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Sample records for autogenous translational regulation

  1. [Effect of autogenic training on glucose regulation and lipid status in non-insulin dependent diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, N; Secen, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the benefits of autogenic training in patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 diabetics treated with oral antidiabetic agents were assigned to receive autogenic training. Treatment effects on GHb levels, glycemia, lipids and lipid peroxidases were evaluated after 12 weeks. Subjects demonstrated significant improvements of GHb level (8.94 +/- 2.21% vs. 7.9 +/- 2.395) (p autogenic training (1.21 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.36 +/- 1.42) (p training (6.63 +/- 1.66 mmol/l vs. 6.10 +/- 1.12 mmol/l) (p Autogenic training in selected patients, especially those who are most responsive to stress would provide benefits for glucosE control and lipid metabolism that are not always achieved by conventional treatment.

  2. Post-translational regulation enables robust p53 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Chen, Kai-Yuan; Sayed, Ali H; Hencey, Brandon; Shen, Xiling

    2013-08-30

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in DNA damage repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Due to its critical functions, the level of p53 is tightly regulated by a negative feedback mechanism to increase its tolerance towards fluctuations and disturbances. Interestingly, the p53 level is controlled by post-translational regulation rather than transcriptional regulation in this feedback mechanism. We analyzed the dynamics of this feedback to understand whether post-translational regulation provides any advantages over transcriptional regulation in regard to disturbance rejection. When a disturbance happens, even though negative feedback reduces the steady-state error, it can cause a system to become less stable and transiently overshoots, which may erroneously trigger downstream reactions. Therefore, the system needs to balance the trade-off between steady-state and transient errors. Feedback control and adaptive estimation theories revealed that post-translational regulation achieves a better trade-off than transcriptional regulation, contributing to a more steady level of p53 under the influence of noise and disturbances. Furthermore, post-translational regulation enables cells to respond more promptly to stress conditions with consistent amplitude. However, for better disturbance rejection, the p53- Mdm2 negative feedback has to pay a price of higher stochastic noise. Our analyses suggest that the p53-Mdm2 feedback favors regulatory mechanisms that provide the optimal trade-offs for dynamic control.

  3. Regulation of translation during cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petz, M.

    2012-01-01

    Laminin B1 (LamB1) is a main component of the extracellular matrix and is involved in the regulation of tumor cell migration and invasion of during carcinogenesis. Metastasis of carcinoma cells is crucially linked to the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which allows tumor cells to acquire a more motile phenotype and to dissociate from the epithelial cell cluster of the tumor. Expression profiling of polysome-associated mRNA revealed LamB1 to be translationally upregulated upon EMT of malignant hepatocytes. The enhanced translation of LamB1 in metastatic hepatocytes proved to be regulated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located within the 5’-untranslated region (UTR) of the LamB1 transcript. IRES activity was detected by employing two independent reporter systems and verified by stringent assays for the presence of cryptic promoter or splice sites. The minimal cis-acting IRES sequence of 293 nucleotides that is required for cap-independent translation was localized directly upstream of the start codon. Notably, the IRES trans-acting factor (ITAF) La was identified by RNA affinity purification as regulatory factor that interacts with LamB1 5’-UTR. This interaction was verified by RNA-immunoprecipitation in vivo, which revealed enhanced binding of La to the minimal IRES motif of LamB1 after EMT. Consistently, cytoplasmic levels of La were elevated in EMT-transformed cells and correlated with increased LamB1 protein expression. Furthermore, IRES-driven translation of LamB1 was elevated in the presence of La in vitro. Importantly, the EMT-induced cytoplasmic translocation of La was found to be triggered by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) that is downstream of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. Together, these data demonstrate that La interacts with the LamB1 IRES in the cytoplasm, resulting in enhanced cap-independent translation of LamB1 in malignant hepatocytes that have undergone EMT. (author) [de

  4. Extensive translational regulation during seed germination revealed by polysomal profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Bing; Peviani, Alessia; Horst, van der Sjors; Gamm, Magdalena; Snel, Berend; Bentsink, Leónie; Hanson, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the extent of translational regulation during seed germination. The polysome occupancy of each gene is determined by genome-wide profiling of total mRNA and polysome-associated mRNA. This reveals extensive translational regulation during Arabidopsis thaliana seed

  5. The significance of translation regulation in the stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The stress response in bacteria involves the multistage control of gene expression but is not entirely understood. To identify the translational response of bacteria in stress conditions and assess its contribution to the regulation of gene expression, the translational states of all mRNAs were compared under optimal growth condition and during nutrient (isoleucine) starvation. Results A genome-scale study of the translational response to nutritional limitation was performed in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Two measures were used to assess the translational status of each individual mRNA: the fraction engaged in translation (ribosome occupancy) and ribosome density (number of ribosomes per 100 nucleotides). Under isoleucine starvation, half of the mRNAs considered were translationally down-regulated mainly due to decreased ribosome density. This pattern concerned genes involved in growth-related functions such as translation, transcription, and the metabolism of fatty acids, phospholipids and bases, contributing to the slowdown of growth. Only 4% of the mRNAs were translationally up-regulated, mostly related to prophagic expression in response to stress. The remaining genes exhibited antagonistic regulations of the two markers of translation. Ribosome occupancy increased significantly for all the genes involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, although their ribosome density had decreased. The results revealed complex translational regulation of this pathway, essential to cope with isoleucine starvation. To elucidate the regulation of global gene expression more generally, translational regulation was compared to transcriptional regulation under isoleucine starvation and to other post-transcriptional regulations related to mRNA degradation and mRNA dilution by growth. Translational regulation appeared to accentuate the effects of transcriptional changes for down-regulated growth-related functions under isoleucine starvation although m

  6. Regulation of mRNA translation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Weissman, Jonathan S; Vale, Ronald D

    2015-08-25

    Passage through mitosis is driven by precisely-timed changes in transcriptional regulation and protein degradation. However, the importance of translational regulation during mitosis remains poorly understood. Here, using ribosome profiling, we find both a global translational repression and identified ~200 mRNAs that undergo specific translational regulation at mitotic entry. In contrast, few changes in mRNA abundance are observed, indicating that regulation of translation is the primary mechanism of modulating protein expression during mitosis. Interestingly, 91% of the mRNAs that undergo gene-specific regulation in mitosis are translationally repressed, rather than activated. One of the most pronounced translationally-repressed genes is Emi1, an inhibitor of the anaphase promoting complex (APC) which is degraded during mitosis. We show that full APC activation requires translational repression of Emi1 in addition to its degradation. These results identify gene-specific translational repression as a means of controlling the mitotic proteome, which may complement post-translational mechanisms for inactivating protein function.

  7. The significance of translation regulation in the stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Flora; Loubière, Pascal; Girbal, Laurence; Bousquet, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The stress response in bacteria involves the multistage control of gene expression but is not entirely understood. To identify the translational response of bacteria in stress conditions and assess its contribution to the regulation of gene expression, the translational states of all mRNAs were compared under optimal growth condition and during nutrient (isoleucine) starvation. Results: A genome-scale study of the translational response to nutritional limitation was performed in t...

  8. Regulation of protein translation initiation in response to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivigno, Donatella; Bornes, Laura; Huber, Stephan M; Rudner, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Proliferating tumor cells require continuous protein synthesis. De novo synthesis of most proteins is regulated through cap-dependent translation. Cellular stress such as ionizing radiation (IR) blocks cap-dependent translation resulting in shut-down of global protein translation which saves resources and energy needed for the stress response. At the same time, levels of proteins required for stress response are maintained or even increased. The study aimed to analyze the regulation of signaling pathways controlling protein translation in response to IR and the impact on Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic and radioprotective protein, which levels rapidly decline upon IR. Protein levels and processing were analyzed by Western blot. The assembly of the translational pre-initiation complex was examined by Immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments with 7-methyl GTP agarose. To analyze IR-induced cell death, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation were determined by flow cytometry. Protein levels of the different initiation factors were down-regulated using RNA interference approach. IR induced caspase-dependent cleavage of the translational initiation factors eIF4G1, eIF3A, and eIF4B resulting in disassembly of the cap-dependent initiation complex. In addition, DAP5-dependent initiation complex that regulates IRES-dependent translation was disassembled in response to IR. Moreover, IR resulted in dephosphorylation of 4EBP1, an inhibitor of cap-dependent translation upstream of caspase activation. However, knock-down of eIF4G1, eIF4B, DAP5, or 4EBP1 did not affect IR-induced decline of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Our data shows that cap-dependent translation is regulated at several levels in response to IR. However, the experiments indicate that IR-induced Mcl-1 decline is not a consequence of translational inhibition in Jurkat cells

  9. Regulation of protein translation initiation in response to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivigno Donatella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proliferating tumor cells require continuous protein synthesis. De novo synthesis of most proteins is regulated through cap-dependent translation. Cellular stress such as ionizing radiation (IR blocks cap-dependent translation resulting in shut-down of global protein translation which saves resources and energy needed for the stress response. At the same time, levels of proteins required for stress response are maintained or even increased. The study aimed to analyze the regulation of signaling pathways controlling protein translation in response to IR and the impact on Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic and radioprotective protein, which levels rapidly decline upon IR. Methods Protein levels and processing were analyzed by Western blot. The assembly of the translational pre-initiation complex was examined by Immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments with 7-methyl GTP agarose. To analyze IR-induced cell death, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation were determined by flow cytometry. Protein levels of the different initiation factors were down-regulated using RNA interference approach. Results IR induced caspase-dependent cleavage of the translational initiation factors eIF4G1, eIF3A, and eIF4B resulting in disassembly of the cap-dependent initiation complex. In addition, DAP5-dependent initiation complex that regulates IRES-dependent translation was disassembled in response to IR. Moreover, IR resulted in dephosphorylation of 4EBP1, an inhibitor of cap-dependent translation upstream of caspase activation. However, knock-down of eIF4G1, eIF4B, DAP5, or 4EBP1 did not affect IR-induced decline of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Conclusion Our data shows that cap-dependent translation is regulated at several levels in response to IR. However, the experiments indicate that IR-induced Mcl-1 decline is not a consequence of translational inhibition in Jurkat cells.

  10. Regulation of Translation Initiation under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Castro-Sanz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed versatile strategies to deal with the great variety of challenging conditions they are exposed to. Among them, the regulation of translation is a common target to finely modulate gene expression both under biotic and abiotic stress situations. Upon environmental challenges, translation is regulated to reduce the consumption of energy and to selectively synthesize proteins involved in the proper establishment of the tolerance response. In the case of viral infections, the situation is more complex, as viruses have evolved unconventional mechanisms to regulate translation in order to ensure the production of the viral encoded proteins using the plant machinery. Although the final purpose is different, in some cases, both plants and viruses share common mechanisms to modulate translation. In others, the mechanisms leading to the control of translation are viral- or stress-specific. In this paper, we review the different mechanisms involved in the regulation of translation initiation under virus infection and under environmental stress in plants. In addition, we describe the main features within the viral RNAs and the cellular mRNAs that promote their selective translation in plants undergoing biotic and abiotic stress situations.

  11. Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 regulates erythropoiesis by controlling GATA1 translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Veiga, Diogo Ft; Maslowski, Kendle M; Andina, Nicola; Tardivel, Aubry; Yu, Eric Chi-Wang; Stilinovic, Martina; Simillion, Cedric; Duchosal, Michel A; Quadroni, Manfredo; Roberts, Irene; Sankaran, Vijay G; MacDonald, H Robson; Fasel, Nicolas; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Schneider, Pascal; Hoang, Trang; Allam, Ramanjaneyulu

    2018-04-02

    Ribosomal proteins (RP) regulate specific gene expression by selectively translating subsets of mRNAs. Indeed, in Diamond-Blackfan anemia and 5q- syndrome, mutations in RP genes lead to a specific defect in erythroid gene translation and cause anemia. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of selective mRNA translation and involvement of ribosomal-associated factors in this process. Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 (RNH1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that binds to and inhibits pancreatic-type ribonucleases. Here, we report that RNH1 binds to ribosomes and regulates erythropoiesis by controlling translation of the erythroid transcription factor GATA1. Rnh1-deficient mice die between embryonic days E8.5 and E10 due to impaired production of mature erythroid cells from progenitor cells. In Rnh1-deficient embryos, mRNA levels of Gata1 are normal, but GATA1 protein levels are decreased. At the molecular level, we found that RNH1 binds to the 40S subunit of ribosomes and facilitates polysome formation on Gata1 mRNA to confer transcript-specific translation. Further, RNH1 knockdown in human CD34+ progenitor cells decreased erythroid differentiation without affecting myelopoiesis. Our results reveal an unsuspected role for RNH1 in the control of GATA1 mRNA translation and erythropoiesis.

  12. Regulation of mRNA translation influences hypoxia tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koritzinsky, M.; Wouters, B.G.; Koumenis, C.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia is a heterogenous but common characteristic of human tumours and poor oxygenation is associated with poor prognosis. We believe that the presence of viable hypoxic tumor cells reflects in part an adaptation and tolerance of these cells to oxygen deficiency. Since oxidative phosphorylation is compromized during hypoxia, adaptation may involve both the upregulation of glycolysis as well as downregulation of energy consumption. mRNA translation is one of the most energy costly cellular processes, and we and others have shown that global mRNA translation is rapidly inhibited during hypoxia. However, some mRNAs, including those coding for HIF-1 α and VEGF, remain efficiently translated during hypoxia. Clearly, the mechanisms responsible for the overall inhibition of translation during hypoxia does not compromize the translation of certain hypoxia-induced mRNA species. We therefore hypothesize that the inhibition of mRNA translation serves to promote hypoxia tolerance in two ways: i) through conservation of energy and ii) through differential gene expression involved in hypoxia adaptation. We have recently identified two pathways that are responsible for the global inhibition of translation during hypoxia. The phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 α by the ER resident kinase PERK results in down-regulation of protein synthesis shortly after the onset of hypoxia. In addition, the initiation complex eIF4F is disrupted during long lasting hypoxic conditions. The identification of the molecular pathways responsible for the inhibition of overall translation during hypoxia has rendered it possible to investigate their importance for hypoxia tolerance. We have found that mouse embryo fibroblasts that are knockout for PERK and therefore not able to inhibit protein synthesis efficiently during oxygen deficiency are significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than their wildtype counterparts. We are currently also investigating the functional significance

  13. Translational regulation shapes the molecular landscape of complex disease phenotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schafer, S.; Adami, E.; Heinig, M.; Rodrigues, K. E. C.; Kreuchwig, F.; Šilhavý, Jan; van Heesch, S.; Simaite, D.; Rajewsky, N.; Cuppen, E.; Pravenec, Michal; Vingron, M.; Cook, S. A.; Hubner, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, May 2015 (2015), s. 7200 ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : translational regulation * RNA sequencing * ribosome profiling * rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015

  14. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  15. Autogenous regulation and kinetics of induction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recA transcription as analyzed with operon fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.M.; Ohman, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) was used to construct recA-cat operon fusions to quantitatively examine the transcriptional regulation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa recA gene in P. aeruginosa PAO. Wild-type P. aeruginosa containing the recA8-cat fusion was treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and showed immediate induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) specific activity, whereas a recA::Tn501 mutant of P. aeruginosa containing recA8-cat showed no induction with MMS. This indicated that a functional copy of recA was required for derepression of recA transcription and that P. aeruginosa recA protein was a positive regulatory factor promoting its own expression. Compared with that in the wild type, the uninduced level of CAT in recA8-cat-containing cells was reduced by approximately one-half in the recA::Tn501 mutant, indicating that recA+-dependent spontaneous induction contributes to the uninduced levels of recA expression in P. aeruginosa. MMS (0.012%) caused recA-directed CAT synthesis to increase almost immediately, with maximum CAT activity, fourfold higher than uninduced levels, attained at 60 min postinduction. The kinetics of recA8-cat fusion activity were shown to be directly related to the MMS doses used. Another fusion called recAa1-cat, where cat was located between the two transcriptional terminators of the P. aeruginosa recA gene, also showed dose-dependent induction by MMS, but the CAT activity from recAa1-cat was only one-half of that obtained with recA8-cat under the same conditions. Treatment of recA+ P. aeruginosa containing recA8-cat with UV irradiation produced an immediate effect on recA8-cat transcription and showed little UV dose dependency at doses of 5 J/m2 or greater

  16. AUTOGENIC THERAPY IN TENSION HEADACHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amruthraj, Brunda; Mishra, H.; Kumaraiah, V.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Ten subjects diagnosed as Psychalgia were taken for study. A multiple baseline design was adapted and clients were subjected to 30 sessions of autogenic training. They were assessed using physiological (EMG and thermal change) and behavioural measures (Visual analogue scale and behavioural symptom checklist). Findings revealed autogenic therapy to be effective in reducing tension headache. PMID:21927245

  17. AUTOGENIC THERAPY IN TENSION HEADACHE

    OpenAIRE

    Amruthraj, Brunda; Mishra, H.; Kumaraiah, V.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Ten subjects diagnosed as Psychalgia were taken for study. A multiple baseline design was adapted and clients were subjected to 30 sessions of autogenic training. They were assessed using physiological (EMG and thermal change) and behavioural measures (Visual analogue scale and behavioural symptom checklist). Findings revealed autogenic therapy to be effective in reducing tension headache.

  18. Local translation in primary afferent fibers regulates nociception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Jiménez-Díaz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of local protein synthesis for neuronal plasticity. In particular, local mRNA translation through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been shown to play a key role in regulating dendrite excitability and modulating long-term synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory. There is also increased evidence to suggest that intact adult mammalian axons have a functional requirement for local protein synthesis in vivo. Here we show that the translational machinery is present in some myelinated sensory fibers and that active mTOR-dependent pathways participate in maintaining the sensitivity of a subpopulation of fast-conducting nociceptors in vivo. Phosphorylated mTOR together with other downstream components of the translational machinery were localized to a subset of myelinated sensory fibers in rat cutaneous tissue. We then showed with electromyographic studies that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced the sensitivity of a population of myelinated nociceptors known to be important for the increased mechanical sensitivity that follows injury. Behavioural studies confirmed that local treatment with rapamycin significantly attenuated persistent pain that follows tissue injury, but not acute pain. Specifically, we found that rapamycin blunted the heightened response to mechanical stimulation that develops around a site of injury and reduced the long-term mechanical hypersensitivity that follows partial peripheral nerve damage--a widely used model of chronic pain. Our results show that the sensitivity of a subset of sensory fibers is maintained by ongoing mTOR-mediated local protein synthesis and uncover a novel target for the control of long-term pain states.

  19. Model of cap-dependent translation initiation in sea urchin: a step towards the eukaryotic translation regulation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellé, Robert; Prigent, Sylvain; Siegel, Anne; Cormier, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    The large and rapid increase in the rate of protein synthesis following fertilization of the sea urchin egg has long been a paradigm of translational control, an important component of the regulation of gene expression in cells. This translational up-regulation is linked to physiological changes that occur upon fertilization and is necessary for entry into first cell division cycle. Accumulated knowledge on cap-dependent initiation of translation makes it suited and timely to start integrating the data into a system view of biological functions. Using a programming environment for system biology coupled with model validation (named Biocham), we have built an integrative model for cap-dependent initiation of translation. The model is described by abstract rules. It contains 51 reactions involved in 74 molecular complexes. The model proved to be coherent with existing knowledge by using queries based on computational tree logic (CTL) as well as Boolean simulations. The model could simulate the change in translation occurring at fertilization in the sea urchin model. It could also be coupled with an existing model designed for cell-cycle control. Therefore, the cap-dependent translation initiation model can be considered a first step towards the eukaryotic translation regulation network.

  20. Translational profiling in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: no evidence for glucocorticoid regulation of mRNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneichyk, Tatsiana; Bindreither, Daniel; Mantinger, Christine; Grazio, Daniela; Goetsch, Katrin; Kofler, Reinhard; Rainer, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are natural stress induced steroid hormones causing cell cycle arrest and cell death in lymphoid tissues. Therefore they are the central component in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies, in particular childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (chALL). GCs act mainly via regulating gene transcription, which has been intensively studied by us and others. GC control of mRNA translation has also been reported but has never been assessed systematically. In this study we investigate the effect of GCs on mRNA translation on a genome-wide scale. Childhood T- (CCRF-CEM) and precursor B-ALL (NALM6) cells were exposed to GCs and subjected to "translational profiling", a technique combining sucrose-gradient fractionation followed by Affymetrix Exon microarray analysis of mRNA from different fractions, to assess the translational efficiency of the expressed genes. Analysis of GC regulation in ribosome-bound fractions versus transcriptional regulation revealed no significant differences, i.e., GC did not entail a significant shift between ribosomal bound and unbound mRNAs. In the present study we analyzed for the first time possible effects of GC on the translational efficiency of expressed genes in two chALL model systems employing whole genome polysome profiling. Our results did not reveal significant differences in translational efficiency of expressed genes thereby arguing against a potential widespread regulatory effect of GCs on translation at least in the investigated in vitro systems.

  1. Bacterial translational regulations: high diversity between all mRNAs and major role in gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picard Flora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria, the weak correlations at the genome scale between mRNA and protein levels suggest that not all mRNAs are translated with the same efficiency. To experimentally explore mRNA translational level regulation at the systemic level, the detailed translational status (translatome of all mRNAs was measured in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis in exponential phase growth. Results Results demonstrated that only part of the entire population of each mRNA species was engaged in translation. For transcripts involved in translation, the polysome size reached a maximum of 18 ribosomes. The fraction of mRNA engaged in translation (ribosome occupancy and ribosome density were not constant for all genes. This high degree of variability was analyzed by bioinformatics and statistical modeling in order to identify general rules of translational regulation. For most of the genes, the ribosome density was lower than the maximum value revealing major control of translation by initiation. Gene function was a major translational regulatory determinant. Both ribosome occupancy and ribosome density were particularly high for transcriptional regulators, demonstrating the positive role of translational regulation in the coordination of transcriptional networks. mRNA stability was a negative regulatory factor of ribosome occupancy and ribosome density, suggesting antagonistic regulation of translation and mRNA stability. Furthermore, ribosome occupancy was identified as a key component of intracellular protein levels underlining the importance of translational regulation. Conclusions We have determined, for the first time in a bacterium, the detailed translational status for all mRNAs present in the cell. We have demonstrated experimentally the high diversity of translational states allowing individual gene differentiation and the importance of translation-level regulation in the complex process linking gene expression to protein

  2. Autogenic training and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, M; Doll, E

    1997-06-01

    The present study has investigated the relationship between Autogenic Training and dream recall for 112 participants in 16 beginning courses of 10 wk. Analyses confirmed the hypothesis that learning and practicing this relaxation technique enhanced dream recall.

  3. 4EGI-1 represses cap-dependent translation and regulates genome-wide translation in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Arpita; Jacobson, Blake A; Peterson, Mark S; Jay-Dixon, Joe; Kratzke, Marian G; Sadiq, Ahad A; Patel, Manish R; Kratzke, Robert A

    2018-04-01

    Deregulation of cap-dependent translation has been implicated in the malignant transformation of numerous human tissues. 4EGI-1, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of cap-dependent translation, disrupts formation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex. The effects of 4EGI-1-mediated inhibition of translation initiation in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) were examined. 4EGI-1 preferentially inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in MPM cells compared to normal mesothelial (LP9) cells. This effect was associated with hypophosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and decreased protein levels of the cancer-related genes, c-myc and osteopontin. 4EGI-1 showed enhanced cytotoxicity in combination with pemetrexed or gemcitabine. Translatome-wide polysome microarray analysis revealed a large cohort of genes that were translationally regulated upon treatment with 4EGI-1. The 4EGI-1-regulated translatome was negatively correlated to a previously published translatome regulated by eIF4E overexpression in human mammary epithelial cells, which is in agreement with the notion that 4EGI-1 inhibits the eIF4F complex. These data indicate that inhibition of the eIF4F complex by 4EGI-1 or similar translation inhibitors could be a strategy for treating mesothelioma. Genome wide translational profiling identified a large cohort of promising target genes that should be further evaluated for their potential significance in the treatment of MPM.

  4. Ribosome stalling regulates IRES-mediated translation in eukaryotes, a parallel to prokaryotic attenuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, James; Yaman, Ibrahim; Huang, Charles; Liu, Haiyan; Lopez, Alex B.; Komar, Anton A.; Caprara, Mark G.; Merrick, William C.; Snider, Martin D.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2005-01-01

    It was previously shown that the mRNA for the cat-1 Arg/Lys transporter is translated from an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is regulated by cellular stress. Amino acid starvation stimulated cat-1 translation via a mechanism that requires translation of an ORF in the mRNA leader and

  5. Translational regulation in the anoxic turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szereszewski, Kama E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2017-12-14

    The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), has developed remarkable adaptive mechanisms for coping with decreased oxygen availability during winter when lakes and ponds become covered with ice. Strategies for enduring anoxia tolerance include an increase in fermentable fuel reserves to support anaerobic glycolysis, the buffering of end products to minimize acidosis, altered expression in crucial survival genes, and strong metabolic rate suppression to minimize ATP-expensive metabolic processes such as protein synthesis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is at the center of the insulin-signaling pathway that regulates protein translation. The present study analyzed the responses of the mTOR signaling pathway to 5 (5H) or 20 h (20H) of anoxic submergence in liver and skeletal muscle of T. scripta elegans with a particular focus on regulatory changes in the phosphorylation states of targets. The data showed that phosphorylation of multiple mTOR targets was suppressed in skeletal muscle, but activated in the liver. Phosphorylated mTOR Ser2448 showed no change in skeletal muscle but had increased by approximately 4.5-fold in the liver after 20H of anoxia. The phosphorylation states of upstream positive regulators of mTOR (p-PDK-1 Ser241 , p-AKT Ser473 , and protein levels of GβL), the relative levels of dephosphorylated active PTEN, as well as phosphorylation state of negative regulators (TSC2 Thr1462 , p-PRAS40 Thr246 ) were generally found to be differentially regulated in skeletal muscle and in liver. Downstream targets of mTOR (p-p70 S6K Thr389 , p-S6 Ser235 , PABP, p-4E-BP1 Thr37/46 , and p-eIF4E Ser209 ) were generally unchanged in skeletal muscle but upregulated in most targets in liver. These findings indicate that protein synthesis is enhanced in the liver and suggests an increase in the synthesis of crucial proteins required for anoxic survival.

  6. Analyzing the temporal regulation of translation efficiency in mouse liver

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    Peggy Janich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian physiology and behavior follow daily rhythms that are orchestrated by endogenous timekeepers known as circadian clocks. Rhythms in transcription are considered the main mechanism to engender rhythmic gene expression, but important roles for posttranscriptional mechanisms have recently emerged as well (reviewed in Lim and Allada (2013 [1]. We have recently reported on the use of ribosome profiling (RPF-seq, a method based on the high-throughput sequencing of ribosome protected mRNA fragments, to explore the temporal regulation of translation efficiency (Janich et al., 2015 [2]. Through the comparison of around-the-clock RPF-seq and matching RNA-seq data we were able to identify 150 genes, involved in ribosome biogenesis, iron metabolism and other pathways, whose rhythmicity is generated entirely at the level of protein synthesis. The temporal transcriptome and translatome data sets from this study have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus under the accession number GSE67305. Here we provide additional information on the experimental setup and on important optimization steps pertaining to the ribosome profiling technique in mouse liver and to data analysis.

  7. Comment on autogenic training and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, M; Sato, T; Takeichi, M; Fakunishi, I

    1997-06-01

    We comment on a report by Watanabe, et al. regarding the effects of autogenic training on hypertension. Using previous reports in the United States, we mention methodological problems on how to evaluate the effects of autogenic training and express our hope that they would provide further research to clarify the effects of autogenic training on hypertension.

  8. Post-translational modifications regulate signalling by Ror1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaucká, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Plevová, K.; Pavlová, Š.; Procházková, Jiřina; Janovská, P.; Valnohová, J.; Kozubík, Alois; Pospíšilová, Š.; Bryja, Vítězslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 3 (2011), s. 351-362 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : chronic lymphocytic leukaemia * glycosylation * post-translational modification Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.090, year: 2011

  9. Regulation of dynamin family proteins by post-translational

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-22

    Apr 22, 2017 ... School of Biological Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research-. Bhubaneswar .... translational modifications provides the cell a dynamic and ..... Drp1 which confers cellular protection from mitochondrial.

  10. The Drosophila PNG kinase complex regulates the translation of cyclin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, Leah; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2007-01-01

    The Drosophila PAN GU (PNG) kinase complex regulates the developmental translation of cyclin B. cyclin B mRNA becomes unmasked during oogenesis independent of PNG activity, but PNG is required for translation from egg activation. We find that although polyadenylation of cyclin B augments translation, it is not essential, and a fully elongated poly(A) is not required for translation to proceed. In fact, changes in poly(A) tail length are not sufficient to account for PNG-mediated control of cyclin B translation and of the early embryonic cell cycles. We present evidence that PNG functions instead as an antagonist of PUMILIO-dependent translational repression. Our data argue that changes in poly(A) tail length are not a universal mechanism governing embryonic cell cycles, and that PNG-mediated derepression of translation is an important alternative mechanism in Drosophila.

  11. Regulation of Translational Efficiency by Disparate 5′-UTRs of PPARγ Splice Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn McClelland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPAR-γ gene encodes for at least 7 unique transcripts due to alternative splicing of five exons in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR. The translated region is encoded by exons 1–6, which are identical in all isoforms. This study investigated the role of the 5′-UTR in regulating the efficiency with which the message is translated to protein. A coupled in vitro transcription-translation assay demonstrated that PPAR-γ1, -γ2, and -γ5 are efficiently translated, whereas PPAR-γ4 and -γ7 are poorly translated. An in vivo reporter gene assay using each 5′-UTR upstream of the firefly luciferase gene showed that the 5′-UTRs for PPAR-γ1, -γ2, and -γ4 enhanced translation, whereas the 5′-UTRs for PPAR-γ5 and -γ7 inhibited translation. Models of RNA secondary structure, obtained by the mfold software, were used to explain the mechanism of regulation by each 5′-UTR. In general, it was found that the translational efficiency was inversely correlated with the stability of the mRNA secondary structure, the presence of base-pairing in the consensus Kozak sequence, the number of start codons in the 5′-UTR, and the length of the 5′-UTR. A better understanding of posttranscriptional regulation of translation will allow modulation of protein levels without altering transcription.

  12. Chloroplast Translation: Structural and Functional Organization, Operational Control, and Regulation[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Chloroplast translation is essential for cellular viability and plant development. Its positioning at the intersection of organellar RNA and protein metabolism makes it a unique point for the regulation of gene expression in response to internal and external cues. Recently obtained high-resolution structures of plastid ribosomes, the development of approaches allowing genome-wide analyses of chloroplast translation (i.e., ribosome profiling), and the discovery of RNA binding proteins involved in the control of translational activity have greatly increased our understanding of the chloroplast translation process and its regulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the chloroplast translation machinery, its structure, organization, and function. In addition, we summarize the techniques that are currently available to study chloroplast translation and describe how translational activity is controlled and which cis-elements and trans-factors are involved. Finally, we discuss how translational control contributes to the regulation of chloroplast gene expression in response to developmental, environmental, and physiological cues. We also illustrate the commonalities and the differences between the chloroplast and bacterial translation machineries and the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis in these two prokaryotic systems. PMID:29610211

  13. Codon usage regulates protein structure and function by affecting translation elongation speed in Drosophila cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fangzhou; Yu, Chien-Hung; Liu, Yi

    2017-08-21

    Codon usage biases are found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and have been proposed to regulate different aspects of translation process. Codon optimality has been shown to regulate translation elongation speed in fungal systems, but its effect on translation elongation speed in animal systems is not clear. In this study, we used a Drosophila cell-free translation system to directly compare the velocity of mRNA translation elongation. Our results demonstrate that optimal synonymous codons speed up translation elongation while non-optimal codons slow down translation. In addition, codon usage regulates ribosome movement and stalling on mRNA during translation. Finally, we show that codon usage affects protein structure and function in vitro and in Drosophila cells. Together, these results suggest that the effect of codon usage on translation elongation speed is a conserved mechanism from fungi to animals that can affect protein folding in eukaryotic organisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Proteomic analysis of polyribosomes identifies splicing factors as potential regulators of translation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviner, Ranen; Hofmann, Sarah; Elman, Tamar; Shenoy, Anjana; Geiger, Tamar; Elkon, Ran; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Elroy-Stein, Orna

    2017-06-02

    Precise regulation of mRNA translation is critical for proper cell division, but little is known about the factors that mediate it. To identify mRNA-binding proteins that regulate translation during mitosis, we analyzed the composition of polysomes from interphase and mitotic cells using unbiased quantitative mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We found that mitotic polysomes are enriched with a subset of proteins involved in RNA processing, including alternative splicing and RNA export. To demonstrate that these may indeed be regulators of translation, we focused on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C) as a test case and confirmed that it is recruited to elongating ribosomes during mitosis. Then, using a combination of pulsed SILAC, metabolic labeling and ribosome profiling, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP C affects both global and transcript-specific translation rates and found that hnRNP C is specifically important for translation of mRNAs that encode ribosomal proteins and translation factors. Taken together, our results demonstrate how proteomic analysis of polysomes can provide insight into translation regulation under various cellular conditions of interest and suggest that hnRNP C facilitates production of translation machinery components during mitosis to provide daughter cells with the ability to efficiently synthesize proteins as they enter G1 phase. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Molecular characterization of factors involved in regulation of archaeal translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blombach, F.

