-25

    Acetylcholinesterase plays a key role in cholinergic synaptic transmission by hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine with one of the highest known catalytic rate constants. Hydrolysis occurs in a narrow and deep gorge that contains two sites of ligand binding: A peripheral site, or P-site, near the gorge entrance that contributes to catalytic efficiency both by transiently trapping substrate molecules as they enter the gorge and by allosterically accelerating the transfer of the substrate acyl group to a serine hydroxyl in an acylation site or A-site at the base of the gorge. Thioflavin T is a useful reporter of ligand interactions with the A-site. It binds specifically to the P-site with fluorescence that is enhanced approximately 1000-fold over that of unbound thioflavin T, and the enhanced fluorescence is quenched 1.5- to 4-fold when another ligand binds to the A-site in a ternary complex. To clarify the structural basis of this advantageous signal change, we here report the X-ray structure of the complex of thioflavin T with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase. The two aromatic rings in thioflavin T are coplanar and are packed snugly parallel to the aromatic side chains of Trp279, Tyr334, and Phe330. Overlays of this structure with the crystal structures of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase complexes with either edrophonium or m-( N, N, N-trimethylammonio)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone, two small aromatic ligands that bind specifically to the A-site, indicate that the phenyl side chain of Phe330 must rotate to sterically accommodate both thioflavin T and the A-site ligand in the ternary complex. This rotation may allow some relaxation of the strict coplanarity of the aromatic rings in the bound thioflavin T and result in partial quenching of its fluorescence.

  20. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Parenting Multiples KidsHealth / For Parents / Parenting Multiples What's in ... your ability to take care of your babies. Parenting Issues With Multiples It may be difficult to ...

  1. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  2. Multiple Endpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Parys, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    In ANOVA we are mainly based on inter-treatment comparisons. Another common problems arising in biometric studies (especially in biomedical studies) is that of comparing two groups of patients (treatment and a control group) based on multiple response (called multiple endpoints). In this paper we present the continuos and discrete approaches to multiple endpoints. In the case of continuous multiple endpoints we have common assumption in that the covariance matrices in group ...

  3. Artefactual multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Whiteboards are highly important to the work in emergency departments (EDs). As a collaborative technology ED whiteboards are usually placed in the dynamic centre of the ED, and all ED staff will approach the whiteboard regularly to organize their individual yet interdependent work. Currently, di...... this characteristic of heterogeneous artefacts; namely artefactual multiplicity. Artefactual multiplicity identifies not only the multiple functions of heterogeneous artefacts but also the intricate relations between these multiple functionalities....

  4. Finger Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  5. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  6. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  7. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  8. The p10 gene of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus encodes a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. L., Goldbach R. W. and Vlak J. M. 1993 Functional domains of the p10 protein of Autographa californica nuclear polyhe- drosis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 74, 563±574. Vlak J. M., Klinkenberg F. A., Zaal K. J. M., Usmany M., Klinge-. Roode E. C., Geervliet J. B. F., Roosien J. and Van Lent J. W. M.. 1988 Functional studies on the ...

  9. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  10. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... read or download the National Academies/Institute of Medicine report, go to: " Multiple Sclerosis: Current Status and Strategies for the Future ." Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus ...

  11. Targeted oxidation of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase by singlet oxygen: identification of N-formylkynurenine tryptophan derivatives within the active-site gorge of its complex with the photosensitizer methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triquigneaux, Mathilde M; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roth, Esther; Silman, Israel; Ashani, Yakov; Mason, Ronald P; Weiner, Lev; Deterding, Leesa J

    2012-11-15

    The principal role of AChE (acetylcholinesterase) is termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The active site of AChE is near the bottom of a long and narrow gorge lined with aromatic residues. It contains a CAS (catalytic 'anionic' subsite) and a second PAS (peripheral 'anionic' site), the gorge mouth, both of which bind acetylcholine via π-cation interactions, primarily with two conserved tryptophan residues. It was shown previously that generation of (1)O(2) by illumination of MB (Methylene Blue) causes irreversible inactivation of TcAChE (Torpedo californica AChE), and suggested that photo-oxidation of tryptophan residues might be responsible. In the present study, structural modification of the TcAChE tryptophan residues induced by MB-sensitized oxidation was investigated using anti-N-formylkynurenine antibodies and MS. From these analyses, we determined that N-formylkynurenine derivatives were specifically produced from Trp(84) and Trp(279), present at the CAS and PAS respectively. Peptides containing these two oxidized tryptophan residues were not detected when the competitive inhibitors, edrophonium and propidium (which should displace MB from the gorge) were present during illumination, in agreement with their efficient protection against the MB-induced photo-inactivation. Thus the bound MB elicited selective action of (1)O(2) on the tryptophan residues facing on to the water-filled active-site gorge. The findings of the present study thus demonstrate the localized action and high specificity of MB-sensitized photo-oxidation of TcAChE, as well as the value of this enzyme as a model system for studying the mechanism of action and specificity of photosensitizing agents.

  12. Targeted oxidation of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase by singlet oxygen: Identification of N-formylkynurenine tryptophan derivatives within the active-site gorge of its complex with the photosensitizer methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triquigneaux, Mathilde M.; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roth, Esther; Silman, Israel; Ashani, Yakov; Mason, Ronald P.; Weiner, Lev; Deterding, Leesa J.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The principal role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The active site of AChE is near the bottom of a long and narrow gorge lined with aromatic residues. It contains a catalytic ‘anionic’ subsite (CAS) and a second peripheral ‘anionic’ site (PAS), the gorge mouth, both of which bind acetylcholine via π-cation interactions, primarily with two conserved tryptophans (Trps). It was earlier shown that generation of 1O2 by illumination of methylene blue (MB) causes irreversible inactivation of Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE), and suggested that photo-oxidation of Trps might be responsible. In the present study, structural modification of the TcAChE Trps induced by MB-sensitized oxidation was investigated using anti-N-formylkynurenine antibodies and mass spectrometry. From these analyses, we determined that N-formylkynurenine derivatives were specifically produced from Trp 84 and Trp 279 – present at the CAS and PAS, respectively. Peptides containing these two oxidized Trp residues were not detected when the competitive inhibitors, edrophonium and propidium (which should displace MB from the gorge) were present during illumination, in agreement with their efficient protection against the MB-induced photo-inactivation. Thus, the bound MB elicited selective action of 1O2 on Trp residues facing onto the water-filled active-site gorge. Our findings thus demonstrate the localized action and high specificity of MB-sensitized photo-oxidation of TcAChE, as well as the value of this enzyme as a model system for studying the mechanism of action and specificity of photosensitizing agents. PMID:22888904

  13. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  14. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  15. Multiple Myeloma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the use of melphalan in 52 patients with multiple myeloma have been analysed. The median survival of the whole group of patients was 30 months, and of those w:th renal insufficiency only 12,5 months. Bence-lones proteinuria was also a poor prognostic finding,. but only because of its association with renal ...

  16. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlati...

  18. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  19. Baculovirus AC102 is a nucleocapsid protein that is crucial for nuclear actin polymerization and nucleocapsid morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Susan E; Borgo, Gina M; Ticau, Simina; Ohkawa, Taro; Welch, Matthew D

    2018-03-14

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the type species of alphabaculoviruses, is an enveloped DNA virus that infects lepidopteran insects and is commonly known as a vector for protein expression and cell transduction. AcMNPV belongs to a diverse group of viral and bacterial pathogens that target the host cell actin cytoskeleton during infection. AcMNPV is unusual, however, in that it absolutely requires actin translocation into the nucleus early in infection, and actin polymerization within the nucleus late in infection coincident with viral replication. Of the six viral factors that are sufficient, when coexpressed, to induce the nuclear localization of actin, only AC102 is essential for viral replication and the nuclear accumulation of actin. We therefore sought to better understand the role of AC102 in actin mobilization in the nucleus early and late in infection. Although AC102 was proposed to function early in infection, we found that AC102 is predominantly expressed as a late protein. In addition, we observed that AC102 is required for F-actin assembly in the nucleus during late infection, as well as for proper formation of viral replication structures and nucleocapsid morphogenesis. Finally, we found that AC102 is a nucleocapsid protein and a newly recognized member of a complex consisting of the viral proteins EC27, C42, and the actin polymerization protein P78/83. Taken together, our findings suggest that AC102 is necessary for nucleocapsid morphogenesis and actin assembly during late infection through its role as a component of the P78/83-C42-EC27-AC102 protein complex. IMPORTANCE The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is an important biotechnological tool for protein expression and cell transduction, and related nucleopolyhedroviruses are also employed as environmentally benign insecticides. One impact of our work is to better understand the fundamental mechanisms through

  20. Multiple Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Paulo Cezar; Gramstrup, Erik Frederico

    2016-01-01

    With the modification of the family concept in human history, now considered the site of important value, aimed at personal fulfillment of its members, in line with the Federal Constitution of 1988 was enshrined in the principles of human dignity, affection, equal affiliations and plurality of family entities, recognizing the socio-affective parenting, founded in the state of emotional child, and biological, originally from consanguinity ties, arises multiple parenting in response to the full...

  1. Multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alan J; Baranzini, Sergio E; Geurts, Jeroen; Hemmer, Bernhard; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-03-22

    Multiple sclerosis continues to be a challenging and disabling condition but there is now greater understanding of the underlying genetic and environmental factors that drive the condition, including low vitamin D levels, cigarette smoking, and obesity. Early and accurate diagnosis is crucial and is supported by diagnostic criteria, incorporating imaging and spinal fluid abnormalities for those presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome. Importantly, there is an extensive therapeutic armamentarium, both oral and by infusion, for those with the relapsing remitting form of the disease. Careful consideration is required when choosing the correct treatment, balancing the side-effect profile with efficacy and escalating as clinically appropriate. This move towards more personalised medicine is supported by a clinical guideline published in 2018. Finally, a comprehensive management programme is strongly recommended for all patients with multiple sclerosis, enhancing health-related quality of life through advocating wellness, addressing aggravating factors, and managing comorbidities. The greatest remaining challenge for multiple sclerosis is the development of treatments incorporating neuroprotection and remyelination to treat and ultimately prevent the disabling, progressive forms of the condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  3. Mechanisms of Action of Escapin, a Bactericidal Agent in the Ink Secretion of the Sea Hare Aplysia californica: Rapid and Long-Lasting DNA Condensation and Involvement of the OxyR-Regulated Oxidative Stress Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ko-Chun; Tai, Phang C.

    2012-01-01

    The marine snail Aplysia californica produces escapin, an l-amino acid oxidase, in its defensive ink. Escapin uses l-lysine to produce diverse products called escapin intermediate products of l-lysine (EIP-K), including α-amino-ε-caproic acid, Δ1-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid, and Δ2-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid. EIP-K and H2O2 together, but neither alone, is a powerful bactericide. Here, we report bactericidal mechanisms of escapin products on Escherichia coli. We show that EIP-K and H2O2 together cause rapid and long-lasting DNA condensation: 2-min treatment causes significant DNA condensation and killing, and 10-min treatment causes maximal effect, lasting at least 70 h. We isolated two mutants resistant to EIP-K plus H2O2, both having a single missense mutation in the oxidation regulatory gene, oxyR. A complementation assay showed that the mutated gene, oxyR(A233V), renders resistance to EIP-K plus H2O2, and a gene dosage effect leads to reduction of resistance for strains carrying wild-type oxyR. Temperature stress with EIP-K does not produce the bactericidal effect, suggesting the effect is due to a specific response to oxidative stress. The null mutant for any single DNA-binding protein—Dps, H-NS, Hup, Him, or MukB—was not resistant to EIP-K plus H2O2, suggesting that no single DNA-binding protein is necessary to mediate this bactericidal effect, but allowing for the possibility that EIP-K plus H2O2 could function through a combination of DNA-binding proteins. The bactericidal effect of EIP-K plus H2O2 was eliminated by the ferrous ion chelator 1,10-phenanthroline, and it was reduced by the hydroxyl radical scavenger thiourea, suggesting hydroxyl radicals mediate the effects of EIP-K plus H2O2. PMID:22232273

  4. Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities: Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig (Homoptera: Aphidae associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on assessments of the air pollution and deposition caused by geothermal fields on the forest health and presence of pests have been few documented to date. In the geothermal field "Los Humeros", located between the borders of the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico was realized a forest health monitoring to know the assessment could have these emissions of sulphur (S and other two chemical elements measured by their concentrations on leaf tissues in the surrounding forests. For it were evaluated the forest healthy and pest insects registered at 20 stands of which were chosen completely at random 40 trees in total/site of the species Pinus montezumae and P. teocotein natural stands and plantations and picked up leaf tissue samples representatives per stand to determine the contents of sulphur (S, boron (B and arsenic (As representing each forest stand. The results of the study revealed that the presence of forest pests are not related to the proximity of the sites to emissions from stationary sources of emissions and moreover the amount of these 3 chemical substances monitored do not have none influence on the forest healthy sites condition, except for the Monterey pine aphid Essigella californica Essig, which seems to be directly associated with higher Boron content in the needles (mean=167.47±32.15, and peak 635.46 ppm and proximity of emission sources geothermal vents or where it is believed all these chemical elements are carried down by air currents to specific points and deposited in the stands. The general model obtained and with significance of R2=56.6 and P value 0.0033 for the presence of Monterey Pine aphid and the three main pollutants released from smoke plumes in geothermal systems is [D: Essigella]= -0.2088 + 1.880E-0.5 (A:SO4+ 0.002245 (B:B + 1.248 (C:As. The results suggest the use of aphid species as bioindicators of polluted sites.

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent....... Ninety-five percent lived in own house or flat and 70 percent received disablement pension. More than half of the patients (56.4 percent) were dependent on help from close relatives, most frequently spouse. The need for help, the risk of divorce, loss of contact with relatives, difficulty in going out...

  6. [Multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masahiro; Miki, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Shingen

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the positive clinical benefits obtained with new agents, complete remission (CR) can be used as a surrogate for overall survival, and should be achieved. Although multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease in terms of myeloma cell- and patient-related risk factors, patients should receive the most effective combination therapy based on proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) as backbone medication irrespective of the risks encountered in the setting of induction therapy ("one-size-fits-all" therapy), followed by consolidation/maintenance therapy to achieve CR with the ultimate goal of extended survival. Myeloma-defining biomarkers have been established to identify high-risk smoldering myeloma requiring treatment. The development of salvage treatments yielding better outcomes for relapsed/refractory myeloma is urgently needed. Upcoming novel molecular targeting agents with different modes of action and immunotherapeutic agents will be integrated into myeloma treatment regimens with a great therapeutic impact, and further evolution of the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma is eagerly anticipated.

  7. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    a significant correlation between results of an attention and perceptual motor speed test i.e. Symbol Digit Modalities test and the ability to read TV-subtitles, but no correlation was found with another attention and perceptual motor speed test, or verbal or visual memory. No correlation between the use......In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...... of sedatives and results on neuropsychological tests was found. Anxiety was not correlated with the ability to read TV-subtitles. It is concluded that visual deficits but not the use of sedatives may be a confounding factor in neuropsychological testing in MS....

  9. [Multiple apheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  10. Population genomics supports baculoviruses as vectors of horizontal transfer of insect transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clément; Chateigner, Aurélien; Ernenwein, Lise; Barbe, Valérie; Bézier, Annie; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Cordaux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of DNA is an important factor shaping eukaryote evolution. Although several hundreds of eukaryote-to-eukaryote HTs of transposable elements (TEs) have been reported, the vectors underlying these transfers remain elusive. Here, we show that multiple copies of two TEs from the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) transposed in vivo into genomes of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) during caterpillar infection. We further demonstrate that both TEs underwent recent HT between several sympatric moth species (T. ni, Manduca sexta, Helicoverpa spp.) showing different degrees of susceptibility to AcMNPV. Based on two independent population genomics data sets (reaching a total coverage >330,000X), we report a frequency of one moth TE in ~8,500 AcMNPV genomes. Together, our results provide strong support for the role of viruses as vectors of TE HT between animals, and they call for a systematic evaluation of the frequency and impact of virus-mediated HT on the evolution of host genomes.

  11. HCF-1 encoded by baculovirus AcMNPV is required for productive nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of non-permissive Tn368 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ami; Hamajima, Rina; Tomizaki, Moe; Kondo, Takuya; Nanba, Yoshie; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Yamada, Hayato; Ikeda, Motoko

    2017-06-19

    Baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) replicates in both Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 and Trichoplusia ni Tn368 cells, whereas AcMNPV defective in hcf-1 (host cell-factor 1) gene productively infects only Sf21 cells, indicating that HCF-1 is indispensable for the AcMNPV productive infection of Tn368 cells. Here, we demonstrated that HCF-1 protein transiently expressed in Tn368 cells promotes the DNA synthesis of Hyphantria cunea MNPV (HycuMNPV), Orygia pseudotsugata MNPV and Bombyx mori NPV, which are normally unable to replicate in Tn368 cells. We also demonstrated that a recombinant HycuMNPV harboring the hcf-1 gene successfully replicates in Tn368 cells, generating substantial yields of progeny viruses and polyhedra. These results indicate that HCF-1 encoded by AcMNPV is an essential viral factor for productive NPV infection of Tn368 cells. Taken together with the previous findings on HRF-1 (host range factor 1), the present results provide strong evidence that viral genes acquired through horizontal gene transfer play an important role in baculovirus evolution, serving to expand the host range of baculoviruses.

  12. A baculovirus alkaline nuclease knockout construct produces fragmented DNA and aberrant capsids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kazuhiro; Vanarsdall, Adam L.; Rohrmann, George F.

    2007-01-01

    DNA replication of bacmid-derived constructs of the Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was analyzed by field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) in combination with digestion at a unique Eco81I restriction enzyme site. Three constructs were characterized: a parental bacmid, a bacmid deleted for the alkaline nuclease gene, and a bacmid from which the gp64 gene had been deleted. The latter was employed as a control for comparison with the alkaline nuclease knockout because neither yields infectious virus and their replication is limited to the initially transfected cells. The major difference between DNA replicated by the different constructs was the presence in the alkaline nuclease knockout of high concentrations of relatively small, subgenome length DNA in preparations not treated with Eco81I. Furthermore, upon Eco81I digestion, the alkaline nuclease knockout bacmid also yielded substantially more subgenome size DNA than the other constructs. Electron microscopic examination of cells transfected with the alkaline nuclease knockout indicated that, in addition to a limited number of normal-appearing electron-dense nucleocapsids, numerous aberrant capsid-like structures were observed indicating a defect in nucleocapsid maturation or in a DNA processing step that is necessary for encapsidation. Because of the documented role of the baculovirus alkaline nuclease and its homologs from other viruses in homologous recombination, these data suggest that DNA recombination may play a major role in the production of baculovirus genomes

  13. Clathrin-independent entry of baculovirus triggers uptake of E. coli in non-phagocytic human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna P Laakkonen

    Full Text Available The prototype baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, an insect pathogen, holds great potential as a gene therapy vector. To develop transductional targeting and gene delivery by baculovirus, we focused on characterizing the nature and regulation of its uptake in human cancer cells. Baculovirus entered the cells along fluid-phase markers from the raft areas into smooth-surfaced vesicles devoid of clathrin. Notably, regulators associated with macropinocytosis, namely EIPA, Pak1, Rab34, and Rac1, had no significant effect on viral transduction, and the virus did not induce fluid-phase uptake. The internalization and nuclear uptake was, however, affected by mutants of RhoA, and of Arf6, a regulator of clathrin-independent entry. Furthermore, the entry of baculovirus induced ruffle formation and triggered the uptake of fluorescent E. coli bioparticles. To conclude, baculovirus enters human cells via a clathrin-independent pathway, which is able to trigger bacterial uptake. This study increases our understanding of virus entry strategies and gives new insight into baculovirus-mediated gene delivery in human cells.

  14. How baculovirus polyhedra fit square pegs into round holes to robustly package viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyun; Sutton, Geoff; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Stuart, David I

    2010-01-20

    Natural protein crystals (polyhedra) armour certain viruses, allowing them to survive for years under hostile conditions. We have determined the structure of polyhedra of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), revealing a highly symmetrical covalently cross-braced robust lattice, the subunits of which possess a flexible adaptor enabling this supra-molecular assembly to specifically entrap massive baculoviruses. Inter-subunit chemical switches modulate the controlled release of virus particles in the unusual high pH environment of the target insect's gut. Surprisingly, the polyhedrin subunits are more similar to picornavirus coat proteins than to the polyhedrin of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV). It is, therefore, remarkable that both AcMNPV and CPV polyhedra possess identical crystal lattices and crystal symmetry. This crystalline arrangement must be particularly well suited to the functional requirements of the polyhedra and has been either preserved or re-selected during evolution. The use of flexible adaptors to generate a powerful system for packaging irregular particles is characteristic of the AcMNPV polyhedrin and may provide a vehicle to sequester a wide range of objects such as biological nano-particles.

  15. Improved pFastBac™ donor plasmid vectors for higher protein production using the Bac-to-Bac® baculovirus expression vector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hui; Garretson, Tyler A; Kumar, C M Senthil; Dieter, Robert F; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2017-08-10

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV)-based Bac-to-Bac ® expression system consists of a bacmid and five pFastBac™ donor transfer vectors. It has been widely used for eukaryotic gene expression in insect cells to elucidate gene function in biotechnology laboratories. The pFastBac™ vectors contain a 50bp AcMNPV polyhedrin (polh) promoter and a 127bp SV40 polyadenylation (pA) signal for cloning a gene of interest into the bacmid, resulting in unsolved lower gene expression levels than the wild type (wt) AcMNPV in insect cells. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to understand why the Bac-to-Bac system produces lower gene expression levels. Here, we determined that bacmids transposed with pFastBac™ vectors produced 3-4 fold lower levels of certain proteins than the wt AcMNPV. We found that an 80bp cis element 147bp upstream of the 50bp polh promoter and a 134bp polh pA signal are required in pFastBac™ to achieve bacmid protein expression levels equivalent to wt AcMNPV in High Five insect cells. Therefore, researchers currently using pFastBac™ vectors for protein expression can transfer their genes of interest into the improved vectors in this report to elevate protein expression yields in insect cells to reduce protein production costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of an Egyptian Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus and a possible use of a highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene for nucleopolyhedrovirus detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seufi AlaaEddeen M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV. Comparative assays of SpliNPV and AcMNPV against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis revealed 4-fold greater susceptibility of S. littoralis to AcMNPV than to SpliNPV based on LC50 values for the two viruses. The LT50s determined for SpliNPV and AcMNPV using LC50 of the virus against 2nd instar larvae were 4.2 and 5.8 days, respectively. A DNA segment of 405 bp containing highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene of SpliNPV (Polh-cr was successfully amplified by PCR. Subsequently, this DNA segment was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence were compared to all available sequences in GenBank. Sequence alignment results revealed that Polh-cr showed significant similarities with 91 different baculovirus isolates. The percentage of homology ranged from 78% for Plusia orichalcea NPV to 99% for SpliNPV. This highly conserved region provides a candidate that could be used in easy, fast and economic prospective systems for virus detection as well as in biological control strategies.

  17. A novel baculovirus-derived promoter with high activity in the baculovirus expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Solís, María; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M; Jakubowska, Agata K; Herrero, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has been widely used to produce a large number of recombinant proteins, and is becoming one of the most powerful, robust, and cost-effective systems for the production of eukaryotic proteins. Nevertheless, as in any other protein expression system, it is important to improve the production capabilities of this vector. The orf46 viral gene was identified among the most highly abundant sequences in the transcriptome of Spodoptera exigua larvae infected with its native baculovirus, the S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). Different sequences upstream of the orf46 gene were cloned, and their promoter activities were tested by the expression of the GFP reporter gene using the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) vector system in different insect cell lines (Sf21, Se301, and Hi5) and in larvae from S. exigua and Trichoplusia ni. The strongest promoter activity was defined by a 120 nt sequence upstream of the ATG start codon for the orf46 gene. On average, GFP expression under this new promoter was more than two fold higher than the expression obtained with the standard polyhedrin (polh) promoter. Additionally, the orf46 promoter was also tested in combination with the polh promoter, revealing an additive effect over the polh promoter activity. In conclusion, this new characterized promoter represents an excellent alternative to the most commonly used baculovirus promoters for the efficient expression of recombinant proteins using the BEVS.