    2010-01-01

    The three domains of life – Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes – can be easily distinguished based on how the genetic information is processed during transcription, translation, and (DNA) replication. Generally, Eukaryotes turned out to employ machineries for these processes that are in their essence

  16. Translation regulation in plants: an interesting past, an exciting present and a promising future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchante, Catharina; Stepanova, Anna N; Alonso, Jose M

    2017-05-01

    Changes in gene expression are at the core of most biological processes, from cell differentiation to organ development, including the adaptation of the whole organism to the ever-changing environment. Although the central role of transcriptional regulation is solidly established and the general mechanisms involved in this type of regulation are relatively well understood, it is clear that regulation at a translational level also plays an essential role in modulating gene expression. Despite the large number of examples illustrating the critical role played by translational regulation in determining the expression levels of a gene, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind such types of regulation has been slow to emerge. With the recent development of high-throughput approaches to map and quantify different critical parameters affecting translation, such as RNA structure, protein-RNA interactions and ribosome occupancy at the genome level, a renewed enthusiasm toward studying translation regulation is warranted. The use of these new powerful technologies in well-established and uncharacterized translation-dependent processes holds the promise to decipher the likely complex and diverse, but also fascinating, mechanisms behind the regulation of translation. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The translational regulator Cup controls NMJ presynaptic terminal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kaushiki P; Carrillo, Robert A; Zinn, Kai

    2015-07-01

    During oogenesis and early embryonic development in Drosophila, translation of proteins from maternally deposited mRNAs is tightly controlled. We and others have previously shown that translational regulatory proteins that function during oogenesis also have essential roles in the nervous system. Here we examine the role of Cup in neuromuscular system development. Maternal Cup controls translation of localized mRNAs encoding the Oskar and Nanos proteins and binds to the general translation initiation factor eIF4E. In this paper, we show that zygotic Cup protein is localized to presynaptic terminals at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). cup mutant NMJs have strong phenotypes characterized by the presence of small clustered boutons called satellite boutons. They also exhibit an increase in the frequency of spontaneous glutamate release events (mEPSPs). Reduction of eIF4E expression synergizes with partial loss of Cup expression to produce satellite bouton phenotypes. The presence of satellite boutons is often associated with increases in retrograde bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, and we show that synaptic BMP signaling is elevated in cup mutants. cup genetically interacts with two genes, EndoA and Dap160, that encode proteins involved in endocytosis that are also neuronal modulators of the BMP pathway. Endophilin protein, encoded by the EndoA gene, is downregulated in a cup mutant. Our results are consistent with a model in which Cup and eIF4E work together to ensure efficient localization and translation of endocytosis proteins in motor neurons and control the strength of the retrograde BMP signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of Cited2 expression provides a functional link between translational and transcriptional responses during hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beucken, Twan van den; Magagnin, Michael G.; Savelkouls, Kim; Lambin, Philippe; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Protein synthesis rates are greatly reduced under hypoxic conditions as a consequence of an overall inhibition of mRNA translation. Certain specific mRNA species have the ability to escape this general translational repression. At the cellular level this results in differential protein expression during hypoxic conditions. The objective of this study was to characterize the translational regulation of the postulated HIF-1α antagonist Cited2. Materials and methods: DU145 prostate carcinoma cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a homozygous knock-in mutation for eIF2α (S51A) or wild-type eIF2α were exposed to severe hypoxia after which both total mRNA and efficiently translated mRNA were isolated. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure and compare changes in transcription (total mRNA) with changes in translation (efficiently translated mRNA fraction). Results: We show using HIF-1α null MEF cells that transcriptional induction of Cited2 during hypoxia is dependent on HIF-1α. Although global mRNA translation is inhibited during hypoxia Cited2 mRNA remains efficiently translated. An evolutionary conserved upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the 5'UTR of Cited2 did not stimulate translation in an eIF2α dependent manner during hypoxia. Conclusions: Selective translation Cited2 by an eIF2α independent mechanism establishes a link between translation and HIF-1 dependent transcription during hypoxia

  19. Improved Ribosome-Footprint and mRNA Measurements Provide Insights into Dynamics and Regulation of Yeast Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    unlimited. Improved Ribosome-Footprint and mRNA Measurements Provide Insights into Dynamics and Regulation of Yeast Translation The views, opinions and...into Dynamics and Regulation of Yeast Translation Report Title Ribosome-footprint profiling provides genome-wide snapshots of translation, but...tend to slow translation. With the improved mRNA measurements, the variation attributable to translational control in exponentially growing yeast was

  20. Autogenic Training and Professional Pedagogy (Training Autogeno e Pedagogia Professionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Blezza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Autogenic Training (das Autogenes Training is a procedure that has been proposed by J. H. Schultz in 1932, originally with the purpose of relaxation, but which over the decades extended its role and its applications for the most varied of enhancing human personal resources. His teaching is practiced by different professionals. In this paper we discuss the contribution of social and professional pedagogy in this context and the corresponding practice, considering the methodology, didactics, the conception of the helping and assistance relationship to the person and the contribution non therapeutic to health. Even the linguistic problems in the translation from German to Italian language require attention. In the AT the professional pedagogist, apical professional in educational problems find its field of scope and exercise which has many original and very interesting features.

  1. Post-translational regulation of Oct4 transcriptional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Saxe

    Full Text Available Oct4 is a key component of the molecular circuitry which regulates embryonic stem cell proliferation and differentiation. It is essential for maintenance of undifferentiated, pluripotent cell populations, and accomplishes these tasks by binding DNA in multiple heterodimer and homodimer configurations. Very little is known about how formation of these complexes is regulated, or the mechanisms through which Oct4 proteins respond to complex extracellular stimuli which regulate pluripotency. Here, we provide evidence for a phosphorylation-based mechanism which regulates specific Oct4 homodimer conformations. Point mutations of a putative phosphorylation site can specifically abrogate transcriptional activity of a specific homodimer assembly, with little effect on other configurations. Moreover, we performed bioinformatic predictions to identify a subset of Oct4 target genes which may be regulated by this specific assembly, and show that altering Oct4 protein levels affects transcription of Oct4 target genes which are regulated by this assembly but not others. Finally, we identified several signaling pathways which may mediate this phosphorylation and act in combination to regulate Oct4 transcriptional activity and protein stability. These results provide a mechanism for rapid and reversible alteration of Oct4 transactivation potential in response to extracellular signals.

  2. Translational co-regulation of a ligand and inhibitor by a conserved RNA element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaucker, Andreas; Nagorska, Agnieszka; Kumari, Pooja

    2018-01-01

    In many organisms, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of components of pathways or processes has been reported. However, to date, there are few reports of translational co-regulation of multiple components of a developmental signaling pathway. Here, we show that an RNA element wh...

  3. Translation Control: A Multifaceted Regulator of Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Barsanjit; Li, Xiaoxia; Barik, Sailen

    2010-01-01

    A robust innate immune response is essential to the protection of all vertebrates from infection, but it often comes with the price tag of acute inflammation. If unchecked, a runaway inflammatory response can cause significant tissue damage, resulting in myriad disorders, such as dermatitis, toxicshock, cardiovascular disease, acute pelvic and arthritic inflammatory diseases, and various infections. To prevent such pathologies, cells have evolved mechanisms to rapidly and specifically shut off these beneficial inflammatory activities before they become detrimental. Our review of recent literature, including our own work, reveals that the most dominant and common mechanism is translational silencing, in which specific regulatory proteins or complexes are recruited to cis-acting RNA structures in the untranslated regions of single or multiple mRNAs that code for the inflammatory protein(s). Enhancement of the silencing function may constitute a novel pharmacological approach to prevent immunity-related inflammation. PMID:20304832

  4. The PTEN protein: cellular localization and post-translational regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Nick R; Kriplani, Nisha; Hermida, Miguel A; Alvarez-Garcia, Virginia; Wise, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) phosphatase dephosphorylates PIP3, the lipid product of the class I PI 3-kinases, and suppresses the growth and proliferation of many cell types. It has been heavily studied, in large part due to its status as a tumour suppressor, the loss of function of which is observed through diverse mechanisms in many tumour types. Here we present a concise review of our understanding of the PTEN protein and highlight recent advances, particularly in our understanding of its localization and regulation by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  5. Regulation of mRNA Translation Is a Novel Mechanism for Phthalate Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ling

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of plasticizers that are widely used in many consumer products and medical devices, thus generating a huge burden to human health. Phthalates have been known to cause a number of developmental and reproductive disorders functioning as endocrine modulators. They are also involved in carcinogenesis with mechanisms less understood. To further understand the molecular mechanisms of phthalate toxicity, in this study we reported a new effect of phthalates on mRNA translation/protein synthesis, a key regulatory step of gene expression. Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP was found to directly inhibit mRNA translation in vitro but showed a complicated pattern of affecting mRNA translation in cells. In human kidney embryonic cell (HEK-293T, BBP increased cap-dependent mRNA translation at lower concentrations but showed inhibitory effect at higher concentrations. Cap-independent translation was not affected. On the other hand, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP as a major metabolite of another important phthalate di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP inhibited both can-dependent and -independent mRNA translation in vivo. In contrast, BBP and MEHP exhibited an overall promoting effect on mRNA translation in cancer cells. Mechanistic studies identified that the level and phosphorylation of eIF4E-BP (eIF4E binding protein and the amount of eIF4GI in eIF4F complex were altered in accordance with the effect of BBP on translation. BBP was also identified to directly bind to eIF4E, providing a further mechanism underlying the regulation of mRNA by phthalate. At the cellular level BBP inhibited normal cell growth but slightly promoted cancer cells (HT29 growth. Overall, this study provides the first evidence that phthalates can directly regulate mRNA translation as a novel mechanism to mediate their biological toxicities.

  6. Multipass autogenous electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.L.; Mustaleski, T.M. Jr.; Watson, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    A multipass, autogenous welding procedure was developed for 7.6 mm (0.3 in.) wall thickness Type 304L stainless steel cylinders. The joint geometry has a 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) root-face width and a rectangular stepped groove that is 0.762 mm (0.03 in.) wide at the top of the root face and extends 1.5 mm in height, terminating into a groove width of 1.27 mm which extends to the outside of the 1.27 mm high weld-boss. One weld pass is made on the root, three passes on the 0.762 mm wide groove and three passes to complete the weld. Multipass, autogenous, electron beam welds maintain the characteristic high depth-to-width ratios and low heat input of single-pass, electron beam welds. The increased part distortion (which is still much less than from arc processes) in multipass weldments is corrected by a preweld machined compensation. Mechanical properties of multipass welds compare well with single-pass welds. The yield strength of welds in aluminum alloy 5083 is approximately the same for single-pass or multipass electron beam and gas, metal-arc welds. The incidence and size of porosity is less in multipass electron beam welding of aluminum as compared to gas, metal-arc welds. The multipass, autogenous, electron beam welding method has proven to be a reliable way to make some difficult welds in multilayer parts or in an instance where inside part temperature or weld underbead must be controlled and weld discontinuities must be minimized

  7. T box riboswitches in Actinobacteria: Translational regulation via novel tRNA interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Anna V.; Grundy, Frank J.; Henkin, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    The T box riboswitch regulates many amino acid-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria. T box riboswitch-mediated gene regulation was shown previously to occur at the level of transcription attenuation via structural rearrangements in the 5′ untranslated (leader) region of the mRNA in response to binding of a specific uncharged tRNA. In this study, a novel group of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase gene (ileS) T box leader sequences found in organisms of the phylum Actinobacteria was investigated. The Stem I domains of these RNAs lack several highly conserved elements that are essential for interaction with the tRNA ligand in other T box RNAs. Many of these RNAs were predicted to regulate gene expression at the level of translation initiation through tRNA-dependent stabilization of a helix that sequesters a sequence complementary to the Shine–Dalgarno (SD) sequence, thus freeing the SD sequence for ribosome binding and translation initiation. We demonstrated specific binding to the cognate tRNAIle and tRNAIle-dependent structural rearrangements consistent with regulation at the level of translation initiation, providing the first biochemical demonstration, to our knowledge, of translational regulation in a T box riboswitch. PMID:25583497

  8. Amplified in Breast Cancer Regulates Transcription and Translation in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochnik, Aleksandra M; Peterson, Mark S; Avdulov, Svetlana V; Oh, Annabell S; Bitterman, Peter B; Yee, Douglas

    2016-02-01

    Control of mRNA translation is fundamentally altered in cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling regulates key translation mediators to modulate protein synthesis (e.g. eIF4E, 4E-BP1, mTOR, and S6K1). Importantly the Amplified in Breast Cancer (AIB1) oncogene regulates transcription and is also a downstream mediator of IGF-I signaling. To determine if AIB1 also affects mRNA translation, we conducted gain and loss of AIB1 function experiments in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)(+) (MCF-7L) and ERα(-) (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and LCC6) breast cancer cells. AIB1 positively regulated IGF-I-induced mRNA translation in both ERα(+) and ERα(-) cells. Formation of the eIF4E-4E-BP1 translational complex was altered in the AIB1 ERα(+) and ERα(-) knockdown cells, leading to a reduction in the eIF4E/4E-BP1 and eIF4G/4E-BP1 ratios. In basal and IGF-I stimulated MCF-7 and LCC6 cells, knockdown of AIB1 decreased the integrity of the cap-binding complex, reduced global IGF-I stimulated polyribosomal mRNA recruitment with a concomitant decrease in ten of the thirteen genes tested in polysome-bound mRNAs mapping to proliferation, cell cycle, survival, transcription, translation and ribosome biogenesis ontologies. Specifically, knockdown of AIB1 decreased ribosome-bound mRNA and steady-state protein levels of the transcription factors ERα and E2F1 in addition to reduced ribosome-bound mRNA of the ribosome biogenesis factor BYSL in a cell-line specific manner to regulate mRNA translation. The oncogenic transcription factor AIB1 has a novel role in the regulation of polyribosome recruitment and formation of the translational complex. Combinatorial therapies targeting IGF signaling and mRNA translation in AIB1 expressing breast cancers may have clinical benefit and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... power television and television translator stations. 74.789 Section 74.789 Telecommunication FEDERAL... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.789 Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator...

  10. Roles of Transcriptional and Translational Control Mechanisms in Regulation of Ribosomal Protein Synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Hector L; O'Connor, Kevin; Sanchez-Vazquez, Patricia; Gourse, Richard L

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial ribosome biogenesis is tightly regulated to match nutritional conditions and to prevent formation of defective ribosomal particles. In Escherichia coli , most ribosomal protein (r-protein) synthesis is coordinated with rRNA synthesis by a translational feedback mechanism: when r-proteins exceed rRNAs, specific r-proteins bind to their own mRNAs and inhibit expression of the operon. It was recently discovered that the second messenger nucleotide guanosine tetra and pentaphosphate (ppGpp), which directly regulates rRNA promoters, is also capable of regulating many r-protein promoters. To examine the relative contributions of the translational and transcriptional control mechanisms to the regulation of r-protein synthesis, we devised a reporter system that enabled us to genetically separate the cis -acting sequences responsible for the two mechanisms and to quantify their relative contributions to regulation under the same conditions. We show that the synthesis of r-proteins from the S20 and S10 operons is regulated by ppGpp following shifts in nutritional conditions, but most of the effect of ppGpp required the 5' region of the r-protein mRNA containing the target site for translational feedback regulation and not the promoter. These results suggest that most regulation of the S20 and S10 operons by ppGpp following nutritional shifts is indirect and occurs in response to changes in rRNA synthesis. In contrast, we found that the promoters for the S20 operon were regulated during outgrowth, likely in response to increasing nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) levels. Thus, r-protein synthesis is dynamic, with different mechanisms acting at different times. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cells have evolved complex and seemingly redundant strategies to regulate many high-energy-consuming processes. In E. coli , synthesis of ribosomal components is tightly regulated with respect to nutritional conditions by mechanisms that act at both the transcription and translation steps. In

  11. A Requirement for Mena, an Actin Regulator, in Local mRNA Translation in Developing Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaki, Marina; Drees, Frauke; Saxena, Tanvi; Lanslots, Erwin; Taliaferro, Matthew J; Tatarakis, Antonios; Burge, Christopher B; Wang, Eric T; Gertler, Frank B

    2017-08-02

    During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons. We find that translation of dyrk1a, a Down syndrome- and autism spectrum disorders-related gene, is dependent on Mena, both in steady-state conditions and upon BDNF stimulation. We identify hundreds of additional mRNAs that associate with the Mena complex, suggesting that it plays broader role(s) in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Our work establishes a dual role for Mena in neurons, providing a potential link between regulation of actin dynamics and local translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A UV-induced mutation in neurospora that affects translational regulation in response to arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, M.; Dighde, N.; Sachs, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa arg-2 gene encodes the small subunit of arginine-specific carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. The levels of arg-2 mRNA and mRNA translation are negatively regulated by arginine. An upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the transcript's 5' region has been implicated in arginine-specific control. An arg-2-hph fusion gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase conferred arginine-regulated resistance to hygromycin when introduced into N. crassa. We used an arg-2-hph strain to select for UV-induced mutants that grew in the presence of hygromycin and arginine, and we isolated 46 mutants that had either of two phenotypes. One phenotype indicated altered expression of both arg-2-hph and arg-2 genes; the other, altered expression of arg-2-hph but not arg-2. One of the latter mutations, which was genetically closely linked to arg-2-hph, was recovered from the 5' region of the arg-2-hph gene using PCR Sequence analyses and transformation experiments revealed a mutation at uORF codon 12 (Asp to Asn) that abrogated negative regulation. Examination of the distribution of ribosomes on arg-2-hph transcripts showed that loss of regulation had a translational component, indicating the uORF sequence was important for Arg-specific translational control. Comparisons with other uORFs suggest common elements in translational control mechanisms

  13. Signals Involved in Regulation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Genome Translation and Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Niepmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV preferentially replicates in the human liver and frequently causes chronic infection, often leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. HCV is an enveloped virus classified in the genus Hepacivirus in the family Flaviviridae and has a single-stranded RNA genome of positive orientation. The HCV RNA genome is translated and replicated in the cytoplasm. Translation is controlled by the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES in the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR, while also downstream elements like the cis-replication element (CRE in the coding region and the 3′ UTR are involved in translation regulation. The cis-elements controlling replication of the viral RNA genome are located mainly in the 5′- and 3′-UTRs at the genome ends but also in the protein coding region, and in part these signals overlap with the signals controlling RNA translation. Many long-range RNA–RNA interactions (LRIs are predicted between different regions of the HCV RNA genome, and several such LRIs are actually involved in HCV translation and replication regulation. A number of RNA cis-elements recruit cellular RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of HCV translation and replication. In addition, the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122 binds to two target sites at the 5′ end of the viral RNA genome as well as to at least three additional target sites in the coding region and the 3′ UTR. It is involved in the regulation of HCV RNA stability, translation and replication, thereby largely contributing to the hepatotropism of HCV. However, we are still far from completely understanding all interactions that regulate HCV RNA genome translation, stability, replication and encapsidation. In particular, many conclusions on the function of cis-elements in HCV replication have been obtained using full-length HCV genomes or near-full-length replicon systems. These include both genome ends, making it difficult to decide if a cis-element in

  14. Signals Involved in Regulation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Genome Translation and Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepmann, Michael; Shalamova, Lyudmila A; Gerresheim, Gesche K; Rossbach, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) preferentially replicates in the human liver and frequently causes chronic infection, often leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. HCV is an enveloped virus classified in the genus Hepacivirus in the family Flaviviridae and has a single-stranded RNA genome of positive orientation. The HCV RNA genome is translated and replicated in the cytoplasm. Translation is controlled by the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), while also downstream elements like the cis -replication element (CRE) in the coding region and the 3' UTR are involved in translation regulation. The cis -elements controlling replication of the viral RNA genome are located mainly in the 5'- and 3'-UTRs at the genome ends but also in the protein coding region, and in part these signals overlap with the signals controlling RNA translation. Many long-range RNA-RNA interactions (LRIs) are predicted between different regions of the HCV RNA genome, and several such LRIs are actually involved in HCV translation and replication regulation. A number of RNA cis -elements recruit cellular RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of HCV translation and replication. In addition, the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) binds to two target sites at the 5' end of the viral RNA genome as well as to at least three additional target sites in the coding region and the 3' UTR. It is involved in the regulation of HCV RNA stability, translation and replication, thereby largely contributing to the hepatotropism of HCV. However, we are still far from completely understanding all interactions that regulate HCV RNA genome translation, stability, replication and encapsidation. In particular, many conclusions on the function of cis -elements in HCV replication have been obtained using full-length HCV genomes or near-full-length replicon systems. These include both genome ends, making it difficult to decide if a cis -element in question acts on HCV

  15. Translational regulation of ribosomal protein S15 drives characteristic patterns of protein-mRNA epistasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Basu, Sudipto; Hait, Suman; Kundu, Sudip

    2018-04-21

    Do coding and regulatory segments of a gene co-evolve with each-other? Seeking answers to this question, here we analyze the case of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S15, that represses its own translation by specifically binding its messenger RNA (rpsO mRNA) and stabilizing a pseudoknot structure at the upstream untranslated region, thus trapping the ribosome into an incomplete translation initiation complex. In the absence of S15, ribosomal protein S1 recognizes rpsO and promotes translation by melting this very pseudoknot. We employ a robust statistical method to detect signatures of positive epistasis between residue site pairs and find that biophysical constraints of translational regulation (S15-rpsO and S1-rpsO recognition, S15-mediated rpsO structural rearrangement, and S1-mediated melting) are strong predictors of positive epistasis. Transforming the epistatic pairs into a network, we find that signatures of two different, but interconnected regulatory cascades are imprinted in the sequence-space and can be captured in terms of two dense network modules that are sparsely connected to each other. This network topology further reflects a general principle of how functionally coupled components of biological networks are interconnected. These results depict a model case, where translational regulation drives characteristic residue-level epistasis-not only between a protein and its own mRNA but also between a protein and the mRNA of an entirely different protein. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Modifications to the translational apparatus which affect the regulation of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Protein synthesis can be regulated at a number of cellular levels. I have examined how modifications to specific components of the protein synthetic machinery are involved in regulating the efficiency of initiation of translation during early sea urchin embryogenesis. It is demonstrated that Ca 2+ concentrations exceeding 500 uM cause the inhibition of protein synthesis in cell-free translation lysates prepared from sea urchin embryos. Specific changes in the state of phosphorylation of at least 8 proteins occur during this Ca 2+ -mediated repression of translation. Analysis of these proteins has indicated that, unlike mammalian systems, there is no detectable level of Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylation of the αsubunit eIF-2. Two of the proteins which do become phosphorylated in response to Ca 2+ are calmodulin and an isoelectric form of sea urchin eIF-4D. In addition, 2 proteins which share similarities with kinases involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells, also become phosphorylated. I have investigated the consequences of changes in eIF-4D during sea urchin embryogenesis because it has been proposed that a polyamine-mediated conversion of lysine to hypusine in this factor may enhance translational activity. It is demonstrated that [ 3 H] spermidine-derived radioactivity is incorporated into a number of proteins when sea urchin embryos are labeled in vivo, and that the pattern of individual proteins that become labeled changes over the course of the first 30 hr of development

  17. The long non-coding RNA GAS5 cooperates with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E to regulate c-Myc translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Hu

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are important regulators of transcription; however, their involvement in protein translation is not well known. Here we explored whether the lncRNA GAS5 is associated with translation initiation machinery and regulates translation. GAS5 was enriched with eukaryotic translation initiation factor-4E (eIF4E in an RNA-immunoprecipitation assay using lymphoma cell lines. We identified two RNA binding motifs within eIF4E protein and the deletion of each motif inhibited the binding of GAS5 with eIF4E. To confirm the role of GAS5 in translation regulation, GAS5 siRNA and in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA were used to knock down or overexpress GAS5, respectively. GAS5 siRNA had no effect on global protein translation but did specifically increase c-Myc protein level without an effect on c-Myc mRNA. The mechanism of this increase in c-Myc protein was enhanced association of c-Myc mRNA with the polysome without any effect on protein stability. In contrast, overexpression of in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA suppressed c-Myc protein without affecting c-Myc mRNA. Interestingly, GAS5 was found to be bound with c-Myc mRNA, suggesting that GAS5 regulates c-Myc translation through lncRNA-mRNA interaction. Our findings have uncovered a role of GAS5 lncRNA in translation regulation through its interactions with eIF4E and c-Myc mRNA.

  18. Functional 5' UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppek, Kathrin; Das, Rhiju; Barna, Maria

    2018-03-01

    RNA molecules can fold into intricate shapes that can provide an additional layer of control of gene expression beyond that of their sequence. In this Review, we discuss the current mechanistic understanding of structures in 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of eukaryotic mRNAs and the emerging methodologies used to explore them. These structures may regulate cap-dependent translation initiation through helicase-mediated remodelling of RNA structures and higher-order RNA interactions, as well as cap-independent translation initiation through internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), mRNA modifications and other specialized translation pathways. We discuss known 5' UTR RNA structures and how new structure probing technologies coupled with prospective validation, particularly compensatory mutagenesis, are likely to identify classes of structured RNA elements that shape post-transcriptional control of gene expression and the development of multicellular organisms.

  19. PRMT5 regulates IRES-dependent translation via methylation of hnRNP A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guozhen; Dhar, Surbhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The type II arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 is responsible for the symmetric dimethylation of histone to generate the H3R8me2s and H4R3me2s marks, which correlate with the repression of transcription. However, the protein level of a number of genes (MEP50, CCND1, MYC, HIF1a, MTIF and CDKN1B) are reported to be downregulated by the loss of PRMT5, while their mRNA levels remain unchanged, which is counterintuitive for PRMT5's proposed role as a transcription repressor. We noticed that the majority of the genes regulated by PRMT5, at the posttranscriptional level, express mRNA containing an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Using an IRES-dependent reporter system, we established that PRMT5 facilitates the translation of a subset of IRES-containing genes. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, hnRNP A1, is an IRES transacting factor (ITAF) that regulates the IRES-dependent translation of Cyclin D1 and c-Myc. We showed that hnRNP A1 is methylated by PRMT5 on two residues, R218 and R225, and that this methylation facilitates the interaction of hnRNP A1 with IRES RNA to promote IRES-dependent translation. This study defines a new role for PRMT5 regulation of cellular protein levels, which goes beyond the known functions of PRMT5 as a transcription and splicing regulator. PMID:28115626

  20. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Ihry

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones act, through their respective nuclear receptors, to regulate target gene expression. Despite their critical role in development, physiology, and disease, however, it is still unclear how these systemic cues are refined into tissue-specific responses. We identified a mutation in the evolutionarily conserved DEAD box RNA helicase belle/DDX3 that disrupts a subset of responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. We demonstrate that belle directly regulates translation of E74A, an ets transcription factor and critical component of the ecdysone-induced transcriptional cascade. Although E74A mRNA accumulates to abnormally high levels in belle mutant tissues, no E74A protein is detectable, resulting in misregulation of E74A-dependent ecdysone response genes. The accumulation of E74A mRNA in belle mutant salivary glands is a result of auto-regulation, fulfilling a prediction made by Ashburner nearly 40 years ago. In this model, Ashburner postulates that, in addition to regulating secondary response genes, protein products of primary response genes like E74A also inhibit their own ecdysone-induced transcription. Moreover, although ecdysone-triggered transcription of E74A appears to be ubiquitous during metamorphosis, belle-dependent translation of E74A mRNA is spatially restricted. These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone.

  1. Managing the complexity of communication: regulation of gap junctions by post-translational modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Callø, Kirstine; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are comprised of connexins that form cell-to-cell channels which couple neighboring cells to accommodate the exchange of information. The need for communication does, however, change over time and therefore must be tightly controlled. Although the regulation of connexin protein...... probability, single channel conductance or selectivity. The most extensively investigated post translational modifications are phosphorylations, which have been documented in all mammalian connexins. Besides phosphorylations, some connexins are known to be ubiquitinated, SUMOylated, nitrosylated, hydroxylated...

  2. Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pierce

    Full Text Available Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases.

  3. Autogenic-feedback training - A treatment for motion and space sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1990-01-01

    A training method for preventing the occurrence of motion sickness in humans, called autogenic-feedback training (AFT), is described. AFT is based on a combination of biofeedback and autogenic therapy which involves training physiological self-regulation as an alternative to pharmacological management. AFT was used to reliably increase tolerance to motion-sickness-inducing tests in both men and women ranging in age from 18 to 54 years. The effectiveness of AFT is found to be significantly higher than that of protective adaptation training. Data obtained show that there is no apparent effect from AFT on measures of vestibular perception and no side effects.

  4. Translation Initiation from Conserved Non-AUG Codons Provides Additional Layers of Regulation and Coding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo P. Ivanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa cpc-1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN4 are homologs specifying transcription activators that drive the transcriptional response to amino acid limitation. The cpc-1 mRNA contains two upstream open reading frames (uORFs in its >700-nucleotide (nt 5′ leader, and its expression is controlled at the level of translation in response to amino acid starvation. We used N. crassa cell extracts and obtained data indicating that cpc-1 uORF1 and uORF2 are functionally analogous to GCN4 uORF1 and uORF4, respectively, in controlling translation. We also found that the 5′ region upstream of the main coding sequence of the cpc-1 mRNA extends for more than 700 nucleotides without any in-frame stop codon. For 100 cpc-1 homologs from Pezizomycotina and from selected Basidiomycota, 5′ conserved extensions of the CPC1 reading frame are also observed. Multiple non-AUG near-cognate codons (NCCs in the CPC1 reading frame upstream of uORF2, some deeply conserved, could potentially initiate translation. At least four NCCs initiated translation in vitro. In vivo data were consistent with initiation at NCCs to produce N-terminally extended N. crassa CPC1 isoforms. The pivotal role played by CPC1, combined with its translational regulation by uORFs and NCC utilization, underscores the emerging significance of noncanonical initiation events in controlling gene expression.

  5. Nucleolin is regulated both at the level of transcription and translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicknell, Katrina; Brooks, Gavin; Kaiser, Pete; Chen Hongying; Dove, Brian K.; Hiscox, Julian A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleolin is a multi-functional protein that is located to the nucleolus. In tissue culture cells, the stability of nucleolin is related to the proliferation status of the cell. During development, rat cardiomyocytes proliferate actively with increases in the mass of the heart being due to both hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The timing of this shift in the phenotype of the myocyte from one capable of undergoing hyperplasia to one that can grow only by hypertrophy occurs within 4 days of post-natal development. Thus, cardiomyocytes are an ideal model system in which to study the regulation of nucleolin during growth in vivo. Using Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR (TaqMan) we found that the amount of nucleolin is regulated both at the level of transcription and translation during the development of the cardiomyocyte. However, in cells which had exited the cell cycle and were subsequently given a hypertrophic stimulus, nucleolin was regulated post-transcriptionally

  6. Mitigation strategies for autogenous shrinkage cracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2004-01-01

    As the use of high-performance concrete has increased, problems with early-age cracking have become prominent. The reduction in water-to-cement ratio, the incorporation of silica fume, and the increase in binder content of high-performance concretes all contribute to this problem. In this paper......, the fundamental parameters contributing to the autogenous shrinkage and resultant early-age cracking of concrete are presented. Basic characteristics of the cement paste that contribute to or control the autogenous shrinkage response include the surface tension of the pore solution, the geometry of the pore...... of early-age cracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Mitigation strategies discussed in this paper include: the addition of shrinkage-reducing admixtures more commonly used to control drying shrinkage, control of the cement particle size distribution, modification of the mineralogical composition...

  7. Dengue virus-induced regulation of the host cell translational machinery

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    C.S.A. Villas-Bôas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV-induced changes in the host cell protein synthesis machinery are not well understood. We investigated the transcriptional changes related to initiation of protein synthesis. The human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was infected with DV serotype 2 for 1 h at a multiplicity of infection of one. RNA was extracted after 6, 24 and 48 h. Microarray results showed that 36.5% of the translation factors related to initiation of protein synthesis had significant differential expression (Z-score ≥ ±2.0. Confirmation was obtained by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Of the genes involved in the activation of mRNA for cap-dependent translation (eIF4 factors, eIF4A, eIF4G1 and eIF4B were up-regulated while the negative regulator of translation eIF4E-BP3 was down-regulated. This activation was transient since at 24 h post-infection levels were not significantly different from control cells. However, at 48 h post-infection, eIF4A, eIF4E, eIF4G1, eIF4G3, eIF4B, and eIF4E-BP3 were down-regulated, suggesting that cap-dependent translation could be inhibited during the progression of infection. To test this hypothesis, phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1, which induce cap-dependent protein synthesis, was assayed. Both proteins remained phosphorylated when assayed at 6 h after infection, while infection induced dephosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1 at 24 and 48 h of infection, respectively. Taken together, these results provide biological evidence suggesting that in HepG2 cells DV sustains activation of the cap-dependent machinery at early stages of infection, but progression of infection switches protein synthesis to a cap-independent process.

  8. Management of pain through autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, N

    2000-08-01

    Physical and emotional pain are an inevitable part of human existence and are without natural antidotes. In view of this, and in the light of increasing professional reluctance to depend on analgesics, this paper proposes the widespread application of autogenic training, a relaxation technique which has been seen to confront pain very effectively, and also to reduce substantially drugs dependency. It analyses autogenic training in respect of some of the more common pain-allied disorders such as childbirth, headaches and migraines, back pain, cancer and palliative care, and cardiology.

  9. Regulation of the tumor suppressor PML by sequential post-translational modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, M. Lienhard; Grishina, Inna

    2012-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate multiple biological functions of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein and also the fission, disassembly, and rebuilding of PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) during the cell cycle. Pathway-specific PML modification patterns ensure proper signal output from PML-NBs that suit the specific functional requirements. Here we comprehensively review the signaling pathways and enzymes that modify PML and also the oncogenic PML-RARα fusion protein. Many PTMs occur in a hierarchical and timely organized fashion. Phosphorylation or acetylation constitutes typical starting points for many PML modifying events, while degradative ubiquitination is an irreversible end point of the modification cascade. As this hierarchical organization of PTMs frequently turns phosphorylation events as primordial events, kinases or phosphatases regulating PML phosphorylation may be interesting drug targets to manipulate the downstream modifications and thus the stability and function of PML or PML-RARα.

  10. Amyloid Precursor Protein Translation Is Regulated by a 3'UTR Guanine Quadruplex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Crenshaw

    Full Text Available A central event in Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ peptides generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP. APP overexpression leads to increased Aβ generation and Alzheimer's disease in humans and altered neuronal migration and increased long term depression in mice. Conversely, reduction of APP expression results in decreased Aβ levels in mice as well as impaired learning and memory and decreased numbers of dendritic spines. Together these findings indicate that therapeutic interventions that aim to restore APP and Aβ levels must do so within an ideal range. To better understand the effects of modulating APP levels, we explored the mechanisms regulating APP expression focusing on post-transcriptional regulation. Such regulation can be mediated by RNA regulatory elements such as guanine quadruplexes (G-quadruplexes, non-canonical structured RNA motifs that affect RNA stability and translation. Via a bioinformatics approach, we identified a candidate G-quadruplex within the APP mRNA in its 3'UTR (untranslated region at residues 3008-3027 (NM_201414.2. This sequence exhibited characteristics of a parallel G-quadruplex structure as revealed by circular dichroism spectrophotometry. Further, as with other G-quadruplexes, the formation of this structure was dependent on the presence of potassium ions. This G-quadruplex has no apparent role in regulating transcription or mRNA stability as wild type and mutant constructs exhibited equivalent mRNA levels as determined by real time PCR. Instead, we demonstrate that this G-quadruplex negatively regulates APP protein expression using dual luciferase reporter and Western blot analysis. Taken together, our studies reveal post-transcriptional regulation by a 3'UTR G-quadruplex as a novel mechanism regulating APP expression.

  11. Autogenous Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    Denne afhandling er skrevet med henblik på opnåelse af den danske doktorgrad i teknik, dr.techn. Den vedrører autogene fænomener i cementbaserede materialer – primært deformation og ændring af den relative luftfugtighed (RF). I afhandlingen er det belyst, hvordan betydningen af disse fænomener bl...