  18. Improved insecticidal activity of a recombinant baculovirus expressing spider venom cyto-insectotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M P; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-12-01

    Baculoviruses have a long history of safe use as specific, environmentally friendly insecticides that provide alternatives to chemical pesticides for controlling insect pests. However, their use has been limited by several factors, particularly their slow pathogenicity. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and an Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) that expressed an insect-specific cyto-insectotoxin (Cit1a) from the venom of the central Asian spider Lachesana tarabaevi. Cit1a is a comparatively long linear cytolytic molecule that contains a predicted α-helix structure composed of two short membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) that are joined together in a "head-to-tail" shape. Cit1a fused to polyhedrin gene (polh) (polh-cit1a) was expressed in the nuclei as polyhedra in silkworm larvae, Bm5 and Sf9 cells. An early death of Bm5 and Sf9 cells by recombinant BmNPV/Polh-Cit1a and AcMNPV/Polh-Cit1a was observed compared with control viruses that lacked the toxin gene. The infected cells showed a loss of cytoplasm, membrane integrity, and structural changes, suggesting that recombinant baculovirus-infected cells were killed by the necrosis caused by Cit1a. In addition, the BmNPV/Polh-Cit1a showed a significant reduction in the median lethal time (LT50) against silkworm larvae compared with those of control BmNPV that lacked the cit1a gene.

  19. A novel baculovirus-derived promoter with high activity in the baculovirus expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez-Solís

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS has been widely used to produce a large number of recombinant proteins, and is becoming one of the most powerful, robust, and cost-effective systems for the production of eukaryotic proteins. Nevertheless, as in any other protein expression system, it is important to improve the production capabilities of this vector. The orf46 viral gene was identified among the most highly abundant sequences in the transcriptome of Spodoptera exigua larvae infected with its native baculovirus, the S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV. Different sequences upstream of the orf46 gene were cloned, and their promoter activities were tested by the expression of the GFP reporter gene using the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV vector system in different insect cell lines (Sf21, Se301, and Hi5 and in larvae from S. exigua and Trichoplusia ni. The strongest promoter activity was defined by a 120 nt sequence upstream of the ATG start codon for the orf46 gene. On average, GFP expression under this new promoter was more than two fold higher than the expression obtained with the standard polyhedrin (polh promoter. Additionally, the orf46 promoter was also tested in combination with the polh promoter, revealing an additive effect over the polh promoter activity. In conclusion, this new characterized promoter represents an excellent alternative to the most commonly used baculovirus promoters for the efficient expression of recombinant proteins using the BEVS.

  20. Characterization of an Egyptian Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus and a possible use of a highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene for nucleopolyhedrovirus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufi, AlaaEddeen M

    2008-01-01

    An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Comparative assays of SpliNPV and AcMNPV against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis revealed 4-fold greater susceptibility of S. littoralis to AcMNPV than to SpliNPV based on LC50 values for the two viruses. The LT50s determined for SpliNPV and AcMNPV using LC50 of the virus against 2nd instar larvae were 4.2 and 5.8 days, respectively. A DNA segment of 405 bp containing highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene of SpliNPV (Polh-cr) was successfully amplified by PCR. Subsequently, this DNA segment was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence were compared to all available sequences in GenBank. Sequence alignment results revealed that Polh-cr showed significant similarities with 91 different baculovirus isolates. The percentage of homology ranged from 78% for Plusia orichalcea NPV to 99% for SpliNPV. This highly conserved region provides a candidate that could be used in easy, fast and economic prospective systems for virus detection as well as in biological control strategies. PMID:18215282

  1. Establishment of insect cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein on cell surface based on AcMNPV GP64 membrane fusion characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ben-Xiang; Chen, Ying-Jian; Su, Rui; Li, Yi-Fei; Zheng, Gui-Ling; Li, Chang-You

    2017-10-01

    Displaying a protein on the surface of cells has been provided a very successful strategy to function research of exogenous proteins. Based on the membrane fusion characteristic of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus envelope protein GP64, we amplified and cloned N-terminal signal peptide and C-terminal transmembrane domain as well as cytoplasmic tail domain of gp64 gene into vector pIZ/V5-His with multi-cloning sites to construct the cell surface expression vector pIZ/V5-gp64. To verify that the vector can be used to express proteins on the membrane of insect cells, a recombinant plasmid pIZ/V5-gp64-GFP was constructed by introducing the PCR amplified green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and transfected into insect cell lines Sf9 and H5. The transected cells were screened with zeocin and cell cloning. PCR verification results showed that the GFP gene was successfully integrated into these cells. Green fluorescence in Sf9-GFP and H5-GFP cells was observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunofluorescence detection indicated that GFP protein was located on the cell membrane. Western blot results showed that a fusion protein GP64-GFP of about 40 kDa was expressed on the membrane of Sf9-GFP and H5-GFP cells. The expression system constructed in this paper can be used for localization and continuous expression of exogenous proteins on insect cell membrane.

  2. In vivo analysis of fibroin heavy chain signal peptide of silkworm Bombyx mori using recombinant baculovirus as vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengpeng; Guo Tingqing; Guo Xiuyang; Huang Junting; Lu Changde

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the functional signal peptide of silkworm fibroin heavy chain (FibH) and the effect of N- and C-terminal parts of FibH on the secretion of FibH in vivo, N- and C-terminal segments of fibh gene were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The fused gene was then introduced into silkworm larvae and expressed in silk gland using recombinant AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus) as vector. The fluorescence of EGFP was observed with fluorescence microscope. FibH-EGFP fusion proteins extracted from silk gland were analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the two alpha helices within N-terminal 163 amino acid residues and the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were not necessary for cleavage of signal peptide and secretion of the fusion protein into silk gland. Then the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were substituted with a His-tag in the fusion protein to facilitate the purification. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed that the signal cleavage site is between position 21 and 22 amino acid residues

  3. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc 109KO ). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc 109KO results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc 109KO -transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID 50 showed that vAc 109KO produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc 109KO BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  4. Ultra Deep Sequencing of a Baculovirus Population Reveals Widespread Genomic Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Chateigner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses rely on widespread genetic variation and large population size for adaptation. Large DNA virus populations are thought to harbor little variation though natural populations may be polymorphic. To measure the genetic variation present in a dsDNA virus population, we deep sequenced a natural strain of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. With 124,221X average genome coverage of our 133,926 bp long consensus, we could detect low frequency mutations (0.025%. K-means clustering was used to classify the mutations in four categories according to their frequency in the population. We found 60 high frequency non-synonymous mutations under balancing selection distributed in all functional classes. These mutants could alter viral adaptation dynamics, either through competitive or synergistic processes. Lastly, we developed a technique for the delimitation of large deletions in next generation sequencing data. We found that large deletions occur along the entire viral genome, with hotspots located in homologous repeat regions (hrs. Present in 25.4% of the genomes, these deletion mutants presumably require functional complementation to complete their infection cycle. They might thus have a large impact on the fitness of the baculovirus population. Altogether, we found a wide breadth of genomic variation in the baculovirus population, suggesting it has high adaptive potential.

  5. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  6. In Australia: Multiple Intelligences in Multiple Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, Wilma

    1997-01-01

    In Australia, Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory has strongly influenced primary, preschool, and special education. A survey of 30 schools revealed that teachers use two basic approaches: teaching to, and teaching through, multiple intelligences. The first approach might develop children's music skills via playing an instrument. The second…

  7. Vectores baculovirales combinados: exposición superficial de antígenos y transducción de genes

    OpenAIRE

    Pidre, Matías Luis

    2017-01-01

    Los baculovirus son virus envueltos cuyo genoma consiste en una molécula de DNA doble hebra de entre 80 kpb hasta 180kpb. Los baculovirus han sido ampliamente utilizados con fines biotecnológicos. Una de sus aplicaciones más difundidas consiste en su uso como bioinsecticidas para el control biológico de plagas de insecto. Además, el baculovirus de Autographa californica (AcMNPV) ha sido ampliamente utilizado como vector para la expresión de proteínas heterólogas en cultivo celular de insecto....

  8. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Christensen, C

    2013-01-01

    The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

  10. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dual Diagnosis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  13. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cesarean Section URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  17. Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Panic Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  19. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oral Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  3. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000129.htm Multiple sclerosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal ...

  4. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes Types Type 1 disease Type 2A disease Type 2B disease Diagnosis Treatment Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  5. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) Overview Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative neurological disorder affecting your body's involuntary (autonomic) functions, including blood pressure, breathing, bladder function and muscle ...

  6. Neutron Multiplicity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Neutron multiplicity measurements are widely used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM). When combined with isotopic composition information, neutron multiplicity analysis can be used to estimate the spontaneous fission rate and leakage multiplication of SNM. When combined with isotopic information, the total mass of fissile material can also be determined. This presentation provides an overview of this technique.

  7. Multiple meningiomas CASE SERIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • June 2006. Abstract. Multiple meningioma is a condition in which ... Post-contrast image showing contrast enhanced right temporal and frontal parasagittal meningiomas. CASE SERIES ... in the formation of multiple, clonally related tumours.2,3,4,8. Gruber et al.6 described a case of multiple ...

  8. Multiple dimensions of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvlied, René

    2013-01-01

    This presentation considers the multiple dimensions of performance in performance studies, and potentially contradicting effects of different management strategies on separate indicators of performance

  9. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  10. [Kahler's disease. Multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, F.J.; Dekker, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Kahler's disease, multiple myeloma, is a malignant condition of unbridled multiplication of plasma cells in bone marrow. Clinical features are anaemia, pain in the affected bones, spontaneous bone fractures and increased infection susceptibility. In the final stage of the disease severe renal

  11. Assessing Children's Multiplicative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This paper reports on a current study that utilises an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. The development of the tools and some of the…

  12. Multiple Frequency Parametric Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    300003 1 MULTIPLE FREQUENCY PARAMETRIC SONAR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...a method for increasing the bandwidth of a parametric sonar system by using multiple primary frequencies rather than only two primary frequencies...2) Description of Prior Art [0004] Parametric sonar generates narrow beams at low frequencies by projecting sound at two distinct primary

  13. Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Brain Tumors URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  14. Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Brain Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  15. Suicide and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    1992-01-01

    In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...

  16. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  17. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  18. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  19. Hadron multiplicities at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Du Fresne Von Hohenesche, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Quark fragmentation functions (FF) D h q ( z ; Q 2 ) describe final-state hadronisation of quarks q into hadrons h . The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The COMPASS collaboration has recently measured charged hadron multiplicities for identified pions and kaons using a 160 GeV/c muon beam impinging on an isoscalar LiD target. The data cover a large kinematical range and provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the determination of FFs. The latest results from COMPASS on pion multiplicities and pion fragmentation functions will be discussed.

  20. The Multiplicative Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between three critical elements, and the associated mathematical language, to assist students to make the critical transition from additive to multiplicative thinking are examined in this article by Chris Hurst.

  1. Connecting the Production Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Mouritsen, Jan

    was implementing sales and operations planning (S&OP) process to foster integration on its demand chain. Although actors wanted to see what it is to produce, that is to say, the object Production, as a singular object that could be diffused across time and space, Production became more multiple because the S......&OP process itself is a fluid object, but there is still possibility to organise the messy Production. There are connections between the Production multiple and the managerial technology fluid. The fluid enacted the multiplicity of Production thus making it more difficult to be organised because there were...... not judge success or failure of accounting on whether accounting does solve the problem in singular but whether accounting is fluid enough to connect separate multiples....

  2. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  3. Taking multiple medicines safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why You May Need More Than One Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  4. Very high multiplicity physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    The status of the programme of studying processes with high multiplicity, when inelasticity is close to unity, is considered. The definition of the processes under study is given, and the motivation of investigations and the experimentally observed predictions are discussed

  5. Rehabilitation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    of their lives, emphasising the importance of rehabilitation in order to maintain quality of life. An important aspect of multiple sclerosis rehabilitation is the preservation of physical functioning. Hot topics in the rehabilitation of physical function include (1) exercise therapy, (2) robot-assisted training......, a paradigm shift is taking place and it is now increasingly acknowledged that exercise therapy is both safe and beneficial. Robot-assisted training is also attracting attention in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation. Several sophisticated commercial robots exist, but so far the number of scientific studies......In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation becomes of major importance in the preservation of physical, psychological and social functioning. Approximately 80% of patients have multiple sclerosis for more than 35 years and most will develop disability at some point...

  6. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM) characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) ≥ 10% and/or M protein level ≥ 30 g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include t...

  8. Smoldering multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and...

  9. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  10. Neutron source multiplication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use has been made of neutron source multiplication in thousands of measurements of critical masses and configurations and in subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ that provide data for criticality prevention and control in nuclear materials operations. There is continuing interest in developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity, or k/sub eff/, of plant operations, but the required measurements are difficult to carry out and interpret on the far subcritical configurations usually encountered. The relationship between neutron multiplication and reactivity is briefly discussed and data presented to illustrate problems associated with the absolute measurement of neutron multiplication and reactivity in subcritical systems. A number of curves of inverse multiplication have been selected from a variety of experiments showing variations observed in multiplication during the course of critical and subcritical experiments where different methods of reactivity addition were used, with different neutron source detector position locations. Concern is raised regarding the meaning and interpretation of k/sub eff/ as might be measured in a far subcritical system because of the modal effects and spectrum differences that exist between the subcritical and critical systems. Because of this, the calculation of k/sub eff/ identical with unity for the critical assembly, although necessary, may not be sufficient to assure safety margins in calculations pertaining to far subcritical systems. Further study is needed on the interpretation and meaning of k/sub eff/ in the far subcritical system

  11. MULTIPLE SPINAL CANAL MENINGIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandigama Pratap Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningiomas of the spinal canal are common tumours with the incidence of 25 percent of all spinal cord tumours. But multiple spinal canal meningiomas are rare in compare to solitary lesions and account for 2 to 3.5% of all spinal meningiomas. Most of the reported cases are both intra cranial and spinal. Exclusive involvement of the spinal canal by multiple meningiomas are very rare. We could find only sixteen cases in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for single lesion. We analysed the literature, with illustration of our case. MATERIALS AND METHODS In September 2016, we performed a literature search for multiple spinal canal meningiomas involving exclusively the spinal canal with no limitation for language and publication date. The search was conducted through http://pubmed.com, a wellknown worldwide internet medical address. To the best of our knowledge, we could find only sixteen cases of multiple meningiomas exclusively confined to the spinal canal. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for solitary intradural extra medullary spinal canal meningioma at D4-D6 level, again presented with spastic quadriparesis of two years duration and MRI whole spine demonstrated multiple intradural extra medullary lesions, which were excised completely and the histopathological diagnosis was transitional meningioma. RESULTS Patient recovered from his weakness and sensory symptoms gradually and bladder and bowel symptoms improved gradually over a period of two to three weeks. CONCLUSION Multiple

  12. The Influence of SV40 polyA on Gene Expression of Baculovirus Expression Vector Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Tamer Z; Seaborn, Craig P; Turney, Colin M; Xue, Jianli; Shang, Hui; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (SV40 polyA) has been routinely inserted downstream of the polyhedrin promoter in many baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS). In the baculovirus prototype Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the polyhedrin promoter (very late promoter) transcribes its gene by a viral RNA polymerase therefore there is no supporting evidence that SV40 polyA is required for the proper gene expression under the polyhedrin promoter. Moreover, the effect of the SV40 polyA sequence on the polyhedrin promoter activity has not been tested either at its natural polyhedrin locus or in other loci in the viral genome. In order to test the significance of adding the SV40 polyA sequence on gene expression, the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was evaluated with and without the presence of SV40 polyA under the control of the polyhedrin promoter at different genomic loci (polyherin, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt), and gp37). In this study, spectrofluorometry and western blot showed reduction of EGFP protein for all recombinant viruses with SV40 polyA, whereas qPCR showed an increase in the egfp mRNA levels. Therefore, we conclude that SV40 polyA increases mRNA levels but decreases protein production in the BEVS when the polyhedrin promoter is used at different loci. This work suggests that SV40 polyA in BEVSs should be replaced by an AcMNPV late gene polyA for optimal protein production or left untouched for optimal RNA production (RNA interference applications).

  13. A baculovirus-mediated strategy for full-length plant virus coat protein expression and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Rocha, Juliana Ribeiro; da Costa, Márcio Hedil Oliveira; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti; Dusi, André Nepomuceno; de Oliveira Resende, Renato; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-08-15

    Garlic production is severely affected by virus infection, causing a decrease in productivity and quality. There are no virus-free cultivars and garlic-infecting viruses are difficult to purify, which make specific antibody production very laborious. Since high quality antisera against plant viruses are important tools for serological detection, we have developed a method to express and purify full-length plant virus coat proteins using baculovirus expression system and insects as bioreactors. In this work, we have fused the full-length coat protein (cp) gene from the Garlic Mite-borne Filamentous Virus (GarMbFV) to the 3'-end of the Polyhedrin (polh) gene of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The recombinant baculovirus was amplified in insect cell culture and the virus was used to infect Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Thus, the recombinant fused protein was easily purified from insect cadavers using sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed by Western Blotting. Interestingly, amorphous crystals were produced in the cytoplasm of cells infected with the recombinant virus containing the chimeric-protein gene but not in cells infected with the wild type and recombinant virus containing the hexa histidine tagged Polh. Moreover, the chimeric protein was used to immunize rats and generate antibodies against the target protein. The antiserum produced was able to detect plants infected with GarMbFV, which had been initially confirmed by RT-PCR. The expression of a plant virus full-length coat protein fused to the baculovirus Polyhedrin in recombinant baculovirus-infected insects was shown to produce high amounts of the recombinant protein which was easily purified and efficiently used to generate specific antibodies. Therefore, this strategy can potentially be used for the development of plant virus diagnostic kits for those viruses that are difficult to purify, are present in low titers or are present in mix infection in

  14. Characterization of a Trichoplusia ni hexamerin-derived promoter in the AcMNPV baculovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vidal, Javier; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Escribano, José M

    2013-06-10

    The promoter sequences of the encoding genes for the three most abundant hexamerins of the Lepidoptera Trichoplusia ni were isolated and cloned into the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV)-derived baculovirus expression vector. From the sequences analyzed, the DNA region driving the expression of the Basic juvenile hormone-suppressible protein 2 (BJHSP-2), denominated pB2, presented the highest promoter strength in the context of the baculovirus vector in Sf21 insect cells. This promoter activity occurred earlier in baculovirus-infected cells than that achieved by a conventional polyhedrin promoter (polh), but surprisingly stopped at 48h post-infection. A mapping of pB2 essential promoter elements determined that a region of about 400bp, denominated pB29, retained and even increased the transcriptional activity with respect to the parental full-length sequence. Finally, several chimeric combinations of the insect-derived pB2 with the virus-derived conventional polh or p10 promoters were constructed and incorporated into an AcMNPV baculovirus vector. The pB2-p10 combination showed increased recombinant protein expression at early times post-infection and similar expression levels at very late times post-infection in Sf21 cells with respect to conventional late promoters. To the best of our knowledge, pB2 is the first promoter isolated from the Lepidoptera T. ni, the natural host of AcMNPV, to be assayed in a baculovirus expression vector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Incorporation of GP64 into Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus enhances virus infectivity in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Gan, Yinyin; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2012-12-01

    The envelope fusion proteins of baculoviruses, glycoprotein GP64 from group I nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) or the F protein from group II NPV and granulovirus, are essential for baculovirus morphogenesis and infectivity. The F protein is considered the ancestral baculovirus envelope fusion protein, while GP64 is a more recent evolutionary introduction into baculoviruses and exhibits higher fusogenic activity than the F protein. Each of the fusion proteins is required by the respective virus to spread infection within larval tissues. A recombinant Helicoverpa armigera NPV (HearNPV) expressing GP64 from Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, vHaBac-gp64-egfp, was constructed, which still retained the native F protein, and its infectivity was assayed in vivo and in vitro. Analyses by one-step growth curve to determine viral titre and by quantitative PCR to determine viral DNA copy number showed that vHaBac-gp64-egfp was more infectious in vitro than the control, vHaBac-egfp. The polyhedrin gene (polh) was reintroduced into the recombinant viruses and bioassays showed that vHaBac-gp64-polh accelerated the mortality of infected larvae compared with the vHaBac-egfp-polh control, and the LC(50) (median lethal concentration) of vHaBac-gp64-polh was reduced to approximately 20 % of that of vHaBac-egfp-polh. Therefore, incorporation of GP64 into HearNPV budded virions improved virus infectivity both in vivo and in vitro. The construction of this bivalent virus with a more efficient fusion protein could improve the use of baculoviruses in different areas such as gene therapy and biocontrol.

  16. Baculovirus DNA Replication-Specific Expression Factors Trigger Apoptosis and Shutoff of Host Protein Synthesis during Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Friesen, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important antivirus defense. To define the poorly understood pathways by which invertebrates respond to viruses by inducing apoptosis, we have identified replication events that trigger apoptosis in baculovirus-infected cells. We used RNA silencing to ablate factors required for multiplication of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Transfection with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) complementary to the AcMNPV late expression factors (lefs) that are designated as replicative lefs (lef-1, lef-2, lef-3, lef-11, p143, dnapol, and ie-1/ie-0) blocked virus DNA synthesis and late gene expression in permissive Spodoptera frugiperda cells. dsRNAs specific to designated nonreplicative lefs (lef-8, lef-9, p47, and pp31) blocked late gene expression without affecting virus DNA replication. Thus, both classes of lefs functioned during infection as defined. Silencing the replicative lefs prevented AcMNPV-induced apoptosis of Spodoptera cells, whereas silencing the nonreplicative lefs did not. Thus, the activity of replicative lefs or virus DNA replication is sufficient to trigger apoptosis. Confirming this conclusion, AcMNPV-induced apoptosis was suppressed by silencing the replicative lefs in cells from a divergent species, Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing replicative but not nonreplicative lefs also abrogated AcMNPV-induced shutdown of host protein synthesis, suggesting that virus DNA replication triggers inhibition of host biosynthetic processes and that apoptosis and translational arrest are linked. Our findings suggest that baculovirus DNA replication triggers a host cell response similar to the DNA damage response in vertebrates, which causes translational arrest and apoptosis. Pathways for detecting virus invasion and triggering apoptosis may therefore be conserved between insects and mammals. PMID:19706708

  17. Baculovirus DNA replication-specific expression factors trigger apoptosis and shutoff of host protein synthesis during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kimberly L W; Friesen, Paul D

    2009-11-01

    Apoptosis is an important antivirus defense. To define the poorly understood pathways by which invertebrates respond to viruses by inducing apoptosis, we have identified replication events that trigger apoptosis in baculovirus-infected cells. We used RNA silencing to ablate factors required for multiplication of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Transfection with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) complementary to the AcMNPV late expression factors (lefs) that are designated as replicative lefs (lef-1, lef-2, lef-3, lef-11, p143, dnapol, and ie-1/ie-0) blocked virus DNA synthesis and late gene expression in permissive Spodoptera frugiperda cells. dsRNAs specific to designated nonreplicative lefs (lef-8, lef-9, p47, and pp31) blocked late gene expression without affecting virus DNA replication. Thus, both classes of lefs functioned during infection as defined. Silencing the replicative lefs prevented AcMNPV-induced apoptosis of Spodoptera cells, whereas silencing the nonreplicative lefs did not. Thus, the activity of replicative lefs or virus DNA replication is sufficient to trigger apoptosis. Confirming this conclusion, AcMNPV-induced apoptosis was suppressed by silencing the replicative lefs in cells from a divergent species, Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing replicative but not nonreplicative lefs also abrogated AcMNPV-induced shutdown of host protein synthesis, suggesting that virus DNA replication triggers inhibition of host biosynthetic processes and that apoptosis and translational arrest are linked. Our findings suggest that baculovirus DNA replication triggers a host cell response similar to the DNA damage response in vertebrates, which causes translational arrest and apoptosis. Pathways for detecting virus invasion and triggering apoptosis may therefore be conserved between insects and mammals.

  18. A new theraphosid spider toxin causes early insect cell death by necrosis when expressed in vitro during recombinant baculovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mendes Pereira Ardisson-Araújo

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses are the most studied insect viruses in the world and are used for biological control of agricultural and forest insect pests. They are also used as versatile vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. One of the major problems of their use as biopesticides is their slow speed to kill insects. Thus, to address this shortcoming, insect-specific neurotoxins from arachnids have been introduced into the baculovirus genome solely aiming to improve its virulence. In this work, an insecticide-like toxin gene was obtained from a cDNA derived from the venom glands of the theraphosid spider Brachypelma albiceps. The mature form of the peptide toxin (called Ba3 has a high content of basic amino acid residues, potential for three possible disulfide bonds, and a predicted three-stranded β-sheetDifferent constructions of the gene were engineered for recombinant baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclepolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV expression. Five different forms of Ba3 were assessed; (1 the full-length sequence, (2 the pro-peptide and mature region, (3 only the mature region, and the mature region fused to an (4 insect or a (5 virus-derived signal peptide were inserted separately into the genome of the baculovirus. All the recombinant viruses induced cell death by necrosis earlier in infection relative to a control virus lacking the toxin gene. However, the recombinant virus containing the mature portion of the toxin gene induced a faster cell death than the other recombinants. We found that the toxin construct with the signal peptide and/or pro-peptide regions delayed the necrosis phenotype. When infected cells were subjected to ultrastructural analysis, the cells showed loss of plasma membrane integrity and structural changes in mitochondria before death. Our results suggest this use of baculovirus is a potential tool to help understand or to identify the effect of insect-specific toxic peptides when produced during infection of insect

  19. The Future Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper asks “Why is the future in futures studies plural?” The attitude toward inquiry, based on post-actor-network theory (ANT) literature, positions philosophical questions about the ontological character of the future within the context of “planning” for it (i.e. in practice......). Multiplicity, as a post-ANT sensibility, helps one make sense of the empirical materials. This paper examines the possibility that rather than being alternatives to one another, plural futures and the singular future might co-exist in practice, and, thus, constitute a multiplicity. Design......, if “the future” were so preposterous an idea, then “futures” would cease to be a critical alternative to it. Futures needs the future; they are relationally bound together in a multiplicity. This paper considers what such a logical reality implies for a field that distances itself from the future and self...

  20. Sentencing Multiple Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Julian V.

    Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...

  1. High-multiplicity processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelkov, G.; Sisakyan, A.; Mandzhavidze, I.

    1999-01-01

    We wish to demonstrate that investigation of asymptotically high multiplicity (AHM) hadron reactions may solve, or at least clear up, a number of problems unsolvable by other ways. We would lean upon the idea: (i) the reactions final state entropy is proportional to multiplicity and, by this reason, just in the AHM domain one may expect the equilibrium final state and (ii) the AHM final state is cold because of the energy-momentum conservation laws. This means that the collective phenomena may become important in the AHM domain. The possibility of hard processes dominance is considered also

  2. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    INALOO, Soroor; HAGHBIN, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Inaloo S, Haghbin S. Multiple Sclerosis in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2):1-10. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to a...

  3. Safe Dynamic Multiple Inheritance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Multiple inheritance and similar mechanisms are usually only supported at compile time in statically typed languages. Nevertheless, dynamic multiple inheritance would be very useful in the development of complex systems, because it allows the creation of many related classes without an explosion ...... of operands the '&' operator fails; as a result, dynamic creation of new classes and methods was considered a dangerous operation in all cases. This paper presents a large and useful category of combinations, and proves that combinations in this category will always succeed....

  4. [Multiple congenital tarsal synostoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, H

    1996-11-01

    Tarsal coalition is an abnormal fusion of two or more tarsal centers. Talo-calcaneal and calcaneo-navicular coalition are the most frequent types. If multiple tarsal coalition is suspected, computed tomography with sagittal reconstruction is the best method for diagnosis.

  5. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for students having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners included working in a places of .... education. Premarital sex and commercial sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs. 94% of females and 79% vs 88% of male students respectively.

  6. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  7. Multiple Access Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Multiple Access Communications, MACOM 2016, held in Aalborg, Denmark, in November 2016. The 10 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 12 submissions. They were organized in topical...... sections named: physical layer aspects; MAC layer aspects; and information theory....

  8. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It ... KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous .... layer of the colon. The tumor cells are strongly positive to chromagranin and AE1/AE3. Features are those of carcinoid tumor of the colon. She was ...

  9. Zinc in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredholt, Mikkel; Fredriksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    In the last 35 years, zinc (Zn) has been examined for its potential role in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). This review gives an overview of the possible role of Zn in the pathogenesis of MS as well as a meta-analysis of studies having measured Zn in serum or plasma in patients with MS...

  10. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram

    Et voksende antal mennesker i Danmark oplever at være overfølsomme over for dufte og kemikalier. Imidlertid er den tilskrevne diagnose Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) ikke medicinsk anerkendt i Danmark pga. mangel på organiske og patofysiologisk basis for symptomerne. Dette speciale bygger på...

  11. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  12. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  13. [Smoldering multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, G; Guidez, S; Herbaux, C; Demarquette, H; Leleu, X

    2014-04-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell neoplasia, characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the absence of end-organ damage, but with a high risk of progression to multiple myeloma. It has therefore to be distinguished from monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which has a much lower risk of progression, but also from multiple myeloma, which remains an incurable disease and requires a specific treatment. The critical question in the management of SMM is whether an early therapeutic strategy could help delaying the progression to multiple myeloma, in order to lower the risk of serious complications related to this progression, or even to cure the disease. This early treatment could not be proposed to all SMM patients, who are indeed asymptomatic, and in whom the risk of toxicity could make it difficult to justify the potential benefit obtained. The challenge is to target early at diagnosis SMM patients with a high risk of progression, using available routine tests sufficiently reliable to warrant the therapeutic sanction which relies on it. Today however, apart from randomized studies, recommendations are to maintain therapeutic abstention in SMM patients. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William C.

    This paper explains Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) and discusses questions raised about MI theory in regard to validity, assessment, and implications for instructional activities. MI theory asserts that human cognitive competence is best described in terms of a set of abilities, talents, and mental skills that each child…

  15. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Body Weight: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  16. [Delivery in multiple pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, F; D'Addato, F; Grio, R

    2001-04-01

    A knowledge of clinical physiognomy in pathologies related to multiple births is indispensable for improving maternal and feto-neonatal prognosis. This study is a contribution to the solution of this problem. A meta-analysis of data for multiple births at Department B of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the University of Turi during the decade 1989-1998 was carried out, focusing on the arrangement and presentation of fetuses, the various types of birth, the gestational age at which birth occurred, the weight of neonates, neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity. Out of 11,523 births, there were a total of 194 (1.68%) multiple births, including 190 sets of twins and 4 triplets. 154 (79.38%) premature births were reported; 20 occurred 1500 g). The perinatal mortality rate was 3.82%. Maternal complications mainly occurred during the placental state, in the immediate postpartum and in puerperio. The authors feel that a more careful medical and social assistance, preventive hospitalisation, early recognition of the risk, constant monitoring for the optimal timing of birth, and lastly, qualified medical assistance during labour (expert gynecologist, trained obstetric staff) with other medical personnel (anesthetist, neonatal specialist) represent winning strategies to solve the problems arising during multiple pregnancies.

  17. Multiple Interactions in Herwig++

    CERN Document Server

    Bahr, Manuel; Seymour, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution we describe a new model of multiple partonic interactions that has been implemented in Herwig++. Tuning its two free parameters we find a good description of CDF underlying event data. We show extrapolations to the LHC and discuss intrinsic PDF uncertainties.

  18. Unfolding Fraction Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyberg, Terry; Whitney, Stephanie R.; Cramer, Kathleen A.; Monson, Debra S.; Leavitt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding fractions, in general, and understanding how to multiply fractions, in particular. To move past this potential problem area, students need to develop a deeper understanding of multiplication and connect the ideas to fractions. In this article, the authors share their insights into teaching fraction…

  19. Multiple snapshot compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, Peter; Xenaki, Angeliki; Mecklenbrauker, Christoph F.

    2015-01-01

    For sound fields observed on an array, compressive sensing (CS) reconstructs the multiple source signals at unknown directions-of-arrival (DOAs) using a sparsity constraint. The DOA estimation is posed as an underdetermined problem expressing the field at each sensor as a phase-lagged superposition...

  20. Multiple preequilibrium decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1987-11-01

    Several treatments of multiple preequilibrium decay are reviewed with emphasis on the exciton and hybrid models. We show the expected behavior of this decay mode as a function of incident nucleon energy. The algorithms used in the hybrid model treatment are reviewed, and comparisons are made between predictions of the hybrid model and a broad range of experimental results. 24 refs., 20 figs

  1. Information distance in multiples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.B. Vitányi (Paul)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractInformation distance is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression, used in pattern recognition, data mining, phylogeny, clustering, and classification. The notion of information distance is extended from pairs to multiples (finite lists). We study maximal overlap,

  2. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...

  3. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  4. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  5. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It ... KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous .... layer of the colon. The tumor cells are strongly positive to chromagranin and AE1/AE3. Features are those of carcinoid tumor of the colon. She was ...

  6. Multiplication on Rn -A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    topological group except the associative law. So, (S7,.) is a ... the identity mapping. Clearly, each topological groupoid is an H-space. In par- ticular, (So, .), (S1, .), (S3,.) and (S7,.) are H-spaces. The following theorem is about the converse (see H usemoller, pp.202 in ... ]Rn \\ {O} be a multiplication with identity e. Define j1 :.

  7. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffoli, A.; Micheletti, E.; Capra, R.; Mattioli, F.; Marciano', N.

    1991-01-01

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  8. Portable multiplicity counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Matthew R [Los Alamos, NM; Jones, David Carl [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  9. Suicide and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    1992-01-01

    In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...... with an onset of the disease within the period 1953-85, or for whom MS was diagnosed in the same period. Fifty three of the 5525 cases in the onset cohort group committed suicide. Using the figures from the population death statistics by adjustment to number of subjects, duration of observation, sex, age......, and calendar year at the start of observation, the expected number of suicides was calculated to be nearly 29. The cumulative lifetime risk of suicide from onset of MS, using an actuarial method of calculation, was 1.95%. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide in MS was 1.83. It was highest for males...

  10. Curability of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Alexanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among 792 patients with multiple myeloma treated from 1987 to 2010 and assessed after 18 months, there were 167 patients with complete remission. For those 60 patients treated between 1987–1998 and with long followup, the latest relapse occurred after 11.8 years, so that 13 patients have remained in sustained complete remission for longer than 12 years (range 12–22 years. These results suggest that 3% of all patients treated during that period may be cured of multiple myeloma. In addition to immunofixation, more sensitive techniques for the detection of residual disease should be applied more consistently in patients with apparent complete remission in order to identify those with potential cure.

  11. Multiple time scale dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to dynamical systems with multiple time scales. The approach it takes is to provide an overview of key areas, particularly topics that are less available in the introductory form.  The broad range of topics included makes it accessible for students and researchers new to the field to gain a quick and thorough overview. The first of its kind, this book merges a wide variety of different mathematical techniques into a more unified framework. The book is highly illustrated with many examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography. The target audience of this  book are senior undergraduates, graduate students as well as researchers interested in using the multiple time scale dynamics theory in nonlinear science, either from a theoretical or a mathematical modeling perspective. 

  12. Core Multiplication in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    A dedicated, non-symbolic, system yielding imprecise representations of large quantities (Approximate Number System, or ANS) has been shown to support arithmetic calculations of addition and subtraction. In the present study, 5–7-year-old children without formal schooling in multiplication and division were given a task requiring a scalar transformation of large approximate numerosities, presented as arrays of objects. In different conditions, the required calculation was doubling, quadrupling, or increasing by a fractional factor (2.5). In all conditions, participants were able to represent the outcome of the transformation at above-chance levels, even on the earliest training trials. Their performance could not be explained by processes of repeated addition, and it showed the critical ratio signature of the ANS. These findings provide evidence for an untrained, intuitive process of calculating multiplicative numerical relationships, providing a further foundation for formal arithmetic instruction. PMID:20537618

  13. Subcritical multiplication determination studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, G.P.; Goulding, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    A series of measurements and improvements to computational techniques are in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory that are aimed at better understanding the determination of the reactivity of subcritical systems from measurements of the apparent multiplication of the system. Such studies are being performed in order to improve the special nuclear material (SNM) assays of unknown systems such as those encountered in SNM safeguards, arms-control verification, imports of foreign-generated SNM, etc. Improved techniques and understanding are needed since measured multiplication is not always an invariant characteristic of a subcritical system, especially if one has a system with no significant intrinsic internal neutron source that is illuminated nonuniformly with an external source (i.e., a non-normal mode system).

  14. Physiotherapy in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łuszczyńska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, progressive, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. 2.5 million people are affected by MS worldwide; in Poland, the number of patients is approximately 40,000. Patients with multiple sclerosis suffer from a number of symptoms associated with this disease. Aim of the research: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy in MS. Material and methods : The study enrolled 25 MS patients aged 27–72 years (including 16 females and 9 males, undergoing 6-week rehabilitation. They were examined twice: before and after rehabilitation. The study used two questionnaires created by the author. Evaluation of the clinical status and disease severity was based on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scales (EDSS, the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29. The results were analysed with Student’s t-test and the chi-square (χ 2 test. Results : Statistical analysis showed significant (the level of significance was 0.05 progress in the functional status of the patients after physiotherapy, as evidenced by improved results with respect to the motor efficiency in the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, the functional assessment in the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL Scale, and the influence of MS on patients’ daily life in the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29 seen in the majority of the patients, which confirms a positive impact of the therapy. Conclusions: In the study group, comprehensive rehabilitation had a beneficial influence on the improvement of functional status and the level of motor ability. Physiotherapy turned out to be an extremely effective form of symptomatic treatment of MS patients.

  15. Lipedema with multiple lipomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, Anabella; Lynch, Peter J

    2010-09-15

    Lipedema is an underdiagnosed syndrome of unclear etiology, characterized by symmetric painful enlargement of the buttocks and lower extremities, which spares the feet. This enlargement is caused by the deposition of adipose tissue. It was first described by Allen and Hines in 1940, who observed that it had a female predilection; patients commonly had an associated family history. We describe a patient with classic lipedema and multiple lipomas of her arms and trunk.

  16. Les tables de multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Etienne

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Ah ! les tables de multiplication de notre enfance, quels mauvais souvenirs ! (en ce qui me concerne, c'est la table de 7 qui m'a posé des problèmes). Elles nous narguaient sur le dos des cahiers de brouillon... Y aurait-il encore aujourd'hui des mathématiciens qui tenteraient d'en simplifier l'usage ?

  17. Multiple lymphatic cervical cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.; Piotrowski, S.; Zalewska-Rzezniczak, I.

    1994-01-01

    Authors described a case of 60 year-old woman with multiple lateral neck cysts. 4 cysts were located in the supraclavicular region of lateral neck triangle. During histopathological studies of postoperative specimens a cystic hygroma diagnosis was established. The fact, that cystic lymphangioma occurred in an adult woman, was interesting. The authors stress the necessity of preoperative evaluation of tumor size in view of the possibility of its penetration into the thorax. The CT examination may be useful in these cases. (author)

  18. Summarizing multiple deprivation indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Cappellari, Lorenzo; Jenkins, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Deprivation scales derived from multiple, typically dichotomous, indicators, are widely used to monitor households’ standards of living, and to complement measures of living standards based on income. We use an item response modelling (IRM) framework to address several issues concerning the derivation of deprivation scales in general and the use of sum-score deprivation indices in particular. Although we favour the IRM approach over the sum-score one in principle, we find in an illustrative...

  19. Cognition in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sumowski, James F.; Benedict, Ralph; Enzinger, Christian; Filippi, Massimo; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hulst, Hanneke; Inglese, Matilde; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Rocca, Maria A.; Rosti-Otajarvi, Eija M.; Rao, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive decline is recognized as a prevalent and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially deficits in episodic memory and processing speed. The field aims to (1) incorporate cognitive assessment into standard clinical care and clinical trials, (2) utilize state-of-the-art neuroimaging to more thoroughly understand neural bases of cognitive deficits, and (3) develop effective, evidence-based, clinically feasible interventions to prevent or treat cognitive dysfunction, whic...

  20. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  1. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  2. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  3. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mia Topsøe; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2017-01-01

    on the database PubMed. The study found no change in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination against hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza, measles-mumps-rubella, variola, tetanus, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), polio, or diphtheria. No change in risk of relapse...... was found for influenza. Further research is needed for the potential therapeutic use of the BCG vaccine in patients in risk of developing MS and for the preventive potential of the tetanus and diphtheria vaccine....

  4. Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2013-01-01

    In this article we discuss how ANT has been translated into tourism research and show how it has impacted the field by presenting three concepts integral to the ANT approach: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. We first introduce ANT and draw attention to current ANT studies in tourism......, followed by a discussion of how newer approaches within post-ANT urge us to face the ontological politics, which we engage in when performing tourism research. In conclusion we argue that ANT enables a radical new way at looking at tourism, tourism destinations and objects and investigations...

  5. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to

  6. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reports of symptoms from various organ systems attributed by the individuals to exposure to common odors and airborne chemicals in doses far below those known to induce toxic effects. There exists a general lack of knowledge...... controls at baseline, immediately after and four hours after a controlled chemical (n-butanol) exposure, in an exposure chamber previously verified to induce symptom elicitation in MCS subjects. In manuscript III, mucosal lining fluid samples were collected and levels of 19 cytokines and chemokines were...

  7. Strategizing in multiple ways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2013-01-01

    and the same strategy. The paper focusses on such processes as they develop in a Danish service company. It is done on the basis of an empirical and longitudinal study of a strategy process in the Service Company where the strategic purpose was to implement value-based management. The theme to be developed......Strategy processes are kinds of wayfaring where different actors interpret a formally defined strat-egy differently. In the everyday practice of organizations strategizing takes place in multiple ways through narratives and sensible actions. This forms a meshwork of polyphonic ways to enact one...

  8. Networks amid multiple logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Bjerregaard, Toke

    The present study investigates how a high-tech-small-firm (HTSF) can carry out an inter-organizational search of actors located at universities. Responding to calls to study how firms navigate multiple institutional norms, this research examines the different strategies used by a HTSF to balance...... adopted academic norm-sets, commercial imperatives and formal regulations to support formation of networks and collaborations with universities. The findings show how the significance of weak and strong ties for the formation of collaborations and networks with universities is relative...

  9. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, J. L.; Topsøe Mailand, M.

    2017-01-01

    An association between certain vaccinations and onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been debated. Based on PubMed, we made a thorough literature review and included all relevant studies, 51 on MS and 15 on optic neuritis (ON). Case studies were excluded. With the exception of a live...... vaccine against yellow fever, vaccinations appear safe in untreated patients with MS and ON. However, most studies were underpowered, and small risks cannot be excluded. One study of BCG vaccination after the first demyelinating event showed even a reduced risk of developing MS. Further studies are needed...

  10. Sloppy Addition and Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    Sometimes reducing the precision of a numerical processor, by introducing errors, can lead to significant performance (delay, area and power dissipation) improvements without compromising the overall quality of the processing. In this work, we show how to perform the two basic operations, additio...... and multiplication, in an imprecise manner by simplifying the hardware implementation. With the proposed ”sloppy” operations, we obtain a reduction in delay, area and power dissipation, and the error introduced is still acceptable for applications such as image processing....

  11. Writing on Multiple Journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Sarah; Pullen, Ann Ellis

    2012-01-01

    In their beautifully researched study and critical edition, Nellie Arnott’s Writings on Angola, 1905–1913: Missionary Narratives Linking Africa and America (Parlor Press), authors Sarah Robbins and Ann Ellis Pullen examine in fine detail the historical record of the transnational network of literary work produced by Arnott. Tracing her legacy in the study’s third chapter, “Writing on Multiple Journeys,” the authors argue on behalf of Arnott’s capacity to create authority and celebrity as well...

  12. Multiple constant multiplication optimizations for field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kumm, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work covers field programmable gate array (FPGA)-specific optimizations of circuits computing the multiplication of a variable by several constants, commonly denoted as multiple constant multiplication (MCM). These optimizations focus on low resource usage but high performance. They comprise the use of fast carry-chains in adder-based constant multiplications including ternary (3-input) adders as well as the integration of look-up table-based constant multipliers and embedded multipliers to get the optimal mapping to modern FPGAs. The proposed methods can be used for the efficient implementation of digital filters, discrete transforms and many other circuits in the domain of digital signal processing, communication and image processing. Contents Heuristic and ILP-Based Optimal Solutions for the Pipelined Multiple Constant Multiplication Problem Methods to Integrate Embedded Multipliers, LUT-Based Constant Multipliers and Ternary (3-Input) Adders An Optimized Multiple Constant Multiplication Architecture ...

  13. Quantum Interference of Multiple Beams Induced by Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, N. Asger; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging.......We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging....

  14. Multiple Representations of Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviera, Jessica; Weglarz, Meredith; Vesenka, James

    2009-10-01

    For many students the concept of buoyancy falls under a category that can be loosely described as ``knowing it when they see it.'' Unfortunately some of the misconceptions this generates are that ``objects float because they are light'' and ``objects float because they are full of air'' [1]. Those these can some times be true, these descriptions are vague at best, and frequently can be wrong. Part of these misconceptions may stem from incomplete immersion of the object in the fluid and the vector nature of forces. We describe a demonstration/lab activity to help students make sense about relationship between the tension on and weight of an object immersed in water. The activity is in rich in multiple representations, graphical, diagrammatical as well as mathematical. A simple four question multiple choice pre/post test survey has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the lab activity.[4pt] [1] Bruce Harlan ``Diving Science'', www.stmatthewsschool.com/deep/pdfs/Diving%20Science.pdf

  15. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-05-14

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ≥80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC ≥ 10% and/or M protein level ≥ 30 g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include the level of M protein and the percentage of BMPC, the proportion of immunophenotypically aberrant plasma cells, and the presence of immunoparesis, free light-chain (FLC ratio, peripheral blood plasma cells (PBPC, pattern of serum M protein evolution, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, cytogenetic abnormalities, IgA isotype, and Bence Jones proteinuria. So far treatment is still not recommended for SMM, because several trials suggested that patients with SMM do not benefit from early treatment. However, the Mateos et al. trial showed a survival benefit after early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with high-risk SMM. This trial has prompted a reevaluation of early treatment in an asymptomatic patient population.

  17. [Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Óscar; Arroyo-González, Rafael; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; García-Merino, Juan A; Comabella, Manuel; Villar, Luisa M; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Tintoré, Mar; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Meca-Lallana, José E; Prieto, José M; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Martínez-Yélamos, Sergio; Montalban, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent disabling neurological disease in young adults. Its development includes independent processes of inflammation, demyelination, neurodegeneration, gliosis and repair, which are responsible for the heterogeneity and individual variability in the expression of the disease, its prognosis and response to treatment. As part of personalised medicine, the progress made in the search for new biomarkers has identified promising candidates that may be useful for the early diagnosis of the disease, for detecting prognostic and developmental profiles of the disease, and for monitoring the response to treatment. Unfortunately, few of them have been validated adequately, which prevents them from being applied in clinical practice. In view of the latest findings, the experts recommend orienting research in another direction, not so much towards the discovery of new molecules or imaging techniques, but instead towards a clinical validation of these markers, with the aim of fostering translational research. This review offers an update on the information about the biomarkers in multiple sclerosis that have currently been validated and are thus potential candidates, as well as looking at their value in the diagnosis, prognosis, evaluation of the development of the disability caused by the disease and the response to therapy.

  18. Multiple symbol differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  19. Multiply with MI: Using Multiple Intelligences To Master Multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jody Kenny; Johnson, Aostre N.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how to use Gardner's Multiple Intelligence theory to help students' master multiplication. Focuses on helping children use their different intelligence strength to attain conceptual understanding of multiplication, develop their own thinking strategies for harder facts, and build mastery through practice and problem solving. (KHR)

  20. Should "Multiple Imputations" Be Treated as "Multiple Indicators"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple imputations for latent variables are constructed so that analyses treating them as true variables have the correct expectations for population characteristics. Analyzing multiple imputations in accordance with their construction yields correct estimates of population characteristics, whereas analyzing them as multiple indicators generally…

  1. The Tail-Elicited Tail Withdrawal Reflex of "Aplysia" Is Mediated Centrally at Tail Sensory-Motor Synapses and Exhibits Sensitization across Multiple Temporal Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Gary T.; Sherff, Carolyn M.; Menges, Steven A.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The defensive withdrawal reflexes of "Aplysia californica" have provided powerful behavioral systems for studying the cellular and molecular basis of memory formation. Among these reflexes the (T-TWR) has been especially useful. In vitro studies examining the monosynaptic circuit for the T-TWR, the tail sensory-motor (SN-MN) synapses, have…

  2. Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis URL of this page: https://medlineplus. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing ...

  3. Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Piercing and Tattoos URL of this page: https://medlineplus. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages To use the sharing ...

  4. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Demyelinating disease ( CNS) http://n.neurology.org//cgi/collection/all_demyelinating_disease_cns Multiple sclerosis http://n.neurology.org//cgi/collection/multiple_sclerosis Information about reproducing this article ...