  12. Autogenic dynamics of debris-flow fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Wilco; de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fans develop their semi-conical shape by cyclic avulsion of their geomorphologically active sector from a fixed fan apex. These cyclic avulsions have been attributed to both allogenic and autogenic forcings and processes. Autogenic dynamics have been extensively studied on fluvial fans through physical scale experiments, and are governed by cyclic alternations of aggradation by unconfined sheet flow, fanhead incision leading to channelized flow, channel backfilling and avulsion. On debris-flow fans, however, autogenic dynamics have not yet been directly observed. We experimentally created debris-flow fans under constant extrinsic forcings, and show that autogenic dynamics are a fundamental intrinsic process on debris-flow fans. We found that autogenic cycles on debris-flow fans are driven by sequences of backfilling, avulsion and channelization, similar to the cycles on fluvial fans. However, the processes that govern these sequences are unique for debris-flow fans, and differ fundamentally from the processes that govern autogenic dynamics on fluvial fans. We experimentally observed that backfilling commenced after the debris flows reached their maximum possible extent. The next debris flows then progressively became shorter, driven by feedbacks on fan morphology and flow-dynamics. The progressively decreasing debris-flow length caused in-channel sedimentation, which led to increasing channel overflow and wider debris flows. This reduced the impulse of the liquefied flow body to the flow front, which then further reduced flow velocity and runout length, and induced further in-channel sedimentation. This commenced a positive feedback wherein debris flows became increasingly short and wide, until the channel was completely filled and the apex cross-profile was plano-convex. At this point, there was no preferential transport direction by channelization, and the debris flows progressively avulsed towards the steepest, preferential, flow path. Simultaneously

  13. Bi-polarized translation of ascidian maternal mRNA determinant pem-1 associated with regulators of the translation machinery on cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum (cER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paix, Alexandre; Le Nguyen, Phuong Ngan; Sardet, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Polarized cortical mRNA determinants such as maternal macho-1 and pem-1 in ascidians, like budding yeast mating factor ASH1 reside on the cER-mRNA domain a subdomain of cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) and are translated in its vicinity. Using high resolution imaging and isolated cortical fragments prepared from eggs and embryos we now find that macho-1 and pem-1 RNAs co-localize with phospho-protein regulators of translation initiation (MnK/4EBP/S6K). Translation of cortical pem-1 RNA follows its bi-polarized relocalization. About 10 min after fertilization or artificial activation with a calcium ionophore, PEM1 protein is detected in the vegetal cortex in the vicinity of pem-1 RNA. About 40 min after fertilization-when pem-1 RNA and P-MnK move to the posterior pole-PEM1 protein remains in place forming a network of cortical patches anchored at the level of the zygote plasma membrane before disappearing. Cortical PEM1 protein is detected again at the 4 cell stage in the posterior centrosome attracting body (CAB) region where the cER-mRNA domain harboring pem-1/P-MnK/P-4EBP/P-S6K is concentrated. Bi-polarized PEM1 protein signals are not detected when pem-1 morpholinos are injected into eggs or zygotes or when MnK is inhibited. We propose that localized translation of the pem-1 RNA determinant is triggered by the fertilization/calcium wave and that the process is controlled by phospho-protein regulators of translation initiation co-localized with the RNA determinant on a sub-domain of the cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of multispanning membrane protein topology via post-translational annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lehn, Reid C; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Thomas F

    2015-09-26

    The canonical mechanism for multispanning membrane protein topogenesis suggests that protein topology is established during cotranslational membrane integration. However, this mechanism is inconsistent with the behavior of EmrE, a dual-topology protein for which the mutation of positively charged loop residues, even close to the C-terminus, leads to dramatic shifts in its topology. We use coarse-grained simulations to investigate the Sec-facilitated membrane integration of EmrE and its mutants on realistic biological timescales. This work reveals a mechanism for regulating membrane-protein topogenesis, in which initially misintegrated configurations of the proteins undergo post-translational annealing to reach fully integrated multispanning topologies. The energetic barriers associated with this post-translational annealing process enforce kinetic pathways that dictate the topology of the fully integrated proteins. The proposed mechanism agrees well with the experimentally observed features of EmrE topogenesis and provides a range of experimentally testable predictions regarding the effect of translocon mutations on membrane protein topogenesis.

  15. A Heme-Sensing Mechanism in the Translational Regulation of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Iliana C.; Fontanesi, Flavia; Myers, Richard S.; Hamel, Patrice; Barrientos, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Heme plays fundamental roles as cofactor and signaling molecule in multiple pathways devoted to oxygen sensing and utilization in aerobic organisms. For cellular respiration, heme serves as a prosthetic group in electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes. Here we report that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a heme-sensing mechanism translationally controls the biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme. We show that Mss51, a COX1 mRNA-specific translational activator and Cox1 chaperone, which coordinates Cox1 synthesis in mitoribosomes with its assembly in COX, is a heme-binding protein. Mss51 contains two heme regulatory motifs or Cys-Pro-X domains located in its N-terminus. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we have demonstrated that these motifs are important for heme binding and efficient performance of Mss51 functions. We conclude that heme sensing by Mss51 regulates COX biogenesis and aerobic energy production. PMID:23217259

  16. A pea chloroplast translation elongation factor that is regulated by abiotic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Mishra, R.N.; Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Goswami, Mamta; Nair, Suresh; Sopory, S.K.; Reddy, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of both the cDNA (tufA) and genomic clones encoding for a chloroplast translation elongation factor (EF-Tu) from pea. The analysis of the deduced amino acids of the cDNA clone reveals the presence of putative transit peptide sequence and four GTP binding domains and two EF-Tu signature motifs in the mature polypeptide region. Using in vivo immunostaining followed by confocal microscopy pea EF-Tu was localized to chloroplast. The steady state transcript level of pea tufA was high in leaves and not detectable in roots. The expression of this gene is stimulated by light. The differential expression of this gene in response to various abiotic stresses showed that it is down-regulated in response to salinity and ABA and up-regulated in response to low temperature and salicylic acid treatment. These results indicate that regulation of pea tufA may have an important role in plant adaptation to environmental stresses

  17. Developmentally Regulated Post-translational Modification of Nucleoplasmin Controls Histone Sequestration and Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Onikubo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoplasmin (Npm is an abundant histone chaperone in vertebrate oocytes and embryos. During embryogenesis, regulation of Npm histone binding is critical for its function in storing and releasing maternal histones to establish and maintain the zygotic epigenome. Here, we demonstrate that Xenopus laevis Npm post-translational modifications (PTMs specific to the oocyte and egg promote either histone deposition or sequestration, respectively. Mass spectrometry and Npm phosphomimetic mutations used in chromatin assembly assays identified hyperphosphorylation on the N-terminal tail as a critical regulator for sequestration. C-terminal tail phosphorylation and PRMT5-catalyzed arginine methylation enhance nucleosome assembly by promoting histone interaction with the second acidic tract of Npm. Electron microscopy reconstructions of Npm and TTLL4 activity toward the C-terminal tail demonstrate that oocyte- and egg-specific PTMs cause Npm conformational changes. Our results reveal that PTMs regulate Npm chaperoning activity by modulating Npm conformation and Npm-histone interaction, leading to histone sequestration in the egg.

  18. Self-Regulation and Mechanisms of Action in Psychotherapy: A Theory-Based Translational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauman, Timothy J.; Goetz, Elena L.; Detloff, Allison M.; MacDuffie, Katherine E.; Zaunmüller, Luisa; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a complex, multi-layered process with the potential to bring about changes at multiple levels of functioning, from the neurobiology of the brain to the individual’s role in the social world. Although studies of the mechanisms by which psychotherapy leads to change continue to appear, there remains much to be learned about how psychological interventions work. To guide explorations of how and for whom particular treatment approaches lead to change, researchers can rely on theory to identify potential loci for change and on translational research methods to integrate basic behavioral science and neuroscience with clinical science. In this article, we describe research linking individual differences in the self-regulation of personal goal pursuit with the etiology and treatment of mood disorders. The research draws upon regulatory focus theory as a model of self-regulation and on microintervention designs – controlled laboratory investigations of a specific therapeutic technique – to generate and test hypotheses about how psychological interventions can help to reverse maladaptive self-regulatory processes. PMID:23072383

  19. Autogenous transplantation of maxillary and mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter P

    2008-11-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation has been used as a predictable surgical approach to correct malocclusion and replace edentulous areas. This article focuses on the surgical approach and technique for molar transplantation. Thirty-two patients aged between 11 and 25 years underwent 44 autogenous molar transplantations. The procedure involved transplantation of impacted or newly erupted third molars into the extraction sockets of nonrestorable molars and surgical removal and replacement of horizontally impacted molars into their proper vertical alignment. Five basic procedural concepts were applied: 1) atraumatic extraction, avoiding disruption of the root sheath and root buds; 2) apical contouring of bone at the transplantation site and maxillary sinus lift via the Summers osteotome technique, when indicated, for maxillary molars; 3) preparation of a 4-wall bony socket; 4) avoidance of premature occlusal interferences; and 5) stabilization of the tooth with placement of a basket suture. All 32 patients successfully underwent the planned procedure. To date, 2 patients have had localized infection that resulted in loss of the transplant. The remaining 42 transplants remain asymptomatic and functioning, with a mean follow-up period of 19 months. No infection, ankylosis, loss of the transplant, or root resorption has been noted. In addition, endodontic therapy has not been necessary on any transplanted teeth. Autogenous tooth transplantation has been discussed and described in the literature previously, with a primary focus on cuspid and bicuspid transplantation. The molar transplant is infrequently discussed in today's literature, possibly because of the preponderance of titanium dental implants. Autogenous molar transplantation is a viable procedure with low morbidity and excellent functional and esthetic outcomes. This report shows the successful transplantation of 42 of 44 molars in 32 patients with a mean follow-up period of 19 months.

  20. A Study of Translation Students' Self-Regulation and Metacognitive Awareness in Association with their Gender and Educational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hashempour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the probable link between Iranian English translation studies students’ metacognitive awareness, self-regulation, and gender. Furthermore, the role of educational level of translation students in metacognitive awareness and self-regulation was explored. For the purpose of the study, a sample of 230 M.A and B.A senior English translation students comprised the participants of the research. They were asked to complete two questionnaires of Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI and Self-regulation Trait (SRT.The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI was developed by Schraw and Dennison (1994 and consists of 52 statements. It measures two components of metacognition: metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulation. Metacognitive knowledge comprises three subscales: Declarative knowledge, Procedural knowledge, and Conditional knowledge. Metacognitive regulation consists of five subscales: Planning, Information management, Monitoring, Debugging, and Evaluation. The self-regulation trait (SRT questionnaire was designed by O'Neil and Herl (1998. It was developed based on Zimmerman's self –regulation model. It consists of 32 Likert-scale questions. The scale seeks to measure metacognition and motivation dimensions.  Each dimension comprises two sub-scales. Meta-cognition covers the constructs of planning and self-monitoring, and motivation contains effort and self-efficacy. Independent samples t-tests were run to investigate the role of gender and educational level in the level of translation students’ metacognitive awareness and self-regulation. The results of t-test demonstrated that there are not any differences between male and female translation students regarding metacognitive awareness and self-regulation. It was also found that there is a negative significant impact of educational level on total metacognitive awareness, and some components of metacognitive awareness: declarative knowledge

  1. Decoding options and accuracy of translation of developmentally regulated UUA codon in Streptomyces: bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokytskyy, Ihor; Koshla, Oksana; Fedorenko, Victor; Ostash, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    The gene bldA for leucyl [Formula: see text] is known for almost 30 years as a key regulator of morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in genus Streptomyces. Codon UUA is the rarest one in Streptomyces genomes and is present exclusively in genes with auxiliary functions. Delayed accumulation of translation-competent [Formula: see text] is believed to confine the expression of UUA-containing transcripts to stationary phase. Implicit to the regulatory function of UUA codon is the assumption about high accuracy of its translation, e.g. the latter should not occur in the absence of cognate [Formula: see text]. However, a growing body of facts points to the possibility of mistranslation of UUA-containing transcripts in the bldA-deficient mutants. It is not known what type of near-cognate tRNA(s) may decode UUA in the absence of cognate tRNA in Streptomyces, and whether UUA possesses certain inherent properties (such as increased/decreased accuracy of decoding) that would favor its use for regulatory purposes. Here we took bioinformatic approach to address these questions. We catalogued the entire complement of tRNA genes from several relevant Streptomyces and identified genes for posttranscriptional modifications of tRNA that might be involved in UUA decoding by cognate and near-cognate tRNAs. Based on tRNA gene content in Streptomyces genomes, we propose possible scenarios of UUA codon mistranslation. UUA is not associated with an increased rate of missense errors as compared to other leucyl codons, contrasting general belief that low-abundant codons are more error-prone than the high-abundant ones.

  2. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jojić Boris R.; Leposavić Ljubica M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Autogenic training is a widely recognised psychotherapy technique. The British School of Autogenic Training cites a large list of disorders, states, and changes, where autogenic training may prove to be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults. Our sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 35 individuals, with an average age of 39.3±1.6 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accord...

  3. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jojić Boris R.; Leposavić Ljubica M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Autogenic training is a widespread technique used in psychotherapy. The British school of autogenic training cites a large list of diseases, health states, and life changes, in which autogenic training can be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 31 individuals, with an average age of 17.3±0.2 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2,...

  4. Ectodermal-neural cortex 1 down-regulates Nrf2 at the translational level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Wang

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Nrf2 is the master regulator of a cellular defense mechanism against environmental insults. The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response is accomplished by the transcription of a battery of genes that encode phase II detoxifying enzymes, xenobiotic transporters, and antioxidants. Coordinated expression of these genes is critical in protecting cells from toxic and carcinogenic insults and in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. Activation of the Nrf2 pathway is primarily controlled by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1, which is a molecular switch that turns on or off the Nrf2 signaling pathway according to intracellular redox conditions. Here we report our finding of a novel Nrf2 suppressor ectodermal-neural cortex 1 (ENC1, which is a BTB-Kelch protein and belongs to the same family as Keap1. Transient expression of ENC1 reduced steady-state levels of Nrf2 and its downstream gene expression. Although ENC1 interacted with Keap1 indirectly, the ENC1-mediated down-regulation of Nrf2 was independent of Keap1. The negative effect of ENC1 on Nrf2 was not due to a change in the stability of Nrf2 because neither proteasomal nor lysosomal inhibitors had any effects. Overexpression of ENC1 did not result in a change in the level of Nrf2 mRNA, rather, it caused a decrease in the rate of Nrf2 protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that ENC1 functions as a negative regulator of Nrf2 through suppressing Nrf2 protein translation, which adds another level of complexity in controlling the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  5. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulated byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223959 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulate...ol. 2007 Feb;147(2):199-207. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-lik... immunity. PubmedID 17223959 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulat

  6. Autogenous Deformation and Change of the Relative Humidity in Silica Fume-Modified Cement Paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1996-01-01

    Even during sealed curing and at a constant temperature a hardening cement paste will deform and the relative humidity within its pores will lower. This autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change may be so significant that the cement paste cracks if the deformation is restrained....... This article focuses on the influence of silica fume addition on autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change. Continuous measurement of autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change for more than 1 year and 1« years, respectively, was performed. The investigations show...... thatsilica fume addition markedly increases the autogenous shrinkage as well as the autogenous relative humidity change....

  7. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojić Boris R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Autogenic training is a widespread technique used in psychotherapy. The British school of autogenic training cites a large list of diseases, health states, and life changes, in which autogenic training can be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 31 individuals, with an average age of 17.3±0.2 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. OBJECTIVE The aim of our work was to figure out the influence of autogenic training on adjustment disorder, through biophysical and biochemical indicators, and to research the efficacy of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. METHOD We observed adjustment disorder indicators and their changes in three phases, using initial, final, and control values, which we measured immediately before the beginning, immediately after the completion, and six months after the completion, of the practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rates, cortisol levels in plasma, cholesterol levels in blood, as well as glucose concentrations. During that period, autogenic training was employed as the sole therapy. RESULTS The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed showed that arterial blood pressure, pulse rates, cholesterol and cortisol concentrations, after the application of autogenic training among adolescents suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower than the initial values. They remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. CONCLUSION We concluded that autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and eases the adaptation of

  8. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojić Boris R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Autogenic training is a widely recognised psychotherapy technique. The British School of Autogenic Training cites a large list of disorders, states, and changes, where autogenic training may prove to be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults. Our sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 35 individuals, with an average age of 39.3±1.6 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. Aim. The aim of our study was to research the effectiveness of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults, by checking the influence of autogenic training on the biophysical and biochemical indicators of adjustment disorder. Method. We measured the indicators of adjustment disorder and their changes in three phases: before the beginning, immediately after the beginning, and six months after the completion, of a practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rate as well as the levels of cortisol in plasma, of cholesterol in blood, and of glucose. During that period, autogenic training functioned as the sole therapy. Results. The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed demonstrated that arterial blood pressure, pulse rate, concentration of cholesterol and cortisol, after the application of autogenic training among the subjects suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower in comparison to the initial values. These values remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. Conclusion. Autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and helps adults to cope with stress, facilitating their recuperation.

  9. [Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojić, Boris R; Leposavić, Ljubica M

    2005-01-01

    Autogenic training is a widely recognised psychotherapy technique. The British School of Autogenic Training cites a large list of disorders, states, and changes, where autogenic training may prove to be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults. Our sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 35 individuals, with an average age of 39.3 +/- 1.6 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. The aim of our study was to research the effectiveness of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults, by checking the influence of autogenic training on the biophysical and biochemical indicators of adjustment disorder. We measured the indicators of adjustment disorder and their changes in three phases: before the beginning, immediately after the beginning, and six months after the completion, of a practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rate as well as the levels of cortisol in plasma, of cholesterol in blood, and of glucose. During that period, autogenic training functioned as the sole therapy. The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed demonstrated that arterial blood pressure, pulse rate, concentration of cholesterol and cortisol, after the application of autogenic training among the subjects suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower in comparison to the initial values. These values remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. Autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and helps adults to cope with stress, facilitating their recuperation.

  10. [Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojić, Boris R; Leposavić, Ljubica M

    2005-01-01

    Autogenic training is a widespread technique used in psychotherapy. The British school of autogenic training cites a large list of diseases, health states, and life changes, in which autogenic training can be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 31 individuals, with an average age of 17.3 +/- 0.2 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. The aim of our work was to figure out the influence of autogenic training on adjustment disorder, through biophysical and biochemical indicators, and to research the efficiacy of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. We observed adjustment disorder indicators and their changes in three phases, using initial, final, and control values, which we measured immediately before the beginning, immediately after the completion, and six months after the completion, of the practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rates, cortisol levels in plasma, cholesterol levels in blood, as well as glucose concentrations. During that period, autogenic training was employed as the sole therapy. The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed showed that arterial blood pressure, pulse rates, cholesterol and cortisol concentrations, after the application of autogenic training among adolescents suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower than the initial values. They remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. We concluded that autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and eases the adaptation of adolescents to stress, helping with recovery.

  11. Protein redox chemistry: post-translational cysteine modifications that regulate signal transduction and drug pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revati eWani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of reactive oxygen species (ROS has evolved over the past decade from agents of cellular damage to secondary messengers which modify signaling proteins in physiology and the disease state (e.g. cancer. New protein targets of specific oxidation are rapidly being identified. One emerging class of redox modification occurs to the thiol side chain of cysteine residues which can produce multiple chemically-distinct alterations to the protein (e.g. sulfenic/sulfinic/sulfonic acid, disulfides. These post-translational modifications (PTM are shown to affect the protein structure and function. Because redox-sensitive proteins can traffic between subcellular compartments that have different redox environments, cysteine oxidation enables a spatio-temporal control to signaling. Understanding ramifications of these oxidative modifications to the functions of signaling proteins is crucial for understanding cellular regulation as well as for informed-drug discovery process. The effects of EGFR oxidation of Cys797 on inhibitor pharmacology are presented to illustrate the principle. Taken together, cysteine redox PTM can impact both cell biology and drug pharmacology.

  12. The effect of autogenic training and biofeedback on motion sickness tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozsvai, E E; Pigeau, R A

    1996-10-01

    Motion sickness is characterized by symptoms of vomiting, drowsiness, fatigue and idiosyncratic changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses such as heart rate (HR) and skin temperature (ST). Previous studies found that symptoms of motion sickness are controllable through self-regulation of ANS responses and the best method to teach such control is autogenic-feedback (biofeedback) training. Recent experiments indicated that biofeedback training is ineffective in reducing symptoms of motion sickness or in increasing tolerance to motion. If biofeedback facilitates learning of ANS self-regulation then autogenic training with true feedback (TFB) should lead to better control over ANS responses and better motion tolerance than autogenic training with false feedback (FFB). If there is a relationship between ANS self-regulation and coping with motion stress, a significant correlation should be found between amounts of control over ANS responses and measures of motion tolerance and/or symptoms of motion sickness. There were 3 groups of 6 subjects exposed for 6 weeks to weekly sessions of Coriolis stimulation to induce motion sickness. Between the first and second Coriolis sessions, subjects in the experimental groups received five episodes of autogenic training with either true (group TFB) or false (group FFB) feedback on their HR and ST. The control group (CTL) received no treatment. Subjects learned to control their HR and ST independent of whether they received true or false feedback. Learned control of ST and HR was not related to severity of motion sickness or subject's ability to withstand Coriolis stimulation following treatment. A lack of significant correlation between these variables suggested that subjects were not able to apply their skills of ANS self-regulation in the motion environment, and/ or such skills had little value in reducing symptoms of motion sickness or enhancing their ability to withstand rotations.

  13. BAG3 regulates total MAP1LC3B protein levels through a translational but not transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Andrea E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Salas, Daniela; Parra, Valentina; Quiroga, Clara; Morawe, Tobias; Chiong, Mario; Behl, Christian; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is mainly regulated by post-translational and lipid modifications of ATG proteins. In some scenarios, the induction of autophagy is accompanied by increased levels of certain ATG mRNAs such as MAP1LC3B/LC3B, ATG5 or ATG12. However, little is known about the regulation of ATG protein synthesis at the translational level. The cochaperone of the HSP70 system BAG3 (BCL2-associated athanogene 3) has been associated to LC3B lipidation through an unknown mechanism. In the present work, we studied how BAG3 controls autophagy in HeLa and HEK293 cells. Our results showed that BAG3 regulates the basal amount of total cellular LC3B protein by controlling its mRNA translation. This effect was apparently specific to LC3B because other ATG protein levels were not affected. BAG3 knockdown did not affect LC3B lipidation induced by nutrient deprivation or proteasome inhibition. We concluded that BAG3 maintains the basal amount of LC3B protein by controlling the translation of its mRNA in HeLa and HEK293 cells.

  14. PRMT1-Mediated Translation Regulation Is a Crucial Vulnerability of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jessie Hao-Ru; Hubbell-Engler, Benjamin; Adelmant, Guillaume; Huang, Jialiang; Joyce, Cailin E; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A; Montgomery, Philip; Tsherniak, Aviad; Giacomelli, Andrew O; Perry, Jennifer A; Trowbridge, Jennifer; Fujiwara, Yuko; Cowley, Glenn S; Xie, Huafeng; Kim, Woojin; Novina, Carl D; Hahn, William C; Marto, Jarrod A; Orkin, Stuart H

    2017-09-01

    Through an shRNA screen, we identified the protein arginine methyltransferase Prmt1 as a vulnerable intervention point in murine p53/Rb-null osteosarcomas, the human counterpart of which lacks effective therapeutic options. Depletion of Prmt1 in p53-deficient cells impaired tumor initiation and maintenance in vitro and in vivo Mechanistic studies reveal that translation-associated pathways were enriched for Prmt1 downstream targets, implicating Prmt1 in translation control. In particular, loss of Prmt1 led to a decrease in arginine methylation of the translation initiation complex, thereby disrupting its assembly and inhibiting translation. p53/Rb-null cells were sensitive to p53-induced translation stress, and analysis of human cancer cell line data from Project Achilles further revealed that Prmt1 and translation-associated pathways converged on the same functional networks. We propose that targeted therapy against Prmt1 and its associated translation-related pathways offer a mechanistic rationale for treatment of osteosarcomas and other cancers that exhibit dependencies on translation stress response. Cancer Res; 77(17); 4613-25. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppek, Kathrin; Das, Rhiju; Barna, Maria

    2017-01-01

    RNA molecules can fold into intricate shapes that can provide an additional layer of control of gene expression beyond that of their sequence. In this Review, we discuss the current mechanistic understanding of structures in 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of eukaryotic mRNAs and the emerging methodologies used to explore them. These structures may regulate cap-dependent translation initiation through helicase-mediated remodelling of RNA structures and higher-order RNA interactions, as well as cap-independent translation initiation through internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), mRNA modifications and other specialized translation pathways. We discuss known 5′ UTR RNA structures and how new structure probing technologies coupled with prospective validation, particularly compensatory mutagenesis, are likely to identify classes of structured RNA elements that shape post-transcriptional control of gene expression and the development of multicellular organisms. PMID:29165424

  16. The translational repressor Crc controls the Pseudomonas putida benzoate and alkane catabolic pathways using a multi-tier regulation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Metabolically versatile bacteria usually perceive aromatic compounds and hydrocarbons as non-preferred carbon sources, and their assimilation is inhibited if more preferable substrates are available. This is achieved via catabolite repression. In Pseudomonas putida, the expression of the genes allowing the assimilation of benzoate and n-alkanes is strongly inhibited by catabolite repression, a process controlled by the translational repressor Crc. Crc binds to and inhibits the translation of benR and alkS mRNAs, which encode the transcriptional activators that induce the expression of the benzoate and alkane degradation genes respectively. However, sequences similar to those recognized by Crc in benR and alkS mRNAs exist as well in the translation initiation regions of the mRNA of several structural genes of the benzoate and alkane pathways, which suggests that Crc may also regulate their translation. The present results show that some of these sites are functional, and that Crc inhibits the induction of both pathways by limiting not only the translation of their transcriptional activators, but also that of genes coding for the first enzyme in each pathway. Crc may also inhibit the translation of a gene involved in benzoate uptake. This multi-tier approach probably ensures the rapid regulation of pathway genes, minimizing the assimilation of non-preferred substrates when better options are available. A survey of possible Crc sites in the mRNAs of genes associated with other catabolic pathways suggested that targeting substrate uptake, pathway induction and/or pathway enzymes may be a common strategy to control the assimilation of non-preferred compounds. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic determinants that regulate internal initiation of translation mediated by the FMR1 5' leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmerman Stephanie

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulating synthesis of the Fragile X gene (FMR1 product, FMRP alters neural plasticity potentially through its role in the microRNA pathway. Cap-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA, a process requiring ribosomal scanning through the 5' leader, is likely impeded by the extensive secondary structure generated by the high guanosine/cytosine nucleotide content including the CGG triplet nucleotide repeats in the 5' leader. An alternative mechanism to initiate translation – internal initiation often utilizes secondary structure to recruit the translational machinery. Consequently, studies were undertaken to confirm and extend a previous observation that the FMR1 5' leader contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES. Results Cellular transfection of a dicistronic DNA construct containing the FMR1 5' leader inserted into the intercistronic region yielded significant translation of the second cistron, but the FMR1 5' leader was also found to contain a cryptic promoter possibly confounding interpretation of these results. However, transfection of dicistronic and monocistronic RNA ex vivo or in vitro confirmed that the FMR1 5' leader contains an IRES. Moreover, inhibiting cap-dependent translation ex vivo did not affect the expression level of endogenous FMRP indicating a role for IRES-dependent translation of FMR1 mRNA. Analysis of the FMR1 5' leader revealed that the CGG repeats and the 5' end of the leader were vital for internal initiation. Functionally, exposure to potassium chloride or intracellular acidification and addition of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid as mimics of neural activity and double stranded RNA, respectively, differentially affected FMR1 IRES activity. Conclusion Our results indicate that multiple stimuli influence IRES-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA and suggest a functional role for the CGG nucleotide repeats.

  18. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and 5’ mRNA leader sequences as agents of translational regulation in Arabidopsis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Arnim, Albrecht G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-02-04

    Protein synthesis, or translation, consumes a sizable fraction of the cell’s energy budget, estimated at 5% and up to 50% in differentiated and growing cells, respectively. Plants also invest significant energy and biomass to construct and maintain the translation apparatus. Translation is regulated by a variety of external stimuli. Compared to transcriptional control, attributes of translational control include reduced sensitivity to stochastic fluctuation, a finer gauge of control, and more rapid responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Yet, our murky understanding of translational control allows few generalizations. Consequently, translational regulation is underutilized in the context of transgene regulation, although synthetic biologists are now beginning to appropriate RNA-level gene regulation into their regulatory circuits. We also know little about how translational control contributes to the diversity of plant form and function. This project explored how an emerging regulatory mRNA sequence element, upstream open reading frames (uORFs), is integrated with the general translation initiation machinery to permit translational regulation on specific mRNAs.

  19. PRMT1-Mediated Translation Regulation is a Crucial Vulnerability of Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through an shRNA screen, we identified the protein arginine methyltransferase Prmt1 as a vulnerable intervention point in murine p53/Rb-null osteosarcomas, the human counterpart of which lacks effective therapeutic options. Depletion of Prmt1 in p53-deficient cells impaired tumor initiation and maintenance in vitro and in vivo Mechanistic studies reveal that translation-associated pathways were enriched for Prmt1 downstream targets, implicating Prmt1 in translation control.

  20. Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis Is Regulated by the Redox State of a Heme-Binding Translational Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Iliana C; Barrientos, Antoni

    2016-02-20

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the last enzyme of the respiratory chain, catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water and therefore is essential for cell function and viability. COX is a multimeric complex, whose biogenesis is extensively regulated. One type of control targets cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1), a key COX enzymatic core subunit translated on mitochondrial ribosomes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cox1 synthesis and COX assembly are coordinated through a negative feedback regulatory loop. This coordination is mediated by Mss51, a heme-sensing COX1 mRNA-specific processing factor and translational activator that is also a Cox1 chaperone. In this study, we investigated whether Mss51 hemylation and Mss51-mediated Cox1 synthesis are both modulated by the reduction-oxidation (redox) environment. We report that Cox1 synthesis is attenuated under oxidative stress conditions and have identified one of the underlying mechanisms. We show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hydrogen peroxide induces the formation of a disulfide bond in Mss51 involving CPX motif heme-coordinating cysteines. Mss51 oxidation results in a heme ligand switch, thereby lowering heme-binding affinity and promoting its release. We demonstrate that in addition to affecting Mss51-dependent heme sensing, oxidative stress compromises Mss51 roles in COX1 mRNA processing and translation. H2O2-induced downregulation of mitochondrial translation has so far not been reported. We show that high H2O2 concentrations induce a global attenuation effect, but milder concentrations specifically affect COX1 mRNA processing and translation in an Mss51-dependent manner. The redox environment modulates Mss51 functions, which are essential for regulation of COX biogenesis and aerobic energy production.

  1. Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Khalilak, Zohreh; Jalali Ara, Afsoon

    2017-01-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption.

  2. Control of PNG kinase, a key regulator of mRNA translation, is coupled to meiosis completion at egg activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Masatoshi; Petrova, Boryana; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2017-05-30

    The oocyte-to-embryo transition involves extensive changes in mRNA translation, regulated in Drosophila by the PNG kinase complex whose activity we show here to be under precise developmental control. Despite presence of the catalytic PNG subunit and the PLU and GNU activating subunits in the mature oocyte, GNU is phosphorylated at Cyclin B/CDK1sites and unable to bind PNG and PLU. In vitro phosphorylation of GNU by CyclinB/CDK1 blocks activation of PNG. Meiotic completion promotes GNU dephosphorylation and PNG kinase activation to regulate translation. The critical regulatory effect of phosphorylation is shown by replacement in the oocyte with a phosphorylation-resistant form of GNU, which promotes PNG-GNU complex formation, elevation of Cyclin B, and meiotic defects consistent with premature PNG activation. After PNG activation GNU is destabilized, thus inactivating PNG. This short-lived burst in kinase activity links development with maternal mRNA translation and ensures irreversibility of the oocyte-to-embryo transition.

  3. SRSF3 represses the expression of PDCD4 protein by coordinated regulation of alternative splicing, export and translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kuk; Jeong, Sunjoo, E-mail: sjsj@dankook.ac.kr

    2016-02-05

    Gene expression is regulated at multiple steps, such as transcription, splicing, export, degradation and translation. Considering diverse roles of SR proteins, we determined whether the tumor-related splicing factor SRSF3 regulates the expression of the tumor-suppressor protein, PDCD4, at multiple steps. As we have reported previously, knockdown of SRSF3 increased the PDCD4 protein level in SW480 colon cancer cells. More interestingly, here we showed that the alternative splicing and the nuclear export of minor isoforms of pdcd4 mRNA were repressed by SRSF3, but the translation step was unaffected. In contrast, only the translation step of the major isoform of pdcd4 mRNA was repressed by SRSF3. Therefore, overexpression of SRSF3 might be relevant to the repression of all isoforms of PDCD4 protein levels in most types of cancer cell. We propose that SRSF3 could act as a coordinator of the expression of PDCD4 protein via two mechanisms on two alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms.

  4. Regulation by nitrate of protein synthesis and translation of RNA in maize roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, P.R.; Bouthyette, P.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Roots of maize seedlings were exposed to 35 S-methionine in the presence or absence of nitrate. Using SDS-PAGE, nitrate-induced changes in labeled polypeptides were noted in the soluble (at 92, 63 and 21kD) and organellar(at 14kD) fractions, as well as in a membrane fraction of putative tonoplast origin (at 31kD). No nitrate-induced changes were noted in a plasmamembrane-enriched fraction or in a membrane fraction of mixed origin. Total RNA from nitrate-treated and control roots was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte system. Five translation products (94, 63, 41, 39 and 21kD) were identified as nitrate-inducible by comparative gel electrophoresis. Changes in protein synthesis and translation of mRNA were apparent within 2-3 h after introduction of nitrate. Within 4-6 h after removal of nitrate, the level of nitrate-inducible translation products diminished to that of control roots. In contrast, the 31kD tonoplast polypeptide was still labeled 26 h after removal of external nitrate and 35 S-methionine. The results will be discussed in relation to the nitrate induction of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and the nitrate uptake system

  5. Mixed messages: Re-initiation factors regulate translation of animal mRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Obermayer, Benedikt; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    When ribosomes encounter upstream open reading frames (uORFs) during scanning of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), translation of the downstream ORF requires re-initiation. In a recent paper in Nature, Schleich et al. describe metazoan factors which specifically promote re-initiation.