  5. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000399.htm Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed ...

  6. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Council: nationalMSsociety.org/African- AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...

  7. Multiple Intelligences and quotient spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Mike; Quintana, Yamilet

    2006-01-01

    The Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) is one of the models that study and describe the cognitive abilities of an individual. In [7] is presented a referential system which allows to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the students of a course and to classify the level of development of such Intelligences. Following this tendency, the purpose of this paper is to describe the model of Multiple Intelligences as a quotient space, and also to study the Multiple Intelligences of an individual in...

  8. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    “modernities” over the last 10 years, this paper wishes to address the analytical usefulness of this conceptual development. What is it about these concepts that make them useful as we try to capture the World today? Rather than providing any substantial definitions as to what those modernities are about (or...... what they are not about), anthropologists have used ethnographies to demonstrate how modernities are lived and constructed differently in different cultural contexts. To a very large extent, anthropologists intend these multiple modernities to refer to the interplay between local and global...... configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose...

  9. Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    This chapter deals with the multiple linear regression. That is we investigate the situation where the mean of a variable depends linearly on a set of covariables. The noise is supposed to be gaussian. We develop the least squared method to get the parameter estimators and estimates of their precisions. This leads to design confidence intervals, prediction intervals, global tests, individual tests and more generally tests of submodels defined by linear constraints. Methods for model's choice and variables selection, measures of the quality of the fit, residuals study, diagnostic methods are presented. Finally identification of departures from the model's assumptions and the way to deal with these problems are addressed. A real data set is used to illustrate the methodology with software R. Note that this chapter is intended to serve as a guide for other regression methods, like logistic regression or AFT models and Cox regression.

  10. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  11. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  12. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  13. On Multiple Appearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    reduction and epoché to focus on how dancing bodies appear in a stage context. To test these tools’ ability to explore dancing bodies from a third-person perspective, I analyse the Danish choreographer Kitt Johnson’s solo performance Drift (2011) - focussing on her shifting physical appearance. While...... phenomenology helps me to describe the multiple and radically different guises that Johnson assumes in her piece, my analysis, ultimately, does not aim to distil a truer, more real being from her appearances as is often the case in phenomenological philosophy. I complement my analytical approach...... with the Deleuzian notion of becoming animal and suggest that Johnson stages what could, in Judith Butler’s terms, be called a critical contingency of bodily appearance....

  14. Multiple intratesticular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Min; Hwang, Dae Sung; Lee, Jung Woo; Chon, Won Hee; Park, Nam Cheol; Park, Hyun Jun

    2013-04-01

    Intratesticular cysts, once thought to be a rarity, are now being reported with an increasing prevalence as a result of the wider use of scrotal ultrasound scanning. Despite greater understanding of intratesticular cysts, their management remains unclear. Treatment has included enucleation and even radical orchiectomy over fear of the possibility of an associated malignancy. A more conservative approach with serial ultrasound scanning has been advocated if a clear distinction can be made between neoplastic and non-neoplastic testicular cysts. However, in view of the benign nature of such cysts, even repeated ultrasound scanning may not be necessary and may be considered over-treatment. In this study we present clinical and morphological characteristics of multiple cysts in the right testicle in a 62-year-old patient, where a slightly nodular lesion in the right testicle was detected.

  15. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  16. Multiple sclerosis and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Pavisian, Bennis

    2017-06-01

    Mortality rates are elevated in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) relative to the general population. There is, however, some uncertainty whether suicide contributes to this. Epidemiological data suggest that the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide in MS is approximately twice that of the general population with younger males in the first few years following diagnosis most at risk. Rates of suicidal intent, a potential harbinger of more self-destructive behavior, are also elevated, but the frequency with which intent is followed by suicide is not known. Depression, severity of depression, social isolation, and alcohol abuse are associated with thoughts of suicide. The variables linked with suicide and suicidal intent are therefore well defined and should be readily available from routine clinical inquiry. While vigilance on the part of clinicians is required, particularly in the context of high-risk patients, it is also recognized that prevention is dependent on full disclosure of intent.

  17. Media and Multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years continental Europe has experienced a resurgence of right-wing party politics, nationalism and xenophobia. In this nationalist revival the media and advanced communications technologies have played a significant role, as evidenced by the debates following cases...... such as the Danish cartoon controversy, and Dutch politician Geert Wilders’s film, Fitna. Simultaneously, however, the media is more diverse and rhizomatic than ever and offers potential for cosmopolitanism, transnational ethical relations as well as radical anti-racist and anti-fascist interventions. This article...... explores the tensions within the relation between journalistic practice and the construction of the idea of the nation and the multiplicity of media and cultures which inhabit the spheres of journalism and nation....

  18. Multiple passage cells theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the main concepts envolved in non astigmatic multiple passes cells is presented. It is shown that these concepts can be extended to ring cavities in which the analysis of the ray propagation (in the paraxial approaching) in two separated plans is accomplished. The concepts developed are applyed to a simple ring cavity (one curve mirror and two plane ones) showing that the acquired pattern of the rays on the mirrors is the one of a Lissajours figure which allows a better use of the mirror's area and consequently a larger number of passes. The cavity has applications in optical delay lines, measurements of mirrors reflectivities and possibly in passive optical gyroscopes. (Author) [pt

  19. Multiple-port valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doody, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable with one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitting into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits

  20. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  1. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  2. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  3. Multiple cystic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Angélica Ferreira Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt–Hogg–Dubé; other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management.

  4. Writing on Multiple Journeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Robbins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In their beautifully researched study and critical edition, Nellie Arnott’s Writings on Angola, 1905–1913: Missionary Narratives Linking Africa and America (Parlor Press, authors Sarah Robbins and Ann Ellis Pullen examine in fine detail the historical record of the transnational network of literary work produced by Arnott. Tracing her legacy in the study’s third chapter, “Writing on Multiple Journeys,” the authors argue on behalf of Arnott’s capacity to create authority and celebrity as well as a sense of community among her distant readers, underscoring the powerful and influential role that missionary women’s writing (mimicking to some extent the popular genre of travel writing played in shaping attitudes at home, not only with regard to race, but also in relation to women’s roles, place, and purpose. Robbins and Pullen display a conscientious resolve not to obscure the inherent contradictions in Arnott’s changing perspectives as they offer a historical narrative based on Arnott’s public and private texts, which also reveal the “consistent inconsistency” in her attitudes and beliefs. Details of and insights into educational practices in missionary schools, including the observation that mothers in the US appreciated the fact that their middle-class Christian children were sharing curriculum with Umbundu children in Angola, invite interesting conclusions about the transnational, transgenerational, and gendered effects of women’s work in the missionary world.

  5. Cognition in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph; Enzinger, Christian; Filippi, Massimo; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hulst, Hanneke; Inglese, Matilde; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Rocca, Maria A.; Rosti-Otajarvi, Eija M.; Rao, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive decline is recognized as a prevalent and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially deficits in episodic memory and processing speed. The field aims to (1) incorporate cognitive assessment into standard clinical care and clinical trials, (2) utilize state-of-the-art neuroimaging to more thoroughly understand neural bases of cognitive deficits, and (3) develop effective, evidence-based, clinically feasible interventions to prevent or treat cognitive dysfunction, which are lacking. There are obstacles to these goals. Our group of MS researchers and clinicians with varied expertise took stock of the current state of the field, and we identify several important practical and theoretical challenges, including key knowledge gaps and methodologic limitations related to (1) understanding and measurement of cognitive deficits, (2) neuroimaging of neural bases and correlates of deficits, and (3) development of effective treatments. This is not a comprehensive review of the extensive literature, but instead a statement of guidelines and priorities for the field. For instance, we provide recommendations for improving the scientific basis and methodologic rigor for cognitive rehabilitation research. Toward this end, we call for multidisciplinary collaborations toward development of biologically based theoretical models of cognition capable of empirical validation and evidence-based refinement, providing the scientific context for effective treatment discovery. PMID:29343470

  6. Multiple exostotic hypochondroplasia: Syndrome of combined hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Young, L.W.; Girdany, B.R.; Steele, M.W.

    1984-07-01

    This is a report of a family with major focus on the daughter who had short stature. The mother had hypochondroplasia and the father had multiple exostoses. The daughter's skeletal roentgenograms show features of both hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses. The roentgenographic, clinical and genetic aspects of these skeletal dysplasias are reviewed and hypochrondroplasia is contrasted with achondroplasia. The genetic and counseling implications of the association of hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses are discussed.

  7. Laquinimod for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Han, Kai; Gao, Xiangdong; Dong, Shuai; Chu, Lan; Feng, ZhanHui; Wu, Shan

    2013-08-06

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated, inflammatory, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, and it causes major socioeconomic burden for the individual patient and for society. An inflammatory pathology occurs during the early relapsing stage of MS and a neurodegenerative pathology dominates the later progressive stage of the disease. Not all MS patients respond adequately to currently available disease-modifying drugs (DMDs). Alternative MS treatments with new modes of action are required to expand the current options for disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and to aim for freedom from relapses, inflammatory lesions, disability progression and neurodegeneration. Laquinimod has dual properties of immunomodulation and neuroprotection and is a potentially promising new oral DMD in the treatment of relapsing MS. To assess the effectiveness and safety profile of laquinimod as monotherapy or combination therapy versus placebo or approved DMDs (interferon-β, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate) for modifying the disease course in patients with MS. The Review Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the Central Nervous System Group Specialised Register which, among other sources, contains trials from CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PEDro and Clinical trials registries (29 April 2013). We checked references in identified trials and manually searched the reports (2004 to March 2013) from neurological associations and MS societies. We also communicated with researchers participating in trials on laquinimod and contacted Teva Pharmaceutical Industries. All randomised, double-blind, controlled, parallel group clinical trials (RCTs) with a length of follow-up of at least one year evaluating laquinimod, as monotherapy or combination therapy, versus placebo or approved DMDs for

  8. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  9. Multiple intelligences in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castro Solano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During many years has prevailed the idea of intelligence as a single problem solving ability (factor g considered the best predictor of student’s academic achievement. Recently, researches have begun to take an alternative view of the problem, understanding it is a multidimensional construct. Multiple intelligences (MI theory proposed by Gardner (1983 takes into account seven talents or skills individuals appear to have in certain amount. These latent bio-psychological potentials are stable and they are mantained through life. Theory of MI proposes that every person learns in relation to them. MI theory has many educational applications, however, very few efforts have been made to verify such statements. The main goal of this study is to analyze the IM differential individual profile of high school and university students studying the relation between IM, academic achievement and self efficacy competence on course performance. Two studies were carried out , the first was done with high school students (N=500 and the second with military students (N=362. Based on Armstrong’s proposals to assess IM, an inventory was designed. Main results point out that there is a correspondence between academic attainment, self interest and self perception of competence in different courses students take. MI are good predictors of academic achievement considering specific areas but they don’t provide a better estimation compared to traditional assessment instruments. Students who have failed in school were those with more spatial and corporal abilities, usually relegated by traditional instruction. High achievers were those with more logical and intrapersonal skills. Different relations were found for military students. For these latter students IM theory was not a valuable predictor of successful academic attainment. 

  10. Teriflunomide for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Yifan; Dai, Qingqing; Li, Yuan; Chu, Lan

    2016-03-22

    This is an update of the Cochrane review "Teriflunomide for multiple sclerosis" (first published in The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12).Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. It is clinically characterized by recurrent relapses or progression, or both, often leading to severe neurological disability and a serious decline in quality of life. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for MS aim to prevent occurrence of relapses and disability progression. Teriflunomide is a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as a DMT for adults with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). To assess the absolute and comparative effectiveness and safety of teriflunomide as monotherapy or combination therapy versus placebo or other disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) (interferon beta (IFNβ), glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, alemtuzumab) for modifying the disease course in people with MS. We searched the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the CNS Group Specialised Trials Register (30 September 2015). We checked reference lists of published reviews and retrieved articles and searched reports (2004 to September 2015) from the MS societies in Europe and America. We also communicated with investigators participating in trials of teriflunomide and the pharmaceutical company, Sanofi-Aventis. We included randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trials with a length of follow-up of one year or greater evaluating teriflunomide, as monotherapy or combination therapy, versus placebo or other approved DMDs for people with MS without restrictions regarding dose, administration frequency and duration of treatment. We used the standard methodological procedures of Cochrane. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Disagreements were discussed and resolved by consensus among

  11. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique......To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case–control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980–2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry...

  12. Exciton multiplication from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Heather M; Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2013-06-18

    Third-generation photovolatics require demanding cost and power conversion efficiency standards, which may be achieved through efficient exciton multiplication. Therefore, generating more than one electron-hole pair from the absorption of a single photon has vast ramifications on solar power conversion technology. Unlike their bulk counterparts, irradiated semiconductor quantum dots exhibit efficient exciton multiplication, due to confinement-enhanced Coulomb interactions and slower nonradiative losses. The exact characterization of the complicated photoexcited processes within quantum-dot photovoltaics is a work in progress. In this Account, we focus on the photophysics of nanocrystals and investigate three constituent processes of exciton multiplication, including photoexcitation, phonon-induced dephasing, and impact ionization. We quantify the role of each process in exciton multiplication through ab initio computation and analysis of many-electron wave functions. The probability of observing a multiple exciton in a photoexcited state is proportional to the magnitude of electron correlation, where correlated electrons can be simultaneously promoted across the band gap. Energies of multiple excitons are determined directly from the excited state wave functions, defining the threshold for multiple exciton generation. This threshold is strongly perturbed in the presence of surface defects, dopants, and ionization. Within a few femtoseconds following photoexcitation, the quantum state loses coherence through interactions with the vibrating atomic lattice. The phase relationship between single excitons and multiple excitons dissipates first, followed by multiple exciton fission. Single excitons are coupled to multiple excitons through Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions, and as a consequence, single excitons convert to multiple excitons and vice versa. Here, exciton multiplication depends on the initial energy and coupling magnitude and competes with electron

  13. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2017-12-22

    A resonant multiple is defined as a multiple reflection that revisits the same subsurface location along coincident reflection raypaths. We show that resonant first-order multiples can be migrated with either Kirchhoff or wave-equation migration methods to give images with approximately twice the spatial resolution compared to post-stack primary-reflection images. A moveout-correction stacking method is proposed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the resonant multiples before superresolution migration. The effectiveness of this procedure is validated by synthetic and field data tests.

  14. Multiplicative Thinking: Much More than Knowing Multiplication Facts and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is accepted as a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins important mathematical concepts such as fraction understanding, proportional reasoning, and algebraic thinking. It is characterised by understandings such as the multiplicative relationship between places in the number system, basic and extended number…

  15. Multiple purpose electrical profit; Emprendimiento electrico de prestacion multiple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assennato, H. [Electrica de Azul Ltda., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1986-12-31

    This paper shows the multiple purpose aspects of electrification projects in rural and isolated areas. The multiple aspects involved in the electrification process may include, over electric power supply: improvement of life quality, irrigation and rural mechanization. 4 figs., 6 tabs., 4 refs.

  16. Multiple sclerosis associated with trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, D. F.; Vania, A. K.; Millac, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the case history of a middle-aged lady who presented with symptoms and signs over one year leading to a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. During one of her relapses, she developed trismus--an association that has not been described before in multiple sclerosis. PMID:2099430

  17. Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Traumatic Brain Injury URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Traumatic Brain Injury - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  19. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from...

  20. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  1. [Peculiarities of multiple pregnancy: embryology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, B; Oleszczuk, J J; Machin, G A; Sawulicka-Oleszczuk, H; Kiczyńska, A; Keith, L G

    2000-11-01

    Multiple pregnancies are not physiologic in humans and the understanding of the pathogenesis of this phenomenon is not fully established. Embriology of multiple pregnancy has been extensively investigated and this paper presents the phases of embrional development of monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

  2. More Popsicle-Stick Multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkels, Andrejs

    1982-01-01

    A way to use tongue depressors in a model of multiplication is presented. The original intent was to use the sticks to teach about fractions, but "mistakes" in student responses led to new ideas. It is felt that teachers should use the model in teaching multiplication. (MP)

  3. Superinfection exclusion in alphabaculovirus infections is concomitant with actin reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beperet, Inés; Irons, Sarah L; Simón, Oihane; King, Linda A; Williams, Trevor; Possee, Robert D; López-Ferber, Miguel; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-03-01

    Superinfection exclusion is the ability of an established virus to interfere with a second virus infection. This effect was studied in vitro during lepidopteran-specific nucleopolyhedrovirus (genus Alphabaculovirus, family Baculoviridae) infection. Homologous interference was detected in Sf9 cells sequentially infected with two genotypes of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), each one expressing a different fluorescent protein. This was a progressive process in which a sharp decrease in the signs of infection caused by the second virus was observed, affecting not only the number of coinfected cells observed, but also the level of protein expression due to the second virus infection. Superinfection exclusion was concurrent with reorganization of cytoplasmic actin to F-actin in the nucleus, followed by budded virus production (16 to 20 h postinfection). Disruption of actin filaments by cell treatment with cytochalasin D resulted in a successful second infection. Protection against heterologous nucleopolyhedrovirus infection was also demonstrated, as productive infection of Sf9 cells by Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) was inhibited by prior infection with AcMNPV, and vice versa. Finally, coinfected cells were observed following inoculation with mixtures of these two phylogenetically distant nucleopolyhedroviruses--AcMNPV and SfMNPV--but at a frequency lower than predicted, suggesting interspecific virus interference during infection or replication. The temporal window of infection is likely necessary to maintain genotypic diversity that favors virus survival but also permits dual infection by heterospecific alphabaculoviruses. Infection of a cell by more than one virus particle implies sharing of cell resources. We show that multiple infection, by closely related or distantly related baculoviruses, is possible only during a brief window of time that allows additional virus particles to enter an infected cell over a period

  4. Beyond KNO multiplicative cascades and novel multiplicity scaling laws

    CERN Document Server

    Hegyi, S

    1999-01-01

    The collapse of multiplicity distributions P/sub n/ onto a universal scaling curve arises when P/sub n/ is expressed as a function of the standardized multiplicity (n-c)/ lambda with c and lambda being location and scale parameters governed by leading particle effects and the growth of average multiplicity. It is demonstrated that self- similar multiplicative cascade processes such as QCD parton branching naturally lead to a novel type of scaling behavior of P/sub n/ which manifests itself in Mellin space through a location change controlled by the degree of multifractality and a scale change governed by the depth of the cascade. Applying the new scaling rule it is shown how to restore data collapsing behavior of P/sub n/ measured in hh collisions at ISR and SPS energies. (21 refs).

  5. Neutron multiplicity recordings during GLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduard, Vashenyuk; Leonid, Schur; Balabin, Yuri; Gvozdevsky, Boris

    A neutron multiplicity can give the information on a spectrum of primary solar protons and its variations during ground level enhancements (GLE). Such rare events are detected by ground based neutron monitors. With the help of the multiplicity recorder designed in PGI the variations of multiplicities during the GLE of December 13, 2006 on the neutron monitor in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen) have been studied. The neutron monitor in Barentsburg (18-NM-64) was put into operation on April, 2003. The recently developed data acquisition system is based on a PC equipped with two extension cards. One of them is ADLINK PCI-7233H, which is a high-speed 32-channel digital input card. The other is ADLINK PCI-8554, 12-channel counter/timer card. The specially written collecting program runs continuously. It captures the data registered by the two cards and stores the data to the hard disk. The PCI-7233H card registers pulses from all 18 channels of the neutron monitor and intervals between them. PCI-8554 card counts pulses from atmospheric pressure and temperature sensors. On the basis of this device the multiplicity recorder is realized to register the count rates on multiplicities (2-10). During the GLE on 13 December, 2006 significant increase of the count rates of multiplicities from 2 up to 5 was detected. The multiplicity spectrum changes are compared with the solar proton spectrum dynamics during event. The spectra of relativistic solar protons were derived by modeling technique from the worldwide neutron monitor network.

  6. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Optic neuropathy in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Simona; Pascu, Ruxandra; Panea, Cristina; Voinea, Liliana; Badarau, Anca; Nanea, Mariana; Romanitan, Oana; Ciuluvica, R

    2008-01-01

    The inflammation of the optic nerve called optic neuropathy could be an onset marker of multiple sclerosis. The authors review the place of optic neuropathy (neuritis) in the inflammatory demyelinating disease continuum, especially as the onset symptom of multiple sclerosis. We present the clinical symptoms, the aetiology of optic neuritis and the adjacent methods used to investigate optic neuritis. In the article are presented the actual criteria used to establish the multiple sclerosis diagnosis and the revised criteria for optic neuromyelitis, with emphasis on the differential diagnosis between these diseases.

  8. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  9. Multiplicative updates for the LASSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2007-01-01

    .e. least squares minimization with $L_1$-norm regularization, since the multiplicative updates (MU) can efficiently exploit the structure of the problem traditionally solved using quadratic programming (QP). We derive an algorithm based on MU for the LASSO and compare the performance to Matlabs standard QP......Multiplicative updates have proven useful for non-negativity constrained optimization. Presently, we demonstrate how multiplicative updates also can be used for unconstrained optimization. This is for instance useful when estimating the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), i...

  10. On very high multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkovskij, L.L.; Struminskij, B.V.

    2002-01-01

    We show within a geometrical model developed in earlier papers that multiplicity distributions are cut off at large multiplicities. The sharpness of this cut-off is related to the sharpness (narrowness) of the assumed impact-parameter distribution of the multiplicities. The position and motion of the cut-off point are related to geometrical and KNO scaling and their violation, in particular, by the rise of the ratio σ el /σ t . At the LHC energies a change of the regime, connected with the transition from shadowing to antishadowing, is expected

  11. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social

  12. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  13. Multiple myeloma: Looking beyond standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Kaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma has been regarded as an incurable disease with frequent relapses. The diagnostic criteria have been revised multiple times to include early stage of the disease where treatment can be effective and can prolong the survival. Newer diagnostic criteria for myeloma have incorporated ≥60% plasma cells in the bone marrow and serum free light chain ratio (involved to uninvolved free light chains of ≥100. The role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans has been recognized, and it has been increasingly utilized upfront in the management of multiple myeloma. Role of minimal residual disease monitoring has been studied in multiple trials and will in near future guide the treatment. Autologous stem cell transplant is still the preferred consolidation therapy after initial three or four drug induction. With the use of novel drugs combinations and with emerging treatment options the standard of care of myeloma patients will change.

  14. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrick, M.

    1985-05-13

    This paper reviews the data on multiplicities in high energy interactions. Results from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, from neutrino interactions, and from hadronic collisions, both diffractive and nondiffractive, are compared and contrasted. The energy dependence of the mean charged multiplicity, , as well as the rapidity density at Y = 0 are presented. For hadronic collisions, the data on neutral pion production shows a strong correlation with . The heavy particle fractions increase with ..sqrt..s up to the highest energies. The charged particle multiplicity distributions for each type of reaction show a scaling behavior when expressed in terms of the mean. Attempts to understand this behavior, which was first predicted by Koba, Nielsen, and Olesen, are discussed. The multiplicity correlations and the energy variation of the shape of the KNO scaling distribution provide important constraints on models. Some extrapolations to the energies of the Superconducting Super Collider are made. 51 refs., 27 figs.

  15. Multiple allergies to metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Eng Tu

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: Metal alloys may induce multiple metal allergies. Patients suspected of having a metal allergy should be patch tested with an extended series of metals. We recommend adding palladium and gold, at least, to the standard series.

  16. Sequential and simultaneous multiple explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Litchfield

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two experiments comparing variants of multiple explanation applied in the early stages of a judgment task (a case involving employee theft where participants are not given a menu of response options. Because prior research has focused on situations where response options are provided to judges, we identify relevant dependent variables that an intervention might affect when such options are not given. We use these variables to build a causal model of intervention that illustrates both the intended effects of multiple explanation and some potentially competing processes that it may trigger. Although multiple explanation clearly conveys some benefits (e.g., willingness to delay action to engage in information search, increased detail, quality and confidence in alternative explanations in the present experiments, we also found evidence that it may initiate or enhance processes that attenuate its advantages (e.g., feelings that one does not need more data if one has multiple good explanations.

  17. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  18. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive...

  19. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  20. Multiple Thymoma with Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Seo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The actual incidence of multiple thymoma is unknown and rarely reported because it remains controversial whether the cases represent a disease of multicentric origin or a disease resulting from intrathymic metastasis. In this case, a patient underwent total thymectomy for multiple thymoma with myasthenia gravis via bilateral video-assisted thoracic surgery. A well-encapsulated multinodular cystic mass, measuring 57 mm×50 mm×22 mm in the right lobe of the thymus, and a well-encapsulated mass, measuring 32 mm×15 mm×14 mm in the left lobe, were found. Both tumors were type B2 thymoma. Few cases of multiple thymoma with myasthenia gravis have ever been reported in the literature. We report a case of synchronous multiple thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis.