  6. PTENα, a PTEN isoform translated through alternative initiation, regulates mitochondrial function and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; He, Shiming; Yang, Jingyi; Jia, Xinying; Wang, Pan; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhong; Zou, Xiajuan; McNutt, Michael A; Shen, Wen Hong; Yin, Yuxin

    2014-05-06

    PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. It is known that PTEN has a wide range of biological functions beyond tumor suppression. Here, we report that PTENα, an N-terminally extended form of PTEN, functions in mitochondrial metabolism. Translation of PTENα is initiated from a CUG codon upstream of and in-frame with the coding region of canonical PTEN. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A (eIF2A) controls PTENα translation, which requires a CUG-centered palindromic motif. We show that PTENα induces cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP production in mitochondria. TALEN-mediated somatic deletion of PTENα impairs mitochondrial respiratory chain function. PTENα interacts with canonical PTEN to increase PINK1 protein levels and promote energy production. Our studies demonstrate the importance of eIF2A-mediated alternative translation for generation of protein diversity in eukaryotic systems and provide insights into the mechanism by which the PTEN family is involved in multiple cellular processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction of the Early Autogenous Shrinkage of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Saje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a laboratory investigation on the early autogenous shrinkage of high strength concrete, and the possibilities of its reduction, are presented. Such concrete demonstrates significant autogenous shrinkage, which should, however, be limited in the early stages of its development in order to prevent the occurrence of cracks and/or drop in the load-carrying capacity of concrete structures. The following possibilities for reducing autogenous shrinkage were investigated: the use of low-heat cement, a shrinkage-reducing admixture, steel fibres, premoistened polypropylene fibres, and presoaked lightweight aggregate. In the case of the use of presoaked natural lightweight aggregate, with a fraction from 2 to 4 mm, the early autogenous shrinkage of one-day-old high strength concrete decreased by about 90%, with no change to the concrete's compressive strength in comparison with that of the reference concrete.

  8. tRNA-like structure regulates translation of Brome mosaic virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, Sharief; Rudinger-Thirion, Joëlle; Florentz, Catherine; Giegé, Richard; Pleij, Cornelis W A; Kraal, Barend

    2004-04-01

    For various groups of plant viruses, the genomic RNAs end with a tRNA-like structure (TLS) instead of the 3' poly(A) tail of common mRNAs. The actual function of these TLSs has long been enigmatic. Recently, however, it became clear that for turnip yellow mosaic virus, a tymovirus, the valylated TLS(TYMV) of the single genomic RNA functions as a bait for host ribosomes and directs them to the internal initiation site of translation (with N-terminal valine) of the second open reading frame for the polyprotein. This discovery prompted us to investigate whether the much larger TLSs of a different genus of viruses have a comparable function in translation. Brome mosaic virus (BMV), a bromovirus, has a tripartite RNA genome with a subgenomic RNA4 for coat protein expression. All four RNAs carry a highly conserved and bulky 3' TLS(BMV) (about 200 nucleotides) with determinants for tyrosylation. We discovered TLS(BMV)-catalyzed self-tyrosylation of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase but could not clearly detect tyrosine incorporation into any virus-encoded protein. We established that BMV proteins do not need TLS(BMV) tyrosylation for their initiation. However, disruption of the TLSs strongly reduced the translation of genomic RNA1, RNA2, and less strongly, RNA3, whereas coat protein expression from RNA4 remained unaffected. This aberrant translation could be partially restored by providing the TLS(BMV) in trans. Intriguingly, a subdomain of the TLS(BMV) could even almost fully restore translation to the original pattern. We discuss here a model with a central and dominant role for the TLS(BMV) during the BMV infection cycle.

  9. Measuring autogenous strain of concrete with corrugated moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    A reliable technique to quantify autogenous strain is a prerequisite to numerical modeling in stress calculations for high performance concrete. The introducing of a special kind of corrugated tube mould helps to transforming volume strain measurement into liner strain measurement in horizontal...... direction for fluid concrete, which not only realizes the continuous monitoring of the autogenous shrinkage since casting, but also effectively eliminates the disturbance resulting from gravity, temperature variation and mould restraint on measuring results. Based on this measuring technique, this paper...

  10. Nuclear Protein Sam68 Interacts with the Enterovirus 71 Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Positively Regulates Viral Protein Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Song, Lei; Cong, Haolong; Tien, Po

    2015-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) recruits various cellular factors to assist in the replication and translation of its genome. Identification of the host factors involved in the EV71 life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of the infection mechanism but also has the potential to be of use in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that the cellular factor 68-kDa Src-associated protein in mitosis (Sam68) acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that binds specifically to the EV71 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Interaction sites in both the viral IRES (stem-loops IV and V) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH) domain of Sam68 protein were further mapped using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and biotin RNA pulldown assay. More importantly, dual-luciferase (firefly) reporter analysis suggested that overexpression of Sam68 positively regulated IRES-dependent translation of virus proteins. In contrast, both IRES activity and viral protein translation significantly decreased in Sam68 knockdown cells compared with the negative-control cells treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA). However, downregulation of Sam68 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of the EV71 genome. Moreover, Sam68 was redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interacts with cellular factors, such as poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), during EV71 infection. The cytoplasmic relocalization of Sam68 in EV71-infected cells may be involved in the enhancement of EV71 IRES-mediated translation. Since Sam68 is known to be a RNA-binding protein, these results provide direct evidence that Sam68 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and positively regulates viral protein translation. The nuclear protein Sam68 is found as an additional new host factor that interacts with the EV71 IRES during infection and could potentially

  11. Conceptualising Multilevel Regulation in the EU: A Legal Translation of Multilevel Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    How should we conceive of regulation in the European context? This paper attempts to answer this by developing multilevel regulation as a theoretical concept. The basic aim of the paper is to explore the difference and convergence between regulation and governance and develop multilevel governance

  12. Computed tomography evaluation of autogenous graft in sinus lift surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Moscatiello, Rafael Andrade; Lima, Aida Maria Custodio de; Moscatiello, Vitoria Aparecida Muglia; Helio Kiitiro Yamashita; Mosacatiello, Rafael Muglia; Nishiguchi, Celso Itiro; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to quantify bone formation within autogenous bone grafts and autogenous bone grafts in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained either from apheresis or centrifugation using computed tomography. This prospective, double-blind study was conducted in 34 male and female adult patients (mean age of 28 years and 8 months), with either unilateral or bilateral pneumatization of the maxillary sinuses, requiring bone graft for dental implant. All patients were submitted to computed tomography examinations prior and six months after sinus lift surgery. Fifty-three maxillary sinuses were operated and divided into three distinct groups: autogenous bone graft, autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by centrifugation, and autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by apheresis. The results showed that computed tomography demonstrated bone growth in height and width between the initial and the follow-up computed tomography scans in all three groups. However, no statistical difference was found either for bone height or width. It was concluded that clinical evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of autogenous bone grafts, particularly when used in combination with bone growth factors such as platelet-rich plasma, which allow prosthetic and functional restoration of maxillofacial structures through fixation of dental implants. (author)

  13. Post-translational regulation and trafficking of the granulin-containing protease RD21 of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gu

    Full Text Available RD21-like proteases are ubiquitous, plant-specific papain-like proteases typified by carrying a C-terminal granulin domain. RD21-like proteases are involved in immunity and associated with senescence and various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we interrogated Arabidopsis RD21 regulation and trafficking by site-directed mutagenesis, agroinfiltration, western blotting, protease activity profiling and protein degradation. Using an introduced N-glycan sensor, deglycosylation experiments and glyco-engineered N. benthamiana plants, we show that RD21 passes through the Golgi where it becomes fucosylated. Our studies demonstrate that RD21 is regulated at three post-translational levels. Prodomain removal is not blocked in the catalytic Cys mutant, indicating that RD21 is activated by a proteolytic cascade. However, RD21 activation in Arabidopsis does not require vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs or aleurain-like protease AALP. In contrast, granulin domain removal requires the catalytic Cys and His residues and is therefore autocatalytic. Furthermore, SDS can (re-activate latent RD21 in Arabidopsis leaf extracts, indicating the existence of a third layer of post-translational regulation, possibly mediated by endogenous inhibitors. RD21 causes a dominant protease activity in Arabidopsis leaf extracts, responsible for SDS-induced proteome degradation.

  14. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit e controls intracellular calcium homeostasis by regulation of cav1.2 surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Buda

    Full Text Available Inappropriate surface expression of voltage-gated Ca(2+channels (CaV in pancreatic ß-cells may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. First, failure to increase intracellular Ca(2+ concentrations at the sites of exocytosis impedes insulin release. Furthermore, excessive Ca(2+ influx may trigger cytotoxic effects. The regulation of surface expression of CaV channels in the pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. Here, we used real-time 3D confocal and TIRFM imaging, immunocytochemistry, cellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation and electrophysiology to study trafficking of L-type CaV1.2 channels upon β-cell stimulation. We found decreased surface expression of CaV1.2 and a corresponding reduction in L-type whole-cell Ca(2+ currents in insulin-secreting INS-1 832/13 cells upon protracted (15-30 min stimulation. This internalization occurs by clathrin-dependent endocytosis and could be prevented by microtubule or dynamin inhibitors. eIF3e (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E is part of the protein translation initiation complex, but its effect on translation are modest and effects in ion channel trafficking have been suggested. The factor interacted with CaV1.2 and regulated CaV1.2 traffic bidirectionally. eIF3e silencing impaired CaV1.2 internalization, which resulted in an increased intracellular Ca(2+ load upon stimulation. These findings provide a mechanism for regulation of L-type CaV channel surface expression with consequences for β-cell calcium homeostasis, which will affect pancreatic β-cell function and insulin production.

  15. Regulation of cap-dependent translation initiation in the early stage porcine parthenotes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šušor, Andrej; Jelínková, Lucie; Karabínová, Pavla; Torner, H.; Tomek, W.; Kovářová, Hana; Kubelka, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 12 (2008), s. 1716-1725 ISSN 1040-452X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0104; GA ČR GA524/07/1087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : meiosis * translation initiation * porcine parthenotes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.287, year: 2008

  16. D-Glucosamine down-regulates HIF-1{alpha} through inhibition of protein translation in DU145 prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee-Young; Park, Jong-Wook; Suh, Seong-Il [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won-Ki, E-mail: wonki@dsmc.or.kr [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-24

    D-Glucosamine has been reported to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. In this study we report a novel response to D-glucosamine involving the translation regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1{alpha} expression. D-Glucosamine caused a decreased expression of HIF-1{alpha} under normoxic and hypoxic conditions without affecting HIF-1{alpha} mRNA expression in DU145 prostate cancer cells. D-Glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} accumulation induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132 and prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor DMOG suggesting D-glucosamine reduces HIF-1{alpha} protein expression through proteasome-independent pathway. Metabolic labeling assays indicated that D-glucosamine inhibits translation of HIF-1{alpha} protein. In addition, D-glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} expression induced by serum stimulation in parallel with inhibition of p70S6K suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits growth factor-induced HIF-1{alpha} expression, at least in part, through p70S6K inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that D-glucosamine inhibits HIF-1{alpha} expression through inhibiting protein translation and provide new insight into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of D-glucosamine.

  17. Crystal Structure of the CTP1L Endolysin Reveals How Its Activity Is Regulated by a Secondary Translation Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Matthew; Leicht, Stefan; Krichel, Boris; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Thompson, Andrew; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Svergun, Dmitri I; Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Garde, Sonia; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Narbad, Arjan; Mayer, Melinda J; Meijers, Rob

    2016-03-04

    Bacteriophages produce endolysins, which lyse the bacterial host cell to release newly produced virions. The timing of lysis is regulated and is thought to involve the activation of a molecular switch. We present a crystal structure of the activated endolysin CTP1L that targets Clostridium tyrobutyricum, consisting of a complex between the full-length protein and an N-terminally truncated C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). The truncated CBD is produced through an internal translation start site within the endolysin gene. Mutants affecting the internal translation site change the oligomeric state of the endolysin and reduce lytic activity. The activity can be modulated by reconstitution of the full-length endolysin-CBD complex with free CBD. The same oligomerization mechanism applies to the CD27L endolysin that targets Clostridium difficile and the CS74L endolysin that targets Clostridium sporogenes. When the CTP1L endolysin gene is introduced into the commensal bacterium Lactococcus lactis, the truncated CBD is also produced, showing that the alternative start codon can be used in other bacterial species. The identification of a translational switch affecting oligomerization presented here has implications for the design of effective endolysins for the treatment of bacterial infections. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Multifaceted regulation of translational readthrough by RNA replication elements in a tombusvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Cimino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational readthrough of stop codons by ribosomes is a recoding event used by a variety of viruses, including plus-strand RNA tombusviruses. Translation of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp in tombusviruses is mediated using this strategy and we have investigated this process using a variety of in vitro and in vivo approaches. Our results indicate that readthrough generating the RdRp requires a novel long-range RNA-RNA interaction, spanning a distance of ∼3.5 kb, which occurs between a large RNA stem-loop located 3'-proximal to the stop codon and an RNA replication structure termed RIV at the 3'-end of the viral genome. Interestingly, this long-distance RNA-RNA interaction is modulated by mutually-exclusive RNA structures in RIV that represent a type of RNA switch. Moreover, a different long-range RNA-RNA interaction that was previously shown to be necessary for viral RNA replicase assembly was also required for efficient readthrough production of the RdRp. Accordingly, multiple replication-associated RNA elements are involved in modulating the readthrough event in tombusviruses and we propose an integrated mechanistic model to describe how this regulatory network could be advantageous by (i providing a quality control system for culling truncated viral genomes at an early stage in the replication process, (ii mediating cis-preferential replication of viral genomes, and (iii coordinating translational readthrough of the RdRp with viral genome replication. Based on comparative sequence analysis and experimental data, basic elements of this regulatory model extend to other members of Tombusviridae, as well as to viruses outside of this family.

  19. Phobic postural vertigo treated with autogenic training: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Nakai, Kimiko; Kunihiro, Takanobu; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2008-09-30

    Patients suffering from dizziness due to vertigo are commonly encountered in the department of otolaryngology. If various clinical examinations do not reveal any objective findings, then the patients are referred to the department of internal medicine or psychiatry. In many cases, the diagnosis is psychological dizziness. Phobic postural vertigo, which was first reported by Brandt T et al in 1994, is supposed to be a type of psychological dizziness. The diagnosis is based on 6 characteristics proposed by Brandt et al. Patients are usually treated with conventional medical therapy, but some cases may be refractory to such a therapy. Psychotherapy is recommended in some cases; however, psychotherapy including autogenic training, which can be used for general relaxation, is not widely accepted. This paper describes the successful administration of autogenic training in a patient suffering from phobic postural vertigo. We present a case of a patient who suffered from phobic postural vertigo. A 37-year-old female complained of dizziness. She had started experiencing dizziness almost 3 years She was intractable to many sort of conventional therapy. In the end, her symptom disappeared after introduction of autogenic training. Autogenic training can be a viable and acceptable treatment option for phobic postural vertigo patients who fail to respond to other therapies. This case emphasizes the importance of autogenic training as a method to control symptom of phobic postural vertigo.

  20. The multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits enterovirus 71 replication by regulating IRES-dependent translation of viral proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Duan, Hao; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Meng; Guo, Jitao; Zhao, Zhenlong; Meng, Lirong; Peng, Yihong

    2014-06-01

    The activation of ERK and p38 signal cascade in host cells has been demonstrated to be essential for picornavirus enterovirus 71 (EV71) replication and up-regulation of virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) expression. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sorafenib, a clinically approved anti-cancer multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, on the propagation and pathogenesis of EV71, with a view to its possible mechanism and potential use in the design of therapy regimes for Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients with life threatening neurological complications. In this study, non-toxic concentrations of sorafenib were shown to inhibit the yield of infectious progeny EV71 (clinical BC08 strain) by about 90% in three different cell types. A similar inhibitory effect of sorafenib was observed on the synthesis of both viral genomic RNA and the VP1 protein. Interestingly, sorafenib exerted obvious inhibition of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation, the first step in picornavirus replication, by linking it to a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Sorafenib was also able to prevent both EV71-induced CPE and the activation of ERK and p38, which contributes to up-regulation COX-2/PGE2 expression induced by the virus. Overall, this study shows that sorafenib strongly inhibits EV71 replication at least in part by regulating viral IRES-dependent translation of viral proteins, indicating a novel potential strategy for the treatment of HFMD patients with severe neurological complications. To our knowledge, this is the first report that investigates the mechanism by which sorafenib inhibits EV71 replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. MicroRNA, SND1, and alterations in translational regulation in colon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoto; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNA (miRNA) has recently attracted major interest in relation to its involvement in cancer development. miRNA is a member of small non-coding RNA, consists of 22-24 nucleotides and regulates expression of target mRNA species in a post-transcriptional manner by being incorporated with RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Staphylococcal nuclease homology domain containing 1 (SND1), a component of RISC, is frequently up-regulated in human colon cancers and also chemically induced colon cancers in animals. We here showed that SDN1 is involved in miRNA-mediated gene suppression and overexpression of SND1 in colon cancer cells causes down-regulation of APC without altering APC mRNA levels. As for the miRNA expression profile in human colon cancer, miR-34a was among the list of down-regulated miRNA. Expression of miR-34a is tightly regulated by p53, and ectopic expression of miR-34a in colon cancer cells causes remarkable reduction of cell proliferation and induces senescence-like phenotypes. MiR-34a also participates in the positive feedback loop of the p53 tumor suppressor network. This circuitry mechanism for p53 activation is of interest in understanding the tumor suppressive function of miR-34a in colon carcinogenesis. miRNA should also be considered as novel anti-cancer agents in tumor suppressive therapeutic applications.

  2. Salivation quantum--stomatopyrosis--autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokupec, Josipa-Sanja Gruden; Gruden, Vladimir; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores

    2009-09-01

    Stomatopyrosis of 'burning mouth' syndrome, in a narrower sense of definition, is a condition characterized by sensation of burning and heating in mouth, despite its normal mucosa. This research has been directed towards treatment of stomatopyrosis, putting emphasis on the implementation of psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. The research was conducted on altogether 120 respondents suffering from stomatopyrosis. The respondents were divided into two equal groups: each one comprising 60 members. All the respondents were treated by means of a standard topical therapy. All the patients were assessed clinically and by means of psychological tests measuring depression and anxiety four times: once before the treatment, after one month, after two months and after four months since the beginning of the treatment. The acquired data were afterwards statistically processed. When grading the symptoms on VAS, i.e. visual analogous scale, the subjective assessment of symptoms was marked as 7-8 cm, which shows a high degree of burning sensation. According to our study, the quantity of saliva, which was at the beginning of the research slightly decreased, normalized after the treatment. Apart from the clinical investigation of stomatopyrosis, we applied Depression and Anxiety questionnaires. On the basis of our research, we have concluded the following: the comorbidity of stomatopyrosis with the phenomena of anxiety and depression proves that, among other factors, there is a psychogenic aetiology of this disease. Autogenic training, which is a psychotherapeutic anxiolytic technique, is a therapy of choice for stomatopyrosis, which contributes not only to the elimination of oral complaints, but to the emotional rehabilitation of the patients as well, and to the reduction of dryness in the mouth.

  3. [Effects of autogenic training in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, T; Teutsch, E; Wormstall, H; Buchkremer, G; Thimm, E

    2002-04-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a widely available relaxation method with beneficial outcome on physiological and psychological functioning. In our study, we wanted to test the effects of an AT course in cognitively impaired, frail elderly. After a 3 month waiting period (control), AT courses (intervention) of 3 months duration were offered in 2 nursing homes. Thirty-two frail elderly took part in the study, 24 of them had a psychiatric diagnosis (mean age 82.1 +/- 7.2 years, CAMCOG 75.5 +/- 15.7, MMSE 23.3 +/- 4.3, HAMD 10.0 +/- 3.6, NOSGER 57.2 +/- 18.4, AT-SYM 32.9 +/- 17.6 points). Eight participants dropped out during the waiting period, 8 during the course. From the 16 participants, 15 (94%) were able to learn the AT according to subjective, 9 (54%) according to objective criteria. The ability to practice the AT successfully correlated with the CAMCOG (p = 0.001) and the NOSGER (p = 0.01) score. Participants with a dementia syndrome had major difficulties, whereas age, depressiveness, and number of complaints (AT-SYM) had no influence on the ability to learn the AT. There was no intervention effect, measured with the HAMD, NOSGER, AT-SYM and MMSE. In the pre-post comparison of training sessions, a significant improvement in general well being was found (p < 0.001). Mentally impaired, frail elderly participants are able to learn the AT. Cognitive impairment is disadvantageous for a successful participation.

  4. The regulation of protein synthesis and translation factors by CD3 and CD28 in human primary T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proud Christopher G

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of human resting T lymphocytes results in an immediate increase in protein synthesis. The increase in protein synthesis after 16–24 h has been linked to the increased protein levels of translation initiation factors. However, the regulation of protein synthesis during the early onset of T cell activation has not been studied in great detail. We studied the regulation of protein synthesis after 1 h of activation using αCD3 antibody to stimulate the T cell receptor and αCD28 antibody to provide the co-stimulus. Results Activation of the T cells with both antibodies led to a sustained increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The activities and/or phosphorylation states of several translation factors were studied during the first hour of stimulation with αCD3 and αCD28 to explore the mechanism underlying the activation of protein synthesis. The initial increase in protein synthesis was accompanied by activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 2B, and of p70 S6 kinase and by dephosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF 2. Similar signal transduction pathways, as assessed using signal transduction inhibitors, are involved in the regulation of protein synthesis, eIF2B activity and p70 S6 kinase activity. A new finding was that the p38 MAPK α/β pathway was involved in the regulation of overall protein synthesis in primary T cells. Unexpectedly, no changes were detected in the phosphorylation state of the cap-binding protein eIF4E and the eIF4E-binding protein 4E-BP1, or the formation of the cap-binding complex eIF4F. Conclusions Both eIF2B and p70 S6 kinase play important roles in the regulation of protein synthesis during the early onset of T cell activation.

  5. Interplay between the catabolite repression control protein Crc, Hfq and RNA in Hfq-dependent translational regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Wulf, Alexander; Campagne, Sébastien; Pei, Xue-Yuan; Wolfinger, Michael T; Forlani, Giada; Prindl, Konstantin; Abdou, Laetitia; Resch, Armin; Allain, Frederic H-T; Luisi, Ben F; Urlaub, Henning; Bläsi, Udo

    2018-02-16

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa the RNA chaperone Hfq and the catabolite repression control protein (Crc) act as post-transcriptional regulators during carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this regard Crc is required for full-fledged Hfq-mediated translational repression of catabolic genes. RNAseq based transcriptome analyses revealed a significant overlap between the Crc and Hfq regulons, which in conjunction with genetic data supported a concerted action of both proteins. Biochemical and biophysical approaches further suggest that Crc and Hfq form an assembly in the presence of RNAs containing A-rich motifs, and that Crc interacts with both, Hfq and RNA. Through these interactions, Crc enhances the stability of Hfq/Crc/RNA complexes, which can explain its facilitating role in Hfq-mediated translational repression. Hence, these studies revealed for the first time insights into how an interacting protein can modulate Hfq function. Moreover, Crc is shown to interfere with binding of a regulatory RNA to Hfq, which bears implications for riboregulation. These results are discussed in terms of a working model, wherein Crc prioritizes the function of Hfq toward utilization of favored carbon sources.

  6. Antioxidant systems are regulated by nitric oxide-mediated post-translational modifications (NO-PTMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Begara-Morales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a biological messenger that orchestrates a plethora of plant functions, mainly through post-translational modifications (PTMs such as S-nitrosylation or tyrosine nitration. In plants, hundreds of proteins have been identified as potential targets of these NO-PTMs under physiological and stress conditions indicating the relevance of NO in plant-signaling mechanisms. Among these NO protein targets, there are different antioxidant enzymes involved in the control of reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as H2O2, which is also a signal molecule. This highlights the close relationship between ROS/NO signaling pathways. The major plant antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutases (SODs peroxiredoxins (Prx and all the enzymatic components of the ascorbate-glutathione (Asa-GSH cycle, have been shown to be modulated to different degrees by NO-PTMs. This mini-review will update the recent knowledge concerning the interaction of NO with these antioxidant enzymes, with a special focus on the components of the Asa-GSH cycle and their physiological relevance.

  7. Autogenous healing properties of cement-based grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Roe, L.; Shenton, B.

    1997-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to provide information on the ability of cement-based grouts to self-seal. Autogenous sealing was investigated both on bulk grouts and in thin films of grouts. In both cases, the self-sealing capabilities of the cement-based grouts were investigated with water flowing through the grout. Autogenous sealing was studied through changes in pore structure (decrease in pore radius and volume of pores) and changes in the rate of water flow through the cement-based grouts. (author)

  8. Measuring techniques for autogenous strain of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2007-01-01

    Volumetric measurement of autogenous strain is frequently performed by placing the fresh cement paste in a rubber membrane submerged in water. The volume change of the cement paste is measured by the amount of water displaced by the submerged sample. Volumetric and linear measurements of autogenous...... of the volumetric method. Water absorption is driven by a lowering of the water activity in the cement paste due to dissolved salts in the pore fluid and to self-desiccation. From the moment of casting, significant water uptake was registered in all experiments. This water uptake influenced the volumetric...... on the same cement pastes....

  9. Global regulation of mRNA translation and stability in the early Drosophila embryo by the Smaug RNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linan; Dumelie, Jason G; Li, Xiao; Cheng, Matthew Hk; Yang, Zhiyong; Laver, John D; Siddiqui, Najeeb U; Westwood, J Timothy; Morris, Quaid; Lipshitz, Howard D; Smibert, Craig A

    2014-01-07

    Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83. Smaug represses the translation of nanos mRNA but has only a modest effect on its stability, whereas it destabilizes Hsp83 mRNA but has no detectable effect on Hsp83 translation. Smaug is required to destabilize more than one thousand mRNAs in the early embryo, but whether these transcripts represent direct targets of Smaug is unclear and the extent of Smaug-mediated translational repression is unknown. To gain a panoramic view of Smaug function in the early embryo, we identified mRNAs that are bound to Smaug using RNA co-immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization to DNA microarrays. We also identified mRNAs that are translationally repressed by Smaug using polysome gradients and microarrays. Comparison of the bound mRNAs to those that are translationally repressed by Smaug and those that require Smaug for their degradation suggests that a large fraction of Smaug's target mRNAs are both translationally repressed and degraded by Smaug. Smaug directly regulates components of the TRiC/CCT chaperonin, the proteasome regulatory particle and lipid droplets, as well as many metabolic enzymes, including several glycolytic enzymes. Smaug plays a direct and global role in regulating the translation and stability of a large fraction of the mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo, and has unanticipated functions in control of protein folding and degradation, lipid droplet function and metabolism.

  10. USP2-45 Is a Circadian Clock Output Effector Regulating Calcium Absorption at the Post-Translational Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pouly

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian clock influences most aspects of physiology and behavior through the transcriptional control of a wide variety of genes, mostly in a tissue-specific manner. About 20 clock-controlled genes (CCGs oscillate in virtually all mammalian tissues and are generally considered as core clock components. One of them is Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 2 (Usp2, whose status remains controversial, as it may be a cogwheel regulating the stability or activity of core cogwheels or an output effector. We report here that Usp2 is a clock output effector related to bodily Ca2+ homeostasis, a feature that is conserved across evolution. Drosophila with a whole-body knockdown of the orthologue of Usp2, CG14619 (dUsp2-kd, predominantly die during pupation but are rescued by dietary Ca2+ supplementation. Usp2-KO mice show hyperabsorption of dietary Ca2+ in small intestine, likely due to strong overexpression of the membrane scaffold protein NHERF4, a regulator of the Ca2+ channel TRPV6 mediating dietary Ca2+ uptake. In this tissue, USP2-45 is found in membrane fractions and negatively regulates NHERF4 protein abundance in a rhythmic manner at the protein level. In clock mutant animals (Cry1/Cry2-dKO, rhythmic USP2-45 expression is lost, as well as the one of NHERF4, confirming the inverse relationship between USP2-45 and NHERF4 protein levels. Finally, USP2-45 interacts in vitro with NHERF4 and endogenous Clathrin Heavy Chain. Taken together these data prompt us to define USP2-45 as the first clock output effector acting at the post-translational level at cell membranes and possibly regulating membrane permeability of Ca2+.

  11. Post-translational regulation of P2X receptor channels: modulation by phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe eBernier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available P2X receptor channels mediate fast excitatory signaling by ATP and play major roles in sensory transduction, neuro-immune communication and inflammatory response. P2X receptors constitute a gene family of calcium-permeable ATP-gated cation channels therefore the regulation of P2X signaling is critical for both membrane potential and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Phosphoinositides (PIPn are anionic signaling phospholipids that act as functional regulators of many types of ion channels. Direct PIPn binding was demonstrated for several ligand- or voltage-gated ion channels, however no generic motif emerged to accurately predict lipid-protein binding sites. This review presents what is currently known about the modulation of the different P2X subtypes by phospholipids and about critical determinants underlying their sensitivity to PIPn levels in the plasma membrane.All functional mammalian P2X subtypes tested, with the notable exception of P2X5, have been shown to be positively modulated by PIPn, i.e. homomeric P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, as well as heteromeric P2X1/5 and P2X2/3 receptors. Based on various results reported on the aforementioned subtypes including mutagenesis of the prototypical PIPn-sensitive P2X4 and PIPn-insensitive P2X5 receptor subtypes, an increasing amount of functional, biochemical and structural evidence converges on the modulatory role of a short polybasic domain located in the proximal C-terminus of P2X subunits. This linear motif, semi-conserved in the P2X family, seems necessary and sufficient for encoding direct modulation of ATP-gated channels by PIPn. Furthermore, the physiological impact of the regulation of ionotropic purinergic responses by phospholipids on pain pathways was recently revealed in the context of native crosstalks between phospholipase C-linked metabotropic receptors and P2X receptor channels in DRG sensory neurons and microglia.

  12. Proteomic analysis reveals APC-dependent post-translational modifications and identifies a novel regulator of β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundon, Malachi A; Schlesinger, Danielle R; Parthasarathy, Amritha; Smith, Samantha L; Kolev, Hannah M; Vinson, David A; Kunttas-Tatli, Ezgi; McCartney, Brooke M; Minden, Jonathan S

    2016-07-15

    Wnt signaling generates patterns in all embryos, from flies to humans, and controls cell fate, proliferation and metabolic homeostasis. Inappropriate Wnt pathway activation results in diseases, including colorectal cancer. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene encodes a multifunctional protein that is an essential regulator of Wnt signaling and cytoskeletal organization. Although progress has been made in defining the role of APC in a normal cellular context, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of APC-dependent cellular function and dysfunction. We expanded the APC-associated protein network using a combination of genetics and a proteomic technique called two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). We show that loss of Drosophila Apc2 causes protein isoform changes reflecting misregulation of post-translational modifications (PTMs), which are not dependent on β-catenin transcriptional activity. Mass spectrometry revealed that proteins involved in metabolic and biosynthetic pathways, protein synthesis and degradation, and cell signaling are affected by Apc2 loss. We demonstrate that changes in phosphorylation partially account for the altered PTMs in APC mutants, suggesting that APC mutants affect other types of PTM. Finally, through this approach Aminopeptidase P was identified as a new regulator of β-catenin abundance in Drosophila embryos. This study provides new perspectives on the cellular effects of APC that might lead to a deeper understanding of its role in development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Thermodynamics of Autogenous Self-healing in Cementitious Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Concrete is a brittle composite cementitious material that easily fractures under tensile loading. Microcracks can appear throughout the concrete prior to application of any load because of temperature-induced strain and autogenous and drying shrinkage. There is no doubt that these cracks provide

  14. Autogenous tooth transplantation: an alternative to replace extracted tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard treatment to replace missing tooth is dental implants, however, in certain cases, such as in young patients its placement is contraindicated. Autogenous tooth transplantation, which has been widely done in Scandinavian countries for many years, may become a good alternative to overcome this problem. Purpose: This article attempted to provide information about the indication, treatment planning, surgical technique and the successful result of autogenous tooth transplantation. Case: A fifteen year old male patient presented with large caries and periapical disease of his lower left first molar, which was partially erupted and the roots was not fully formed in radiograph. Case management: Autogenous tooth transplantation procedure was performed consisting of extraction of #36, odontectomy of #38 followed by its implantation to socket #36 and fixation of the transplanted tooth to the adjacent teeth. Post operative evaluation was done on regular basis within 18 months period. There was no complaint, the tooth was clinically stable and no evidence of periodontal problem. Serial radiographs showed healing of alveolar bone and periodontal tissue, and the complete root formation was evident by 18 months post operatively. Conclusion: Autogenous tooth transplantation is a potential alternative to replace extracted tooth. Provided that the case be properly planned and operation carefully performed, successful result of this treatment can be achieved.

  15. Autogenous Metallic Pipe Leak Repair in Potable Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-07-21

    Copper and iron pipes have a remarkable capability for autogenous repair (self-repair) of leaks in potable water systems. Field studies revealed exemplars that metallic pipe leaks caused by nails, rocks, and erosion corrosion autogenously repaired, as confirmed in the laboratory experiments. This work demonstrated that 100% (N = 26) of 150 μm leaks contacting representative bulk potable water in copper pipes sealed autogenously via formation of corrosion precipitates at 20-40 psi, pH 3.0-11.0, and with upward and downward leak orientations. Similar leaks in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 5.5 and 8.5, but two leaks did not self-repair permanently at pH 11.0 suggesting that water chemistry may control the durability of materials that seal the leaks and therefore the permanence of repair. Larger 400 μm holes in copper pipes had much lower (0-33%) success of self-repair at pH 3.0-11.0, whereas all 400 μm holes in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 4.0-11.0. Pressure tests indicated that some of the repairs created at 20-40 psi ambient pressure could withstand more than 100 psi without failure. Autogenous repair has implications for understanding patterns of pipe failures, extending the lifetime of decaying infrastructure, and developing new plumbing materials.

  16. Treatment of Childhood Migraine Using Autogenic Feedback Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Elise L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared autogenic feedback training with a waiting-list control group as a treatment for children (N=28) with migraine headaches. Children in the treatment condition were significantly improved at the end of treatment and at one-month and six-month follow-up. No improvement was found for the children in the control condition. (BH)

  17. Cognitive Modeling of Mindfulness Therapy by Autogenic Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi Ziabari, S.S.; Treur, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the effect of a mindfulness therapy based on a Network-Oriented Modeling approach is addressed. The considered therapy is Autogenic Training, that can be used when under stress; it has as two main goals to achieve feeling heavy and warm body parts (limbs). Mantra’s have been used in

  18. Pasteurized intercalary autogenous bone graft: radiographic and scintigraphic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehara, Shigeru; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Nishida, Jun; Shiraishi, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Pasteurized autogenous bone graft sterilized at a low temperature (60 C) is one option for reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue tumors. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal radiographic and scintigraphic findings of pasteurized intercalary autogenous bone graft after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas.Design. This was a retrospective evaluation of the radiography and bone scintigraphy findings in patients after treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas using an intercalary pasteurized autogenous bone graft.Patients. Among 10 consecutive patients, eight had intercalary grafts, and they constitute the subjects of this study. All available radiography and bone scintigraphy findings were reviewed for the healing process and the possibility of complications.Results and conclusions. Healing and incorporation of the graft were observed in five patients during the follow-up, but the other three did not heal satisfactorily. Rapid incorporation of pasteurized autogenous bone graft can be demonstrated by means of radiography and bone scintigraphy. (orig.)

  19. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.K.; Hecht, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA

  20. Translational control and differential RNA decay are key elements regulating postsegregational expression of the killer protein encoded by the parB locus of plasmid R1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, K; Helin, K; Christensen, O W

    1988-01-01

    The parB locus of plasmid R1, which mediates plasmid stability via postsegregational killing of plasmid-free cells, encodes two genes, hok and sok. The hok gene product is a potent cell-killing protein. The hok gene is regulated at the translational level by the sok gene-encoded repressor, a small...

  1. A theory for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system. I - Natural selection of the autogen from short, random oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A general theory is presented for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system, termed an autogen, which is capable of both crude replication and translation (protein synthesis). The theory requires the availability of free energy and monomers to the system, a significant background low-yield synthesis of kinetically stable oligopeptides and oligonucleotides, the localization of the oligomers, crude oligonucleotide selectivity of amino acids during oligopeptide synthesis, crude oligonucleotide replication, and two short peptide families which catalyze replication and translation, to produce a localized group of at least one copy each of two protogenes and two protoenzymes. The model posits a process of random oligomerization, followed by the random nucleation of functional components and the rapid autocatalytic growth of the functioning autogen to macroscopic amounts, to account for the origin of the first self-replicating system. Such a process contains steps of such high probability and short time periods that it is suggested that the emergence of an autogen in a laboratory experiment of reasonable time scale may be possible.

  2. A Canonical DREB2-Type Transcription Factor in Lily Is Post-translationally Regulated and Mediates Heat Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on studies of monocot crops and eudicot model plants, the DREB2 class of AP2-type transcription factor has been shown to play crucial roles in various abiotic stresses, especially in the upstream of the heat stress response; however, research on DREB2s has not been reported in non-gramineous monocot plants. Here, we identified a novel DREB2 (LlDREB2B from lily (Lilium longiflorum, which was homologous to AtDREB2A of Arabidopsis, OsDREB2B of rice, and ZmDREB2A of maize. LlDREB2B was induced by heat, cold, salt, and mannitol stress, and its protein had transcriptional activity, was located in the nucleus, was able to bind to the dehydration-responsive element (DRE, and participated in the heat-responsive pathway of HsfA3. Overexpression of LlDREB2B in Arabidopsis activated expression of downstream genes and improved thermotolerance. LlDREB2B was not regulated by alternative splicing; functional transcripts accumulated under either normal or heat-stress conditions. A potential PEST sequence was predicted in LlDREB2B, but the stability of the LlDREB2B protein was not positively affected when the predicated PEST sequence was deleted. Further analysis revealed that the predicated PEST sequence lacked a SBC or SBC-like motif allowing interaction with BPMs and required for negative regulation. Nevertheless, LlDREB2B was still regulated at the post-translational level by interaction with AtDRIP1 and AtDRIP2 of Arabidopsis. In addition, LlDREB2B also interacted with AtRCD1 and LlRCD1 via a potential RIM motif located at amino acids 215–245. Taken together, our results show that LlDREB2B participated in the establishment of thermotolerance, and its regulation was different from that of the orthologs of gramineous and eudicot plants.

  3. A Canonical DREB2-Type Transcription Factor in Lily Is Post-translationally Regulated and Mediates Heat Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze; Liang, Jiahui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Qingcui; Li, Guoqing; Yang, Xi; Wang, Chengpeng; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2018-01-01

    Based on studies of monocot crops and eudicot model plants, the DREB2 class of AP2-type transcription factor has been shown to play crucial roles in various abiotic stresses, especially in the upstream of the heat stress response; however, research on DREB2s has not been reported in non-gramineous monocot plants. Here, we identified a novel DREB2 (LlDREB2B) from lily ( Lilium longiflorum ), which was homologous to AtDREB2A of Arabidopsis, OsDREB2B of rice, and ZmDREB2A of maize. LlDREB2B was induced by heat, cold, salt, and mannitol stress, and its protein had transcriptional activity, was located in the nucleus, was able to bind to the dehydration-responsive element (DRE), and participated in the heat-responsive pathway of HsfA3. Overexpression of LlDREB2B in Arabidopsis activated expression of downstream genes and improved thermotolerance. LlDREB2B was not regulated by alternative splicing; functional transcripts accumulated under either normal or heat-stress conditions. A potential PEST sequence was predicted in LlDREB2B, but the stability of the LlDREB2B protein was not positively affected when the predicated PEST sequence was deleted. Further analysis revealed that the predicated PEST sequence lacked a SBC or SBC-like motif allowing interaction with BPMs and required for negative regulation. Nevertheless, LlDREB2B was still regulated at the post-translational level by interaction with AtDRIP1 and AtDRIP2 of Arabidopsis. In addition, LlDREB2B also interacted with AtRCD1 and LlRCD1 via a potential RIM motif located at amino acids 215-245. Taken together, our results show that LlDREB2B participated in the establishment of thermotolerance, and its regulation was different from that of the orthologs of gramineous and eudicot plants.

  4. The upstream open reading frame of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A mRNA negatively regulates translation of the downstream main open reading frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Ki, E-mail: yk-kim@korea.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDKN1A mRNA is a bona fide NMD substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uORF of CDKN1A mRNA is efficiently translated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Translation of downstream main ORF is negatively regulated by translation of uORF in CDKN1A mRNA. -- Abstract: The first round of translation occurs on mRNAs bound by nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), which is composed of nuclear cap-binding protein 80 and 20 (CBP80/20). During this round of translation, aberrant mRNAs are recognized and downregulated in abundance by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which is one of the mRNA quality control mechanisms. Here, our microarray analysis reveals that the level of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A; also known as Waf1/p21) mRNAs increases in cells depleted of cellular NMD factors. Intriguingly, CDKN1A mRNA contains an upstream open reading frame (uORF), which is a NMD-inducing feature. Using chimeric reporter constructs, we find that the uORF of CDKN1A mRNA negatively modulates translation of the main downstream ORF. These findings provide biological insights into the possible role of NMD in diverse biological pathways mediated by CDKN1A.

  5. Protein phosphatase PPM1G regulates protein translation and cell growth by dephosphorylating 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianyu; Stevens, Payton D; Eshleman, Nichole E; Gao, Tianyan

    2013-08-09

    Protein translation initiation is a tightly controlled process responding to nutrient availability and mitogen stimulation. Serving as one of the most important negative regulators of protein translation, 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) binds to translation initiation factor 4E and inhibits cap-dependent translation in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Although it has been demonstrated previously that the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 is controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin in the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, the mechanism underlying the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of PPM1G as the phosphatase of 4E-BP1. A coimmunoprecipitation experiment reveals that PPM1G binds to 4E-BP1 in cells and that purified PPM1G dephosphorylates 4E-BP1 in vitro. Knockdown of PPM1G in 293E and colon cancer HCT116 cells results in an increase in the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at both the Thr-37/46 and Ser-65 sites. Furthermore, the time course of 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation induced by amino acid starvation or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition is slowed down significantly in PPM1G knockdown cells. Functionally, the amount of 4E-BP1 bound to the cap-dependent translation initiation complex is decreased when the expression of PPM1G is depleted. As a result, the rate of cap-dependent translation, cell size, and protein content are increased in PPM1G knockdown cells. Taken together, our study has identified protein phosphatase PPM1G as a novel regulator of cap-dependent protein translation by negatively controlling the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1.

  6. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  7. Predicted RNA Binding Proteins Pes4 and Mip6 Regulate mRNA Levels, Translation, and Localization during Sporulation in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liang; Zhang, Kai; Sternglanz, Rolf; Neiman, Aaron M

    2017-05-01

    In response to starvation, diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and form haploid spores, a process collectively referred to as sporulation. The differentiation into spores requires extensive changes in gene expression. The transcriptional activator Ndt80 is a central regulator of this process, which controls many genes essential for sporulation. Ndt80 induces ∼300 genes coordinately during meiotic prophase, but different mRNAs within the NDT80 regulon are translated at different times during sporulation. The protein kinase Ime2 and RNA binding protein Rim4 are general regulators of meiotic translational delay, but how differential timing of individual transcripts is achieved was not known. This report describes the characterization of two related NDT80 -induced genes, PES4 and MIP6 , encoding predicted RNA binding proteins. These genes are necessary to regulate the steady-state expression, translational timing, and localization of a set of mRNAs that are transcribed by NDT80 but not translated until the end of meiosis II. Mutations in the predicted RNA binding domains within PES4 alter the stability of target mRNAs. PES4 and MIP6 affect only a small portion of the NDT80 regulon, indicating that they act as modulators of the general Ime2/Rim4 pathway for specific transcripts. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Translational Upregulation of an Individual p21Cip1 Transcript Variant by GCN2 Regulates Cell Proliferation and Survival under Nutrient Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L Lehman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple transcripts encode for the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Cip1. These transcripts produce identical proteins but differ in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs. Although several stresses that induce p21 have been characterized, the mechanisms regulating the individual transcript variants and their functional significance are unknown. Here we demonstrate through (35S labeling, luciferase reporter assays, and polysome transcript profiling that activation of the Integrated Stress Response (ISR kinase GCN2 selectively upregulates the translation of a p21 transcript variant containing 5' upstream open reading frames (uORFs through phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2α. Mutational analysis reveals that the uORFs suppress translation under basal conditions, but promote translation under stress. Functionally, ablation of p21 ameliorates G1/S arrest and reduces cell survival in response to GCN2 activation. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of p21 post-transcriptional regulation, offer functional significance for the existence of multiple p21 transcripts, and support a key role for GCN2 in regulating the cell cycle under stress.

  9. PKC δ Regulates Translation Initiation through PKR and eIF2 α in Response to Retinoic Acid in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ozpolat, Bulent; Akar, Ugur; Tekedereli, Ibrahim; Alpay, S. Neslihan; Barria, Magaly; Gezgen, Baki; Zhang, Nianxiang; Coombes, Kevin; Kornblau, Steve; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Translation initiation and activity of eukaryotic initiation factor-alpha (eIF2 α ), the rate-limiting step of translation initiation, is often overactivated in malignant cells. Here, we investigated the regulation and role of eIF2 α in acute promyelocytic (APL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), the front-line therapies in APL. ATRA and ATO induce Ser-51 phosphorylation (inactivation) of eIF2 α , through the induct...

  10. The Crc global regulator inhibits the Pseudomonas putida pWW0 toluene/xylene assimilation pathway by repressing the translation of regulatory and structural genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Renata; Fonseca, Pilar; Rojo, Fernando

    2010-08-06

    In Pseudomonas putida, the expression of the pWW0 plasmid genes for the toluene/xylene assimilation pathway (the TOL pathway) is subject to complex regulation in response to environmental and physiological signals. This includes strong inhibition via catabolite repression, elicited by the carbon sources that the cells prefer to hydrocarbons. The Crc protein, a global regulator that controls carbon flow in pseudomonads, has an important role in this inhibition. Crc is a translational repressor that regulates the TOL genes, but how it does this has remained unknown. This study reports that Crc binds to sites located at the translation initiation regions of the mRNAs coding for XylR and XylS, two specific transcription activators of the TOL genes. Unexpectedly, eight additional Crc binding sites were found overlapping the translation initiation sites of genes coding for several enzymes of the pathway, all encoded within two polycistronic mRNAs. Evidence is provided supporting the idea that these sites are functional. This implies that Crc can differentially modulate the expression of particular genes within polycistronic mRNAs. It is proposed that Crc controls TOL genes in two ways. First, Crc inhibits the translation of the XylR and XylS regulators, thereby reducing the transcription of all TOL pathway genes. Second, Crc inhibits the translation of specific structural genes of the pathway, acting mainly on proteins involved in the first steps of toluene assimilation. This ensures a rapid inhibitory response that reduces the expression of the toluene/xylene degradation proteins when preferred carbon sources become available.

  11. Dual Role for Hsc70 in the Biogenesis and Regulation of the Heme-Regulated Kinase of the α Subunit of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Sheri; Thulasiraman, Vanitha; Matts, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The heme-regulated kinase of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (HRI) is activated in rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) in response to a number of environmental conditions, including heme deficiency, heat shock, and oxidative stress. Activation of HRI causes an arrest of initiation of protein synthesis. Recently, we have demonstrated that the heat shock cognate protein Hsc70 negatively modulates the activation of HRI in RRL in response to these environmental conditions. Hsc70 is also known to be a critical component of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery in RRL, which plays an obligatory role for HRI to acquire and maintain a conformation that is competent to activate. Using de novo-synthesized HRI in synchronized pulse-chase translations, we have examined the role of Hsc70 in the regulation of HRI biogenesis and activation. Like Hsp90, Hsc70 interacted with nascent HRI and HRI that was matured to a state which was competent to undergo stimulus-induced activation (mature-competent HRI). Interaction of HRI with Hsc70 was required for the transformation of HRI, as the Hsc70 antagonist clofibric acid inhibited the folding of HRI into a mature-competent conformation. Unlike Hsp90, Hsc70 also interacted with transformed HRI. Clofibric acid disrupted the interaction of Hsc70 with transformed HRI that had been matured and transformed in the absence of the drug. Disruption of Hsc70 interaction with transformed HRI in heme-deficient RRL resulted in its hyperactivation. Furthermore, activation of HRI in response to heat shock or denatured proteins also resulted in a similar blockage of Hsc70 interaction with transformed HRI. These results indicate that Hsc70 is required for the folding and transformation of HRI into an active kinase but is subsequently required to negatively attenuate the activation of transformed HRI. PMID:10454533

  12. Synthesis of Magnesium Nickel Boride Aggregates via Borohydride Autogenous Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mahboobeh; Cathey, Henrietta E; Mackinnon, Ian D R

    2018-03-23

    We demonstrate synthesis of the ternary intermetallic MgNi₃B₂ using autogenous pressure from the reaction of NaBH₄ with Mg and Ni metal powder. The decomposition of NaBH₄ to H₂ and B₂H₆ commences at low temperatures in the presence of Mg and/or Ni and promotes formation of Ni-borides and MgNi₃B₂ with the increase in temperature. MgNi₃B₂ aggregates with Ni-boride cores are formed when the reaction temperature is >670 °C and autogenous pressure is >1.7 MPa. Morphologies and microstructures suggest that solid-gas and liquid-gas reactions are dominant mechanisms and that Ni-borides form at a lower temperature than MgNi₃B₂. Magnetic measurements of the core-shell MgNi₃B₂ aggregates are consistent with ferromagnetic behaviour in contrast to stoichiometric MgNi₃B₂ which is diamagnetic at room temperature.

  13. [Development of Autogenic Training Clinical Effectiveness Scale (ATCES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezuki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale measuring clinical effectiveness of autogenic training. In Study 1, 167 undergraduates completed a survey of items concerning physical and mental states, which were thought to vary in the course of autogenic training. With item and factor analyses, 20 items were selected, and the resulting scale (ATCES) had high discrimination and clear factor structure. In Study 2, reliability and concurrent and clinical validity of the scale were examined with three groups of respondents: 85 mentally healthy, 31 control, 13 clinical persons. The scale showed a high test-retest correlation (r = .83) and alpha coefficient (alpha = .86). ATCES had a Pearson correlation coefficient of r = .56 with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and r = .73 with trait anxiety (STAI-T). And ATCES successfully discriminated the mentally healthy and clinical groups in terms of clinical effectiveness. These results demonstrated high reliability and sufficient concurrent and clinical validity of the new scale.

  14. Autogenic training alters cerebral activation patterns in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlamann, Marc; Naglatzki, Ryan; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral activation patterns during the first three auto-suggestive phases of autogenic training (AT) were investigated in relation to perceived experiences. Nineteen volunteers trained in AT and 19 controls were studied with fMRI during the first steps of autogenic training. FMRI revealed activation of the left postcentral areas during AT in those with experience in AT, which also correlated with the level of AT experience. Activation of prefrontal and insular cortex was significantly higher in the group with experience in AT while insular activation was correlated with number years of simple relaxation exercises. Specific activation in subjects experienced in AT may represent a training effect. Furthermore, the correlation of insular activation suggests that these subjects are different from untrained subjects in emotional processing or self-awareness.

  15. Reorganization of the Brain and Heart Rhythm During Autogenic Meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Dae-Keun eKim; Dae-Keun eKim; Jyoo-Hi eRhee; Seung Wan eKang; Seung Wan eKang

    2014-01-01

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower(a...

  16. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jongwha; Whang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Seung Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha pow...

  17. Reorganization of the brain and heart rhythm during autogenic meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Rhee, Jyoo-Hi; Kang, Seung Wan

    2014-01-01

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower (...

  18. Autogenous tooth transplantation for replacing a lost tooth: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Youn Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The autogenous tooth transplantation is an alternative treatment replacing a missing tooth when a suitable donor tooth is available. It is also a successful treatment option to save significant amount of time and cost comparing implants or conventional prosthetics. These cases, which required single tooth extraction due to deep caries and severe periodontal disease, could have good results by transplanting non-functional but sound donor tooth to the extraction site.

  19. Selective regulation of YB-1 mRNA translation by the mTOR signaling pathway is not mediated by 4E-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyabin, D N; Ovchinnikov, L P

    2016-03-02

    The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a key regulator of gene expression at the level of both translation and transcription. The mode of its action on cellular events depends on its subcellular distribution and the amount in the cell. So far, the regulatory mechanisms of YB-1 synthesis have not been adequately studied. Our previous finding was that selective inhibition of YB-1 mRNA translation was caused by suppression of activity of the mTOR signaling pathway. It was suggested that this event may be mediated by phosphorylation of the 4E-binding protein (4E-BP). Here, we report that 4E-BP alone can only slightly inhibit YB-1 synthesis both in the cell and in vitro, although it essentially decreases binding of the 4F-group translation initiation factors to mRNA. With inhibited mTOR kinase, the level of mRNA binding to the eIF4F-group factors was decreased, while that to 4E-BP1 was increased, as was observed for both mTOR kinase-sensitive mRNAs and those showing low sensitivity. This suggests that selective inhibition of translation of YB-1 mRNA, and probably some other mRNAs as well, by mTOR kinase inhibitors is not mediated by the action of the 4E-binding protein upon functions of the 4F-group translation initiation factors.

  20. The treatment of recalcitrant post-traumatic nightmares with autogenic training and autogenic abreaction: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh, M R

    1999-09-01

    Recurrent and frightening dreams are commonly experienced by patients who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder after a motor vehicle accident. Such nocturnal episodes, if left untreated, can result in the experience of severe distress with physical, emotional, and psychophysiological concomitant. The present single-case study investigated the effects of the standard autogenic exercises and autogenic abreaction in reducing the frequency and severity of post-traumatic nightmares in a survivor of a car crash. The patient was also instructed in two additional organ-specific formulas in order to improve her sleep. The results of the study showed that the interventions were successful in effectively treating the patient's distressing nightmares. Follow-up data suggested that the treatment effects persisted after the termination of therapy. Suggestions for future investigations are discussed.

  1. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  2. Autogenic-Feedback Training for the Control of Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents case-studies of 9 shuttle crewmembers (prime and alternates) and one U.S. Navy F-18 pilot, as they participated in all preflight training and testing activities in support of a life sciences flight experiment aboard Spacelab-J, and Spacelab-3. The primary objective of the flight experiment was to determine if Autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological self-regulation training technique would be an effective treatment for motion sickness and space motion sickness in these crewmembers. Additional objectives of this study involved the examining human physiological responses to motion sickness on Earth and in space, as well as developing predictive criteria for susceptibility to space motion sickness based on ground-based data. Comparisons of these crewmembers are made to a larger set of subjects from previous experiments (treatment and "test-only" controls subjects). This paper describes all preflight methods, results and proposed changes for future tests.

  3. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Relaxation on Young Soccer Players’ Mood States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. Methods Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusion These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states. PMID:22375225

  4. Autogenic Training, Metacognition and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Bastien

    2013-01-01

    In French universities, only one out of two students is successful in his/her first year. The change of the working rhythm and the importance of self-regulated learning (relying on metacognition) can to a large extent explain these dramatic rates. Metacognition, as the process of being aware of one's own cognition and activity implies awareness…

  5. Autogenic drainage for airway clearance in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Pamela; Burnham, Paul; Southern, Kevin W

    2017-10-06

    Autogenic drainage is an airway clearance technique that was developed by Jean Chevaillier in 1967. The technique is characterised by breathing control using expiratory airflow to mobilise secretions from smaller to larger airways. Secretions are cleared independently by adjusting the depth and speed of respiration in a sequence of controlled breathing techniques during exhalation. The technique requires training, concentration and effort from the individual. It is important to systematically review the evidence demonstrating that autogenic drainage is an effective intervention for people with cystic fibrosis. To compare the clinical effectiveness of autogenic drainage in people with cystic fibrosis with other physiotherapy airway clearance techniques. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, as well as two trials registers (31 August 2017).Dtae of most recent search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 25 September 2017. We identified randomised and quasi-randomised controlled studies comparing autogenic drainage to another airway clearance technique or no therapy in people with cystic fibrosis for at least two treatment sessions. Data extraction and assessments of risk of bias were independently performed by two authors. The authors assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE system. The authors contacted two investigators for further information pertinent to their published studies. Searches retrieved 35 references to 21 individual studies, of which seven (n = 208) were eligible for inclusion. One study was of parallel design with the remaining six being cross-over in design; participant numbers ranged from 17 to 75. The total study duration varied between four days and two years. The age of participants ranged between seven and 63 years with a wide

  6. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Naoya; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Hamada, Koichiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 (α2β2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex

  7. Translational control by eIF2α phosphorylation regulates vulnerability to the synaptic and behavioral effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Placzek, Andon N; Viana Di Prisco, Gonzalo; Khatiwada, Sanjeev; Sidrauski, Carmela; Krnjević, Krešimir; Walter, Peter; Dani, John A; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents are especially prone to drug addiction, but the underlying biological basis of their increased vulnerability remains unknown. We reveal that translational control by phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (p-eIF2α) accounts for adolescent hypersensitivity to cocaine. In adolescent (but not adult) mice, a low dose of cocaine reduced p-eIF2α in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), potentiated synaptic inputs to VTA dopaminergic neurons, and induced drug-reinforced behavior. Like adolescents, adult mice with reduced p-eIF2α-mediated translational control were more susceptible to cocaine-induced synaptic potentiation and behavior. Conversely, like adults, adolescent mice with increased p-eIF2α became more resistant to cocaine's effects. Accordingly, metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression (mGluR-LTD)—whose disruption is postulated to increase vulnerability to drug addiction—was impaired in both adolescent mice and adult mice with reduced p-eIF2α mediated translation. Thus, during addiction, cocaine hijacks translational control by p-eIF2α, initiating synaptic potentiation and addiction-related behaviors. These insights may hold promise for new treatments for addiction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12052.001 PMID:26928234

  8. Influence of temperature on autogenous deformation and relative humidity change in hardening cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change (RH change) in hardening cement paste. Theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented, which elucidate the influence of temperature on these properties. This is an important subject in the control...

  9. Use of autogenic training by paratroopers in preparation for and execution of parachute jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Blinov, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The author defines challenging aspects of enhancing emotional stability of paratroopers for parajumping execution. Psychological factors and professional activity features of servicemen of aero-mobile troops are also described. Methods of autogenic training, which are used during airborne preparation, are adapted to conditions of their operation. The results of empiric research of autogenic training use by paratroopers are presented.

  10. [Efficiency of autogenous training in medical rehabilitation of patients with irritable colon syndrome with constipation dominance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, I V; Aĭvazian, T A; Zaĭtsev, V P; Gusakova, E V; Molina, L P

    2008-01-01

    It was established that use of autogenous training makes possible to increase efficiency of the therapy, leading to considerable more evident improvement of somatic and psychotic state, decrease of pain syndrome. Predictors of efficiency of autogenous training were marked out. Indications for use the method in medical rehabilitation of patients with irritable colon syndrome with constipation dominance were elaborated.

  11. The Application of Autogenic Feedback Training in a Smoking Termination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullion, Jean K.; Chen, W. William

    1980-01-01

    Autogenic feedback training was an effective adjunct to a smoking termination program. An 81 percent reduction in smoking activity was found for the subjects who received the training. Achieving relaxation and reducing anxiety through autogenic feedback training helped subjects restore their self-confidence and deal with stress. (Author)

  12. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  13. Adjuvant auricular electroacupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Auricular acupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernateck, M; Becker, M; Schwake, C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to psychological interventions the usefulness of acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not yet been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) was directly compared with autogenic training (AT). METHODS: Patients...

  14. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  15. Autogenic therapy: Techniques, foundations, health and clinical applications, and empirical support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Abuín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autogenic therapy emerges from the "autogenic training" method created by Schultz, and its development incorporates different therapeutic methods based on a psychophysiological approach. All these methods promote homeostatic self-regulatory brain processes. The aims of this paper are to describe and analyse the autogenic methods, the psychophysiological and neurophysiological processes involved, and their effective applications in both health and clinical fields. For these purposes, beside reviewing the earlier work by Schultz and Luthe, an electronic search of literature was conducted in order to find relevant contributions on these topics. Results show a big development of autogenic methods until the 80s, with an enormous amount of applications and studies on the psychophysiological and neurophysiological changes related to the practice of autogenic training. However, their expansion during the last 25 years has been much lower in comparison with other methods such as mindfulness and hypnosis. Possible causes are discussed and new challenges are suggested

  16. Detailed characterisation of STC-1 cells and the pGIP/Neo sub-clone suggests the incretin hormones are translationally regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Pan, Xiaobei; Marco-Ramell, Anna; Meharg, Caroline; Green, Brian D

    2017-10-01

    STC-1 is a heterogeneous plurihormonal cell line producing several prominent gut peptide hormones. pGIP/Neo is a genetically selected sub-clone of STC-1 with augmented levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Morphometric parameters, hormone concentrations, mRNA transcripts, hormone immunocytochemistry and nutrient utilisation/production of these two cell lines were compared. Proglucagon-derived peptides (Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and - 2(GLP-2)) were lower in sub-clone cells than progenitor cells. High Content Analysis found altered intracellular GLP-1, GIP, cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) levels and differing hormone co-localisation. The proportion pGIP/Neo cells containing GIP immunoreactivity (82%) was greater than STC-1 (65%), as were the proportion with 'GIP only', 'GLP-1+GIP' or 'GIP+PYY' immunoreactivity. Most surprisingly mRNA transcripts of the proglucagon and GIP genes were inversely correlated to the levels of their translated peptides. This strongly suggests that proglucagon and GIP are encoded on 'translationally regulated genes' - a characteristic possessed by other endocrine hormones. Metabolomic profiling revealed differences in cellular nutrient utilisation/production and that under normal culture conditions both cell lines exhibit signs of overflow metabolism. These studies provide an insight into the metabolism and properties of these valuable cells, suggesting for the first time that incretin hormone genes are translationally regulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cracking in cement paste induced by autogenous shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Weiss, Jason

    2009-01-01

    technique allows identification of microcracks while avoiding artefacts induced by unwanted restraint, drying, or temperature variations during sample preparation. Small cylindrical samples of cement paste are cast with steel rods of different diameters in their centre. The rods restrain the autogenous......, and creep as a function of hydration time were used as inputs in the analysis. The experimental results and the numerical analysis showed that samples with larger steel rods had the highest probability of developing microcracks. In addition, the pattern and the width of the observed microcracks showed good...

  18. Measuring techniques for autogenous strain of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    of the volumetric method. Water absorption is driven by a lowering of the water activity in the cement paste due to dissolved salts in the pore fluid and to self-desiccation. From the moment of casting, significant water uptake was registered in all experiments. This water uptake influenced the volumetric...... measurements by the same order of magnitude as the autogenous strain itself. By performing the measurements in a paraffin oil bath instead of a water bath, this artefact was eliminated. Furthermore, volumetric measurements performed in paraffin oil gave almost identical results as linear measurements performed...

  19. [A case of fibromyalgia treated with medical and autogenic training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Asama, Youji; Nakai, Kimiko

    2005-12-01

    Fibromyalgia, which is relatively rare, may include symptoms of dizziness, vertigo and tinnitus. Subject was 38 years old woman reporting vertigo and whole body pain. Cochleovestibular function was normal. Pain was gradually intensified during her outpatient clinic and she was admitted. Treatments including intramusclular injection of botulinus toxin and intravenous injection of steroid were applied. Psychological counseling and autogenic training were effective in relieving her pain and vertigo. During her admission, several spells of vertigo occurred but no nystagmus was found. The abnormality in proprioception and neural disintegration may be related to vertigo. Treatment should start as early as possible together with psychological therapy.

  20. Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

  1. Repression of mitochondrial translation, respiration and a metabolic cycle-regulated gene, SLF1, by the yeast Pumilio-family protein Puf3p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Chatenay-Lapointe

    Full Text Available Synthesis and assembly of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS system requires genes located both in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but how gene expression is coordinated between these two compartments is not fully understood. One level of control is through regulated expression mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and other factors required for mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly, which are all products of nuclear genes that are subsequently imported into mitochondria. Interestingly, this cadre of genes in budding yeast has in common a 3'-UTR element that is bound by the Pumilio family protein, Puf3p, and is coordinately regulated under many conditions, including during the yeast metabolic cycle. Multiple functions have been assigned to Puf3p, including promoting mRNA degradation, localizing nucleus-encoded mitochondrial transcripts to the outer mitochondrial membrane, and facilitating mitochondria-cytoskeletal interactions and motility. Here we show that Puf3p has a general repressive effect on mitochondrial OXPHOS abundance, translation, and respiration that does not involve changes in overall mitochondrial biogenesis and largely independent of TORC1-mitochondrial signaling. We also identified the cytoplasmic translation factor Slf1p as yeast metabolic cycle-regulated gene that is repressed by Puf3p at the post-transcriptional level and promotes respiration and extension of yeast chronological life span when over-expressed. Altogether, these results should facilitate future studies on which of the many functions of Puf3p is most relevant for regulating mitochondrial gene expression and the role of nuclear-mitochondrial communication in aging and longevity.

  2. Internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of a mammalian mRNA is regulated by amino acid availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, J.; Yaman, I.; Mishra, R.; Merrick, W. C.; Snider, M. D.; Lamers, W. H.; Hatzoglou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The cationic amino acid transporter, Cat-1, facilitates the uptake of the essential amino acids arginine and lysine. Amino acid starvation causes accumulation and increased translation of cat-1 mRNA, resulting in a 58-fold increase in protein levels and increased arginine uptake. A bicistronic mRNA

  3. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  4. Bacterial phagocytosis by macrophage of autogenous splenic implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques R. G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous splenic implant seems to be the only alternative for preservation of splenic tissue after total splenectomy. This work was carried out to analyze the morphologic regeneration of autotransplanted splenic tissue in Wistar rats and to determine the bacterial phagocytic function of their macrophages. We utilized an experimental model with thirty-two rats, of both sexes, submitted to total splenectomy combined with autotransplantation in greater omentum of slices of the whole spleen mass. The animals were divided into two groups: I - young rats weighing 100 to 150 g; and II - adult rats weighing 250 to 300 g. Sixteen weeks later animals were intravenously inoculated with a suspension of Escherichia coli AB1157. Twenty minutes after inoculation, the animals were sacrificed and the splenic autotransplants were removed for morphological study. There was regeneration of autotransplanted splenic tissue in all animals. A similar morphological aspect among all animals was observed, with splenic tissue showing red and white pulps, lymphoid follicles, and marginal zone, with a moderate architectural disarrangement. Macrophages containing gram-negative bacterial aggregates as well as macrophages with hemosiderin pigments within the cytoplasm were observed. Blood vessels showed preserved walls, with no signs of vasculitis or thrombosis. The present results suggest that autogenous splenic implants in the greater omentum of the rat acquire the macro- and microscopic architecture of a normal spleen, with reduced dimensions, and preserve bacterial phagocyte function.

  5. Temporal and spatial regulation of translation in the mammalian oocyte via the mTOR-eIF4F pathway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šušor, Andrej; Jansová, Denisa; Černá, Renata; Danylevska, Anna; Anger, Martin; Toralová, Tereza; Malík, Radek; Šupolíková, Jaroslava; Cook, M. S.; Oh, J. S.; Kubelka, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6078 (2015) ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12291S; GA ČR GAP502/12/2201; GA ČR GAP502/10/0944 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : oocyte meiosis * localized in situ translation * mTOR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015

  6. The PurR regulon in Lactococcus lactis – transcriptional regulation of the purine nucleotide metabolism and translational machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jendresen, Christian Bille; Martinussen, Jan; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Purine nucleotides are either synthesized de novo from 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) or salvaged from the environment. In Lactococcus lactis, transcription of the de novo synthesis operons, purCSQLF and purDEK, has genetically been shown to be activated by the PurR protein when bound to......-related functions. Of special interest is the presence of PurBox motifs in rrn promoters, suggesting a novel connection between nucleotide availability and the translational machinery....

  7. A Study of Translation Institutional Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoXianfeng; ZhouJin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional translation ethics characterized by translators' ethics cannot provide a strong moral support to the translation practice,or guarantee the moral requirement towards translation activities in the social transformation caused by the market economy,because it does not have the power of punishment.Translation institutional ethics,however,a new form of translation ethics,integrates the translation ethic norm,translation regulations and relative laws together.As an inevitable outcome in the new era,it can escort the orderly and healthy translation activities.Its purpose is to strengthen the translators' moral consciousness,to sublimate their moral notions and to transfer from heteronomy to autonomy.

  8. Mitotic protein kinase CDK1 phosphorylation of mRNA translation regulator 4E-BP1 Ser83 may contribute to cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Celestino; Cheng, Erdong; Shuda, Masahiro; Lee-Oesterreich, Paula J.; Pogge von Strandmann, Lisa; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Moore, Patrick S.; Chang, Yuan

    2016-07-11

    mTOR-directed 4E-BP1 phosphorylation promotes cap-dependent translation and tumorigen-esis. During mitosis, CDK1 substitutes for mTOR and fully phosphorylates 4E-BP1 at canoni-cal as well a non-canonical S83 site resulting in a mitosis-specific hyperphosphorylated δ isoform. Colocalization studies with a phospho-S83 specific antibody indicate that 4E-BP1 S83 phosphorylation accumulates at centrosomes during prophase, peaks at metaphase, and decreases through telophase. While S83 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 does not affect in vitro cap-dependent translation, nor eIF4G/4E-BP1 cap-binding, expression of an alanine substitution mutant 4E-BP1.S83A partially reverses rodent cell transformation induced by Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) small T (sT) antigen viral oncoprotein. In contrast to inhibitory mTOR 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, these findings suggest that mitotic CDK1-directed phosphorylation of δ-4E-BP1 may yield a gain-of-function, distinct from translation regulation, that may be important in tumorigenesis and mitotic centrosome function.