  1. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  2. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Case report 383: Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouwenberg, J.J.; Simons, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A unique and obviously extremely rare example of multiple myeloma has been presented, affecting the peripheral appendicular skeleton and not the hematopoietic system of the axial skeleton, radiologically and probably pathologically. Only one other similar case has been described. The radiological features were confirmed by the pathological studies: a biopsy specimen obtained from a large osteolytic lesion in a patella showed the typical stigma of multiple myeloma; a biopsy from the iliac creast showed no abnormality. (orig./SHA)

  4. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma

  5. Case report 383: Multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouwenberg, J.J.; Simons, A.J.

    1986-08-01

    A unique and obviously extremely rare example of multiple myeloma has been presented, affecting the peripheral appendicular skeleton and not the hematopoietic system of the axial skeleton, radiologically and probably pathologically. Only one other similar case has been described. The radiological features were confirmed by the pathological studies: a biopsy specimen obtained from a large osteolytic lesion in a patella showed the typical stigma of multiple myeloma; a biopsy from the iliac creast showed no abnormality. (orig./SHA).

  6. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output OFDM with Index Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Basar, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation (OFDM-IM) is a novel multicarrier transmission technique which has been proposed as an alternative to classical OFDM. The main idea of OFDM-IM is the use of the indices of the active subcarriers in an OFDM system as an additional source of information. In this work, we propose multiple-input multiple-output OFDM-IM (MIMO-OFDM-IM) scheme by combining OFDM-IM and MIMO transmission techniques. The low complexity transceiver structu...

  7. [Multiple myeloma with D immunoglobulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchekroun, Laila; Ouzzif, Zohra; Bouabdillah, Mounya; Jaouhar, Nouzha; Aoufir, Fatiha; Aoufi, Farida; Chabraoui, Layachi

    2011-01-01

    The immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is a rare form of multiple myeloma and affects a young population. It is characterized by its clinical severity and poor prognosis. We report four cases of multiple myeloma immunoglobulin D diagnosed and supported in the university hospital Center of Sale and Rabat-Morocco. We propose to study the epidemiological, clinical and biological characteristics of this rare type of monoclonal gammopathy. Through the observations reported, the clinical aspect of myeloma is characterized by the high frequency of extra-bone manifestations including impaired kidney function. The immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is mainly type λ, the IgD κ is rare, the predominance of λ light chains could be explained by rearrangements at the immunoglobulin genes. Bence-Jones proteinuria is almost constant in the multiple myeloma immunoglobulin D, it is mainly type λ, reflecting excess production of light chains by plasma cells. The marrow is invaded by plasma cells in very different proportions of up to 95%. It's a clinical entity, difficult to diagnose, particularly when low homogeneous band on electrophoresis goes unnoticed for an eye inexperienced or when immune serum anti-IgD was not used during the immunotyping.

  8. Gasdynamic Multiple-Mirror Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beklemishev, Alexei; Anikeev, Andrei; Bagryansky, Peter; Burdakov, Alexander; Gavrilenko, Dmitrii; Ivanov, Alexander; Polosatkin, Sergei; Sinitsky, Stanislav

    2013-10-01

    The new linear device for confinement of fusion plasmas, GDMT, is being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. The facility will combine features of existing GOL-3 and GDT devices: the central GDT-like cell with sloshing NBI ions, and the multiple-mirror plugs for suppression of axial losses. Such combination became feasible due to recent discoveries. In particular, the requirement of flute-mode stability can be relaxed by using vortex confinement, achieved by plasma biasing through open field lines. This allows the use of potentially destabilizing multiple-mirror sections. Another key effect is the enhanced multiple-mirror confinement at low densities, which is due to collective rather than coulomb scattering of ions. Hence the multiple-mirror plugs can work at pressures compatible with magnetic confinement. These two main technologies are supplemented by axial injection of pulsed electron beams. Besides additional plasma heating (like in GOL-3), such injection can be used for induced collective scattering in the multiple-mirror plugs and for plasma biasing. The new device is designed to be superconducting and modular. It will be built in stages, with the first stage, GDMT-T, intended for PMI studies. The work was financially supported by Ministry of Education and Science RF.

  9. Detection of antibodies against porcine parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 may distinguish between vaccinated and infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Eva Smedegaard; Madsen, Knud Gert; Nielsen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    producing recombinant virion protein (rVP2) were used in IPT and ELISA to analyse serum antibodies. Pigs vaccinated with an inactivated whole virus vaccine and experimentally infected pigs were studied. Significant titers against rVP2 were obtained in both vaccinated and infected pigs. Specific antibodies......The humoral antibody response against the nonstructural protein NS1 and the structural protein VP2 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was evaluated by immuno-peroxidase test (IPT) and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant PPV antigens. The coding sequence for NS1 and VP2...... was inserted into the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) genome resulting in two recombinant baculoviruses AcNPV-NS1 and AcNPV-VP2, respectively. Sf9 cells (Spodoptora frugidiperda) inoculated with AcNPV-NS1 producing recombinant nonstructural protein (rNS1) and AcNPV-VP2...

  10. Establishment and characterization of a cell line developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei-Feng; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xian; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2013-02-01

    A new cell line named RIRI-PaDe, developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, was established in modified Grace's medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. The cell line was incubated at 28°C and consisted of attached round and short spindle-like cells. The population doubling time was 55 h. The chromosome numbers varied widely from 24 to 136 with a mode of 59 at the 71st passage. Comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of the cell line and neonate larvae confirmed that the cell line was of P. demoleus origin. This cell line was susceptible to the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus and Apocheima cinerarius nucleopolyhedrovirus.

  11. Host Range Factor 1 from Lymantria dispar Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) Is an Essential Viral Factor Required for Productive Infection of NPVs in IPLB-Ld652Y Cells Derived from L. dispar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroki; Ikeda, Motoko; Felipe Alves, Cristiano A.; Thiem, Suzanne M.; Kobayashi, Michihiro

    2004-01-01

    Host range factor 1 (HRF-1) of Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus promotes Autographa californica MNPV replication in nonpermissive Ld652Y cells derived from L. dispar. Here we demonstrate that restricted Hyphantria cunea NPV replication in Ld652Y cells was not due to apoptosis but was likely due to global protein synthesis arrest that could be restored by HRF-1. Our data also showed that HRF-1 promoted the production of progeny virions for two other baculoviruses, Bombyx mori NPV and Spodoptera exigua MNPV, whose replication in Ld652Y cells is limited to replication of viral DNA without successful production of infectious progeny virions. Thus, HRF-1 is an essential viral factor required for productive infection of NPVs in Ld652Y cells. PMID:15507661

  12. Multiple sclerosis and herpesvirus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and its etiology is believed to have both genetic and environmental components. Several viruses have already been implicated as triggers and there are several studies that implicate members of the Herpesviridae family in the pathogenesis of MS. The most important characteristic of these viruses is that they have periods of latency and exacerbations within their biological sanctuary, the central nervous system. The Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 viruses are the members that are most studied as being possible triggers of multiple sclerosis. According to evidence in the literature, the herpesvirus family is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of this disease, but it is unlikely that they are the only component responsible for its development. There are probably multiple triggers and more studies are necessary to investigate and define these interactions.

  13. Multiple representations in physics education

    CERN Document Server

    Duit, Reinders; Fischer, Hans E

    2017-01-01

    This volume is important because despite various external representations, such as analogies, metaphors, and visualizations being commonly used by physics teachers, educators and researchers, the notion of using the pedagogical functions of multiple representations to support teaching and learning is still a gap in physics education. The research presented in the three sections of the book is introduced by descriptions of various psychological theories that are applied in different ways for designing physics teaching and learning in classroom settings. The following chapters of the book illustrate teaching and learning with respect to applying specific physics multiple representations in different levels of the education system and in different physics topics using analogies and models, different modes, and in reasoning and representational competence. When multiple representations are used in physics for teaching, the expectation is that they should be successful. To ensure this is the case, the implementati...

  14. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1984-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicities in hadronic collision have been measured for all energies up to √s = 540 GeV in the center of mass. Similar measurements in e + e - annihilation cover the much smaller range - up to √s = 40 GeV. Data are also available from deep inelastic neutrino scattering up to √s approx. 10 GeV. The experiments measure the mean charged multiplicity , the rapidity density at y = O, and the distributions in prong number. The mean number of photons associated with the events can be used to measure the π 0 and eta 0 multiplicities. Some information is also available on the charged pion, kaon, and nucleon fractions as well as the K 0 and Λ 0 rates and for the higher energy data, the identically equal fraction. We review this data and consider the implications of extrapolations to SSC energies. 13 references

  15. Multiple Imputation Strategies for Multiple Group Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Craig K.; Gottschall, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Although structural equation modeling software packages use maximum likelihood estimation by default, there are situations where one might prefer to use multiple imputation to handle missing data rather than maximum likelihood estimation (e.g., when incorporating auxiliary variables). The selection of variables is one of the nuances associated…

  16. Multiple-Symbol Detection Of Multiple-Trellis-Coded MDPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad M.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed scheme for detection and decoding of multiple-trellis-coded multilevel differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signals, observation time for differential detection extended from conventional 2 to larger number of symbol periods. Decreases rate of error in differential detection of uncoded MDPSK by increasing number of symbol periods.

  17. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple personality disorder is characterised by splited individual ego-states and splited professional community arguing whether this disorder actually exists or not.Methods. In this case report study a supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy of a patient with multiple personality disorder is presented, that lasted for 4.5 years and resulted in ego-reintegration.Conclusions. The spliting between different ego-states is powered by unneutralised aggression with the possibility of hetero- and autoaggressive behaviour. Therefore the patient in the analytically oriented psychotherapeutic process is at high risk and a safe therapeutic (e. g. in-patient setting has to be provided.

  18. Systematic imaging review: Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Katdare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterised by immune-mediated demyelination, and is a leading cause of neurological disability worldwide. It has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations which overlap with other neurological conditions many times. Further, the radiological array of findings in MS can also be confused for multiple other conditions, leading to the need to look for the more typical findings, and interpret these in close conjunction with the clinical picture including temporal evolution. This review aims to revisit the MRI findings in MS, including recent innovations in imaging, and to help distinguish MS from its mimics.

  19. Management of multiple impacted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An impacted or missing permanent tooth can add significant complications to an otherwise straightforward case. When multiple impacted teeth are present, the case complexity increases further. Developing a treatment sequence, determining appropriate anchorage, and planning and executing sound biomechanics can be a challenge. The following case report illustrates a patient with three retained primary teeth and three impacted permanent canines. After careful treatment planning and extraction of multiple primary teeth;, followed by attempted guided eruption of impacted teeth, the patient finished with a significantly improved functional and aesthetic result.

  20. Multiple Parton Interactions in ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    We will present in detail the measurement of the charged particle multiplicity dependence of per-trigger pair yields in azimuthal direction induced by low-energetic di-jets produced in proton-proton collisions. Using two-particle angular correlations with low transverse momentum thresholds, jet properties are measured on a statistical basis down to the lowest possible jet energies. The analysis can give information about the contribution from multiple parton interactions to particle production. Moreover, the results allow to optimize the parametrization of the jet fragmentation in phenomenological mode...

  1. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  2. Multiple Sclerosis: Can It Cause Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it cause seizures? Is there any connection between multiple sclerosis and epilepsy? Answers from B Mark Keegan, M. ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-sclerosis/expert-answers/multiple-sclerosis/FAQ-20058138 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions ...

  3. Mean associative multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The associative hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic and Drell--Yan processes are studied. In particular the mean multiplicities in different hard processes in QCD are found to be determined by the mean multiplicity in parton jet [ru

  4. Applications of Fast Truncated Multiplication in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Hars

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Truncated multiplications compute truncated products, contiguous subsequences of the digits of integer products. For an n-digit multiplication algorithm of time complexity O(nα, with 1<α≤2, there is a truncated multiplication algorithm, which is constant times faster when computing a short enough truncated product. Applying these fast truncated multiplications, several cryptographic long integer arithmetic algorithms are improved, including integer reciprocals, divisions, Barrett and Montgomery multiplications, 2n-digit modular multiplication on hardware for n-digit half products. For example, Montgomery multiplication is performed in 2.6 Karatsuba multiplication time.

  5. Multiple Partonic Interactions in Herwig++

    OpenAIRE

    Gieseke, Stefan; Rohr, Christian; Siodmok, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We review the implementation of a model for multiple partonic interactions in Herwig++. Moreover, we show how recent studies on the colour structure of events in Herwig++ led to a significant improvement in the description of soft inclusive observables in pp interactions at the LHC.

  6. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Rinck, P.A.; Nilsen, G.; Romslo, I.

    1991-01-01

    In 26 patients with multiple sclerosis 100% responded abnormally to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Lesions in the posterior fossa were observed in 18 patients. The auditory brain stem response was abnormal in 15 patients, and 22 had abnormal immunoglobulins in the cerebrospinal fluid. The correlation between abnormalities of the auditory brain stem response and the magnetic resonance images was greatest in a subgroup where the two investigations were performed within a ten day interval. Results from magnetic resonance imaging, evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid investigations were used to reclassify 13 of 15 patients with clinically ''possible'' or ''probable''multiple sclerosis to a higher level using Poser's criteria. Evoked potentials (the auditory brain stem response in particular) correlated best with clinical multiple sclerosis category. The authors recommend that the magnetic resonance imaging is established as a first-hand investigation in evaluation of multiple sclerosis. Evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid investigations may prove to be more specific, however, and these investigations should also be performed as a routine. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. The STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, M.M.; Badyal, S.K.; Bhaskar, P.; Bhatia, V.S.; Chattopadhyay, S. E-mail: sub@veccal.ernet.in; Das, S.; Datta, R.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Ganti, M.S.; Ghosh, P.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Mangotra, L.K.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Pal, S.K.; Phatak, S.C.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Sahoo, R.; Sharma, A.; Singaraju, R.N.; Sood, G.; Trivedi, M.D.; Varma, R.; Viyogi, Y.P

    2003-03-01

    Details concerning the design, fabrication and performance of STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) are presented. The PMD will cover the forward region, within the pseudorapidity range 2.3-3.5, behind the forward time projection chamber. It will measure the spatial distribution of photons in order to study collective flow, fluctuation and chiral symmetry restoration.

  9. The Multiple-markets Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Only few studies in the field of new new economic sociology deal with a simultaneity of multiple markets in the analysis. One central explanation of this situation is limitations inherent in the new new economic sociology. In this review essay I address such limitations as a way to develop research...

  10. Multiple Literacies Theory: Exploring Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masny, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions of philosophy, art and science to education through the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological usefulness of a Deleuze-Guattarian conceptual framework that informs multiple literacies theory (MLT). Education lends itself to Deleuze's notion of connecting and creating through philosophy, art and…

  11. Empowering Students through Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubado, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences challenges narrow concepts of student talent and ability. This article applies this theory to the challenge of educating students with learning behavior disabilities. Reaching these young people and engaging them in learning can help them understand that intelligence comes in many forms. (Author)

  12. Laryngeal Involvement of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Grobman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to discuss a rare cause of laryngeal multiple myeloma, to review unique pathologic findings associated with plasma cell neoplasms, to discuss epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for plasma cell neoplasms of the larynx. Laryngeal multiple myeloma, also noted in the literature as “metastatic” multiple myeloma, presenting as a de novo laryngeal mass is extremely rare with few reported cases. Laryngeal involvement of extramedullary tumors is reported to be between 6% and 18% with the epiglottis, glottis, false vocal folds, aryepiglottic folds, and subglottis involved in decreasing the order of frequency. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a history of IgA smoldering myeloma who presented to a tertiary care laryngological practice with a two-month history of dysphonia, which was found to be laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma. We review the classification of and differentiation between different plasma cell neoplasms, disease workups, pathologic findings, and treatment options.

  13. Multiplicity distributions in QCD cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, G.

    1992-03-01

    Multiplicity distributions for hadrons and for jets are studied in QCD parton cascades. The colour dipole formalism is used and earlier results in the double log approximation are generalized to include terms which are suppressed by colour factors or factors of ln s. The result is a set of coupled differential equations, together with appropriate boundary conditions

  14. Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

  15. Pocket Guide to Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Linda J.

    Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) suggests that human cognitive competence is best described as a set of abilities, talents, or mental skills. All human beings possess each of these intelligences to some extent, but individuals differ in the levels of development and nature of their combination. The seven intelligences…

  16. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Complex multiplication of abelian surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streng, Theodorus Cornelis

    2010-01-01

    The theory of complex multiplication makes it possible to construct certain class fields and abelian varieties. The main theme of this thesis is making these constructions explicit for the case where the abelian varieties have dimension 2. Chapter I is an introduction to complex

  18. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia (Men) consisting of an unusual combination of an insulin-producing islet cell tumour and an adrenal adenoma is reported. CT clearly demonstrated the adrenal mass whereas the pancreatic lesion remained questionable. Conversely angiography located the pancreatic tumour but the adrenal findings were subtle. (orig.)

  19. Oral treatment for multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killestein, J.; Rudick, R.A.; Polman, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The armamentarium for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is increasing rapidly. Several oral treatments have shown benefit and will generate much interest because of the convenience of such administration. However, availability of convenient oral drugs will

  20. The Quest for Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerechansky-Metzger, Jean A.

    1995-01-01

    This article urges educators to incorporate Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI) into their classrooms to broaden the learning opportunities for all students. MI theory is briefly explained, examples of its application are described, advantages of MI are pointed out, and criticisms of MI are noted. (DB)

  1. Multigenre, Multiple Intelligences, and Transcendentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Explains an eleventh grade literature unit on Transcendentalism which employed a wide variety of supplemental materials and literary connections and which provided alternate assessment opportunities. Details how this unit revealed meaningful connections through comics, music, free reading, and multiple intelligences. Concludes that many students…

  2. The danish multiple sclerosis registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Stenager, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Registry was established in 1956. Content: The register comprises data on all Danes who had MS in 1949 or who have been diagnosed since. Data on new cases and updated information on persons with an MS diagnosis already notified are continuously...

  3. The immunogenetics of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, A.

    2008-01-01

    with complex genetic backgrounds. HLA controls immune response genes and HLA associations indicate the involvement of autoimmunity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) was one of the first conditions proven to be HLA associated involving primarily HLA class II factors. We review how HLA studies give fundamental...

  4. Dyadic Patterns in Multiple Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostoic, Antonio Rivero

    Seven dyadic configuration classes for the analysis of multiple networks are introduced in this paper. Each configuration is a relational bundle pattern resulting from the mixture of the direction and the types of tie between a pair of actors. Then a bundle census is performed to an empirical...

  5. Optimal assessment of multiple cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W; Johnstone, Rufus A

    2003-01-01

    In a wide range of contexts from mate choice to foraging, animals are required to discriminate between alternative options on the basis of multiple cues. How should they best assess such complex multicomponent stimuli? Here, we construct a model to investigate this problem, focusing on a simple case

  6. Carrier multiplication in germanium nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.; de Weerd, C.; Stallinga, P.; Spoor, F.C.M.; Houtepen, A.J.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2015-01-01

    Carrier multiplication is demonstrated in a solid-state dispersion of germanium nanocrystals in a silicon-dioxide matrix. This is performed by comparing ultrafast photo-induced absorption transients at different pump photon energies below and above the threshold energy for this process. The average

  7. Hyper-systolic matrix multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippert, Th.; Petkov, N.; Palazzari, P.; Schilling, K.

    A novel parallel algorithm for matrix multiplication is presented. It is based on a 1-D hyper-systolic processor abstraction. The procedure can be implemented on all types of parallel systems. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.

  8. Robust multiple frequency multiple power localization schemes in the presence of multiple jamming attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulqader Hussein

    Full Text Available Localization of the wireless sensor network is a vital area acquiring an impressive research concern and called upon to expand more with the rising of its applications. As localization is gaining prominence in wireless sensor network, it is vulnerable to jamming attacks. Jamming attacks disrupt communication opportunity among the sender and receiver and deeply impact the localization process, leading to a huge error of the estimated sensor node position. Therefore, detection and elimination of jamming influence are absolutely indispensable. Range-based techniques especially Received Signal Strength (RSS is facing severe impact of these attacks. This paper proposes algorithms based on Combination Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (C-MFMPL and Step Function Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (SF-MFMPL. The algorithms have been tested in the presence of multiple types of jamming attacks including capture and replay, random and constant jammers over a log normal shadow fading propagation model. In order to overcome the impact of random and constant jammers, the proposed method uses two sets of frequencies shared by the implemented anchor nodes to obtain the averaged RSS readings all over the transmitted frequencies successfully. In addition, three stages of filters have been used to cope with the replayed beacons caused by the capture and replay jammers. In this paper the localization performance of the proposed algorithms for the ideal case which is defined by without the existence of the jamming attack are compared with the case of jamming attacks. The main contribution of this paper is to achieve robust localization performance in the presence of multiple jamming attacks under log normal shadow fading environment with a different simulation conditions and scenarios.

  9. Multiple-membrane multiple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yushan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2017-05-02

    A redox flow battery is provided. The redox flow battery involves multiple-membrane (at least one cation exchange membrane and at least one anion exchange membrane), multiple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and at least one electrolyte disposed between the two membranes) as the basic characteristic, such as a double-membrane, triple electrolyte (DMTE) configuration or a triple-membrane, quadruple electrolyte (TMQE) configuration. The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte.

  10. Teaching Multiplication and Multiplication Tables by the Application of Finger Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadir, Elif

    2017-01-01

    Developments in mathematics education tend to emphasize mathematics teaching with the help of activities that will allow the students to create these concepts rather than to make them memorize mathematical rules. The purpose of this study is to analyze the applicability of the application of multiplication with fingers developed by the researcher.…

  11. Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Penstimulasian Multiple Intelligences Siswa

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Legowo

    2017-01-01

    Tulisan ini membahas mengenai penerapan teori multiple intelligences dalam pembelajaran di sekolah. Pembahasan diawali dengan menguraikan perkembangan konsep inteligensi dan multiple intelligences. Diikuti dengan menjelaskan dampak teori multiple intelligences dalam bidang pendidikan dan pembelajaran di sekolah. Bagian selanjutnya menguraikan tentang implementasi teori multiple intelligences dalam praktik pembelajaran di kelas yaitu bagaimana pemberian pengalaman belajar siswa yang difasilita...

  12. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  13. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used with a...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc).......In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...

  15. Multiple imputation and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, James

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide to analysing partially observed data. Collecting, analysing and drawing inferences from data is central to research in the medical and social sciences. Unfortunately, it is rarely possible to collect all the intended data. The literature on inference from the resulting incomplete  data is now huge, and continues to grow both as methods are developed for large and complex data structures, and as increasing computer power and suitable software enable researchers to apply these methods. This book focuses on a particular statistical method for analysing and drawing inferences from incomplete data, called Multiple Imputation (MI). MI is attractive because it is both practical and widely applicable. The authors aim is to clarify the issues raised by missing data, describing the rationale for MI, the relationship between the various imputation models and associated algorithms and its application to increasingly complex data structures. Multiple Imputation and its Application: Discusses the issues ...

  16. Radioactive waste multiple container system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.; Garman, L.D.; Reynolds, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A radioactive waste multiple container system is described which provides a simplified method whereby a plurality of drums can be placed in a remote, unmanned storage facility in one materials handling sequence, as opposed to a plurality of separate materials handling sequences, such as required for individual drums utilizing a remotely-controlled materials handling system. The multiple container system also functions as an interim storage system in that it will allow for stacking up to a total of ten levels high. Each container interlocks with each successive unit, through automatic, passive alignment of the individual container with the previously placed unit, while being handled completely by remote control. This interlock and alignment feature insures greater stack stability, substantially increasing the overall storage efficiency of the remote storage facility. While a '6-pack' container system has been described, a 4, 8, 10, 12, etc. system may be used instead. (author)

  17. Computerized tomography in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delouvrier, J.J.; Tritschler, J.L.; Desbleds, M.T.; Cambier, J.; Nahum, H.