  9. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  10. One Gene and Two Proteins: a Leaderless mRNA Supports the Translation of a Shorter Form of the Shigella VirF Regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Romilly, Cédric; Wagner, E Gerhart H; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2016-11-08

    VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF 30 (30 kDa), and the shorter VirF 21 (21 kDa), lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF 30 and VirF 21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo translation experiments showed that VirF 21 is also translated from a leaderless mRNA (llmRNA) whose 5' end is at position +309/+310, only 1 or 2 nucleotides upstream of the ATG84 start codon of VirF 21 The llmRNA is transcribed from a gene-internal promoter, which we identified here. Functional analysis revealed that while VirF 30 is responsible for activation of the virulence system, VirF 21 negatively autoregulates virF expression itself. Since VirF 21 modulates the intracellular VirF levels, this suggests that transcription of the llmRNA might occur when the onset of the virulence program is not required. We speculate that environmental cues, like stress conditions, may promote changes in virF mRNA transcription and preferential translation of llmRNA. Shigella spp. are a major cause of dysentery in humans. In bacteria of this genus, the activation of the invasive program involves a multitude of signals that act on all layers of the gene regulatory hierarchy. By controlling the essential genes for host cell invasion, VirF is the key regulator of the switch from the noninvasive to the invasive phenotype. Here, we show that the Shigella virF gene encodes two proteins of different sizes, VirF 30 and VirF 21 , that are functionally distinct. The major form, VirF 30 , activates the genes

  11. Notch-mediated post-translational control of Ngn3 protein stability regulates pancreatic patterning and cell fate commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Afelik, Solomon; Jensen, Jan Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    of ducts. On one hand, Ngn3 cell-intrinsically activates endocrine target genes; on the other, Ngn3 cell-extrinsically promotes lateral signaling via the Dll1>Notch>Hes1 pathway which substantially limits its ability to sustain endocrine formation. Prior to endocrine commitment, the Ngn3-mediated...... involves transcriptional repression as previously shown, but also incorporates a novel post-translational mechanism. In addition to its ability to promote endocrine fate, we provide evidence of a competing ability of Ngn3 in the patterning of multipotent progenitor cells in turn controlling the formation...

  12. The translation initiation factor eIF4E regulates the sex-specific expression of the master switch gene Sxl in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Graham

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In female fruit flies, Sex-lethal (Sxl turns off the X chromosome dosage compensation system by a mechanism involving a combination of alternative splicing and translational repression of the male specific lethal-2 (msl-2 mRNA. A genetic screen identified the translation initiation factor eif4e as a gene that acts together with Sxl to repress expression of the Msl-2 protein. However, eif4e is not required for Sxl mediated repression of msl-2 mRNA translation. Instead, eif4e functions as a co-factor in Sxl-dependent female-specific alternative splicing of msl-2 and also Sxl pre-mRNAs. Like other factors required for Sxl regulation of splicing, eif4e shows maternal-effect female-lethal interactions with Sxl. This female lethality can be enhanced by mutations in other co-factors that promote female-specific splicing and is caused by a failure to properly activate the Sxl-positive autoregulatory feedback loop in early embryos. In this feedback loop Sxl proteins promote their own synthesis by directing the female-specific alternative splicing of Sxl-Pm pre-mRNAs. Analysis of pre-mRNA splicing when eif4e activity is compromised demonstrates that Sxl-dependent female-specific splicing of both Sxl-Pm and msl-2 pre-mRNAs requires eif4e activity. Consistent with a direct involvement in Sxl-dependent alternative splicing, eIF4E is associated with unspliced Sxl-Pm pre-mRNAs and is found in complexes that contain early acting splicing factors--the U1/U2 snRNP protein Sans-fils (Snf, the U1 snRNP protein U1-70k, U2AF38, U2AF50, and the Wilms' Tumor 1 Associated Protein Fl(2d--that have been directly implicated in Sxl splicing regulation.

  13. Crystal structure of a minimal eIF4E–Cup complex reveals a general mechanism of eIF4E regulation in translational repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkelin, Kerstin; Veith, Katharina; Grünwald, Marlene; Bono, Fulvia

    2012-01-01

    Cup is an eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) that plays a central role in translational regulation of localized mRNAs during early Drosophila development. In particular, Cup is required for repressing translation of the maternally contributed oskar, nanos, and gurken mRNAs, all of which are essential for embryonic body axis determination. Here, we present the 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of a minimal eIF4E–Cup assembly, consisting of the interacting regions of the two proteins. In the structure, two separate segments of Cup contact two orthogonal faces of eIF4E. The eIF4E-binding consensus motif of Cup (YXXXXLΦ) binds the convex side of eIF4E similarly to the consensus of other eIF4E-binding proteins, such as 4E-BPs and eIF4G. The second, noncanonical, eIF4E-binding site of Cup binds laterally and perpendicularly to the eIF4E β-sheet. Mutations of Cup at this binding site were shown to reduce binding to eIF4E and to promote the destabilization of the associated mRNA. Comparison with the binding mode of eIF4G to eIF4E suggests that Cup and eIF4G binding would be mutually exclusive at both binding sites. This shows how a common molecular surface of eIF4E might recognize different proteins acting at different times in the same pathway. The structure provides insight into the mechanism by which Cup disrupts eIF4E–eIF4G interaction and has broader implications for understanding the role of 4E-BPs in translational regulation. PMID:22832024

  14. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis and the abundance of the mRNA translation initiation repressor PDCD4 are inversely regulated by fasting and refeeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Sana; Moreira, Tracy S; Samimi-Seisan, Helena; Jeganathan, Senthure; Kakade, Dhanshri; Islam, Nushaba; Campbell, Jonathan; Adegoke, Olasunkanmi A J

    2011-06-01

    Optimal skeletal muscle mass is vital to human health, because defects in muscle protein metabolism underlie or exacerbate human diseases. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 is critical in the regulation of mRNA translation and protein synthesis. These functions are mediated in part by the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) through mechanisms that are poorly understood. The tumor suppressor programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) has been identified as a novel substrate of S6K1. Here, we examined 1) the expression of PDCD4 in skeletal muscle and 2) its regulation by feed deprivation (FD) and refeeding. Male rats (~100 g; n = 6) were subjected to FD for 48 h; some rats were refed for 2 h. FD suppressed muscle fractional rates of protein synthesis and Ser(67) phosphorylation of PDCD4 (-50%) but increased PDCD4 abundance (P muscle fractional rates of protein synthesis and reduced PDCD4 abundance relative to FD. Finally, when myoblasts were grown in amino acid- and serum-free medium, phenylalanine incorporation into proteins in cells depleted of PDCD4 more than doubled the values in cells with a normal level of PDCD4 (P skeletal muscle in parallel with the reduction of the abundance of this mRNA translation inhibitor.

  15. Amyloid β production is regulated by β2-adrenergic signaling-mediated post-translational modifications of the ryanodine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussiere, Renaud; Lacampagne, Alain; Reiken, Steven; Liu, Xiaoping; Scheuerman, Valerie; Zalk, Ran; Martin, Cécile; Checler, Frederic; Marks, Andrew R; Chami, Mounia

    2017-06-16

    Alteration of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated calcium (Ca 2+ ) signaling has been reported in Alzheimer disease (AD) models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered RyR-mediated intracellular Ca 2+ release in AD remain to be fully elucidated. We report here that RyR2 undergoes post-translational modifications (phosphorylation, oxidation, and nitrosylation) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells expressing the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) harboring the familial double Swedish mutations (APPswe). RyR2 macromolecular complex remodeling, characterized by depletion of the regulatory protein calstabin2, resulted in increased cytosolic Ca 2+ levels and mitochondrial oxidative stress. We also report a functional interplay between amyloid β (Aβ), β-adrenergic signaling, and altered Ca 2+ signaling via leaky RyR2 channels. Thus, post-translational modifications of RyR occur downstream of Aβ through a β2-adrenergic signaling cascade that activates PKA. RyR2 remodeling in turn enhances βAPP processing. Importantly, pharmacological stabilization of the binding of calstabin2 to RyR2 channels, which prevents Ca 2+ leakage, or blocking the β2-adrenergic signaling cascade reduced βAPP processing and the production of Aβ in APPswe-expressing SH-SY5Y cells. We conclude that targeting RyR-mediated Ca 2+ leakage may be a therapeutic approach to treat AD. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Spastin subcellular localization is regulated through usage of different translation start sites and active export from the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudiani, Pamela; Riano, Elena; Errico, Alessia; Andolfi, Gennaro; Rugarli, Elena I.

    2005-01-01

    Most cases of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia are linked to mutations in SPG4 encoding spastin, a protein involved in microtubule dynamics and membrane trafficking. In pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex and in immortalized motor neurons, spastin is localized to the synaptic terminals and growth cones. However, in other neurons and in proliferating cells spastin is prevalently nuclear. The mechanisms that determine targeting of spastin to the nucleus or the cytoplasm are unknown. We show here that the SPG4 mRNA is able to direct synthesis of two spastin isoforms, 68 and 60 kDa, respectively, through usage of two different translational start sites. Both isoforms are imported into the nucleus, but the 68-kDa isoform contains two nuclear export signals that efficiently drive export to the cytoplasm. Nuclear export is leptomycin-B sensitive. The cytoplasmic 68-kDa spastin isoform is more abundant in the brain and the spinal cord than in other tissues. Our data indicate that spastin function is modulated through usage of alternative translational start sites and active nuclear import and export, and open new perspectives for the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegia

  17. Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise and pilot performance: enhanced functioning under search-and-rescue flying conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Kellar, M. A.; Folen, R. A.; Toscano, W. B.; Burge, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group contained 4 pilots from HC-130 Hercules aircraft and 4 HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group contained 3 pilots of HC-130s and 6 helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded on each crewmember and an instructor pilot rated individual crew performance. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE). The remaining participants received no training. During a second flight, treatment participants showed significant improvement in performance (rated by the same instructor pilot as in pretests) while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFTE management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  18. Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

    1994-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised three pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded for each crew member and individual crew performance was rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  19. Autogenic Feedback Training Applications for Man in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. This paper reviews the back-round research and procedures of an experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crewmembers. The preventive method used, Autogenic - Feedback Training (AFT) involves training subjects to control voluntarily several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during around based tests in over 300 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Other applications of AFT described include; (1) a potential treatment for post flight orthostatic intolerance, a serious biomedical problem resulting from long duration exposure to micro-g and (2) improving pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  20. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  1. Adjuvant auricular electroacupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernateck, M.; Becker, M.; Schwacke, C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to psychological interventions the usefulness of acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not yet been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) was directly compared with autogenic training (AT). METHODS: Patients...

  2. [Application of joint reconstruction with autogenous coronoid process graft to treat temporomandibular joint ankylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing-tiao; Huang, Xuan-ping; Jiang, Xian-fang; Yang, Yuan-yuan; Li, Hua; Lin, Xi

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of joint reconstruction by using autogenous coronoid process graft to treat temporomandibular joint(TMJ) ankylosis. Nine cases of TMJ ankylosis from September 2008 to September 2010 were surgically treated by joint reconstruction with autogenous coronoid process graft, using autogenous articular disc or prosthodontic membrane as interpositional material. Mouth opening, occlusion and cone beam CT(CBCT) were used for evaluation before and after surgery. Satisfactory mouth opening was achieved in all patients and no one got occlusal changes or reankylosis during follow-up. CBCT showed that coronoid process graft reached bone union with the ramus and turned to be round. It is effective to cure TMJ ankylosis through joint reconstruction with autogenous coronoid process graft.

  3. Peculiarities of application the method of autogenic training in the correction of eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shebanova, Vitaliya

    2014-01-01

    The article presented peculiarities of applying the method of autogenic training in the correction of eating disorders. Described stages of correction work with desadaptive eating behavior. Author makes accent on the rules self-assembly formula intentions.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of an autogenous Escherichia coli vaccine in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Thøfner, Ida; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    vaccine in broiler breeders. Three groups of 28 weeks old broiler breeders (unvaccinated, vaccinated once and twice, respectively) were challenged with a homologous E. coli strain (same strain as included in the vaccine) or a heterologous challenge strain in an experimental ascending model. The clinical...... infection, significant protection of an autogenous E. coli vaccine against neither a homologous nor a heterologous E. coli challenge could not be documented.......In poultry production Escherichia coli autogenous vaccines are often used. However, the efficacy of autogenous E. coli vaccinations has not been evaluated experimentally in chickens after start of lay. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of an autogenous E. coli...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Muscle Hypertrophy Models Reveals Divergent Gene Transcription Profiles and Points to Translational Regulation of Muscle Growth through Increased mTOR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass is a result of the balance between protein breakdown and protein synthesis. It has been shown that multiple conditions of muscle atrophy are characterized by the common regulation of a specific set of genes, termed atrogenes. It is not known whether various models of muscle hypertrophy are similarly regulated by a common transcriptional program. Here, we characterized gene expression changes in three different conditions of muscle growth, examining each condition during acute and chronic phases. Specifically, we compared the transcriptome of Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscles collected (1 during the rapid phase of postnatal growth at 2 and 4 weeks of age, (2 24 h or 3 weeks after constitutive activation of AKT, and (3 24 h or 3 weeks after overload hypertrophy caused by tenotomy of the Tibialis Anterior muscle. We observed an important overlap between significantly regulated genes when comparing each single condition at the two different timepoints. Furthermore, examining the transcriptional changes occurring 24 h after a hypertrophic stimulus, we identify an important role for genes linked to a stress response, despite the absence of muscle damage in the AKT model. However, when we compared all different growth conditions, we did not find a common transcriptional fingerprint. On the other hand, all conditions showed a marked increase in mTORC1 signaling and increased ribosome biogenesis, suggesting that muscle growth is characterized more by translational, than transcriptional regulation.

  6. Intersections between cardiac physiology, emotion regulation and interpersonal warmth in preschoolers: Implications for drug abuse prevention from translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A C; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Giuliano, Ryan J; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-06-01

    Early childhood is characterized by dramatic gains in emotion regulation skills that support social adjustment and mental health. Understanding the physiological substrates of healthy emotion regulation may offer new directions for altering trajectories toward initiation and escalation of substance abuse. Here, we describe the intersections between parasympathetic and sympathetic tone, emotion regulation and prosocial behavior in a high-risk sample of preschoolers. Fifty-two 3-6 year old children completed an assessment of attention regulation in response to affective stimuli. Cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia, an index of parasympathetic tone, and pre-ejection period, a marker of sympathetic activation, were recorded at rest and while children engaged in social interactions with their mothers and an unfamiliar research assistant. Mothers reported on children's emotional reactivity and prosocial behavior. Controlling for age and psychosocial risk, higher parasympathetic tone predicted better attention regulation in response to angry emotion and higher levels of prosocial behavior, whereas a reciprocal pattern of higher parasympathetic tone and lower sympathetic arousal predicted better attention in response to positive emotion and lower emotional reactivity. Children exposed to fewer risk factors and higher levels of maternal warmth were more able to sustain a high level of parasympathetic tone during interaction episodes. Findings suggest that autonomic measures represent biomarkers for socio-emotional competence in young children. They also point to the importance of early experiences in the establishment of physiological regulation and the promise of family-based intervention to promote healthy emotion regulation and prevent substance dependence in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. eIF4A inhibition allows translational regulation of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bottley

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the main cause of dementia in our increasingly aging population. The debilitating cognitive and behavioral symptoms characteristic of AD make it an extremely distressing illness for patients and carers. Although drugs have been developed to treat AD symptoms and to slow disease progression, there is currently no cure. The incidence of AD is predicted to increase to over one hundred million by 2050, placing a heavy burden on communities and economies, and making the development of effective therapies an urgent priority. Two proteins are thought to have major contributory roles in AD: the microtubule associated protein tau, also known as MAPT; and the amyloid-beta peptide (A-beta, a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP. Oxidative stress is also implicated in AD pathology from an early stage. By targeting eIF4A, an RNA helicase involved in translation initiation, the synthesis of APP and tau, but not neuroprotective proteins, can be simultaneously and specifically reduced, representing a novel avenue for AD intervention. We also show that protection from oxidative stress is increased upon eIF4A inhibition. We demonstrate that the reduction of these proteins is not due to changes in mRNA levels or increased protein degradation, but is a consequence of translational repression conferred by inhibition of the helicase activity of eIF4A. Inhibition of eIF4A selectively and simultaneously modulates the synthesis of proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease: reducing A-beta and tau synthesis, while increasing proteins predicted to be neuroprotective.

  8. Autogenic Training Relaxation Helping Postpartum Mothers to Achieve Successful Breastfeeding on Early Lactation Period

    OpenAIRE

    Juanita, Farida

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The numbers of breastfeeding failures are mostly caused by mothers` disbelief to themselves. One method that can be done to overcome these problems in accordance with the self-care nursing theory is the autogenic training relaxation. This method teaches mothers to be self-sufficient in building a positive intention and motivation to help the process of breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the influence of autogenic training relaxation to the effectiveness of breastfeeding ...

  9. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  10. Translational up-regulation and high-level protein expression from plasmid vectors by mTOR activation via different pathways in PC3 and 293T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Karyala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though 293T cells are widely used for expression of proteins from transfected plasmid vectors, the molecular basis for the high-level expression is yet to be understood. We recently identified the prostate carcinoma cell line PC3 to be as efficient as 293T in protein expression. This study was undertaken to decipher the molecular basis of high-level expression in these two cell lines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a survey of different cell lines for efficient expression of platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B, β-galactosidase (β-gal and green fluorescent protein (GFP from plasmid vectors, PC3 was found to express at 5-50-fold higher levels compared to the bone metastatic prostate carcinoma cell line PC3BM and many other cell lines. Further, the efficiency of transfection and level of expression of the reporters in PC3 were comparable to that in 293T. Comparative analyses revealed that the high level expression of the reporters in the two cell lines was due to increased translational efficiency. While phosphatidic acid (PA-mediated activation of mTOR, as revealed by drastic reduction in reporter expression by n-butanol, primarily contributed to the high level expression in PC3, multiple pathways involving PA, PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 appear to contribute to the abundant reporter expression in 293T. Thus the extent of translational up-regulation attained through the concerted activation of mTOR by multiple pathways in 293T could be achieved through its activation primarily by the PA pathway in PC3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies reveal that the high-level expression of proteins from plasmid vectors is effected by translational up-regulation through mTOR activation via different signaling pathways in the two cell lines and that PC3 is as efficient as 293T for recombinant protein expression. Further, PC3 offers an advantage in that the level of expression of the protein can be regulated by simple addition of n-butanol to

  11. Transcription and translation products of the cytolysin gene psm-mec on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikara Kaito

    Full Text Available The F region downstream of the mecI gene in the SCCmec element in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA contains two bidirectionally overlapping open reading frames (ORFs, the fudoh ORF and the psm-mec ORF. The psm-mec ORF encodes a cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM-mec. Transformation of the F region into the Newman strain, which is a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strain, or into the MW2 (USA400 and FRP3757 (USA300 strains, which are community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA strains that lack the F region, attenuated their virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. Introducing the F region to these strains suppressed colony-spreading activity and PSMα production, and promoted biofilm formation. By producing mutations into the psm-mec ORF, we revealed that (i both the transcription and translation products of the psm-mec ORF suppressed colony-spreading activity and promoted biofilm formation; and (ii the transcription product of the psm-mec ORF, but not its translation product, decreased PSMα production. These findings suggest that both the psm-mec transcript, acting as a regulatory RNA, and the PSM-mec protein encoded by the gene on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Conserved Residues Lys57 and Lys401 of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Maintain an Active Site Conformation for Optimal Activity: Implications for Post-Translational Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Caba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite its study since the 1960's, very little is known about the post-translational regulation of the multiple catalytic activities performed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, the primary protein folding catalyst of the cell. This work identifies a functional role for the highly conserved CxxC-flanking residues Lys57 and Lys401 of human PDI in vitro. Mutagenesis studies have revealed these residues as modulating the oxidoreductase activity of PDI in a pH-dependent manner. Non-conservative amino acid substitutions resulted in enzyme variants upwards of 7-fold less efficient. This attenuated activity was found to translate into a 2-fold reduction of the rate of electron shuttling between PDI and the intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum oxidase, ERO1α, suggesting a functional significance to oxidative protein folding. In light of this, the possibility of lysine acetylation at residues Lys57 and Lys401 was assessed by in vitro treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin. A total of 28 acetyllysine residues were identified, including acLys57 and acLys401. The kinetic behavior of the acetylated protein form nearly mimicked that obtained with a K57/401Q double substitution variant providing an indication that acetylation of the active site-flanking lysine residues can act to reversibly modulate PDI activity.

  13. Conserved Residues Lys57 and Lys401 of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Maintain an Active Site Conformation for Optimal Activity: Implications for Post-Translational Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Cody; Ali Khan, Hyder; Auld, Janeen; Ushioda, Ryo; Araki, Kazutaka; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Mutus, Bulent

    2018-01-01

    Despite its study since the 1960's, very little is known about the post-translational regulation of the multiple catalytic activities performed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), the primary protein folding catalyst of the cell. This work identifies a functional role for the highly conserved CxxC-flanking residues Lys 57 and Lys 401 of human PDI in vitro . Mutagenesis studies have revealed these residues as modulating the oxidoreductase activity of PDI in a pH-dependent manner. Non-conservative amino acid substitutions resulted in enzyme variants upwards of 7-fold less efficient. This attenuated activity was found to translate into a 2-fold reduction of the rate of electron shuttling between PDI and the intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum oxidase, ERO1α, suggesting a functional significance to oxidative protein folding. In light of this, the possibility of lysine acetylation at residues Lys 57 and Lys 401 was assessed by in vitro treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). A total of 28 acetyllysine residues were identified, including acLys 57 and acLys 401 . The kinetic behavior of the acetylated protein form nearly mimicked that obtained with a K57/401Q double substitution variant providing an indication that acetylation of the active site-flanking lysine residues can act to reversibly modulate PDI activity.

  14. The measurement of reversible redox dependent post-translational modifications and their regulation of mitochondrial and skeletal muscle function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A Kramer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a common feature of skeletal myopathies across multiple conditions; however, the mechanism by which it contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction remains controversial. Oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA has received the most attention, yet an important role for reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs in pathophysiology is emerging. The possibility that these PTMs can exert dynamic control of muscle function implicates them as a mechanism contributing to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic disease. Herein, we discuss the significance of thiol-based redox dependent modifications to mitochondrial, myofibrillar and excitation-contraction (EC coupling proteins with an emphasis on how these changes could alter skeletal muscle performance under chronically stressed conditions. A major barrier to a better mechanistic understanding of the role of reversible redox PTMs in muscle function is the technical challenges associated with accurately measuring the changes of site-specific redox PTMs. Here we will critically review current approaches with an emphasis on sample preparation artifacts, quantitation, and specificity. Despite these challenges, the ability to accurately quantify reversible redox PTMs is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic diseases.

  15. The Measurement of Reversible Redox Dependent Post-translational Modifications and Their Regulation of Mitochondrial and Skeletal Muscle Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Philip A.; Duan, Jicheng; Qian, Wei-Jun; Marcinek, David J.

    2015-11-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a common feature of skeletal myopathies across multiple conditions; however, the mechanism by which it contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction remains controversial. Oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA has received the most attention, yet an important role for reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs) in pathophysiology is emerging. The possibility that these PTMs can exert dynamic control of muscle function implicates them as a mechanism contributing to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic disease. Herein, we discuss the significance of thiol-based redox dependent modifications to mitochondrial, myofibrillar and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling proteins with an emphasis on how these changes could alter skeletal muscle performance under chronically stressed conditions. A major barrier to a better mechanistic understanding of the role of reversible redox PTMs in muscle function is the technical challenges associated with accurately measuring the changes of site-specific redox PTMs. Here we will critically review current approaches with an emphasis on sample preparation artifacts, quantitation, and specificity. Despite these challenges, the ability to accurately quantify reversible redox PTMs is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic diseases.

  16. The Wheat NAC Transcription Factor TaNAC2L Is Regulated at the Transcriptional and Post-Translational Levels and Promotes Heat Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei; Zhang, Jinxia; Zhang, Ning; Xin, Mingming; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Ni, Zhongfu; Du, Jinkun

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress poses a serious threat to global crop production. In efforts that aim to mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress on crops, a variety of genetic tools are being used to develop plants with improved thermotolerance. The characterization of important regulators of heat stress tolerance provides essential information for this aim. In this study, we examine the wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAC transcription factor gene TaNAC2L. High temperature induced TaNAC2L expression in wheat and overexpression of TaNAC2L in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced acquired heat tolerance without causing obvious alterations in phenotype compared with wild type under normal conditions. TaNAC2L overexpression also activated the expression of heat-related genes in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaNAC2L may improve heat tolerance by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. Notably, TaNAC2L is also regulated at the post-translational level and might be degraded via a proteasome-mediated pathway. Thus, this wheat transcription factor may have potential uses in enhancing thermotolerance in crops.

  17. The Wheat NAC Transcription Factor TaNAC2L Is Regulated at the Transcriptional and Post-Translational Levels and Promotes Heat Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Guo

    Full Text Available Heat stress poses a serious threat to global crop production. In efforts that aim to mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress on crops, a variety of genetic tools are being used to develop plants with improved thermotolerance. The characterization of important regulators of heat stress tolerance provides essential information for this aim. In this study, we examine the wheat (Triticum aestivum NAC transcription factor gene TaNAC2L. High temperature induced TaNAC2L expression in wheat and overexpression of TaNAC2L in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced acquired heat tolerance without causing obvious alterations in phenotype compared with wild type under normal conditions. TaNAC2L overexpression also activated the expression of heat-related genes in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaNAC2L may improve heat tolerance by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. Notably, TaNAC2L is also regulated at the post-translational level and might be degraded via a proteasome-mediated pathway. Thus, this wheat transcription factor may have potential uses in enhancing thermotolerance in crops.

  18. Translational regulation of gene expression by an anaerobically induced small non-coding RNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.

    2010-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) have emerged as important elements of gene regulatory circuits. In enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella many of these sRNAs interact with the Hfq protein, an RNA chaperone similar to mammalian Sm-like proteins and act in the post...... that adaptation to anaerobic growth involves the action of a small regulatory RNA....... of at least one sRNA regulator. Here, we extend this view by the identification and characterization of a highly conserved, anaerobically induced small sRNA in E. coli, whose expression is strictly dependent on the anaerobic transcriptional fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator (FNR). The sRNA, named Fnr...

  19. Regulation of Mammary Stem Cell Quiescence via Post-Translational Modification of DeltaNp63alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This document is the Annual Summary Report on the training grant awarded to Andrew DeCastro entitled Regulation of Mammary Stem Cell Quiescence via...screen) mediated phosphorylation of deltaNPdelta3 on stem cell behavior and mitotic activity. Task 1 aims to determine the effects of wild-type, phospho...ablative and phospho-mimetic alleles of deltaNP63delta phosphorylation on stem cell behavior in vitro. Thus far, we demonstrate that stem cell enriched

  20. TG2 regulates the heat-shock response by the post-translational modification of HSF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Federica; Villella, Valeria Rachela; D'Eletto, Manuela; Farrace, Maria Grazia; Esposito, Speranza; Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Occhigrossi, Luca; Pagliarini, Vittoria; Sette, Claudio; Cozza, Giorgio; Barlev, Nikolai A; Falasca, Laura; Fimia, Gian Maria; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi; Piacentini, Mauro

    2018-05-11

    Heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) is the master transcription factor that regulates the response to proteotoxic stress by controlling the transcription of many stress-responsive genes including the heat-shock proteins. Here, we show a novel molecular mechanism controlling the activation of HSF1. We demonstrate that transglutaminase type 2 (TG2), dependent on its protein disulphide isomerase activity, triggers the trimerization and activation of HSF1 regulating adaptation to stress and proteostasis impairment. In particular, we find that TG2 loss of function correlates with a defect in the nuclear translocation of HSF1 and in its DNA-binding ability to the HSP70 promoter. We show that the inhibition of TG2 restores the unbalance in HSF1-HSP70 pathway in cystic fibrosis (CF), a human disorder characterized by deregulation of proteostasis. The absence of TG2 leads to an increase of about 40% in CFTR function in a new experimental CF mouse model lacking TG2. Altogether, these results indicate that TG2 plays a key role in the regulation of cellular proteostasis under stressful cellular conditions through the modulation of the heat-shock response. © 2018 The Authors.

  1. Molecular network including eIF1AX, RPS7, and 14-3-3γ regulates protein translation and cell proliferation in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuiping; Luo, Chaochao; Qu, Bo; Khudhair, Nagam; Gu, Xinyu; Zang, Yanli; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Na; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun

    2014-12-15

    14-3-3γ, an isoform of the 14-3-3 protein family, was proved to be a positive regulator of mTOR pathway. Here, we analyzed the function of 14-3-3γ in protein synthesis using bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). We found that 14-3-3γ interacted with eIF1AX and RPS7 by 14-3-3γ coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. These interactions of 14-3-3γ with eIF1AX and RPS7 were further confirmed by colocalization and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. We also found that methionine could promote protein synthesis and trigger the protein expression levels of 14-3-3γ, eIF1AX and RPS7. Analysis of overexpression and inhibition of 14-3-3γ confirmed that it positively affected the protein expression levels of eIF1AX, RPS7, Stat5 and mTOR pathway to promote protein synthesis and cell proliferation in BMECs. We further showed that overexpression of eIF1AX and RPS7 also triggered protein translation and cell proliferation. From these results, we conclude that molecular network including eIF1AX, RPS7, and 14-3-3γ regulates protein translation and cell proliferation in BMECs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  3. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  4. The influence of superabsorbent polymers on the autogenous shrinkage properties of cement pastes with supplementary cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoeck, D.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; De Belie, N.

    2015-01-01

    Fly ash and blast-furnace slag containing binders are frequently used in the construction industry and it is important to know the extent of autogenous shrinkage and its (ideal) mitigation by superabsorbent polymers in these systems as a function of their age. In this paper, the autogenous...... shrinkage was determined by manual and automated shrinkage measurements. Autogenous shrinkage was reduced in cement pastes with the supplementary cementitious materials versus Portland cement pastes. At later ages, the rate of autogenous shrinkage is higher due to the pozzolanic activity. Internal curing...

  5. Autogenic and Allogenic: Emergent Coastline Patterns Interact With Forcing Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. B.; Alvarez Antolinez, J. A.; Mendez, F. J.; Moore, L. J.; Wood, J.; Farley, G.

    2017-12-01

    between forcing and coastline shape. Comparisons between model predictions and observed shoreline-change patterns support the suggestion that the relationship between emergent coastline behaviours (autogenic processes) and external influences (autogenic forcing) involves such memory effects (Antolinez et al., in revision).

  6. Chronobiometric assessment of autogenic training effects upon blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Saito, Y; Fukuda, K; Otsuka, K; Kikuchi, T

    1996-12-01

    Autogenic training, a method of self-hypnosis, lowers the extent of within-day variation of systolic blood pressure assessed by the circadian double amplitude. The blood pressure and heart rate of ten patients, conventionally diagnosed as having hypertension or white-coat hypertension, were automatically monitored at 30-min intervals for 7 days before autogenic training and again for 7 days, at 1 or 2 months after the start of autogenic training (practiced three times daily). The circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure of the patients investigated was 3 to 17 mm Hg lower on autogenic training. In 5 patients, reductions by 7 to 17 mm Hg were statistically significant. These results are regarded as provisional statistics, the utility of which depends on replication. By contrast, the over-all group reduction of the circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure by 8 mm Hg on the average can be taken at face value. Autogenic training also lowered the circadian double amplitude of diastolic blood pressure, but the effect was small as was the effect of autogenic training upon the MESOR (a rhythm adjusted mean) and acrophase (a measure of the timing of over-all high values recurring each day). The effect of autogenic training upon the circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure suggests its trial as first-line treatment of patients with an excessive circadian blood pressure amplitude, a condition which, even in the absence of an elevated 24-hr, average of blood pressure, is associated with a large increase in the risk of developing ischemic stroke or nephropathy.

  7. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jongwha; Whang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Seung Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but weak opposite relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion. PMID:23914165

  8. Reorganization of the brain and heart rhythm during autogenic meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Rhee, Jyoo-Hi; Kang, Seung Wan

    2014-01-13

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower (alpha) and higher (above beta) band coherence during 3~min epochs of heart coherent meditation compared to 3~min epochs of heart non-coherence at baseline. The coherence and relative power increase in alpha band and absolute power decrease in high beta band could reflect relaxation state during the heart coherent meditation. The coherence increase in the higher (above beta) band could reflect cortico-cortical local integration and thereby affect cognitive reorganization, simultaneously with relaxation. Further research is still needed for a confirmation of heart coherence as a simple window for the meditative state.

  9. Reorganization of the Brain and Heart Rhythm During Autogenic Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Keun eKim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower(alpha and higher(above beta band coherence during 3 minute epochs of heart coherent meditation compared to 3 minute epochs of heart noncoherence at baseline. The coherence and relative power increase in alpha band and absolute power decrease in high beta band could reflect relaxation state during the heart coherent meditation. The coherence increase in the higher(above beta band could reflect cortico-cortical local integration and thereby affect cognitive reorganization, simultaneously with relaxation. Further research is still needed for a confirmation of heart coherence as a simple window for the meditative state.

  10. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daekeun eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but, again, no significant relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion.

  11. Autogenic training for stress and anxiety: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E; Kanji, N

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate all controlled trials of autogenic training (AT) as a means of reducing stress and anxiety levels in human subjects. A search for all published and unpublished controlled trials was carried out in the four major databases, specifically CISCOM, Medline, PsychLit and CINAHL. Eight such trials were located, all of which are included here. The majority of trials were methodologically flawed. A range of outcome measures were used, with Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory being the most popular. Deviations from the accepted technique of AT were conspicuous and trials using the classical AT were in the minority. Seven trials reported positive effects of AT in reducing stress. One study showed no such benefit. Since one trial had used AT in combination with another technique, visual imagery, no conclusion can be drawn about the effect of AT in this case. No firm conclusions could be drawn from this systematic review. AT, properly applied, remains to be tested in controlled trials that are appropriately planned and executed.

  12. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jongwha; Whang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Seung Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but weak opposite relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion.

  13. Autogenic training: a meta-analysis of clinical outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Friedhelm; Kupper, Sirko

    2002-03-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a self-relaxation procedure by which a psychophysiological determined relaxation response is elicited. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of AT. Seventy-three controlled outcome studies were found (published 1952-99). Sixty studies (35 randomized controlled trials [RCT]) qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Medium-to-large effect sizes (ES) occurred for pre-post comparisons of disease-specific AT-effects, with the RCTs showing larger ES. When AT was compared to real control conditions, medium ES were found. Comparisons of AT versus other psychological treatment mostly resulted in no effects or small negative ES. This pattern of results was stable at follow-up. Unspecific AT-effects (i.e., effects on mood, cognitive performance, quality of life, and physiological variables) tended to be even larger than main effects. Separate meta-analyses for different disorders revealed a significant reduction of the heterogeneity of ES. Positive effects (medium range) of AT and of AT versus control in the meta-analysis of at least 3 studies were found for tension headache/migraine, mild-to-moderate essential hypertension, coronary heart disease, asthma bronchiale, somatoform pain disorder (unspecified type), Raynaud's disease, anxiety disorders, mild-to-moderate depression/dysthymia, and functional sleep disorders.

  14. Autogenous Crack Control during Construction Phases of MOSE Venice Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, Gabriele; Anerdi, Constanza; Malavisi, Marzia; Zoratto, Nadia

    2017-10-01

    The design of concrete structures exposed to severe environmental attack, like in marine environment, requires serious attention for concrete durability. Early age cracking due to autogenous deformations can be detrimental to the performance of tidal structures. The study of the structural effects of hydration heat and rheological behaviour of a set of huge concrete structures of the Mobile Venice Dams known with the MOSE acronym (Experimental Electromechanical Module) is presented in this paper. Together with other measures such as coastal reinforcement, the raising of quaysides, and the paving and improvement of the lagoon, MOSE is designed to protect Venice and the lagoon from tides of up to 3 meters. Construction began simultaneously in 2003 at all three lagoon inlets, and the project has been completed in 2014. Floods have caused damage since ancient times and have become more frequent and intense as a result of the combined effect of eustatism (a rise in sea level) and subsidence (a drop in land level) caused by natural and man-induced phenomena. Nowadays, towns and villages in the lagoon are about 23 cm lower with respect to the water level than at the beginning of the 1900s. Each year, floods can cause serious problems for the inhabitants as well as deterioration of architecture, urban structures and the ecosystem. Over the entire lagoon area, there is also a constant risk of a catastrophic event such as that of 4 November 1966, when a tide of 194 cm submerged Venice, Chioggia and the other built-up areas.

  15. Compositional translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale

  16. Brain structural alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Subirà

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a clinically heterogeneous condition. Although structural brain alterations have been consistently reported in OCD, their interaction with particular clinical subtypes deserves further examination. Among other approaches, a two-group classification in patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions has been proposed. The purpose of the present study was to assess, by means of a voxel-based morphometry analysis, the putative brain structural correlates of this classification scheme in OCD patients. Ninety-five OCD patients and 95 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were divided into autogenous (n = 30 and reactive (n = 65 sub-groups. A structural magnetic resonance image was acquired for each participant and pre-processed with SPM8 software to obtain a volume-modulated gray matter map. Whole-brain and voxel-wise comparisons between the study groups were then performed. In comparison to the autogenous group, reactive patients showed larger gray matter volumes in the right Rolandic operculum. When compared to healthy controls, reactive patients showed larger volumes in the putamen (bilaterally, while autogenous patients showed a smaller left anterior temporal lobe. Also in comparison to healthy controls, the right middle temporal gyrus was smaller in both patient subgroups. Our results suggest that autogenous and reactive obsessions depend on partially dissimilar neural substrates. Our findings provide some neurobiological support for this classification scheme and contribute to unraveling the neurobiological basis of clinical heterogeneity in OCD.

  17. Autogenic training for tension type headaches: a systematic review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, N; White, A R; Ernst, E

    2006-06-01

    To determine from the published evidence whether autogenic training as sole therapy is effective for prevention of tension-type headaches in adults. Systematic review of controlled trials. Literature searches were performed in January 2005 in six major databases, specifically Medline, EMBASE, AMED, CENTRAL, PsychInfo and CINAHL and information was extracted and evaluated in a pre-defined manner. Seven controlled clinical trials were included in the review. The methodological quality of these studies was low. Patient samples were generally representative of the more severely affected cases. None of the studies show autogenic training to be convincingly superior to other interventions care. Some trials suggested that the effect of autogenic training is no different from hypnosis and inferior to biofeedback. There is no consistent evidence to suggest that autogenic training is superior to other interventions for prevention of tension headaches, or different from other forms of relaxation. Further studies should investigate the use of standard autogenic training in patients with moderate headache.

  18. A clinical study of autogenic training-based behavioral treatment for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, M

    1996-03-01

    The present study investigated the effect of autogenic training-based behavioral treatment for panic disorder and identified the predictors of treatment outcome. Thirty-four patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder received autogenic training-based behavioral treatment from October 1981 to December 1994. They were treated individually by the author. The medical records of the patients were investigated for the purpose of this study. The results showed that this autogenic training-based behavioral treatment had successful results. Fifteen patients were cured, nine much improved, five improved, and five unchanged at the end of the treatment. Improvement trends were found as for the severity of panic attack and the severity of agoraphobic avoidance. No consistent findings about predictors emerged when such pretreatment variables as demographics and severity of symptoms were used to predict the outcome. Also, three treatment variables showed useful predictive power. First, practicing the second standard autogenic training exercise satisfactorily predicted better outcomes. Second, application of in vivo exposure was found to be positively associated with the treatment outcome in patients with agoraphobic avoidance. Third, longer treatment periods were associated with better outcomes. These findings suggested that the autogenic training-based behavioral treatment could provide relief to the majority of panic disorder patients.

  19. Application of autogenic training for anxiety disorders: a clinical study in a psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, M

    1997-03-01

    The effects of autogenic training for anxiety disorders were investigated in a psychiatric setting of a medical school hospital and the predictors of this treatment outcome were identified. Fifty-five patients who meet the DSM-III-R criteria for anxiety disorders were treated individually with autogenic training by the author from October 1981 to October 1995. The medical records of the patients were investigated retrospectively. The results showed that the autogenic training was successful. Twenty-eight patients (51%) were cured, fourteen (25%) much improved, eight (15%) improved and five (9%) unchanged at the end of the treatment. Forty-two patients (76%) were assessed as having had successful treatment. Pretreatment variables, such as patient's clinical characteristics, did not provide a useful guide to the outcome. Four treatment variables did have a bearing on outcome. First, practicing the second standard autogenic training exercise was a satisfactory predictor of a better outcome. Second, practicing generalization training also was a useful predictor. Third, the application of other behavioral treatment techniques was found to be positively associated with outcome. Fourth, longer treatment periods were associated with a better outcome. These findings suggested that autogenic training could be of significant benefit for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  20. Aspects of energy reduction by autogenous copper production in the copper smelting plant Bor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdenov, Ivan; Raić, Karlo T.; Kokeza, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a comparative analysis of the energy consumption during copper production by the “standard” procedure (roasting in a fluo–solid reactor and smelting in a reverberatory furnace) in the Smelting Plant in Bor with modern autogenous procedures. All forms of expended energy were reduced to primary energy or to the same energy form, i.e., to the energy equivalent of the process (EEP), the raw material and the process materials. In addition, the energy equivalent of the process and waste products (water vapour, thermal energy and similar) were balanced. To complete the consumption of all energy generating products in copper production, they were reduced to conditional fuel (coal equivalent = 29.3 MJ/kg). Additionally, this study suggests replacement of the existing technology by an appropriate autogenous procedure and considers the prospects for further development of mining and metallurgy in Bor. Estimates of development perspectives for copper production should be comprehensive, based on complete and relevant data, as well as on real considerations of future development in world production. -- Highlights: ► “Standard” autogenous copper production in the Smelting Plant, Bor, Serbia. ► Comparation of energy consumption in “standard” with other autogenous procedures. ► All forms of energy are reduced to energy equivalent and conditional fuel. ► Replacement of existing technology with the appropriate autogenous procedure. ► Perspectives of further development of mining and metallurgy in Bor.

  1. Reconstruction of mandibular defects with autogenous bone grafts: a review of 30 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M.A.; Warraich, R.A.; Abid, H.; Haq, M.E.; Shah, K.L.; Khan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Multitudes of options are available for reconstruction of functional and cosmetic defects of the mandible, caused by various ailments. At the present time, autogenous bone grafting is the gold standard by which all other techniques of reconstruction of the mandible can be judged. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of different osseous reconstruction options using autogenous bone grafts for mandibular reconstruction. Methods: This Interventional study was conducted at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital Lahore, from January 2008 to July 2009 including one year follow-up. The study was carried out on thirty patients having bony mandibular defects. They were reconstructed with the autogenous bone grafts from different graft donor sites. On post-operative visits they were evaluated for outcome variables. Results: Success rate of autogenous bone grafts in this study was 90%. Only 10% of the cases showed poor results regarding infection, resorption and graft failure. Conclusion: Autogenous bone grafts, non-vascularized or vascularized, are a reliable treatment modality for the reconstruction of the bony mandibular defects with predictable functional and aesthetic outcome. (author)

  2. Activation by insulin and amino acids of signaling components leading to translation initiation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renan A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Fleming, Jillian R; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-12-01

    Insulin and amino acids act independently to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs, and the responses decrease with development. The purpose of this study was to compare the separate effects of fed levels of INS and AA on the activation of signaling components leading to translation initiation and how these responses change with development. Overnight-fasted 6- (n = 4/group) and 26-day-old (n = 6/ group) pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemiceuaminoacidemic conditions (controls), 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemichyperaminoacidemic clamps (AA), and 3) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps (INS). INS, but not AA, increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2). Both INS and AA increased protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1, and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and these responses were higher in 6-day-old compared with 26-day-old pigs. Both INS and AA decreased the binding of 4E-BP1 to eIF4E and increased eIF4E binding to eIF4G; these effects were greater in 6-day-old than in 26-day-old pigs. Neither INS nor AA altered the composition of mTORC1 (raptor, mTOR, and GbetaL) or mTORC2 (rictor, mTOR, and GbetaL) complexes. Furthermore, neither INS, AA, nor age had any effect on the abundance of Rheb and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Our results suggest that the activation by insulin and amino acids of signaling components leading to translation initiation is developmentally regulated and parallels the developmental decline in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs.

  3. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee-Cheng Khor

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS, a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR, including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA. Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health

  4. Use of rice husk ash for mitigating the autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes at low water cement ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, H.; Ye, G.; Fehling, Ekkehard; Middendorf, Bernhard; Thiemicke, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that the high risk of early age micro-crack of HPC/UHPC is attributed to the large magnitude of early age autogenous shrinkage caused by self-desiccation in binder hydration. Over the years, several methods have been proposed to mitigate autogenous shrinkage based on internal

  5. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  6. Autogenous shrinkage in high-performance cement paste: An evaluation of basic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; van Breugel, Klaas

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, various mechanisms Suggested to cause autogenous shrinkage are presented. The mechanisms are evaluated from the point of view of their soundness and applicability to quantitative modeling of autogenous shrinkage. The capillary tension approach is advantageous, because it has a sound...... mechanical and thermodynamical basis. Furthermore, this mechanism is easily applicable in a numerical model when dealing with a continuously changing microstructure. In order to test the numerical model, autogenous deformation and internal relative humidity (RH) of a Portland cement paste were measured...... on the capillary tension approach. Because a part of the RH drop in the cement paste is due to dissolved salts in the pore solution, a method is suggested to separate this effect from self-desiccation and to calculate the actual stress in the pore fluid associated with menisci formation....

  7. Psychophysiological correlates of relaxation induced by standard autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, N; Kubota, S; Nagata, S

    1999-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the psychophysiological changes induced in subjects by standard autogenic training (AT). Physiological measurements were taken under strict experimental conditions. Thirty-one healthy students were divided randomly into two groups: the AT group and the control group. In the first session, the physiological variables were measured for all students before and after all were asked to relax in their own way. The AT group were then taught AT for 3 months, after which time the measurements were repeated. In the second session, the AT group practised the standard AT exercise, while the control group repeated their own form of simple relaxation. Electrocardiogram, plethysmogram (PTG) and blood pressure (BP) were measured while the students carried out a breathing rate of 15 cycles/min. The R-R intervals and BP were analysed by an autoregressive model for spectral analysis, and the data were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA. The AT group had a significant increase in the mean R-R interval and a significant decrease in the baseline deflection of the PTG in the second session. There were no significant changes in sympathetic activity except for the change in the PTG, although low frequency amplitude of systolic BP decreased slightly. AT was found to induce significant changes that were independent of respiration in healthy students, although paced breathing might have operated as a mental stress. The increase in mean R-R interval and the decrease in baseline deflection of the PTG were the most robust correlates of AT.

  8. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  9. AUTOGENIC TRAINING RELAXATION HELPING POSTPARTUM MOTHERS TO ACHIEVE SUCCESSFUL BREASTFEEDING ON EARLY LACTATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Juanita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The numbers of breastfeeding failures are mostly caused by mothers` disbelief to themselves. One method that can be done to overcome these problems in accordance with the self-care nursing theory is the autogenic training relaxation. This method teaches mothers to be self-sufficient in building a positive intention and motivation to help the process of breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the influence of autogenic training relaxation to the effectiveness of breastfeeding and the enhancement of breast milk volume on maternal postpartum. Method: By using an experimental posttest only-non equivalent control group design, 26 samples were taken based on the criteria and divided into two groups by matching technuiqe. autogenic training was given through MP3 Player for 3 weeks. Post-test observation conducted on the third week by home visit. Via Christi Breastfeeding Assessment Tool Jan Riordan modifications used to assess the effectiveness of breastfeeding, and to measure the milk ejection volume, used weighing test using electronic baby scales. Data were analyzed using one-tailed independent t test with α ≤ 0.05. Result: The analysis showed that mothers who did autogenic training relaxation could breastfeed more effectively and had greater average volume of milk ejection than the control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that autogenic relaxation training techniques affect the effectiveness of breastfeeding and breast milk volume. These results can be considered that autogenic training as an intervention in program of support for breastfeeding mothers.

  10. Autogenic training to reduce anxiety in nursing students: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Nasim; White, Adrian; Ernst, Edzard

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports a study to determine the effectiveness of autogenic training in reducing anxiety in nursing students. Nursing is stressful, and nursing students also have the additional pressures and uncertainties shared with all academic students. Autogenic training is a relaxation technique consisting of six mental exercises and is aimed at relieving tension, anger and stress. Meta-analysis has found large effect sizes for autogenic trainings intervention comparisons, medium effect sizes against control groups, and no effects when compared with other psychological therapies. A controlled trial with 50 nursing students found that the number of certified days off sick was reduced by autogenic training compared with no treatment, and a second trial with only 18 students reported greater improvement in Trait Anxiety, but not State Anxiety, compared with untreated controls. A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was completed in 1998 with 93 nursing students aged 19-49 years. The setting was a university college in the United Kingdom. The treatment group received eight weekly sessions of autogenic training, the attention control group received eight weekly sessions of laughter therapy, and the time control group received no intervention. The outcome measures were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, blood pressure and pulse rate completed at baseline, 2 months (end of treatment), and 5, 8, and 11 months from randomization. There was a statistically significantly greater reduction of State (Pautogenic training group than in both other groups immediately after treatment. There were no differences between the groups for the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The autogenic training group also showed statistically significantly greater reduction immediately after treatment in systolic (PAutogenic training has at least a short-term effect in alleviating stress in nursing students.

  11. Autogenous Tooth Transplantation: A Case Report with Three-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narimon Limprasert, D.D.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, it is commonly considered that autogenous tooth transplantation can only be performed by oral surgeons. Though the author is an oral surgeon, a general dental practitioner who can carry out simple surgerycanalsoperformautogenoustoothtransplantation withgoodfunctional resultsandsignificantcostsavings over other options for carefully selected patients. This report presents a case of a 16 year-old Thai male patient who underwent autogenous tooth transplantation following the surgical technique recommended by Clokie CM, et al. The right mandibular third molar was transplanted to the right mandibular second molar showing successful results with radiographic follow-up for three years.

  12. A thermal comparator sensor for measuring autogenous deformation in hardening Portland cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and accurate experimental device specially developed to measure autogenous deformation in hardening cement-based materials. The measuring system consists of a so-called thermal comparator sensor and a modular thermostatically controlled system. The operating principle...... of the thermal comparator is based on thermal expansion of aluminium. A particular characteristic of the measuring system is the fixation of the thermal comparator sensor to the deforming specimen. The modular system ensures effective thermostatic control of the hydrating cement paste samples. The technique...... allows continuous measurement with high accuracy of the linear deformation as well as determination of the activation energy of autogenous deformation....

  13. [Predictors of efficiency of autogenous melodeclamation training in patients with chronic somatic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trdatian, N A

    2009-01-01

    This controlled study involving 99 patients with chronic somatic diseases (CSD) had the objective to identify psychological predictors of the efficiency of a new method of psychotherapy, namely autogenous melodeclamation training (AMDT). Dynamics of the psychological status of the patients in the course of therapy was assessed using SMOL test, Spilberger STAI test, overall health-physical activity-mood test, and Beck depression inventory. It was shown that moderately compromised psychological adaptation and minor depressive disorders were the most reliable predictors of marked improvement of the patients' psychological status under effect of autogenous melodeclamation training included in the combined rehabilitative therapy of chronic somatic diseases.

  14. Ezh2 regulates transcriptional and post-translational expression of T-bet and promotes Th1 cell responses mediating aplastic anemia in mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing; He, Shan; Xie, Fang; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Liu, Yongnian; Mochizuki, Izumi; Meng, Lijun; Sun, Hongxing; Zhang, Yanyun; Guo, Yajun; Hexner, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a potentially fatal bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome. IFN-γ-producing T helper (Th)1 CD4+ T cells mediate the immune destruction of hematopoietic cells, and are central to the pathogenesis. However, the molecular events that control the development of BM-destructive Th1 cells remain largely unknown. Ezh2 is a chromatin-modifying enzyme that regulates multiple cellular processes primarily by silencing gene expression. We recently reported that Ezh2 is crucial for inflammatory T cell responses after allogeneic BM transplantation. To elucidate whether Ezh2 mediates pathogenic Th1 responses in AA and the mechanism of Ezh2 action in regulating Th1 cells, we studied the effects of Ezh2 inhibition in CD4+ T cells using a mouse model of human AA. Conditionally deleting Ezh2 in mature T cells dramatically reduced the production of BM-destructive Th1 cells in vivo, decreased BM-infiltrating Th1 cells, and rescued mice from BM failure. Ezh2 inhibition resulted in significant decrease in the expression of Tbx21 and Stat4 (which encode transcription factors T-bet and STAT4, respectively). Introduction of T-bet but not STAT4 into Ezh2-deficient T cells fully rescued their differentiation into Th1 cells mediating AA. Ezh2 bound to the Tbx21 promoter in Th1 cells, and directly activated Tbx21 transcription. Unexpectedly, Ezh2 was also required to prevent proteasome-mediated degradation of T-bet protein in Th1 cells. Our results identify T-bet as the transcriptional and post-translational Ezh2 target that acts together to generate BM-destructive Th1 cells, and highlight the therapeutic potential of Ezh2 inhibition in reducing AA and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:24760151

  15. The Drosophila nerfin-1 mRNA requires multiple microRNAs to regulate its spatial and temporal translation dynamics in the developing nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Alexander; Kundu, Mukta; Brody, Thomas; Odenwald, Ward F

    2007-10-01

    The mRNA encoding the Drosophila Zn-finger transcription factor Nerfin-1, required for CNS axon pathfinding events, is subject to post-transcriptional silencing. Although nerfin-1 mRNA is expressed in many neural precursor cells including all early delaminating CNS neuroblasts, the encoded Nerfin-1 protein is detected only in the nuclei of neural precursors that divide just once to generate neurons and then only transiently in nascent neurons. Using a nerfin-1 promoter-controlled reporter transgene, replacement of the nerfin-1 3' UTR with the viral SV-40 3' UTR releases the neuroblast translational block and prolongs reporter protein expression in neurons. Comparative genomics analysis reveals that the nerfin-1 mRNA 3' UTR contains multiple highly conserved sequence blocks that either harbor and/or overlap 21 predicted binding sites for 18 different microRNAs. To determine the functional significance of these microRNA-binding sites and less conserved microRNA target sites, we have studied their ability to block or limit the expression of reporter protein in nerfin-1-expressing cells during embryonic development. Our results indicate that no single microRNA is sufficient to fully inhibit protein expression but rather multiple microRNAs that target different binding sites are required to block ectopic protein expression in neural precursor cells and temporally restrict expression in neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that multiple microRNAs play a cooperative role in the post-transcriptional regulation of nerfin-1 mRNA, and the high degree of microRNA-binding site evolutionary conservation indicates that all members of the Drosophila genus employ a similar strategy to regulate the onset and extinction dynamics of Nerfin-1 expression.

  16. Interaction proteins of invertase and invertase inhibitor in cold-stored potato tubers suggested a protein complex underlying post-translational regulation of invertase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Huiling; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2013-12-01

    The activity of vacuolar invertase (VI) is vital to potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS). A post-translational regulation of VI activity has been proposed which involves invertase inhibitor (VIH), but the mechanism for the interaction between VI and VIH has not been fully understood. To identify the potential partners of VI and VIH, two cDNA libraries were respectively constructed from CIS-resistant wild potato species Solanum berthaultii and CIS-sensitive potato cultivar AC035-01 for the yeast two-hybrid analysis. The StvacINV1 (one of the potato VIs) and StInvInh2B (one of the potato VIHs), previously identified to be associated with potato CIS, were used as baits to screen the two libraries. Through positive selection and sequencing, 27 potential target proteins of StvacINV1 and eight of StInvInh2B were clarified. The Kunitz-type protein inhibitors were captured by StvacINV1 in both libraries and the interaction between them was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco cells, reinforcing a fundamental interaction between VI and VIH. Notably, a sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 was captured by both the baits, suggesting that a protein complex could be necessary for fine turning of the invertase activity. The target proteins clarified in present research provide a route to elucidate the mechanism by which the VI activity can be subtly modulated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  18. Effects of autogenic training on nitroglycerin-induced headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Zsombok, Terezia; Gonda, Xenia; Nagyne, Nora; Modosne, Edit; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the prophylactic and acute effects of autogenic training (AT) during a nitroglycerin-induced migraine attack. Thirty female migraineurs (without aura) and 11 controls participated in the study. Of these, 11 migraineurs and 5 controls practiced AT regularly for at least 6 months prior to and during the sublingual nitroglycerin test. Headache intensity and characteristics were recorded with a standardized method. During the nitroglycerin challenge, blood was collected for plasma cortisol determination and blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded. As a long-term preventive treatment, AT significantly decreased the mean headache frequency and intensity (P = .001) compared to the pretreatment period in the migraineurs who regularly practiced AT (n = 11). During the nitroglycerin challenge, AT successfully attenuated the nitroglycerin-induced acute decrease in blood pressure and pulse rate (P = .013; n = 16 AT subjects vs n = 25 non-AT subjects). However, it was not effective in preventing immediate headache (P = .71), did not decrease the frequency of acute migraine attacks (P = .79), and could not alleviate acute migraine pain (P = .78; n = 16 AT subjects vs n = 25 non-AT subjects). Plasma cortisol concentration significantly increased (P = .003) during the acute migraine attack (n = 22), and migraine intensity correlated with plasma cortisol elevations (P < .001; n = 41) and showed a tendency of negative correlation with morning plasma cortisol concentration (P = .08; n = 41). However, AT did not alter plasma cortisol responses (P = .99; n = 16 AT subjects vs n = 25 non-AT subjects). (1) The long-term AT therapy proved to be a significantly effective preventive intervention in migraine sufferers. We hypothesized that this long-term effect of AT is based on modulation of the pain anticipation system, which is strongly correlated with function of the anterior cingulate cortex. (2) We demonstrated that AT could not alter the nitroglycerin-induced acute

  19. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…

  20. Autogenous shrinkage in high-performance cement paste: An evaluation of basic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Breugel, Klaas van

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, various mechanisms suggested to cause autogenous shrinkage are presented. The mechanisms are evaluated from the point of view of their soundness and applicability to quantitative modeling of autogenous shrinkage. The capillary tension approach is advantageous, because it has a sound mechanical and thermodynamical basis. Furthermore, this mechanism is easily applicable in a numerical model when dealing with a continuously changing microstructure. In order to test the numerical model, autogenous deformation and internal relative humidity (RH) of a Portland cement paste were measured during the first week of hardening. The isothermal heat evolution was also recorded to monitor the progress of hydration and the elastic modulus in compression was measured. RH change, degree of hydration and elastic modulus were used as input data for the calculation of autogenous deformation based on the capillary tension approach. Because a part of the RH drop in the cement paste is due to dissolved salts in the pore solution, a method is suggested to separate this effect from self-desiccation and to calculate the actual stress in the pore fluid associated with menisci formation

  1. Trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions initiated by an exotic invasive plant autogenic ecosystem engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2010-01-01

    Indirect interactions are important for structuring ecological systems. However, research on indirect effects has been heavily biased toward top-down trophic interactions, and less is known about other indirect-interaction pathways. As autogenic ecosystem engineers, plants can serve as initiators of nontrophic indirect interactions that, like top-down pathways, can...

  2. Silicate minerals for CO2 scavenging from biogas in Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Ferrer, I.; Weijma, J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) is a novel concept that integrates gas upgrading with anaerobic digestion by selective dissolution of CO2 at elevated biogas pressure. However, accumulation of CO2 and fatty acids after anaerobic digestion of glucose resulted in pH 3–5, which is

  3. Measurement with corrugated tubes of early-age autogenous shrinkage of cement-based material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    The use of a special corrugated mould enables transformation of volume strain into horizontal, linear strain measurement in the fluid stage. This allows continuous measurement of the autogenous shrinkage of cement-based materials since casting, and also effectively eliminates unwanted influence...

  4. Ultra high performance concrete made with rice husk ash for reduced autogenous shrinkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breugel, K.; Van Tuan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHPC) is generally made with low w/c mixtures and by adding silica fume. Low w/c mixtures, however, exhibit high autogenous shrinkage, while a high amount of silica fume increases the price of these mixtures. For designing ultra high strength mixtures with low

  5. Liquid nitrogen-treated autogenous dentin as bone substitute: an experimental study in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Basim K; Shanmuhasuntharam, Palasuntharam; Huat, Siar; Abdulrazzak, Shurooq; Oon, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Different forms of dentin, including untreated, undemineralized, demineralized, boiled, or mixed with other materials, have been evaluated for efficacy as bone substitutes. However, the effects of application of liquid nitrogen-treated dentin for bone grafting remain unknown. The objective of this study was to chronologically evaluate bone healing following grafting with liquid nitrogen-treated dentin in a rabbit model. Autogenous dentin treated with liquid nitrogen at -196°C for 20 minutes was used. In 16 New Zealand White rabbits, a bone defect (5 mm in diameter) was created in each femur and randomly grafted with either autogenous dentin (experimental group) or autogenous bone grafts (positive control). In another four rabbits (negative control), a similar defect in each femur was left empty. The rabbits were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Explants of grafted sites were harvested for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 and 4 weeks in both the experimental and positive control groups, accelerated formation of new bone was observed, which was undergoing remodeling at 8 and 12 weeks. The mean new bone score was higher in the experimental than in the negative control groups, but this was not statistically significant. The present results demonstrated that liquid nitrogen-treated autogenous dentin has both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties and therefore has potential as a bone substitute.

  6. Autogenic Feedback Training (Body Fortran) with Biofeedback and the Computer for Self-Improvement and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell N.; Sumintardja, Elmira Nasrudin

    1983-01-01

    Describes autogenic feedback training, which provides the basis whereby an individual is able to improve on well being through use of a technique described as "body fortran," implying that you program self as one programs a computer. Necessary requisites are described including relaxation training and the management of stress. (JAC)

  7. Autogenic Training and Hand Temperature Biofeedback in the Treatment of Migraine: A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, B.; And Others

    The possibility of alleviating migraine headaches by autogenic relaxation training, with or without hand temperature biofeedback, was assessed. The study examined five independent groups in a bi-directional control group design. Volunteer migraine sufferers served as subjects, each participating for 12 weeks. The first four weeks of the study were…

  8. Autogenic Feedback Training (Body FORTRAN) for Musically Gifted Students at Bonita Vista High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John M.

    1982-01-01

    The Gifted Self-Understanding Assessment Battery (GSAB) was given to 34 (27 females, 7 males) music students (aged 15-17) at Bonita Vista High School in Chula Vista (California). Biofeedback training and assessment were followed by individual counseling for Autogenic Feedback Training (AFT) to achieve improvement of the individual's own well…

  9. Autogenous shrinkage of Ducorit S5R ASTM C 1698-09 test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    The report deals with experimental measurement of autogenous shrinkage of Ducorit S5R according to the test method ASTM C 1698-09. This test method measures the bulk strain of a sealed cementitious specimen, at constant temperature and not subjected to external forces, from the time of final...

  10. Acromioclavicular Reconstruction using Autogenous Semitendinosus Tendon Graft and the Importance of Postoperative Rehabilitation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade PY Ho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of chronic acromioclavicular joint dislocation (Rockwood type 5 in which the choice of acromioclavicular reconstruction using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft was made due to its superiority in anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments, and the impact of postoperative rehabilitation on the recovery of this patient. We also discuss the rationale behind this.

  11. Autogenous and drying shrinkage of sodium carbonate activated slag altered by limestone powder incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, B.; Yu, Q.L.; Dainese, E.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to study the shrinkage mechanism of sodium carbonate activated slag containing limestone powder (LP). The workability, pore structure, reaction kinetics and strength development were characterized. The results show that the autogenous shrinkage increases when the dosage of LP is low

  12. Starch hydrolysis in autogenerative high pressure digestion: Gelatinisation and saccharification as rate limiting steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Ding, L.; Weijma, J.; Plugge, C.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHPD) provides an integrated biogas upgrading technology, capable of producing biogas with a CH4 content exceeding 95% at pressures up to 90 bar. Hydrolysis is generally regarded as the rate-limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of complex organic matter,

  13. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  14. Translating Harbourscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    -specific design are proposed for all actors involved in harbour transformation. The study ends with an invitation to further investigate translation as a powerful metaphor for the way existing qualities of a site can be transformed, rather than erased or rewritten, and to explore how this metaphor can foster new...

  15. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied....... In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  16. Metformin anti-tumor effect via disruption of the MID1 translational regulator complex and AR downregulation in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Ummuhan; Koehler, Andrea; Schneider, Rainer; Schweiger, Susann; Klocker, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is an approved drug prescribed for diabetes. Its role as an anti-cancer agent has drawn significant attention because of its minimal side effects and low cost. However, its mechanism of anti-tumour action has not yet been fully clarified. The effect on cell growth was assessed by cell counting. Western blot was used for analysis of protein levels, Boyden chamber assays for analyses of cell migration and co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) followed by western blot, PCR or qPCR for analysis of protein-protein and protein-mRNA interactions. Metformin showed an anti-proliferative effect on a wide range of prostate cancer cells. It disrupted the AR translational MID1 regulator complex leading to release of the associated AR mRNA and subsequently to downregulation of AR protein in AR positive cell lines. Inhibition of AR positive and negative prostate cancer cells by metformin suggests involvement of additional targets. The inhibitory effect of metformin was mimicked by disruption of the MID1-α4/PP2A protein complex by siRNA knockdown of MID1 or α4 whereas AMPK activation was not required. Findings reported herein uncover a mechanism for the anti-tumor activity of metformin in prostate cancer, which is independent of its anti-diabetic effects. These data provide a rationale for the use of metformin in the treatment of hormone naïve and castration-resistant prostate cancer and suggest AR is an important indirect target of metformin

  17. Application of autogenic training in patients with Ménière disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Nakai, Kimiko; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2011-10-01

    Data are limited on the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of Ménière disease. We sought to document the effect of a psychotherapeutic technique known as autogenic training on clinical outcome in Ménière disease. Six patients with Ménière disease were studied. Retrospective chart review was conducted. All patients were refractory to conventional therapy and completed a course of autogenic training, which was offered as a complementary treatment. Autogenic training with initial psychological counseling was conducted by a clinical psychologist during 45-min sessions. Outcome measures assessed were the frequency of vertigo and functional levels 2 years after initiation of autogenic training. Functional levels were evaluated according to the 1995 guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS). As a personality measure, we used the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI), devised by Eysenck, which measures neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), and propensity to lie (L). Five of six patients showed improved functional level after three to eight sessions of psychotherapy; hearing level did not change. The score of the N scale of the MPI was closely related to the number of psychotherapy sessions. Prognosis was evaluated based on the AAO-HNS reporting guidelines, as follows: A = 3, B = 1, C = 1, F = 1. The value of N in MPI was closely related to the number of psychological counseling sessions (R = 0.97, P autogenic training may enhance the mental well-being of patients with Ménière disease and improve clinical outcome.

  18. Role of ferrite and phosphorus plus sulphur in the crack sensitivity of autogenously welded type 309 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, F.J. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    A study on autogenous welding of Type 309 thin stainless steel sheet was made after experiencing cracking difficulties on several commercial heats. A relationship exists between the sum of the phosphorus plus sulfur, the ferrite control of the weld metal, and the crack sensitivity of autogenously made welds. A new simple weld test for thin-gage sheet is utilized for studying the susceptibility to cracking. A chemistry modification is suggested to alleviate possible weld cracking when autogenously welding this grade. The principles of crack sensitivity prediction could apply to other austenitic stainless steel types where chemistry limits are such that ferrite is possible

  19. Translation Factors Specify Cellular Metabolic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of Cell Reports, Shah et al. present evidence that a subcomplex of the eIF3 translation initiation factor regulates translation of mRNAs encoding components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and glycolytic enzymes, thus linking translational control with energy metabolism.

  20. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  1. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  2. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  3. Temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of silica fume cement pastes with a very low water–binder ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, I., E-mail: ippei@dali.nuac.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 539, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Teramoto, A. [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Faculty of Engineering, ES Building, No. 546, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Ultra-high-strength concrete with a large unit cement content undergoes considerable temperature increase inside members due to hydration heat, leading to a higher risk of internal cracking. Hence, the temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes made with silica fume premixed cement with a water–binder ratio of 0.15 was studied extensively. Development of autogenous shrinkage showed different behaviors before and after the inflection point, and dependence on the temperature after mixing and subsequent temperature histories. The difference in autogenous shrinkage behavior poses problems for winter construction because autogenous shrinkage may increase with decrease in temperature after mixing before the inflection point and with increase in temperature inside concrete members with large cross sections.