    1980-01-01

    The double scan CT method was applied to a homogeneous population of 50 multiple sclerosis patients and the following features were studied: well defined low-density areas, localized contrast enhancements, cerebral atrophy and white matter homogeneity. The analyses of the variance of the white matter (centrum ovale) can disclose those lesions which individually do not surpass the visibility threshold. The lesions that are localized in the white matter are mainly periventricular, most often multiple, and they do not displace the neighbouring structures. By revealing a large number of clinically silent cerebral lesions, the cerebral CT becomes a highly important diagnostic tool. The value of the CT examinations seems to be of major importance each time that the clinical diagnosis is hesitant, particularly when faced with medullary signs or an initial neurological episode. (C.F.)

  18. Tolerogenic vaccines for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannie, Mark D.; Curtis, II, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Tolerogenic vaccines represent a new class of vaccine designed to re-establish immunological tolerance, restore immune homeostasis, and thereby reverse autoimmune disease. Tolerogenic vaccines induce long-term, antigen-specific, inhibitory memory that blocks pathogenic T cell responses via loss of effector T cells and gain of regulatory T cell function. Substantial advances have been realized in the generation of tolerogenic vaccines that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in a preclinical setting, and these vaccines may be a prequel of the tolerogenic vaccines that may have therapeutic benefit in Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose here is to provide a snapshot of the current concepts and future prospects of tolerogenic vaccination for Multiple Sclerosis, along with the central challenges to clinical application. PMID:23357858

  19. Adapting playware to multiple players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...

  20. Emerging therapies in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amm, Joelle; Tabbara, Imad A

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has evolved significantly over the past 2 decades due to the use of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and the subsequent introduction of the immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide) and the proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib). The median overall survival of multiple myeloma patients has increased significantly with patients younger than age 50 years experiencing a 10-year survival rate of around 40%. However, despite the increased effectiveness of the first-line agents, the majority of patients will eventually relapse and become drug resistant. Promising novel therapies have recently emerged and are being used to treat relapsed and refractory patients. This review will cover the clinical data regarding these emergent therapies that include new generation of proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib, ixazomib, oprozomib, and marizomib), immunomodulatory drugs (pomalidomide), monoclonal antibodies (elotuzumab and daratumumab), signal transduction modulator (perifosine), and histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat and panobinostat).

  1. The Multiple Modernities of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept ‘multiple modernities’ has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served...... to question certain eurocentric assumptions about modernity and has also reignited the question of European particularity in a world historical perspective. This paper will discuss how ‘Europe’ itself can be considered a result of (at least) two different modernities, as proposed by the political theorist......, Eric Voegelin. Eric Voegelin talked of two spatio-temporal specific modernities, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. In short, for Voegelin the Atlantic modernity with its breakthroughs in the 17th and 18th centuries was a specific figuration that should not be mistaken for ‘modernity...

  2. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  3. Passive neutron-multiplication measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnay, A.S.; Barnett, C.S.; Spracklen, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed an instrument to measure neutron multiplication by statistical analysis of the timing of neutrons emitted from fissionable material. This instrument is capable of repeated analysis of the same recorded data with selected algorithms, graphical displays showing statistical properties of the data, and preservation of raw data on disk for future comparisons. In our measurements we have made a comparison of the covariance to mean and Feynman variance to mean analysis algorithms to show that the covariance avoids a bias term and measures directly the effect due to the presence of neutron chains. A spherical assembly of enriched uranium shells and acrylic resin reflector/moderator components used for the measurements is described. Preliminary experimental results of the Feynman variance to mean measurements show the expected correlation with assembly multiplication

  4. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  5. Multiplicative formulation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voros, A.; Leboeuf, P.

    1991-01-01

    A general semi-classical description for the eigenfunctions of the multidimensional Schroedinger operator cannot be based on the WKB method which is incompatible with classically ergodic behavior. An alternative, more general multiplicative parametrization of quantum wave functions is suggested, whereby the semi-classical behavior of eigenfunctions can be traced in the presence of classical ergodicity, in the form of diffusive patterns of phase-space zeros in the quantum wave functions. (author) 24 refs.; 4 figs

  6. CHRONIC COUGH WITH MULTIPLE CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEW BH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This case reports a 57-year-old lady presented with cough of two months duration despite repeated treatments from multiple general practitioners. It took her another two months to know her diagnoses and a further couple of months to be relieved of her cough and became asymptomatic. Chronic cough management in primary care often needs an empiric integrative approach and requires good doctor-patient rapport with informed follow ups and continuity of care to be successful.

  7. Testing One Hypothesis Multiple times

    OpenAIRE

    Algeri, Sara; van Dyk, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis testing in presence of a nuisance parameter that is only identifiable under the alternative is challenging in part because standard asymptotic results (e.g., Wilks theorem for the generalized likelihood ratio test) do not apply. Several solutions have been proposed in the statistical literature and their practical implementation often reduces the problem into one of Testing One Hypothesis Multiple times (TOHM). Specifically, a fine discretization of the space of the non-identifiabl...

  8. Allogeneic transplantation in multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Majolino,Ignazio; Severino,Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    In this review the authors present a state of art tretment of multiple myeloma.High dose chemo-radiotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been show to be superior a conventional chemotherapy and a double transplantation. The authors discuss too, the allogeneic transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning, allogeneic versus tandem autologous, results the patients long term outcome and a approach about the use of donor lymphocytes, anti thimocyte glob...

  9. Convergence of multiple ergodic averages

    OpenAIRE

    Host, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    These notes are based on a course for a general audience given at the Centro de Modeliamento Matem\\'atico of the University of Chile, in December 2004. We study the mean convergence of multiple ergodic averages, that is, averages of a product of functions taken at different times. We also describe the relations between this area of ergodic theory and some classical and some recent results in additive number theory.

  10. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the design of multiple descriptions (MDs) using sparse decompositions. In a description erasure channel only a subset of the transmitted descriptions is received. The MD problem concerns the design of the descriptions such that they individually approximate the source...... first-order method to the proposed convex problem such that we can solve large-scale instances for image sequences....

  11. Transnational Connections and Multiple Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices......, such as family relations, churches as transnational – or global – institutions, and other organisations and associations established to support politically, socially or culturally connections and development in the country or region of origin....

  12. FRACTIONAL DYNAMICS AT MULTIPLE TIMES

    OpenAIRE

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Straka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A continuous time random walk (CTRW) imposes a random waiting time between random particle jumps. CTRW limit densities solve a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, but since the CTRW limit is not Markovian, this is not sufficient to characterize the process. This paper applies continuum renewal theory to restore the Markov property on an expanded state space, and compute the joint CTRW limit density at multiple times.

  13. FRACTIONAL DYNAMICS AT MULTIPLE TIMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Straka, Peter

    2012-11-01

    A continuous time random walk (CTRW) imposes a random waiting time between random particle jumps. CTRW limit densities solve a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, but since the CTRW limit is not Markovian, this is not sufficient to characterize the process. This paper applies continuum renewal theory to restore the Markov property on an expanded state space, and compute the joint CTRW limit density at multiple times.

  14. Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a < 0, and determine the multiple SLE in the hydrodynamic limit. After reporting these exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.

  15. Treatment of multiple scalp cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilo Rončević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a rare, benign adnexal tumor of the skin. The most frequent tumor location is the head, especially the scalp, and neck area. This type of tumor can occur as solitary or multiple tumors. Tumor diagnosis is relatively easy and is based on clinical findings and biopsy. The therapy of choice is surgical excision with parts or entire scalp excision depending on whether it is solitary or multiple tumor. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with multiple scalp tumors of 0.5–6 cm in diameter. An entire scalp excision was performed and the postoperative wounds (i.e., the periosteum of the skull and the fascia galea were covered with free skin graft of partial thickness. In order to prevent profuse bleeding, we placed a tourniquet around his head and performed bilateral temporary ligature of temporal artery prior to surgery. During the nine-year follow-up, there were no new tumors or tumor recurrence reported.

  16. Multiple malformations and maternal smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källén, K

    2000-07-01

    The Swedish health registries were used to investigate a possible effect of maternal smoking on the incidence of multiple malformations. Among 1413811 infants born in 1983-96 and with known smoking exposure in early pregnancy, 26619 with isolated malformations and 1409 with two or more malformations were selected. After controlling for year of birth, maternal age, parity and educational level, a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and multiple malformations was found (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.02, 1.29). Among isolated malformations, the estimated OR for maternal smoking was close to unity (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.99, 1.05), but a strong heterogeneity of the magnitude of the association between maternal smoking and the different malformations was found. Among multimalformed, no such heterogeneity was indicated. The ORs for maternal smoking were calculated for all possible pairwise combinations of 44 selected malformations, but no association between maternal smoking and any specific combination could be detected. The ORs for maternal smoking among probable cases of VATER, CHARGE or OEIS non-random associations, respectively, were estimated, but no association was indicated between maternal smoking and any of the malformation complexes. The results of the present study indicate that maternal smoking is associated with a non-specific increased risk of multiple malformations, but further research is needed before such an inference can be made.

  17. Multiple primary cancers: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Jena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of multiple primary cancers though uncommon, is being frequently reported now-a-days owing to better diagnostic techniques, the prolonged life span and the increased incidence of long-term survival of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study. Cases of multiple malignancies diagnosed histopathologically were retrieved from the archives of department of surgical oncology. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. They were categorized as synchronous malignancies if the interval between them was less or equal to 6 months and metachronous, if the interval was more than 6 months. Results: A total of 13 cases were encountered in the 5 year study period. Out of them two were in the metachronous category and the rest were synchronous as the 2nd malignancy was detected mostly during clinical evaluation of the patients for the primary malignancy. There was female predominance with age range being 43-68 years. Majority of the cases were in the 7th decade. The most common organ involved was breast, followed by cervix. Apart from bilateral breast malignancies, there were combinations like breast with uterine endometrial carcinoma, cervical carcinoma and even papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: Detection of multiple primary malignancies is becoming increasingly common in day-to-day practice. Greater awareness of this is required among both cancer patients and their treating clinicians.

  18. [Psychological consequences of multiple births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, M; Charlemaine, E; Blondel, B

    2006-11-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the number of multiple births has dramatically increased in our country and most European countries. This paper summarizes the psychological consequences of multiple births based on a review of the literature and on our clinical experience. During pregnancy mothers experience great physical problems linked with increased medical risks for themselves and for the children. These risks cause psychological difficulties: hospitalisation and separation from the family, fear of a premature delivery and anxiety for the children. After delivery the children are often hospitalized, which makes the attachment process difficult. The mortality of multiple children is high and mourning for one child creates particular problems for parents who simultaneously face grieving and attachment processes. After hospital discharge, the overload of work mothers experience leads to physical and nervous fatigue, which does not make easier individual relationship with the children. Mothers have a high level of psychological vulnerability and an increased risk of depression. The satisfactory development of each twin or triplet child requires individualized relationship with his/her mother and his/her father. That is how he/she will be able to build his/her identity and future autonomy. It is important to be aware of the problems experienced by the families and to improve the way material help and psychological support are provided to them.

  19. Multiple-illumination photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Quinn M.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    Previously we described the potential for multiple illumination photoacoustic tomography to provide quantitative reconstructions, however this work used only simulated data. We have developed a custom photoacoustic-ultrasound tomography system capable of multiple illuminations and parallel acquisition from a 256 element 5 MHz transducer ring array with 8-cm diameter. The multiple illumination scheme uses a free-space light delivery geometry where a rotational stage scans a pulsed laser beam onto different incident locations around the sample. For each illumination location a photoacoustic image is reconstructed using a modified backprojection algorithm. Images from different source locations have the potential to be combined to form an improved deep-tissue image using our previously developed iterative algorithms. We complement the photoacoustic imaging data with unique ultrasound imaging data. Most previous ultrasound tomography methods have used migration algorithms, iterative ray-based analysis, wave-equation modeling, or frequency-based algorithms that all demand large amounts of data and computational power. We propose a new UST method that offers isotropic resolution, provides scattering contrast, as well as the potential for measuring ultrasound scattering anisotropy and decoupling density and compressibility contributions. The imaging system is driven by a Verasonics scan engine and programmed for both ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging modes. Resolution has been measured to be 150 μm for ultrasound and 200 μm for photoacoustic images. Imaging capabilities are demonstrated on phantoms with custom-tailored ultrasound scattering and optical properties, as well as in murine models.

  20. Multiple intelligences: Can they be measured?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsi Tirri; Petri Nokelainen; Erkki Komulainen

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about issues relating to the assessment of multiple intelligences. The first section introduces the authors’ work on building measures of multiple intelligences and moral sensitivities. It also provides a conceptual definition of multiple intelligences based on Multiple Intelligences theory by Howard Gardner (1983). The second section discusses the context specificity of intelligences and alternative approaches to measuring multiple intelligences. The third section analyses the ...

  1. Functional multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Zoh, Roger S; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Carroll, Raymond J

    2017-05-08

    Objective measures of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production by mammals are used to predict their energy expenditure. Since energy expenditure is not directly observable, it can be viewed as a latent construct with multiple physical indirect measures such as respiratory quotient, volumetric oxygen consumption, and volumetric carbon dioxide production. Metabolic rate is defined as the rate at which metabolism occurs in the body. Metabolic rate is also not directly observable. However, heat is produced as a result of metabolic processes within the body. Therefore, metabolic rate can be approximated by heat production plus some errors. While energy expenditure and metabolic rates are correlated, they are not equivalent. Energy expenditure results from physical function, while metabolism can occur within the body without the occurrence of physical activities. In this manuscript, we present a novel approach for studying the relationship between metabolic rate and indicators of energy expenditure. We do so by extending our previous work on MIMIC ME models to allow responses that are sparsely observed functional data, defining the sparse functional multiple indicators, multiple cause measurement error (FMIMIC ME) models. The mean curves in our proposed methodology are modeled using basis splines. A novel approach for estimating the variance of the classical measurement error based on functional principal components is presented. The model parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm and a discussion of the model's identifiability is provided. We show that the defined model is not a trivial extension of longitudinal or functional data methods, due to the presence of the latent construct. Results from its application to data collected on Zucker diabetic fatty rats are provided. Simulation results investigating the properties of our approach are also presented. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  2. In vivo production of recombinant proteins using occluded recombinant AcMNPV-derived baculovirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro-Pardo, Eva; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M

    2017-12-01

    Trichoplusia ni insect larvae infected with vectors derived from the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), are an excellent alternative to insect cells cultured in conventional bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins because productivity and cost-efficiency reasons. However, there is still a lot of work to do to reduce the manual procedures commonly required in this production platform that limit its scalability. To increase the scalability of this platform technology, a current bottleneck to be circumvented in the future is the need of injection for the inoculation of larvae with polyhedrin negative baculovirus vectors (Polh-) because of the lack of oral infectivity of these viruses, which are commonly used for production in insect cell cultures. In this work we have developed a straightforward alternative to obtain orally infective vectors derived from AcMNPV and expressing recombinant proteins that can be administered to the insect larvae (Trichoplusia ni) by feeding, formulated in the insect diet. The approach developed was based on the use of a recombinant polyhedrin protein expressed by a recombinant vector (Polh+), able to co-occlude any recombinant Polh- baculovirus vector expressing a recombinant protein. A second alternative was developed by the generation of a dual vector co-expressing the recombinant polyhedrin protein and the foreign gene of interest to obtain the occluded viruses. Additionally, by the incorporation of a reporter gene into the helper Polh+ vector, it was possible the follow-up visualization of the co-occluded viruses infection in insect larvae and will help to homogenize infection conditions. By using these methodologies, the production of recombinant proteins in per os infected larvae, without manual infection procedures, was very similar in yield to that obtained by manual injection of recombinant Polh- AcMNPV-based vectors expressing the same proteins. However, further analyses will be required for a

  3. Baculovirus-challenge and poor nutrition inflict within-generation fitness costs without triggering transgenerational immune priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Ikkei; Hua, Kevin Ngoc; Cory, Jenny S

    2016-05-01

    Invertebrate hosts that survive pathogen challenge can produce offspring that are more resistant to the same pathogen via immune priming, thereby improving the fitness of their offspring in the same pathogen environment. Most evidence for immune priming comes from exposure to bacteria and there are limited data on other groups of pathogens. Poor parental nutrition has also been shown to result in the transgenerational transfer of pathogen resistance and increased immunocompetence. Here, we combine exposure to an insect DNA virus with a change in the parental diet to examine both parental costs and transgenerational immune priming. We challenged the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, with a low dose of the baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and altered dietary protein to carbohydrate ratio (p:c ratio) after virus exposure. Insects fed a low protein diet had lower haemolymph protein concentrations, and exhibited costs of smaller pupae and slower development, while survivors of virus challenge developed more slowly, irrespective of p:c ratio, and those that were virus-challenged and fed on a low protein diet showed a reduction in haemocyte density. In addition, AcMNPV-challenged parents laid fewer eggs earlier in egg laying although egg size was the same as for unchallenged parents. There was no evidence for increased resistance to AcMNPV (immune priming) or changes in haemocyte number (as proxy for constitutive cellular immunity) in the offspring either as a result of parental AcMNPV-challenge or low dietary p:c ratio. Therefore, although pathogen-challenge and nutritional changes can affect host development and reproduction, this does not necessarily translate into transgenerational immune priming. Our findings contrast with an earlier study on another type of baculovirus, a granulovirus, where immune priming was suggested. This indicates that transgenerational immune priming is not universal in invertebrates and is likely to

  4. Immune responses of Helicoverpa armigera to different kinds of pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-Fan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects react against pathogens through innate immunity. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera is an important defoliator and an extremely destructive pest insect of many crops. The elucidation of the mechanism of the immune response of H. armigera to various pathogens can provide a theoretical basis for new approaches to biologically control this pest. Results Four kinds of pathogens Bacillus thuringiensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, and Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus harbored green fluorescence protein and polyhedron (AcMNPV-GFP were used to challenge the insect. The cellular and humoral immune responses to the pathogens were analyzed in the challenged H. armigera. The results show that in the five kinds of haemocytes, only granulocytes phagocytized the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. All haemocytes can be infected by AcMNPV. Fourteen immune-related genes including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (HaPGRP and HaPGRP C and Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein (HaGNBP, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs such as cecropin-1, 2 and 3 (HaCec-1, 2 and 3, lysozyme (HaLys, attacin (HaAtt, gallerimycin-like (HaGall, gloverin-like (HaGlo, moricin-like (HaMor, cobatoxin-like (HaCob, galiomicin-like (HaGali, and immune inducible protein (HaIip appeared in different expression profiles to different pathogen infections. The transcripts of 13 immune related genes (except HaPGRPC are obviously up-regulated by Gram-positive bacteria. HaCec-1 and 3, HaMor, HaAtt, HaLys, HaIip, HaPGRP and HaGNBP are greatly up-regulated after fungal infection. HaGNBP, HaCec-2, HaGall, HaGlo, HaMor, HaCob, HaGali obviously increased in Gram-negative bacterial infection. Only five genes, HaGNBP, HaCec-1, HaGali, HaGlo, and HaLys, are weakly up-regulated after viral infection. The AMP transcripts had higher expression levels than the

  5. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  6. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wandelt

    Full Text Available The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1 the size of the factorization, 2 the time for factorization, and 3 the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%, factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s, and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB. Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  7. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  8. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple imaging radiography at LNLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelohonnicke@yahoo.com.br; Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba(Brazil); Antunes, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Safatle, A.M.V.; Barros, P.S.M. [Laboratorio de Oftalmologia Experimental e Comparativa, Departamento de Cirurgia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Morelhao, S.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-01-11

    An analyzer-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging (ABI) setup has been mounted at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) for multiple imaging radiography (MIR) purposes. The algorithm employed for treating the MIR data collected at LNLS is described, and its reliability in extracting the distinct types of contrast that can be obtained with MIR is demonstrated by analyzing a test sample (thin polyamide wire). As a practical application, the possibility of studying ophthalmic tissues, corneal sequestra in this case, via MIR is investigated.

  10. Unstable resonator with multiple outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopnicki, M. J.; Smithers, M. E.

    1983-03-01

    Two or more unstable optical resonators can be coupled together by sharing optical elements. The result is then a single compound resonator with multiple outputs. For identical coupled cavities, the transverse structure of the outputs would be identical. In general, there will be misalignments and other aberrations that will vary from cavity to cavity. The cumulative effects of such aberrations are treated using both analytical and numerical approaches. It is shown that the average output of a multioutput resonator is the same as the output of a single uncoupled resonator with aberrations equal to the average of those contained in the multioutput resonator.

  11. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment.

  12. Percolation with multiple giant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2005-01-01

    We study mean-field percolation with freezing. Specifically, we consider cluster formation via two competing processes: irreversible aggregation and freezing. We find that when the freezing rate exceeds a certain threshold, the percolation transition is suppressed. Below this threshold, the system undergoes a series of percolation transitions with multiple giant clusters ('gels') formed. Giant clusters are not self-averaging as their total number and their sizes fluctuate from realization to realization. The size distribution F k , of frozen clusters of size k, has a universal tail, F k ∼ k -3 . We propose freezing as a practical mechanism for controlling the gel size. (letter to the editor)

  13. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...... segmentations that capture different structural elements of the image. We also apply the method to collections of images with identical pixel dimensions, which we call image stacks. Here it turns out that the method is able to both identify groups of similar images in the stack, and to provide segmentations...

  14. Cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, H; Jønsson, A; Andresen, Jesper Graubæk

    2012-01-01

    Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS). Voxel-wise T2 estimates and total T2 lesion volume were tested for correlations with eight cognitive domains, a general cognitive dysfunction factor (CDF), and the two clinical scales. Results - We found distinct...... = -0.34, P = 0.03), visual problem solving (r = -0.40, P = 0.01), and complex motor speed (r = -0.39, P = 0.01). No significant correlation was detected between total lesion load and the clinical measures EDSS and MSIS. Conclusion - Our results suggest that even in the NABT MR detects changes likely...

  15. Magnetron priming by multiple cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. C.; Neculaes, V. B.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; White, W. M.; Hoff, B. W.; Jordan, N. M.

    2005-08-01

    A relativistic magnetron priming technique using multiple cathodes is simulated with a three-dimensional, fully electromagnetic, particle-in-cell code. This technique is based on electron emission from N /2 individual cathodes in an N-cavity magnetron to prime the π mode. In the case of the six-cavity relativistic magnetron, π-mode start-oscillation times are reduced up to a factor of 4, and mode competition is suppressed. Most significantly, the highest microwave field power is observed by utilizing three cathodes compared to other recently explored priming techniques.

  16. [Multiple agenesis and prosthetic restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, P

    1990-03-01

    Cases of multiple agenesia present some difficulties in the treatment planing. Three situations may be encountered: limited agenesia, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia without remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis or the partial adjacent prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia with remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by means of a supra-dental prosthesis. The first two situations have been described in dental literature and are relatively easy to treat. The same is not true for the third situation, where the decision to keep the temporary teeth considerably increases the difficulty of prosthetic restoration. This subject will be illustrated by the presentation of a clinical case of multiple bi-maxillary agenesia. The patient has: on the maxilla: an absence of 9 permanent teeth (18, 15, 14, 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28) and the presence of 4 deciduous teeth (62, 63, 64, 65), on the mandible: an absence of all permanent teeth, with the exception of 36 and 46, and the remaining of 4 deciduous teeth (75, 73, 83, 84). The remaining of deciduous teeth and the presence of a very high inter-arch space led to opting for dental coverage so as to keep the deciduous teeth and a proper vertical dimension. The patient wished to solve his "problem" in the maxilla first, and is not wanting to undergo the extraction of his deciduous teeth. The following therapeutic proposal was adapted: On the maxilla, a three-step procedure: first step: building of metal copings on 13, 16 and 26 and metal-ceramic crowns on 11 and 21, second step: building of telescop crowns on 16 and 26 and clasps on 13, 11 and 21, third step: casting of the removable partial denture framework and soldering to the telescop crowns and clasps. On the mandible, a provisional restoration using a supra-dental resin removable partial denture with ceramic occlusal surfaces was adopted. The aesthetic and functional

  17. [Multiple finger geodes in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffel, J C; Oprisescu, B; Bresson, A; Ploier, R; Vidailhet, M

    1993-06-01

    Three pediatric patients with multiple geodes in the fingers are reported. This condition occurs mainly between one and three years and at seven years of age and is more common in winter. Affected fingers are swollen. Roentgenograms disclose several small lucent defects which are usually located in the middle phalanx. Several fingers are usually involved. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is increased in virtually every case. Resolution occurs spontaneously within a few weeks or months. There is no tendency towards recurrence. Although the condition is inflammatory, exposure to cold is probably a precipitating factor.

  18. Therapeutic advancements in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eGozzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma survival has significantly improved in latest years, due to a broad spectrum of novel agents available for treatment. The introduction of thalidomide, bortezomib and lenalidomide together with autologous stem cell transplantation has dramatically prolonged complete remissions rate, progression free survivals resulting ultimately in prolonged survivals in myeloma patients. Moreover, novel strategies of treatment such as consolidation and maintenance are being used to implement responses. A number of new drugs such as carfilzomib and pomalidomide are already in clinical practice, and new kids on the block are entering, making the future of myeloma patients brighter.

  19. Multiplication modules over non-commutative rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuganbaev, A A

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that each submodule of a multiplication module over a regular ring is a multiplicative module. If A is a ring with commutative multiplication of right ideals, then each projective right ideal is a multiplicative module, and a finitely generated A-module M is a multiplicative module if and only if all its localizations with respect to maximal right ideals of A are cyclic modules over the corresponding localizations of A. In addition, several known results on multiplication modules over commutative rings are extended to modules over not necessarily commutative rings

  20. Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Penstimulasian Multiple Intelligences Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Legowo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini membahas mengenai penerapan teori multiple intelligences dalam pembelajaran di sekolah. Pembahasan diawali dengan menguraikan perkembangan konsep inteligensi dan multiple intelligences. Diikuti dengan menjelaskan dampak teori multiple intelligences dalam bidang pendidikan dan pembelajaran di sekolah. Bagian selanjutnya menguraikan tentang implementasi teori multiple intelligences dalam praktik pembelajaran di kelas yaitu bagaimana pemberian pengalaman belajar siswa yang difasilitasi guru dapat menstimulasi multiple intelligences siswa. Evaluasi hasil belajar siswa dari pandangan penerapan teori multiple intelligences seharusnya dilakukan menggunakan authentic assessment dan portofolio yang lebih memfasilitasi para siswa mengungkapkan atau mengaktualisasikan hasil belajarnya melalui berbagai cara sesuai dengan kekuatan jenis inteligensinya.

  1. Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath; Wilson, Daniel; Stirbl, Robert; Blea, Anthony; Harding, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS). The MWTS project will result in a highly stable, monolithically integrated, high resolution infrared detector array sensor that records registered thermal imagery in four infrared wavebands to infer dynamic temperature profiles on a laser-irradiated ground target. An accurate surface temperature measurement of a target in extreme environments in a non-intrusive manner is required. The development challenge is to: determine optimum wavebands (suitable for target temperatures, nature of the targets and environments) to measure accurate target surface temperature independent of the emissivity, integrate simultaneously readable multiband Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) in a single monolithic focal plane array (FPA) sensor and to integrate the hardware/software and system calibration for remote temperature measurements. The charge was therefore to develop and demonstrate a multiband infrared imaging camera with the detectors simultaneously sensitive to multiple distinct color bands for front surface temperature measurements Wavelength ( m) measurements. Amongst the requirements are: that the measurement system will not affect target dynamics or response to the laser irradiation and that the simplest criterion for spectral band selection is to choose those practically feasible spectral bands that create the most contrast between the objects or scenes of interest in the expected environmental conditions. There is in the presentation a review of the modeling and simulation of multi-wave infrared temperature measurement and also a review of the detector development and QWIP capacities.

  2. The Updated Multiple Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    The catalog of hierarchical stellar systems with three or more components is an update of the original 1997 version. For 2000 hierarchies, the new Multiple Star Catalog (MSC) provides distances, component masses and periods, and supplementary information (astrometry, photometry, identifiers, orbits, notes). The MSC content and format are explained, and its incompleteness and strong observational selection are stressed. Nevertheless, the MSC can be used for statistical studies and is a valuable source for planning observations of multiple stars. Rare classes of stellar hierarchies found in the MSC (with six or seven components, extremely eccentric orbits, planar and possibly resonant orbits, hosting planets) are briefly presented. High-order hierarchies have smaller velocity dispersion compared to triples and are often associated with moving groups. The paper concludes with an analysis of the ratio of periods and separations between inner and outer subsystems. In wide hierarchies, the ratio of semimajor axes, estimated statistically, is distributed between 3 and 300, with no evidence of dynamically unstable systems.

  3. Superclusters and hadronic multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.C.; Carruthers, P.

    1986-01-01

    The multiplicity distribution is expressed in terms of supercluster production in hadronic processes at high energy. This process creates unstable clusters at intermediate stages and hadrons in final stage. It includes Poisson-transform distributions (with the partially coherent distribution as a special case) and is very flexible for phenomenological analyses. The associated Koba, Nielson, and Olesen limit and the behavior of cumulant moments are analyzed in detail for finite and/or infinite cluster size and particle size per cluster. In general, a supercluster distribution does not need to be equivalent to a negative binomial distribution to fit experimental data well. Furthermore, the requirement of such equivalence leads to many solutions, in which the average size of the cluster is not logarithmic: e.g., it may show a power behavior instead. Superclustering is defined as a two-or multi-stage process underlying observed global multiplicity distributions. At the first stage of the production process, individual clusters are produced according to a given statistical law. For example, the clustering distribution may be described by partially coherent (oreven sub-Poissonian distribution models. At the second stage, the clusters are considered as the sources of particle production. The corresponding distribution may then be as general as the clustering distribution just mentioned. 8 refs

  4. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, E.A.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes recently developed research methods for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. In Chapter X the use of the CT-scan in the detection of hemispheral or cerebellar lesions is discussed. In chapter XIII the results of the application of all methods to a group of 89 patients with definite, probable or possible multiple sclerosis and to a group of 25 purely optic neuritis patients are presented. With the aid of the CT-scan, hypo- or hyperdense areas in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres were found in 52% of the 114 patients. Most reports ascribe these lesions to demyelinating cerebral plaques. The CT-scan showed no cerebellar or brainstem lesions. The CT-scan is independent of the duration of, and degree of incapacitation due to, the disease and can be helpful in giving a definite diagnosis in an early stage of the disease. The CT-scan will always play an important role for the differential diagnosis. (Auth.)

  5. Repayment policy for multiple loans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Agueda Rios-Solis

    Full Text Available The Repayment Policy for Multiple Loans is about a given set of loans and a monthly incoming cash flow: what is the best way to allocate the monthly income to repay such loans? In this article, we close the almost 20-year-old open question about how to model the repayment policy for multiple loans problem together with its computational complexity. Thus, we propose a mixed integer linear programming model that establishes an optimal repayment schedule by minimizing the total amount of cash required to repay the loans. We prove that the most employed repayment strategies, such as the highest interest debt and the debt snowball methods, are not optimal. Experimental results on simulated cases based on real data show that our methodology obtains on average more than 4% of savings, that is, the debtor pays approximately 4% less to the bank or loaner, which is a considerable amount in finances. In certain cases, the debtor can save up to 40%.

  6. AVOCADO SEEDLINGS MULTIPLE STEMS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCUS VINICIUS SANDOVAL PAIXÃO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the potential of multi-stems in avocado seeds according to their mass as well as the adventitious rooting of multi-stem budding with or without the use of auxin. The research was carried out at the Vegetation House of Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Campus Santa Teresa -ES, with seeds of different masses: 100 g, in which each experimental unit was made of five seeds, distributed within five repetitions, under a completely randomized design. The seeds were put to germinate and the percentage number of emergence and multiple stems were evaluated. After 150 days, the following evaluations were carried out: survival of rooted cuttings; number of leaves; stem diameter; root length; root volume; root and shoot fresh mass; root and shoot dry mass; shoot height; absolute growth and shoot growth rate; shoot dry weight/root dry mass ratio; shoot height/stem diameter ratio; shoot height/root length and Dickson's quality index ratio. Avocado seeds with mass over 100 g and between 81-100 g presented higher percentage of multiple stems. Rods over 20 cm that were not treated with IBA (indole-3-butyric acid resulted on avocado plants of better quality. The use of IBA (2000 mg L-1 does not affect the rooting and growth of avocado's multi-stem plants.

  7. Adapting playware to multiple players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...... playware, and allow the playware to adapt to the user´s level of competency in multi-player games. The games are physically interactive games where users may have different levels of competencies due to different physical abilities e.g. between age groups and genders. Indeed, the work gives evidence...

  8. Multiple Ships and Multiple Media: A Flexible Telepresence Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Riddell, D. J.; Ewing, N.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) uses a number of research and exploration vessels equipped with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to maintain the NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories off the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Maintenance expeditions range from several days to multiple weeks and encompass a range of activities including deploying new instruments, laying cable, recovering platforms, scientific sampling and conducting multibeam and visual surveys. In order to engage the widest possible participation in at-sea work, ONC uses telepresence technology to communicate from ship to shore and back with scientists, students, teachers and online viewers. In this presentation, we explore the challenge of designing a sustainable and flexible telepresence program which can be supported across multiple ship and ROV platforms, sometimes simultaneously. To meet outreach and education objectives, onboard educators conduct presentations to K-12 and post-secondary classrooms, museums and science centres on a daily basis. Online commentary by the educators, dive chief and ROV pilots accompanies the ROV dive footage and is streamed online 24/7 during underwater operations. Sharing the sights and sounds of the expeditions with students and educators ashore, including those in remote and inland communities, creates a unique learning environment for both formal and informal education audiences. As space is always a limiting factor on expeditions, the use of telepresence and other communication media enables ONC to simultaneously achieve engineering and science priorities at sea while communicating the successes and challenges of the expedition back to shore. Scientists and engineers provide guidance for operations from shore using a variety of communication technologies. We give examples from Ocean Networks Canada's most recent expedition, Fall 2015, which involved co-ordinated operations with three vessels - the R/V Thompson, the E/V Nautilus and the C/S Wave

  9. The application of stata multiple inputation command to analyze design of experiments with multiple regression

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Novoa; Suleima Alkusari

    2012-01-01

    This talk exemplifies the application of the multiple imputation technique available in STATA to analize a design of experiments with multiple responses and missing data. No imputation and multiple imputation methodologies are compared.

  10. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Considering Fertility Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be possible, the delivery of triplets or higher order births usually requires cesarean section, with some risk to ... Reproductive Medicine, Patient Information Series. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Twins, Triplets, & Higher Order Multiples. 2004. Current Practices and Controversies in Assisted ...

  11. Teaching Multiplication Algorithms from Other Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yao

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a number of multiplication algorithms from different cultures around the world: Hindu, Egyptian, Russian, Japanese, and Chinese. Students can learn these algorithms and better understand the operation and properties of multiplication.

  12. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can...

  13. Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Ankle Injuries and Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing ...

  14. Spectral Unmixing With Multiple Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy E.; Gillis, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    Spectral unmixing aims at recovering the spectral signatures of materials, called endmembers, mixed in a hyperspectral or multispectral image, along with their abundances. A typical assumption is that the image contains one pure pixel per endmember, in which case spectral unmixing reduces to identifying these pixels. Many fully automated methods have been proposed in recent years, but little work has been done to allow users to select areas where pure pixels are present manually or using a segmentation algorithm. Additionally, in a non-blind approach, several spectral libraries may be available rather than a single one, with a fixed number (or an upper or lower bound) of endmembers to chose from each. In this paper, we propose a multiple-dictionary constrained low-rank matrix approximation model that address these two problems. We propose an algorithm to compute this model, dubbed M2PALS, and its performance is discussed on both synthetic and real hyperspectral images.

  15. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    An accelerometer assembly is described for use in activating a switch or the like responding to multiple acceleration pulses in series, comprising: a housing forming a chamber having a first and second end; a mass slidably disposed in the chamber and movable during acceleration from the first end toward the second end; means for biasing the movable mass toward a reset position adjacent the first end; means for damping the movement of the mass in the chamber; cam and follower means carried by the movable mass and the housing for relative movement in response to the acceleration, the cam and follower means including means for temporarily blocking the mass movement toward the second end after a first acceleration pulse; the cam and follower means cooperating together to allow continued movement toward the second end and switch activation in response to at least a second separate acceleration pulse in series with the first

  16. Mediatization: a concept, multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto GOMES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization has become increasingly a key concept, fundamental, essential to describe the present and the history of media and communicative change taking place. Thus, it became part of a whole, one can not see them as a separate sphere. In this perspective, the media coverage is used as a concept to describe the process of expansion of the different technical means and consider the interrelationships between the communicative change, means and sociocultural change. However, although many researchers use the concept of mediatization, each gives you the meaning that best suits your needs. Thus, the concept of media coverage is treated with multiple voices. This paper discusses this problem and present a preliminary pre-position on the matter.

  17. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide......, although no increased risk for suicide attempts was found in MS patients. No difference in number of suicide attempts in treated and untreated patients was found....

  18. Legitimacy Strategy in Institutional Multiplicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘institutional void’ (IV) and ‘civil society’ (CS). Investigating five European MNEs in a fragmented business system by using a multiple-case-study method and a sense-making approach, we explore how IV and CS affect MNEs and how MNEs respond to them in pursuit of legitimacy....... Our study reveals three forms of IV, i.e., system void, value chain void, and void between social need and citizen services, and two broad roles of CS, being an enabler and constrainer that affect MNE operations and survival. We validate four types of legitimacy strategies presented by previous...... research: adaptation, bypass, manipulation, and intervention/innovation. However, the paper goes further by presenting an operational framework for legitimacy strategy, postulating that it is grounded in the ‘corporate commitment’ of MNEs and is operationalized either by ‘corporate initiative...

  19. AGE AND MULTIPLICATION OF FIBROBLASTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, A; Ebeling, A H

    1921-11-30

    Pure cultures of fibroblasts displayed marked differences in their activity in the plasma of young, middle aged, and old chickens. The rate of cell multiplication varied in inverse ratio to the age of the animal from which the plasma was taken. There was a definite relation between the age of the animal and the amount of new tissue produced in its plasma in a given time (Text-figs. 1 to 10). The chart obtained by plotting the rate of cell proliferation in ordinates, and the age of the animal in abscissae, showed that the rate of growth decreased more quickly than the age increased (Text-fig. 12). The decrease in the rate of growth was 50 per cent during the first 3 years of life, while in the following 6 years it was only 30 per cent. When the duration of the life of the cultures in the four plasmas was compared, a curve was obtained which showed about the same characteristics (Text-fig. 11). The duration of life of the fibroblasts in vitro varied in inverse ratio to the age of the animal, and decreased more quickly than the age increased. As the differences in the amount of new tissue produced in the plasma of young, middle aged, and old chickens were large, the growth of a pure culture of fibroblasts could be employed as a reagent for detecting certain changes occurring in the plasma under the influence of age. But the method possesses the necessary accuracy only when it is used as has already been described, and by technicians thoroughly trained in the details of its application. A comparative study of the growth of fibroblasts in media containing no serum, and serum under low and high concentrations, was made in order to ascertain whether the decreasing rate of cell multiplication was due to the loss of an accelerating factor, or to the increase See PDF for Structure of an inhibiting one. In high and low concentrations of the serum of young animals, no difference in the rate of multiplication of fibroblasts was observed. This showed that the serum of an

  20. Statin treatment in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Jensen, Gorm; Tsakiri, Anna; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to progressive disability. Statins [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors] are widely prescribed drugs in hypercholesterolemia. They exert immunomodulatory and neurotrophic effects and are attractive...... of relapse activity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression, and adverse events using a fixed-effects model due to low heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Eight trials were included in the review [five of statin add-on to interferon (IFN......, proportion of patients with relapse, and whole brain atrophy but not for EDSS progression. In SPMS, statin monotherapy showed significant reduction in brain atrophy and disability progression but no effect on relapse rate. In CIS, a phase II trial showed no difference in relapse activity, MRI activity...

  1. Multiple phonon excitation in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Frascaria, N.

    1994-01-01

    The studies of multiphonon excitations in nuclei are reviewed both from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The presence of giant resonances in nuclei is described in the framework of macroscopic and microscopic models and the relative merits of different probes to excite such states are illustrated. The existence of giant resonances built on excited states is stressed. An exhaustive description of the theoretical estimates of the properties of the multiphonon states is presented. The theory predicts that such multiple collective excitations should closely follow a harmonic pattern. Recent experimental results on the double giant dipole resonance using the (π + π - ) double charge exchange reaction are shown. The status of the search for isoscalar multiphonon excitations by means of the strong nuclear potential produced by heavy ions is presented. Conclusions are drawn and new prospects are discussed. (authors) 293 refs., 67 figs., 8 tabs

  2. The Multiple Modernities of Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Gosseye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the book Swedish Modernism. Architecture, Consumption and the Welfare State, edited by Helena Mattsson and Sven-Olov Wallenstein. In this volume, the editors plea for the construction of ‘multiple modernities’, following which a more diversified understanding of the European welfare state can be constructed.Through twelve contributions by a group of international scholars, Mattsson and Wallenstein aspire to initiate the construction of an emblematic Swedish modernism. The book offers an intricate and diversified reading of the history of the Swedish Folkhemmet, including political history, social sciences and media studies.When it comes to the built environment, however, the volume focuses largely on the home, with a few excursions to exhibition spaces and into corporate culture. In this volume, Mattsson and Wallenstein answer many questions, but raise an equal amount of new questions and thus leave the reader wanting more, as any good book should.

  3. Multiple Visceral and Peritoneal Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral and peritoneal anomalies are frequently encountered during cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures of abdomen. A thorough knowledge of the same is required for the success of diagnostic, surgical and radiological procedures of abdomen. We report multiple peritoneal and visceral anomalies noted during dissection classes for medical undergraduates. The anomalies were found in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. The right iliac fossa was empty due to the sub-hepatic position of caecum and appendix. The sigmoid colon formed an inverted “U” shaped loop above the sacral promontory in the median position. It entered the pelvis from the right side and descended along the lateral wall of the pelvis. The sigmoid mesocolon was attached obliquely to the posterior abdominal wall, just above the sacral promontory. Further there was a cysto-colic fold of peritoneum extending from the right colic flexure. We discuss the clinical significance of the variations.

  4. Implicit Memory in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latchford

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of neuropsychological studies have revealed that memory problems are relatively common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It may be useful to compare MS with conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD, which have been referred to as subcortical dementia. A characteristic of these conditions may be an impairment in implicit (unconscious memory, but not in explicit (conscious memory. The present study examined the functioning of explicit and implicit memory in MS. Results showed that implicit memory was not significantly impaired in the MS subjects, and that they were impaired on recall but not recognition. A correlation was found between implicit memory performance and disability status in MS patients. Findings also suggest the possibility of long-term priming of implicit memory in the control subjects. The implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Multiplication circuit for particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlier, Jean

    1962-01-01

    After having commented some characteristics of the particles present in a cyclotron, and their interactions, this report addresses the development and the implementation of a method and a device for selecting and counting particles. The author presents the principle and existing techniques of selection. In comparison with an existing device, the proportional counter and the scintillator are replaced by junctions: a surface barrier type junction (a silicon N layer with a very thin oxygen layer playing the role of the P layer), and lithium-based junction (a silicon P type layer made intrinsic by migration of lithium). The author then describes the developed circuit and assembly (background of the choice of a multiplication circuit), and their operation. In the next part, he presents the performed tests and discuses the obtained results. He finally outlines the benefits of the herein presented circuit [fr

  6. Connected health and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M

    2018-04-18

    There is as yet no consensual definition of "connected health". In general, the term refers to the growing use of technology and, in particular, mobile technology in medicine. Over the past 10 years, there have been an increasing number of published reports on the wide-ranging and heterogeneous fields involving the application of technology in medicine, ranging from telemedicine to tools to improve patients' evaluation and monitoring by physicians, as well as a multitude of patient-centered applications. They also represent promising tools in the field of clinical research. This report is a review of the importance of using this technology in the management of multiple sclerosis patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. On multiple prefixation in Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Istratkova

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss instances of multiple prefixation in Bul- garian in the context of the aspectual properties of the Bulgarian verbal system. Up to seven prefixes can stack on a single verbal root in Bulgarian. All of them but the innermost one appear with a rel- atively stable meaning regardless of the meaning of the verbal stem they attach to. Importantly, prefixes will be shown to be able to at- tach to perfective as well as imperfective stems. The phenomenon is an argument against the common view that prefixes uniformly mark perfectivity in Bulgarian. On the bases of prefix co-occurrence and scope interaction, predictions will be made about the derivational hierarchy in case of stacking.

  8. A Robust Two-Phase Pumped Loop With Multiple Evaporators and Multiple Radiators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future spacecraft require advanced thermal management technologies to provide effective cooling for multiple instruments and reject heat through multiple...

  9. Limb apraxia in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There are almost no studies on apraxia in people with multiple sclerosis. Although the white matter is damaged in MS, it is not the only location in which the pathological changes are present. Demyelinated lesions in the cortex have recently been recognized as important components of multiple sclerosis pathology. The aim of this study was to determine whether apraxia is present among people with MS, and the importance of demographic characteristics and impairment of functional systems at conceptualization and execution of movements. Methods. The experimental group consisted of 30 patients, mean age 51.34 ± 7.70 years. The patients in the experimental group were diagnosed with MS according to the McDonald criteria. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects, mean age 50.30 ± 10.47 years. For research purposes, we used the following instruments: Questionnaire for Collecting Demographic Data, Kurtzke Functional Systems Scores, Waterloo-Sunnybrook Apraxia Battery (WatAB. Execution of motion tasks that are a part of the Watwere incorporated in the System for the Observation and Analysis of Motor Behavior. Results. Our study showed that limb apraxia was common in people with MS. Apraxia was present during pantomime in 26.70% of the patients, and during the imitation of movements in 44.80% of the patients. Gender, age, education level, duration of disease and a form of MS did not determine the quality of conceptualization and execution of movements. The time elapsed from the last exacerbation was a determinant of quality of executed movements. Impairments of functional systems predicted impairments of movement execution. The expanded disability scale score correlated with the severity of apraxia. Conclusion. Our study confirm the presence of apraxia in MS. It is necessary to carry out further studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the conduct longitudinal studies to determine the precise structure of

  10. Duration judgements over multiple elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci eAyhan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  11. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  12. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  13. Lattice Multiplication in a Preservice Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Patricia M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the algorithm for multiplication that is referred to as lattice multiplication. Evidence of how the author's preservice students' conceptual understanding of the algorithm grew through the semester is given. In addition, the author extends the conceptualization of the algorithm from the multiplication of whole numbers to the…

  14. Assessing Elementary Understanding of Multiplication Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie Z.; Smith, Marvin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic concepts of multiplication and provides some evidence that the traditional third-grade curriculum and instruction emphasizing memorization of multiplication facts produces much less understanding of the basic concepts of multiplication than a standards-based curriculum and instruction emphasizing construction of…

  15. Closed-Loop Surface Related Multiple Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, in order to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data

  16. Multiple meningiomas | Ojo | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple meningioma is a condition in which the patient has more than 1 meningioma in several intracranial locations with or without signs of neurofibromatosis. The incidence of multiple intracranial meningiomas varies from 1% to 10% in different series. In this case series we report 3 cases of female patients with multiple ...

  17. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  18. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  19. Facilitating Multiple Intelligences through Multimodal Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Ayesha

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner's 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as…

  20. Neuroendocrine immunoregulation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckx, Nathalie; Lee, Wai-Ping; Berneman, Zwi N; Cools, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Moreover, the neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared receptors and shared messenger molecules, variously called hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Discrepancies at any level can therefore lead to changes in susceptibility and to severity of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we provide an overview of the complex system of crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system as well as reported dysfunctions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, including MS. Finally, possible strategies to intervene with the neuroendocrine-immune system for MS patient management will be discussed. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system can open up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MS as well as other autoimmune diseases.

  1. Conformal mapping for multiple terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2016-11-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool that can be used to solve various physical and engineering problems in many fields, including electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. It is an accurate and convenient way to solve problems involving two terminals. However, when faced with problems involving three or more terminals, which are more common in practical applications, existing conformal mapping methods apply assumptions or approximations. A general exact method does not exist for a structure with an arbitrary number of terminals. This study presents a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals. Through an accurate analysis of boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded into the inner part of a mapped region. The method is applied to several typical situations, and the calculation process is described for two examples of an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes and of a light beam splitter with three ports. Compared with previously reported results, the solutions for the two examples based on our method are more precise and general. The proposed method is helpful in promoting the application of conformal mapping in analysis of practical problems.

  2. Rehabilitation challenges in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burks Jack

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While current immunomodulating drugs aim to reduce multiple sclerosis (MS exacerbations and slow disease progression, rehabilitation aims to improve and maintain the functional abilities of patients in the face of disease progression. An increasing number of journal articles are describing the value of the many rehabilitation interventions that can be used throughout the course of the disease, from the initial symptoms to the advanced stages. An integrated team of healthcare professionals is necessary to address a myriad of problems to reduce impairments, disabilities, and handicaps. The problems may be related to fatigue, weakness, spasticity, mobility, balance, pain, cognition, mood, relationships, bowel, bladder, sexual function, swallowing, speech, transportation, employment, recreation, and activities of daily living (ADL such as dressing, eating, bathing, and household chores. The team can help prevent complications and secondary disabilities, while increasing patient safety. Improving neurologically related function, maintaining good relationships, and feeling productive and creative adds enormously to the quality of life of people with MS and their families. Rehabilitation is more than an ′extra′ service that is given after medical therapies; it is an integral part of the management of the diverse set of problems encountered throughout the course of the disease. An interdisciplinary team may have many members, including physicians, nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, psychotherapists, social workers, recreational therapists, vocational rehabilitation therapists, patients, families, and other caregivers.

  3. Cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissart, H; Leroy, M; Morele, E; Baumann, C; Spitz, E; Debouverie, M

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, most studies about efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation interventions have been criticized in terms of methods and/or design. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in MS patients with a cognitive intervention (ProCogSEP* program), compared to a control intervention (discussion program). Twenty MS patients have completed this simple blind study: 10 patients followed 13 sessions (2 hours) of the ProCog-SEP(1) program. Ten other patients followed 13 sessions (2 hours) of a discussion program (Control Group). All patients underwent neuropsychological assessment, before and after their program, in order to evaluate cognitive functions. Two neuropsychologists respectively assessed the patients and conducted the group sessions. Compared to its own baseline, ProCog-SEP Group show improvements in verbal memory [free recall (p = .02), learning (p = .002)], in visual memory [free (p = .05) and delayed recall (p = .007)], in working-memory (p = .03), in verbal fluency (p = .05) and in language (p = .01). Inter group analysis show a benefit of cognitive program mainly in verbal and visual memory, and in verbal fluencies. These results support the interest of a cognitive therapeutic management of MS patients.

  4. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; von Essen, Marina; Ratzer, Rikke Lenhard; Soelberg Sørensen, Per; Romme Christensen, Jeppe

    2017-11-01

    It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive progressive MS according to consensus criteria. Neurofilament light chain (NFL), myelin basic protein (MBP), IgG-index, chitinase-3-like-1 (CHI3L1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), chemokine CXCL13, terminal complement complex, leukocyte counts and nitric oxide metabolites were measured in primary ( n = 26) and secondary progressive MS ( n = 26) and healthy controls ( n = 24). Progressive MS patients had higher CSF cell counts, IgG-index, CHI3L1, MMP-9, CXCL13, NFL and MBP concentrations. Active patients were younger and had higher NFL, CXCL13 and MMP-9 concentrations than inactive patients. Patients with active disease according to consensus criteria or detectable CXCL13 or MMP-9 in CSF were defined as having combined active progressive MS. These patients had increased CSF cell counts, IgG-index and MBP, NFL and CHI3L1 concentrations. Combined inactive patients only had increased IgG-index and MBP concentrations. Patients with combined active progressive MS show evidence of inflammation, demyelination and neuronal/axonal damage, whereas the remaining patients mainly show evidence of active demyelination. This challenges the idea that neurodegeneration independent of inflammation is crucial in disease progression.

  5. Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ≥7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

  6. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  8. Neuroendocrine Immunoregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Moreover, the neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared receptors and shared messenger molecules, variously called hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Discrepancies at any level can therefore lead to changes in susceptibility and to severity of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we provide an overview of the complex system of crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system as well as reported dysfunctions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, including MS. Finally, possible strategies to intervene with the neuroendocrine-immune system for MS patient management will be discussed. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system can open up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MS as well as other autoimmune diseases.

  9. Multiple sclerosis and Capgras' syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoti, Vincenzo; Lorusso, Lorenzo

    2007-11-01

    Psychotic disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), although reported in the literature, are quite rare. The maniac psychosis is increased in MS patients, especially after steroid use, but a pure paranoid (delusional) state is very uncommon. We report a case of a patient with MS complicated by Capgras' syndrome. This disorder, characterized by misidentification and also known as "illusion of double", was first described by the French psychiatrist Joseph Capgras in 1923. Our patient was a 36-year-old female, with a negative psychiatric history; the diagnosis of MS dated back to the age of 18. Subsequently, after a treatment with high dosage of steroids for optic neuritis, her psychiatric symptoms (delusion of references) began and she was then treated with clozapine. Thereafter she had repeated relapses. Immunomodulatory treatments with beta-interferon first and azathioprine then were stopped for intolerance. She came to our hospital for a new relapse with severe dynamic ataxia. After a treatment with corticosteroids the patient developed a paranoid disorder characterized by persecutory delusion (illusion of double) towards her husband. Treatment with glatiramer acetate and quetiapine improved her neuropsychiatric condition.

  10. Functional treatments in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Ardith M; Castro-Borrero, Wanda; Davis, Scott L; Frohman, Teresa C; Frohman, Elliot M

    2011-06-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding and management of symptoms and dysfunctions associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). A broad spectrum of dysfunctions associated with MS are under investigation. Research published in the past year and a half addresses gait dysfunction, exercise training, fatigue, bowel/bladder and sexual dysfunction, and sleep disruption. Functional electrical stimulation and strength training have been validated for improvement in gait and motor function. Exercise training has been shown to benefit mood and quality of life scores and to reduce circulating inflammatory cytokine levels. Fatigue remains a challenging problem with incremental improvements in understanding of underlying causes and effective drug therapies offered by recent work. Treatment of bowel, bladder and sexual dysfunction utilizing a variety of modalities has been investigated with some progress. In the absence of treatments to reverse neurologic injury due to MS, effective symptom management and functional improvement remain essential to mitigate disability and maintain quality of life. Basic research, as well as controlled clinical trials, in this realm offers promising insights and solutions.

  11. Viral triggers of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D

    2011-02-01

    Genetic and environmental factors jointly determine the susceptibility to develop Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Collaborative efforts during the past years achieved substantial progress in defining the genetic architecture, underlying susceptibility to MS. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, HLA-DR and HLA-DQ alleles within the HLA class II region on chromosome 6p21 are the highest-risk-conferring genes. Less-robust susceptibility effects have been identified for MHC class I alleles and for non-MHC regions. The role of environmental risk factors and their interaction with genetic susceptibility alleles are much less well defined, despite the fact that infections have long been associated with MS development. Current data suggest that infectious triggers are most likely ubiquitous, i.e., highly prevalent in the general population, and that they require a permissive genetic trait which predisposes for MS development. In this review article, we illustrate mechanisms of infection-induced immunopathologies in experimental animal models of autoimmune CNS inflammation, discuss challenges for the translation of these experimental data into human immunology research, and provide future perspectives on how novel model systems could be utilized to better define the role of viral pathogens in MS. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Natalizumab therapy of multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest disabling neurological disease of young and middle-aged adults affecting 1 million persons world wide. The illness begins with a relapsing-remitting MS course in 85%-90% of patients; the other 10%-15% have a primary progressive onset MS. Our current understanding is that MS is an autoimmune disorder with an inflammatory T-cell attack on myelin or some component of the oligodendrocyte--myelin structure. Relapses of disease activity result in plaques of demyelination with destruction of myelin and, to a lesser, extent axons. Lymphocytes within the central nervous system tissue recruit more cells leading to an inflammatory cascade that causes myelin damage, axonal disruption, and neuronal death. If the plaque occurs in a vocal area of the central nervous system then symptoms relating to that area result. However, magnetic resonance imaging shows that approximately 10 times more lesions occur in asymptomatic areas of the brain. Recovery from an initial relapse may appear relatively complete but persistent inflammation results in axonal injury and residual disability results. With time and accumulated lesion load, secondary degeneration of denuded axons results in the phase of secondary progressive MS usually 15-20 years after onset.

  13. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/.

  14. Remyelination Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Harlow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds axons and eventual neurodegeneration. Current treatments approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS target the aberrant immune response and successfully reduce the severity of attacks and frequency of relapses. Therapies are still needed that can repair damage particularly for the treatment of progressive forms of MS for which current therapies are relatively ineffective. Remyelination can restore neuronal function and prevent further neuronal loss and clinical disability. Recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating myelination, as well as the development of high throughput screens to identify agents that enhance myelination, have lead to the identification of many potential remyelination therapies currently in pre-clinical and early clinical development. One problem that has plagued the development of treatments to promote remyelination is the difficulty in assessing remyelination in patients with current imaging techniques. Powerful new imaging technologies are making it easier to discern remyelination in patients, which is critical for the assessment of these new therapeutic strategies during clinical trials. This review will summarize what is currently known about remyelination failure in MS, strategies to overcome this failure, new therapeutic treatments in the pipeline for promoting remyelination in MS patients, and new imaging technologies for measuring remyelination in patients.

  15. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tierney

    Full Text Available Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions.

  16. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions.

  17. Maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Harousseau

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of multiple myeloma (MM has changed dramatically in the past twenty years with the introduction of high-dose therapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT in younger patients and, more recently, of three novel agents (thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide. When conventional chemotherapy was the only available possibility, complete responses (CR were very rare and the objective of maintenance was to prolong remission duration by continuing the same type of treatment that induced the initial response. With recent therapeutic improvements, CR achievement becomes a realistic goal that, in most cases, is significantly correlated with the outcome (1. Therefore, both the nature and the impact of maintenance therapy have changed. Maintenance therapy is based currently on novel agents, and its objective is not only to control the clone but also to further decrease the tumor burden and improve the quality of response. A number of randomized studies show a benefit from maintenance therapy with novel agents (until now, mostly thalidomide, at least in terms of response rate and progression-free survival (PFS. However, there is still a debate as concerns the impact on overall survival (OS and the optimal administration of maintenance therapy.

  18. Nutrition Facts in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Riccio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The question whether dietary habits and lifestyle have influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS is still a matter of debate, and at present, MS therapy is not associated with any information on diet and lifestyle. Here we show that dietary factors and lifestyle may exacerbate or ameliorate MS symptoms by modulating the inflammatory status of the disease both in relapsing-remitting MS and in primary-progressive MS. This is achieved by controlling both the metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the human cell and the composition of commensal gut microbiota. What increases inflammation are hypercaloric Western-style diets, characterized by high salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low fiber, and lack of physical exercise. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Conversely, exercise and low-calorie diets based on the assumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, prebiotics, and probiotics act on nuclear receptors and enzymes that upregulate oxidative metabolism, downregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules, and restore or maintain a healthy symbiotic gut microbiota. Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness.

  19. Iron Chelation and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey J. Weigel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1α, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen.

  20. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzi Ettore

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions is recommended.

  2. Hearing disorders in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Miriam; Levine, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that is both a focal inflammatory and a chronic neurodegenerative disease. The focal inflammatory component is characterized by destruction of central nervous system myelin, including the spinal cord; as such it can impair any central neural system, including the auditory system. While on the one hand auditory complaints in MS patients are rare compared to other senses, such as vision and proprioception, on the other hand auditory tests of precise neural timing are never "silent." Whenever focal MS lesions are detected involving the pontine auditory pathway, auditory tests requiring precise neural timing are always abnormal, while auditory functions not requiring such precise timing are often normal. Azimuth sound localization is accomplished by comparing the timing and loudness of the sound at the two ears. Hence tests of azimuth sound localization must obligatorily involve the central nervous system and particularly the brainstem. Whenever a focal lesion was localized to the pontine auditory pathway, timing tests were always abnormal, but loudness tests were not. Moreover, a timing test that included only high-frequency sounds was very often abnormal, even when there was no detectable focal MS lesion involving the pontine auditory pathway. This test may be a marker for the chronic neurodegenerative aspect of MS, and, as such could be used to complement the magnetic resonance imaging scan in monitoring the neurodegenerative aspect of MS. Studies of MS brainstem lesion location and auditory function have led to advances in understanding how the human brain processes sound. The brain processes binaural sounds independently for time and level in a two-stage process. The first stage is at the level of the superior olivary complex (SOC) and the second at a level rostral to the SOC. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

    2012-01-01

    Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

  4. Does vagotomy protect against multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundbøll, Jens; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Adelborg, Kasper; Svensson, Elisabeth

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between vagotomy and multiple sclerosis. We conducted a matched cohort study of all patients who underwent truncal or super-selective vagotomy and a comparison cohort, by linking Danish population-based medical registries (1977-1995). Hazard ratios (HRs) for multiple sclerosis, adjusting for potential confounders were computed by means of Cox regression analysis. Median age of multiple sclerosis onset corresponded to late onset multiple sclerosis. No association with multiple sclerosis was observed for truncal vagotomy (0-37 year adjusted HR=0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-1.74) or super-selective vagotomy (0-37 year adjusted HR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.79-2.09) compared with the general population. We found no association between vagotomy and later risk of late onset multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inventory verification measurements using neutron multiplicity counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Foster, L.A.; Harker, W.C.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a series of neutron multiplicity measurements of large plutonium samples at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The measurements were corrected for bias caused by neutron energy spectrum shifts and nonuniform multiplication, and are compared with calorimetry/isotopics. The results show that multiplicity counting can increase measurement throughput and yield good verification results for some inventory categories. The authors provide recommendations on the future application of the technique to inventory verification

  6. Multiple electromagnetic excitations of relativistic projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llope, W.J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.

    1992-01-01

    Conditions optimum for the first experimental verification of the multiplication electromagnetic excitations of nuclei in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are described. The relative magnitudes of three important physical processes that might interfere with such a measurement are compared to the predicted strengths for the single and multiple electromagnetic excitations for various choices of the projectile mass and beam energy. Strategies are presented for making inferences concerning the presence of multiple excitation strength in experimental data

  7. Atypical manifestations of multiple myeloma: Radiological appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Thomas; Egerer, Gerlinde; Kasper, Bernd; Rasul, Kakil Ibrahim; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Kauffmann, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic procedures performed on patients with multiple myeloma typically reveal lytic bone lesions, osteopenia or osteoporosis, bone marrow infiltration by plasma cells as well as overproduction of immunoglobulin or light chains in the serum or urine. Skeletal manifestations are extremely variable and the unusual forms have been described extensively. Extramedullary plasma-cell tumours (plasmocytoma) are found in about 5% of newly diagnosed patients with multiple myelomas. In this paper we present eight patients with atypical forms of multiple myeloma

  8. Fuzzy Clustering of Multiple Instance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    12], [13]. In this paper, we focus on unsupervised learning for multiple instance data. Our approach, called Fuzzy Clustering of Multiple Instance...Transactions on Fu, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 185–199, 2009. [5] Z. Xia, J. Peng, X. Feng, and J. Fan, “Multiple instance learning for automatic image ...Y. Chen, J. Z. Wang, and D. Geman, “ Image categorization by learning and reasoning with regions,” Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol. 5, pp

  9. Neurofibromatosis and multiple non-ossifying fibromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, R.; Fischedick, A.R.; Edel, G.; Peters, P.E.; Galanski, M.; Muenster Univ.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1987-01-01

    Three patients with a combination of neurofibromatosis and multiple non-ossifying fibromas are presented. All patients possessed multiple osteolytic lesions with sclerotic margins, resembling non-ossifying fibromas. Two patients showed similar lesions in additional localizations. In two patients, non-ossifying fibroma was histologically verified. The simultaneous occurrence of neurofibromatosis and multiple non-ossifying fibromas can possibly be put down to a generalized mesodermal dysplasia. However, the definite explanation is unknown. (orig.) [de

  10. Multiplicativity of left centralizers forcing additivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed Tammam El-Sayiad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiplicative left centralizer for an associative ring R is a map satisfying T(xy = T\\(xy for all x,y in R. T is not assumed to be additive. In this paper we deal with the additivity of the multiplicative left centralizers in a ring which contains an idempotent element. Specially, we study additivity for multiplicative left centralizers in prime and semiprime rings which contain an idempotent element.

  11. Multiple Failure Response Procedure System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Currently, flight controllers are often tasked with generating responses to multiple failures when they occur. However, during future space missions, flight...

  12. Preparation of polypeptides comprising multiple TAA peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing; Jia, Zhengcai; Wu, Yuzhang

    2014-01-01

    Polypeptides consisting of multiple tumor-associated antigen epitopes (multiepitope peptides) are commonly used as therapeutic peptide cancer vaccines in experimental studies and clinical trials. These methods include polypeptides composed of multiple major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell (CTL) epitopes and those containing multiple CTL epitopes and one T helper (Th) epitope. This chapter describes a complete set of methods for preparing multiepitope peptides and branched multiple antigen peptides (MAPs), including sequence design, peptide synthesis, purification, preservation, and the preparation of polypeptide solutions.

  13. Genetic variants and multiple myeloma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martino, Alessandro; Campa, Daniele; Jurczyszyn, Artur

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic background plays a role in multiple myeloma susceptibility. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with genetic susceptibility to multiple myeloma were identified in the last years, but only a few of them were validated in independent studies. METHODS...... with multiple myeloma risk (P value range, 0.055-0.981), possibly with the exception of the SNP rs2227667 (SERPINE1) in women. CONCLUSIONS: We can exclude that the selected polymorphisms are major multiple myeloma risk factors. IMPACT: Independent validation studies are crucial to identify true genetic risk...

  14. Experimental verification of carrier multiplication in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötzing, T; Winzer, T; Malic, E; Neumaier, D; Knorr, A; Kurz, H

    2014-09-10

    We report on the first direct experimental observation of carrier multiplication in graphene reaching a multiplication factor of up to 2 and persisting on a picoseconds time scale. Exploiting multicolor pump-probe measurement techniques, the excited nonequilibrium carrier distribution is retrieved on an ultrafast time scale. This provides access to the temporal evolution of the optically excited carrier density and thus allows quantitative conclusions on possible carrier multiplication. Microscopic time- and momentum-resolved calculations on the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of optically excited carriers confirm the observation of carrier multiplication under corresponding experimental conditions, suggesting graphene as a promising material for novel high-efficiency photodetection devices.

  15. [Hypercoagulation syndrome in multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnova, E S; Pokrovskaia, O S; Gracheva, M A; Vasil'ev, S A; Gemdzhian, É G; Tarandovskiĭ, I D; Mendeleeva, L P

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of blood clotting disorders in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to evaluate the adequacy of preventive anticoagulant or antiaggregant therapy. The prospective study conducted at the Department for High-Dose Chemotherapy and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, in March 2012 to May 2013, enrolled 25 patients (13 men and 12 women) aged 29-72 years (median age 54 years) with new-onset MM. The latter was staged using the Durie-Salmon classification: Stages I, II, and III were determined in 2, 10, and 13 patients, respectively. Seven patients were found to have renal dysfunction (which corresponded to Substage B). The hemostasis was evaluated from the results of the following tests: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), Xlla-dependent fibrinolysis time, Quick prothrombin index, international normalized ratio (INR), and fibrinogen and D-dimer concentrations. The investigators used new hemostatic techniques, such as thrombin generation test, thromboelastography, as well as thrombodynamics, a novel method to determine the characteristics of spatial clot growth. Induction therapy was performed using the PAD and VCD regimens. Thromboses were prevented by using 24-hour infusion of unfractionated heparin (500 U/hr) or by administering aspirin (100 mg/day). Hypercoagulability was identified in 17 (68%) patients. Eleven (44%) patients had elevated D-dimer concentrations. The level of D-dimer was statistically significantly positively correlated with the endogenous thrombin potential and the amount of beta2-microglobulin. The thrombodynamic technique revealed an inverse relationship between the level of paraprotein and the optimal density of a fibrin clot. A thrombotic episode was seen in one elderly (71-year-old) patient after aspirin discontinuation during long-term immobilization. Nearly 50% of the primary patients with MM were ascertained

  16. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  17. Cranial Neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Hayriye Sorgun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that cranial neuropathy findings could be seen in the neurologic examination of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, although brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may not reveal any lesion responsible for the cranial nerve involvement. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of brainstem and cranial nerve involvement, except for olfactory and optic nerves, during MS attacks, and to investigate the rate of an available explanation for the cranial neuropathy findings by lesion localization on brain MRI. METHODS: Ninety-five attacks of 86 MS patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a complete neurological examination, and cranial nerve palsies (CNP were determined during MS attacks. RESULTS: CNP were found as follows: 3rd CNP in 7 (7.4%, 4th CNP in 1 (1.1%, 5th CNP in 6 (6.3%, 6th CNP in 12 (12.6%, 7th CNP in 5 (5.3%, 8th CNP in 4 (4.2%, and 9th and 10th CNP in 2 (2.1% out of 95 attacks. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO was detected in 5 (5.4%, nystagmus in 37 (38.9%, vertigo in 9 (6.3%, and diplopia in 14 (14.7% out of 95 attacks. Pons, mesencephalon and bulbus lesions were detected in 58.7%, 41.5% and 21.1% of the patients, respectively, on the brain MRI. Cranial nerve palsy findings could not be explained by the localization of the lesions on brainstem MRI in 5 attacks; 2 of them were 3rd CNP (1 with INO, 2 were 6th CNP and 1 was a combination of 6th, 7th and 8th CNP. CONCLUSION: The most frequently affected cranial nerve and brainstem region in MS patients is the 6th cranial nerve and pons, respectively. A few of the MS patients have normal brainstem MRI, although they have cranial neuropathy findings in the neurologic examination.

  18. Cranial Neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Hayriye Sorgun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that cranial neuropathy findings could be seen in the neurologic examination of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, although brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may not reveal any lesion responsible for the cranial nerve involvement. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of brainstem and cranial nerve involvement, except for olfactory and optic nerves, during MS attacks, and to investigate the rate of an available explanation for the cranial neuropathy findings by lesion localization on brain MRI. METHODS: Ninety-five attacks of 86 MS patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a complete neurological examination, and cranial nerve palsies (CNP were determined during MS attacks. RESULTS: CNP were found as follows: 3rd CNP in 7 (7.4%, 4th CNP in 1 (1.1%, 5th CNP in 6 (6.3%, 6th CNP in 12 (12.6%, 7th CNP in 5 (5.3%, 8th CNP in 4 (4.2%, and 9th and 10th CNP in 2 (2.1% out of 95 attacks. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO was detected in 5 (5.4%, nystagmus in 37 (38.9%, vertigo in 9 (6.3%, and diplopia in 14 (14.7% out of 95 attacks. Pons, mesencephalon and bulbus lesions were detected in 58.7%, 41.5% and 21.1% of the patients, respectively, on the brain MRI. Cranial nerve palsy findings could not be explained by the localization of the lesions on brainstem MRI in 5 attacks; 2 of them were 3rd CNP (1 with INO, 2 were 6th CNP and 1 was a combination of 6th, 7th and 8th CNP. CONCLUSION: The most frequently affected cranial nerve and brainstem region in MS patients is the 6th cranial nerve and pons, respectively. A few of the MS patients have normal brainstem MRI, although they have cranial neuropathy findings in the neurologic examination

  19. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutashov V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify the degree of cognitive impairment (CN and to optimize the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Material and methods. A total of 695 patients (278 men and 417 women were ranged from 18 to 63 years. The mean age was 30.2±0.7 years: women (417 28.5±0.5 years, while for men (278 31.8±0.7 years. Relaps-ing-remitting type (RT of MS was established in 520 patients (74.8%, secondary progressive type (VPT MS in 132 patients (18.9% and primary progressive type (PPT MS in 10 patients (1.5%. Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS was detected in 33 patients (4.8%. The diagnosis of MS 662 patients according to the criteria McDonald etal. (2005. Score of neurologic deficit was carried out on an extended scale of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale — EDSS. CN were evaluated by conventional tests. To estimate the orientation in time, assessment of short-term and long-term memory, attention and concentration, as well as executive functions, memory, language, evaluation of optical-spatial activities, conceptual thinking, the account used by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA. For the screening of dementia with a primary lesion of the frontal lobes and subcortical cerebral structures used battery frontal test to assess frontal dysfunction. Results. The ratio of male (265 and female (397 was 1:1.5. The severity of the condition patients EDSS scale ranged from 1.5 to 8.0 points, and the average score was 3.5±1.2. In the group of patients with RT RS average score EDSS was more than a half (2.5±1.1, than in the group of patients with MS VAC (5.5±1.2 and POS PC (6.5±1.2. In the study of history, it was found that the development of the RS (662 patients was preceded by the following conditions: a viral infection in 277 patients (41.84%; fatigue in 147 patients (22.21%; transferred psycho-emotional load from 218 (32.93%; after pregnancy and childbirth in 20 patients (3.02%. Conclusion. Among the patients with MS

  20. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...