  4. Temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of silica fume cement pastes with a very low water–binder ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, I.; Teramoto, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high-strength concrete with a large unit cement content undergoes considerable temperature increase inside members due to hydration heat, leading to a higher risk of internal cracking. Hence, the temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes made with silica fume premixed cement with a water–binder ratio of 0.15 was studied extensively. Development of autogenous shrinkage showed different behaviors before and after the inflection point, and dependence on the temperature after mixing and subsequent temperature histories. The difference in autogenous shrinkage behavior poses problems for winter construction because autogenous shrinkage may increase with decrease in temperature after mixing before the inflection point and with increase in temperature inside concrete members with large cross sections

  5. MicroRNA-9 enhances sensitivity to cetuximab in epithelial phenotype hepatocellular carcinoma cells through regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Liang, Yuntian; Li, Zhenrong; Liu, Yanhui; Zhang, Hongwei; Wen, Yu; Yan, Lei; Tang, Qiang; Xiao, Erhui; Zhang, Dongyi

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most widespread malignant human tumors worldwide. Treatment options include radiotherapy, surgical intervention and chemotherapy; however, drug resistance is an ongoing treatment concern. In the present study, the effects of a microRNA (miR/miRNA), miR-9, on the sensitivity of HCC cell lines to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, cetuximab, were examined. miR-9 has been proposed to serve a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the present study, bioinformatics analyses identified the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF-5A-2) as a target of miR-9. The expression levels of miR-9 and eIF-5A-2 were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and HCC cell lines were transfected with miR-9 mimics and inhibitors to determine the effects of the miRNA on cell proliferation and viability. The miR-9 mimic was revealed to significantly increase the sensitivity of epithelial phenotype HCC cells (Hep3B and Huh7) to cetuximab, while the miR-9 inhibitor triggered the opposite effect. There were no significant differences in sensitivity to cetuximab observed in mesenchymal phenotype HCC cells (SNU387 and SNU449). Cells lines displaying high expression levels of eIF-5A-2 were more resistant to cetuximab. Transfection of cells with a miR-9 mimic resulted in downregulation of the expression of eIF-5A-2 mRNA, while an miR-9 inhibitor increased expression. When expression of eIF-5A-2 was knocked down with siRNA, the effects of miR-9 on cetuximab sensitivity were no longer observed. Taken together, these data support a role for miR-9 in enhancing the sensitivity of epithelial phenotype HCC cells to cetuximab through regulation of eIF-5A-2.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUTOGENIC DRAINAGE VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH 15 MINUTES POST THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kiran; Dr. Bhimasen .S; E. Mastanaiah; A. Thiruppathi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD) and autogenic drainage (AD) on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done ...

  7. AtLa1 protein initiates IRES-dependent translation of WUSCHEL mRNA and regulates the stem cell homeostasis of Arabidopsis in response to environmental hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuchao; Rao, Shaofei; Chang, Beibei; Wang, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Kaidian; Hou, Xueliang; Zhu, Xueyi; Wu, Haijun; Tian, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Zhong; Yang, Chengwei; Huang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Plant stem cells are hypersensitive to environmental hazards throughout their life cycle, but the mechanism by which plants safeguard stem cell homeostasis in response to environmental hazards is largely unknown. The homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) protein maintains the stem cell pool in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that the translation of WUS mRNA is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located in the 5'-untranslated region. The AtLa1 protein, an RNA-binding factor, binds to the 5'-untranslated region and initiates the IRES-dependent translation of WUS mRNA. Knockdown of AtLa1 expression represses the WUS IRES-dependent translation and leads to the arrest of growth and development. The AtLa1 protein is mainly located in the nucleoplasm. However, environmental hazards promote the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of the AtLa1 protein, which further enhances the IRES-dependent translation of WUS mRNA. Genetic evidence indicates that the WUS protein increases the tolerance of the shoot apical meristem to environmental hazards. Based on these results, we conclude that the stem cell niche in Arabidopsis copes with environmental hazards by enhancing the IRES-dependent translation of WUS mRNA under the control of the AtLa1 protein. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. One Gene and Two Proteins: a Leaderless mRNA Supports the Translation of a Shorter Form of the Shigella VirF Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Di Martino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF30 (30 kDa, and the shorter VirF21 (21 kDa, lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF30 and VirF21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo translation experiments showed that VirF21 is also translated from a leaderless mRNA (llmRNA whose 5′ end is at position +309/+310, only 1 or 2 nucleotides upstream of the ATG84 start codon of VirF21. The llmRNA is transcribed from a gene-internal promoter, which we identified here. Functional analysis revealed that while VirF30 is responsible for activation of the virulence system, VirF21 negatively autoregulates virF expression itself. Since VirF21 modulates the intracellular VirF levels, this suggests that transcription of the llmRNA might occur when the onset of the virulence program is not required. We speculate that environmental cues, like stress conditions, may promote changes in virF mRNA transcription and preferential translation of llmRNA.

  9. Stress fracture as a complication of autogenous bone graft harvest from the distal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Loretta B; Mann, Roger A; Coughlin, Michael J; McPeake, William T; Mizel, Mark S

    2007-02-01

    Autogenous bone graft from the distal tibia provides cancellous bone graft for foot and ankle operations, and it has osteogenic and osteoconductive properties. The site is in close proximity to the foot and ankle, and published retrospective studies show low morbidity from the procedure. One-hundred autografts were obtained from the distal tibia between 2000 and 2003. In four cases the distal tibial bone graft harvest resulted in a stress fracture. There were three women and one man. The average time of diagnosis of the stress fracture from the operation was 1.8 months. All stress fractures healed with a short course (average 2.4 months) of cast immobilization. This study demonstrated that a stress fracture from the donor site of autogenous bone graft of the distal tibia occurs and can be successfully treated nonoperatively.

  10. Autogenic succession and deterministic recovery following disturbance in soil bacterial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurburg, Stephanie D.; Nunes, Ines Marques; Stegen, James C.

    2017-01-01

    The response of bacterial communities to environmental change may affect local to global nutrient cycles. However the dynamics of these communities following disturbance are poorly understood, given that they are often evaluated over macro-ecological time scales and end-point measurements. In ord...... diversity and functional redundancy, respond to disturbances like many macro-ecological systems and exhibit path-dependent, autogenic dynamics during secondary succession. These results highlight the role of autogenic factors and successional dynamics in microbial recovery....... to understand the successional trajectory of soil bacterial communities following disturbances and the mechanisms controlling these dynamics at a scale relevant for these organisms, we subjected soil microcosms to a heat disturbance and followed the community composition of active bacteria over 50 days...... slowed down, and a stability phase (after 29 days), during which the community tended towards its original composition. Phylogenetic turnover patterns indicated that the community experienced stronger deterministic selection during recovery. Thus, soil bacterial communities, despite their extreme...

  11. [Use of supportive autogenic training in multiple morbidity in geriatric psychiatry patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, T; Stetter, F; Wormstall, H

    1997-01-01

    23 multimorbid, geronto-psychiatric patients, aged 60 years or older, participated in a "supportive" course of autogenic training according to Schultz. Participating in the course an average of 7 +/- 3 weeks, 17 (76%) of the subjects were able to learn the training. In general, subjects reported a better general condition after the training sessions, measured with visual analogue scales (p training success was better in the psychopathological less affected than in the more severely ill (BPRS prior r = 0.64, p = 0.001, GDS prior r = 0.46, p training success and age, number of somatic diseases, number of medication, MMSE and the "Beschwerdenliste". Autogenic training is a useful component in psychotherapeutic and psychiatric therapy for elderly multimorbid in- and outpatients. A half-open group, two therapy sessions per week, reciting the training formulae aloud, a structured, simple setting and co-therapists proved to be worthwhile.

  12. Combined use of autogenic therapy and biofeedback in training effective control of heart rate by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 24 men and women (aged 20-27 yr) in three equal groups who were taught to control their own heart rates by autogenic training and biofeedback under dark and sound-isolated conditions. Group I was parasympathetic dominant, group II was sympathetic dominant, and group III consisted of parasympathetic-dominant subjects and controls who received only biofeedback of their own heart rates. The results corroborate three hypotheses: (1) subjects with para-sympathetic-dominant autonomic profiles perform in a way that is both qualitatively and quantitatively different from subjects with sympathetic-dominant autonomic profiles; (2) tests of interindividual variability yield data relevant to individual performance in visceral learning tasks; and (3) the combined use of autogenic training, biofeedback, and verbal feedback is suitable for conditioning large stable autonomic responses in humans.

  13. Articular reconstruction of the humeral head with autogenous allograft in the treatment of the osteonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The authors describe a surgical biological reconstruction of the humeral head with frozen autogenous allograft technique for the treatment of young patients with focal osteonecrosis of the humeral head. This represents a possible alternative, maybe even definitive for some patients, when compared to hemiarthroplasty or total shoulder arthroplasty. The technique consists of the fixation of a frozen autogenous allograft with previously-molded articular cartilage from the humeral head, after cleansing the osteonecrotic focus. Five patients under 50 years of age were treated, with three very satisfactory results, one patient was lost to follow-up, and one patient had an unsatisfactory result (converted to hemiarthroplasty. The study describes the technique in detail and the three cases with a longer follow-up time.

  14. Treatment of ankylosed maxillary central incisors by segmental osteotomy with autogenous bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kug-Ho; Min, Yon-Sook; Baik, Hyoung-Seon

    2012-04-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a 16-year-old girl with ankylosed maxillary central incisors that were noticeably infraoccluded and labially displaced. We performed a segmental osteotomy with an autogenous bone graft in a single-stage surgery to align and level the ankylosed teeth. The dento-osseous segment was successfully repositioned with satisfactory periodontal results. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Operational Applications of Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise as a Treatment for Airsickness in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyesus, Fiyore; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Airsickness is experienced by about 50% of military aviators some time in their career. Aviators who suffer from recurrent episodes of airsickness are typically referred to the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (NAMI) at Pensacola where they undergo extensive evaluation and 8 weeks of training in the Self-Paced Airsickness Desensitization (SPAD) program. Researchers at NASA Ames have developed an alternative mitigation training program, Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) that has demonstrated an 80% success rate for improving motion sickness tolerance.

  16. Autogenous Partial Bone Chip Grafting on the Exposed Inferior Alveolar Nerve After Cystic Enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mi Hyun; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Kim, Soung Min; Lee, Suk Keun

    2018-03-01

    This prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of the new approach of partial autogenous bone chip grafts for the treatment of mandibular cystic lesions related to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). A total of 38 patients treated for mandibular cysts or benign tumors were included in this prospective study and subsequently divided into 3 groups depending on the bone grafting method used: cystic enucleation without a bone graft (group 1), partial bone chip graft covering the exposed IAN (group 2), and autogenous bone graft covering the entire defect (group 3). We evaluated the symptoms, clinical signs, and radiographic changes using dental panorama preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Radiographic densities were compared using Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation with SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Radiopacities were the most increased at 1 year postoperative in group 3; groups 2 and 3 did not show statistically significant differences, whereas groups 1 and 3 were statistically significant. In terms of radiographic bone healing with clinical regeneration of the exposed IAN, healing occurred in all patients, although the best healing was achieved in group 2.This autogenous partial bone chip grafting procedure to cover the exposed IAN is suggested as a new surgical protocol for the treatment of cystic lesions associated with the IAN.

  17. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic barriers may pose problems for politicians trying to communicate delicate decisions to a European-wide public, as well as for citizens wishing to protest at the European level. In this article I present a counter-intuitive position on the language question, one that explores how...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  18. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  20. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P autogenic training, and other interventions that aim to increase HRV, could be a useful addition to treatment protocols for women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of

  1. Post-General Anesthesia Ultrasound-Guided Venous Mapping Increases Autogenous Access Placement Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, C Y Maximilian; Korayem, Adam; Finlay, David J

    2018-04-18

    This study investigates the impact of introducing a post-general anesthesia ultrasound mapping (PAUS) on the type of vascular access chosen for hemodialysis in patients without previous accesses. 203 of 297 consecutive patients met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Within-subjects analysis was performed on patients with both an outpatient ultrasound-guided vein mapping and a PAUS using sign tests and Wilcoxon signed ranked tests. Further, a between-subjects analysis added patients with only the outpatient vein mapping; demographic and comorbidity data were analyzed using t-tests and chi-squared tests. An ordinal logit regression was run for the type of access placed, while a bivariate logit regression was used to compare rates of autogenous access maturation. 165 (81%) patients received both a standard outpatient vein mapping and a PAUS. At the outpatient vein mapping, 130 (79%) patients had suitable veins for an autogenous access while 35 (21%) patients did not have suitable veins for an autogenous access and were planned for a prosthetic access. During PAUS, all 165 (100%) patients were found to have suitable veins for autogenous access formation (P<0.001). When comparing specific autogenous access configurations, Wilcoxon signed rank testing showed significantly more preferable access configurations in the PAUS group compared to the outpatient mapping (P<0.001); Outpatient mapping resulted in 81 (47%) radiocephalic accesses, 10 (6%) radiobasilic accesses, 20 (12%) brachiocephalic accesses, 19 (12%) brachiobasilic accesses and 35 (21%) prosthetic accesses planned, in contrast to 149 (90%) radiocephalic accesses, 3 (2%) radiobasilic accesses, 10 (6%) brachiocephalic accesses, 3 (2%) brachiobasilic accesses and 0 prosthetic accesses when the same patients were analyzed using PAUS. With the analysis expanded to include the 38 (19%) patients with only the outpatient vein mapping (without-PAUS), the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test showed no significant differences

  2. [Effect of hypnosis and autogenic training on acral circulation and coping with the illness in patients with progressive scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikowski, K; Weber, B; Haustein, U F

    1995-02-01

    In 12 patients with systemic sclerosis the influence of hypnosis and autogenic training on the acral blood circulation and the coping with the disease was investigated in a pilot study. In the first step significant increases in the skin temperature of the finger (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 1.2 degrees C) could be found after relaxation hypnosis. In the second step six patients (study group) gained experience with autogenic training. The other six patients served as control group. In the study group, the skin temperature of the fingers (short-term effect) was significantly higher than in the control group (1.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C). Long-term effects of the autogenic training (mean acral rewarning time, duration and course of the Raynaud attacks, acral lesions of the hands, psychosomatic status of complaints, type of relation to the disease as precondition for coping with the disease) were not found within the relatively short follow-up period of 4 months. Two patients, however, reported that they could shorten the duration of Raynaud attacks by autogenic training. In our patients heterogenicity and an increased score of multiple psychosomatic complaints were registered at the outset. As far as the type of relation to the disease is concerned, the patients could be assessed as almost adapted. Hypnosis and autogenic training can be recommended as complementary therapy in systemic sclerosis.

  3. Comparison of autogeneic and allogeneic natural killer cells immunotherapy on the clinical outcome of recurrent breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shuzhen Liang,1,2 Kecheng Xu,1,2 Lizhi Niu,1,2 Xiaohua Wang,1 Yingqing Liang,1 Mingjie Zhang,3 Jibing Chen,1,2 Mao Lin1,2 1Department of Central Laboratory, Fuda Cancer Hospital, Jinan University School of Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 2Fuda Cancer Institute, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 3Hank Bioengineering Co., Ltd, Shenzhen, China Abstract: In the present study, we aimed to compare the clinical outcome of autogeneic and allogeneic natural killer (NK cells immunotherapy for the treatment of recurrent breast cancer. Between July 2016 and February 2017, 36 patients who met the enrollment criteria were randomly assigned to two groups: autogeneic NK cells immunotherapy group (group I, n=18 and allogeneic NK cells immunotherapy group (group II, n=18. The clinical efficacy, quality of life, immune function, circulating tumor cell (CTC level, and other related indicators were evaluated. We found that allogeneic NK cells immunotherapy has better clinical efficacy than autogeneic therapy. Moreover, allogeneic NK cells therapy improves the quality of life, reduces the number of CTCs, reduces carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 expression, and significantly enhances immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial to compare the clinical outcome of autogeneic and allogeneic NK cells immunotherapy for recurrent breast cancer. Keywords: clinical outcome, autogeneic, allogeneic, natural killer cells, recurrent breast cancer

  4. Autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane in the treatment of peri-implantitis. II. Stereologic and histologic observations in cynomolgus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2003-01-01

    autogenous bone graft; guided bone regeneration; histology; membrane; non-human primates; oral implants; osseointegration; pathalogy; peri-implantitis; stereology; treatment......autogenous bone graft; guided bone regeneration; histology; membrane; non-human primates; oral implants; osseointegration; pathalogy; peri-implantitis; stereology; treatment...

  5. Maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with BioOss (R) mixed with a bone marrow concentrate or autogenous bone : test of principle on implant survival and clinical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, D.; Vissink, A.; Slot, Jan; Sauerbier, S.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    The purpose of this study was to assess implant survival and 1-year clinical performance of implants placed in the posterior maxilla that had been subjected to maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with bovine bone mineral (BioOss (R)) mixed with autogenous bone marrow concentrate or autogenous

  6. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...

  7. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Schou, S; Stavropoulos, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no differences between the use of Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft for maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) applying the lateral window technique, as evaluated in animals. A MEDLINE (Pub...... of the graft improved significantly with increased proportion of Bio-Oss. Bone regeneration, bone-to-implant contact (BIC), biomechanical implant test values, and biodegradation of Bio-Oss after MSFA with Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone have never been compared within the same study in animals....... Thus, the hypothesis of no differences between the use of Bio-Oss and Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft for MSFA could neither be confirmed nor rejected based on existing animal studies....

  8. Frontalis Sling Operation using Silicone Rod Compared with Autogenous Fascia Lata for Simple Congenital Ptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Rajkarnikar Sthapit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the cosmetic results and recurrence of unilateral frontalis sling surgery using a silicone rod compared with autogenous fascia lata in cases of simple congenital ptosis. Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study of 59 patients who underwent a frontalis sling operation for congenital ptosis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the sling material used; an autogeneous fascia lata (fl group (n = 24 and a silicone rod group (sl (n = 35. Cosmetic results and recurrence rates were compared between these 2 groups. The cosmetic results of the frontalis sling operation were assessed as good, fair, or poor based on the difference between the Margin Reflex Distance of both eyelids and graded as good if the difference in two eyes was ≤1mm and poor if it was 2mm or more. Recurrence was defined as the conversion of the cosmetic result from good or fair to poor category. Results: At postoperative day seven and 30, MRD of both the groups were good but on three months follow-up MRD of silicon rod group dropped, however it was not statistically significant .Lid contour was good in both the groups, however, lid symmetry was poor in two cases of fascia lata at three months follow-up. Repeat surgery for poor outcome was done in 8.6% of cases in silicon rod and 8.3% of fascia lata group. Conclusions: The frontalis sling operation using either a silicone rod or autogenous fascia lata showed equally good cosmetic results and lower recurrence rate at three months follow up. Keywords: congenital ptosis; fascia lata; frontalis sling surgery; margin reflex distance; silicone rod.

  9. Histomorphometric evaluation of bone regeneration using autogenous bone and beta-tricalcium phosphate in diabetic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živadinović Milka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The mechanism of impaired bone healing in diabetes mellitus includes different tissue and cellular level activities due to micro- and macrovascular changes. As a chronic metabolic disease with vascular complications, diabetes affects a process of bone regeneration as well. The therapeutic approach in bone regeneration is based on the use of osteoinductive autogenous grafts as well as osteoconductive synthetic material, like a β-tricalcium phosphate. The aim of the study was to determine the quality and quantity of new bone formation after the use of autogenous bone and β-tricalcium phosphate in the model of calvarial critical-sized defect in rabbits with induced diabetes mellitus type I. Methods. The study included eight 4-month-old Chincilla rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus type I. In all animals, there were surgically created two calvarial bilateral defects (diameter 12 mm, which were grafted with autogenous bone and β-tricalcium phosphate (n = 4 or served as unfilled controls (n = 4. After 4 weeks of healing, animals were sacrificed and calvarial bone blocks were taken for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. Beside descriptive histologic evaluation, the percentage of new bone formation, connective tissue and residual graft were calculated. All parameters were statistically evaluated by Friedman Test and post hock Wilcoxon Singed Ranks Test with a significance of p < 0.05. Results. Histology revealed active new bone formation peripherally with centrally located connective tissue, newly formed woven bone and well incorporated residual grafts in all treated defects. Control samples showed no bone bridging of defects. There was a significantly more new bone in autogeonous graft (53% compared with β-tricalcium phosphate (30%, (p < 0.030 and control (7%, (p < 0.000 groups. A significant difference was also recorded between β-tricalcium phosphate and control groups (p < 0.008. Conclusion. In the present

  10. The internal strength of rivers: autogenic processes in control of the sediment load (Tana River, Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraert, Naomi; Ochieng Omengo, Fred; Tamooh, Fredrick; Paron, Paolo; Bouillon, Steven; Govers, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    The construction of sediment rating curves for monitoring stations is a widely used technique to budget sediment fluxes. Changes in the relationship between discharge and sediment concentrations over time are often attributed to human-induced changes in catchment characteristics, such as land use change, dam construction or soil conservation measures and many models have been developed to quantitatively link catchment characteristics and river sediment load. Conversely, changes in river sediment fluxes are often interpreted as indications of major changes in the catchment. By doing so, autogenic processes, taking place within the river channel, are overlooked despite the increasing awareness of their importance. We assessed the role of autogenic processes on the sediment load of Tana River (Kenya). The Tana river was impacted by major dam construction between 1968 and 1988, effectively blocking at least 80% of the sediment transfer from the highlands to the lower river reaches. However, a comparison of pre-dam sediment fluxes at Garissa (located 250 km downstream of the dams) with recent measurements shows that sediment fluxes have not changed significantly. This suggests that most of the sediment in the post-dam period has to originate from inside the alluvial plain of the river, as tributaries downstream of the dams are scarce and intermittent. Several observations are consistent with this hypothesis. We observed that, during the wet season, sediment concentrations rapidly increased below the dams and are not controlled by inputs from tributaries. Also, sediment concentrations were high at the beginning of the wet season, which can be attributed to channel adjustment to the higher discharges. The river sediment does not contain significant amounts of 137Cs or 210Pbxs, suggesting that sediments are not derived from topsoil erosion. Furthermore, we observed a counter clockwise hysteresis during individual events which can be explained by the fact that sediment

  11. Autogenous bone grafts in the esthetic zone: optimizing the procedure using piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Piotr

    2012-12-01

    Soft and hard tissue defects pose a therapeutic challenge in modern implant dentistry. There are a multitude of surgical techniques available, and it is necessary to match the problem with the solution. This report describes the reconstruction of the alveolar ridge in the esthetic zone with the help of autogenous bone blocks harvested from the chin that were shaped to fit and stabilized at the recipient site. The procedures were performed using Piezosurgery, which made it possible to introduce surgical modifications and had a significant impact on the accuracy of the procedure. An observation period of 2 to 7 years showed positive stable results for treatment in terms of function and esthetics.

  12. The role of ubiquinone supplementation on osteogenesis of nonvascularized autogenous bone graft

    OpenAIRE

    Taufiqurrahman, Irham; Harijadi, Achmad; Simanjuntak, Roberto M.; D, Coen Pramono; Istiati, Istiati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ubiquinone is one of food supplement which is known have positive effect in wound healing. However the study to evaluate the possible role of ubiquinone in bone healing in autogenous bone grafting after mandibular resection has not been studied. An in vitro study is required to evaluate whether ubiquinone or coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10) has a positive effect on osteogenesis. Viability test of CoQ10 and a model of osteogenic-induced and hypoxic-condition mesenchymal stem cell culture were...

  13. The Effect of Autogenic Training on Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Performance on Nursing Student Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Brian; Gosselin, Kevin; Mulcahy, Angela

    The increased anxiety experienced by nursing students during simulations can serve as a significant barrier to learning. The use of anxiety-reducing techniques such as autogenic training (AT) can mitigate the negative effects of anxiety and improve the overall learning experience. The investigators in this study sought to understand the effect of AT on student performance and self-efficacy during simulation experiences. The use of AT was an effective technique to decrease anxiety and increase performance among nursing students during nursing simulations. Reducing anxiety during simulations can improve the student learning experience.

  14. Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise: Controlling Physiological Responses to Mitigate Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nia; Spencer, Telissa; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William B.

    2018-01-01

    During space travel approximately 50 of the crew experience symptoms of motion sickness that can range from mild forms of nausea or dizziness to severe malaise and vomiting1. Developing an effective treatment for these symptoms has become a priority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) is a nonpharmacological countermeasure for mitigating motion sickness. It involves training subjects to control physiological responses in high stress environments2. The primary goal of this experiment is to evaluate the effectiveness of AFTE for increasing tolerance to motion sickness in high stress environments.

  15. [Essential hypertension and stress. When do yoga, psychotherapy and autogenic training help?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, J M

    2002-05-09

    Psychosocial factors play an important role in the development and course of essential hypertension, although "stress" can account for only 10% of blood pressure variance. A variety of psychotherapeutic interventions, such as relaxation techniques (autogenic training or progressive muscular relaxation), behavioral therapy or biofeedback techniques, can lower elevated blood pressure by an average of 10 mmHg (systolic) and 5 mmHg (diastolic). As a "secondary effect", such measures may also prompt the hypertensive to adopt a more health-conscious lifestyle.

  16. Treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft and endobutton technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye G

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gang Ye, Chao-An Peng, Hua-Bin Sun, Jing Xiao, Kang Zhu Department of Orthopedics, the People’s Hospital of Huangpi District, Wuhan City, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique, and compare with hook plate in treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular (AC joint dislocation.Methods: From April 2012 to April 2013, we treated 46 patients with Rockwood type III AC joint dislocation. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A was treated using a hook plate and Group B with autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique. All participants were followed up for 12 months. Radiographic examinations were performed every 2 months postoperatively, and clinical evaluation was performed using the Constant–Murley score at the last follow-up.Results: Results indicated that patients in Group B showed higher mean scores (90.3±5.4 than Group A (80.4±11.5 in terms of Constant–Murley score (P=0.001. Group B patients scored higher in terms of pain (P=0.002, activities (P=0.02, range of motion (P<0.001, and strength (P=0.004. In Group A, moderate pain was reported by 2 (8.7% and mild pain by 8 (34.8% patients. Mild pain was reported by 1 (4.3% patient in Group B. All patients in Group B maintained complete reduction, while 2 (8.7% patients in Group A experienced partial reduction loss. Two patients (8.7% encountered acromial osteolysis on latest radiographs, with moderate shoulder pain and limited range of motion.Conclusion: Autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique showed better results compared with the hook plate method and exhibited advantages of fewer complications such as permanent pain and acromial osteolysis. Keywords: Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation, autogenous semitendinosus graft, endobutton, hook plate

  17. Stepwise surgical approach to diabetic partial foot amputations with autogenous split thickness skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Ramanujam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the surgical treatment of severe diabetic foot infections, substantial soft tissue loss often accompanies partial foot amputations. These sizeable soft tissue defects require extensive care with the goal of expedited closure to inhibit further infection and to provide resilient surfaces capable of withstanding long-term ambulation. Definitive wound closure management in the diabetic population is dependent on multiple factors and can have a major impact on the risk of future diabetic foot complications. In this article, the authors provide an overview of autogenous skin grafting, including anatomical considerations, clinical conditions, surgical approach, and adjunctive treatments, for diabetic partial foot amputations.

  18. Effect of autogenic training on drug consumption in patients with primary headache: an 8-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsombok, Terezia; Juhasz, Gabriella; Budavari, Agota; Vitrai, Jozsef; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2003-03-01

    To examine the effects of Schultz-type autogenic training on headache-related drug consumption and headache frequency in patients with migraine, tension-type, or mixed (migraine plus tension-type) headache over an 8-month period. Behavioral treatments often are used alone or adjunctively for different types of headache. There are, however, only a few studies that have compared the efficacy and durability of the same treatment in different types of primary headache, and the effects of treatment on headache-related drug consumption rarely have been assessed even in these studies. Twenty-five women with primary headache (11 with mixed headache, 8 with migraine, and 6 with tension-type headache) were evaluated via an open-label, self-controlled, 8-month, follow-up study design. After an initial 4 months of observation, patients began learning Schultz-type autogenic training as modified for patients with headache. They practiced autogenic training on a regular basis for 4 months. Based on data from headache diaries and daily medication records, headache frequencies and the amounts of analgesics, "migraine-specific" drugs (ergots and triptans), and anxiolytics taken by the patients were compared in the three subgroups over the 8-month period. Results.-From the first month of implementation of autogenic training, headache frequencies were significantly reduced in patients with tension-type and mixed headache. Significant reduction in frequency was achieved in patients with migraine only from the third month of autogenic training. Decreases in headache frequencies were accompanied by decreases in consumption of migraine drugs and analgesics resulting in significant correlations among these parameters. Reduction in consumption of anxiolytic drugs was more rapid and robust in patients with tension-type headache compared to patients with migraine, and this outcome failed to show any correlation with change in headache frequency. Schultz-type autogenic training is an effective

  19. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  20. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host. PMID:28357358

  1. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  2. The small molecule '1-(4-biphenylylcarbonyl)-4-(5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) piperazine oxalate' and its derivatives regulate global protein synthesis by inactivating eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mi-Na; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Kyung Kon; Kim, So-Young; Kim, InKi

    2016-05-01

    By environmental stresses, cells can initiate a signaling pathway in which eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2-α) is involved to regulate the response. Phosphorylation of eIF2-α results in the reduction of overall protein neogenesis, which allows cells to conserve resources and to reprogram energy usage for effective stress control. To investigate the role of eIF2-α in cell stress responses, we conducted a viability-based compound screen under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress condition, and identified 1-(4-biphenylylcarbonyl)-4-(5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) piperazine oxalate (AMC-01) and its derivatives as eIF2-α-inactivating chemical. Molecular characterization of this signaling pathway revealed that AMC-01 induced inactivation of eIF2-α by phosphorylating serine residue 51 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the negative control compounds did not affect eIF2-α phosphorylation. In contrast with ER stress induction by thapsigargin, phosphorylation of eIF2-α persisted for the duration of incubation with AMC-01. By pathway analysis, AMC-01 clearly induced the activation of protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) kinase and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), whereas it did not modulate the activity of PERK or heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI). Finally, we could detect a lower protein translation rate in cells incubated with AMC-01, establishing AMC-01 as a potent chemical probe that can regulate eIF2-α activity. We suggest from these data that AMC-01 and its derivative compounds can be used as chemical probes in future studies of the role of eIF2-α in protein synthesis-related cell physiology.

  3. Fusel Alcohols Regulate Translation Initiation by Inhibiting eIF2B to Reduce Ternary Complex in a Mechanism That May Involve Altering the Integrity and Dynamics of the eIF2B Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eleanor J.; Campbell, Susan G.; Griffiths, Christian D.; Reid, Peter J.; Slaven, John W.; Harrison, Richard J.; Sims, Paul F.G.; Pavitt, Graham D.; Delneri, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of eIF2-GDP to the GTP-bound form constitutes a core essential, regulated step in eukaryotic translation. This reaction is mediated by eIF2B, a heteropentameric factor with important links to human disease. eIF2 in the GTP-bound form binds to methionyl initiator tRNA to form a ternary complex, and the levels of this ternary complex can be a critical determinant of the rate of protein synthesis. Here we show that eIF2B serves as the target for translation inhibition by various fusel alcohols in yeast. Fusel alcohols are endpoint metabolites from amino acid catabolism, which signal nitrogen scarcity. We show that the inhibition of eIF2B leads to reduced ternary complex levels and that different eIF2B subunit mutants alter fusel alcohol sensitivity. A DNA tiling array strategy was developed that overcame difficulties in the identification of these mutants where the phenotypic distinctions were too subtle for classical complementation cloning. Fusel alcohols also lead to eIF2α dephosphorylation in a Sit4p-dependent manner. In yeast, eIF2B occupies a large cytoplasmic body where guanine nucleotide exchange on eIF2 can occur and be regulated. Fusel alcohols impact on both the movement and dynamics of this 2B body. Overall, these results confirm that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, is targeted by fusel alcohols. Moreover, they highlight a potential connection between the movement or integrity of the 2B body and eIF2B regulation. PMID:20444979

  4. Regulation of p53 by reversible post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms in liver and skeletal muscle of an anoxia tolerant turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-01-15

    The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) exhibits well-developed natural anoxia tolerance that depends on multiple biochemical adaptations, including anoxia-induced hypometabolism. We hypothesized that signaling by the p53 protein could aid in establishing the hypometabolic state by arresting the cell cycle, protecting against DNA damage as well as altering pathways of energy metabolism. Immunoblotting was used to evaluate the regulation and post-transcriptional modifications of p53 in liver and skeletal muscle of red-eared slider turtles subjected to 5h or 20h of anoxic submergence. Tissue specific regulation of p53 was observed with the liver showing a more rapid activation of p53 in response to anoxia as well as differential expression of seven serine phosphorylation and two lysine acetylation sites when compared with skeletal muscle. Protein expression of MDM2, a major p53 inhibitor, was also examined but did not change during anoxia. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to assess transcript levels of selected p53 target genes (14-3-3σ, Gadd45α and Pgm) and one microRNA (miR-34a); results showed down-regulation of Pgm and up-regulation of the other three. These findings show an activation of p53 in response to anoxia exposure and suggest an important role for the p53 stress response pathway in regulating natural anoxia tolerance and hypometabolism in a vertebrate facultative anaerobe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation and Observation of Autogenous Healing Ability of Bond Cracks along Rebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choonghyun Kang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro cracks occurring in concrete around tensile rebar is well known latent damage phenomenon. These micro cracks develop, and can be detected after reaching the surface of the concrete. Detection of these cracks before they are fully formed is preferable, but observing the whole crack structure is difficult. Another problem is repairing micro cracks under the concrete surface. The autogenous ability of bond cracks along rebar was evaluated using the air permeability test. Air permeability coefficients were measured before and after tensile loading, and experimental air permeability coefficients became larger near cracks along rebar as a result of tensile loading. Recuring for 28 days after tensile loading made the air permeability coefficients smaller, but this restriction only occurred during water recuring. Observation of crack patterns helped the understanding of change in the air permeability coefficients. Several small cracks along rebar were observed after tensile loading, and most cracks along rebar were not found after water recuring. On the other hand, the crack pattern did not change after air recuring. These results indicate that bond cracks along rebar can be closed by autogenous healing, and cause the air permeability coefficients.

  6. [Autogenic training (AT)--respiratory feedback (RFB); similarities and limits in general practice oriented differential indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barolin, G S

    1988-04-15

    Autogenic Training (AT) is not merely a "relaxation exercise". We quote five dimensions of AT that should by clearly differentiated: 1) concentration, 2) relaxation, 3) vegetative switch toward the hypnoid state, 4) dynamising reprise exercise. 5) holistic inclusion in a complex psychotherapeutical concept. We consider the self induced hypnoid state plus dynamising reprise exercise as the main components for the beneficial effect of AT. The hynoid state has its neurophysiological definition as a third human state of consciousness. The reprise exercise is more than making it abolish, but has its own therapeutical values: dynamisation. Respiratory feedback (RBF - a special kind of biofeedback) has the factors relaxation and vegetative switch towards hypnoid in common with autogenic training. Where these components are specially requested, RFB proves valuable in therapy. In other indications however AT is of much better use. Namely: where the educational value of mutation, self-concentration and the therapeutic context is of predominant importance. AT as well as RFB may be considered "misused" in having them replace the therapeutical and understanding conversation between doctor and patients, in a mechanistic way. As a slogan it may be said: AT goes deeper, RFB goes quicker.

  7. Early prophylactic autogenous bone grafting in type III open tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Subaşi, Mehmet; Arslan, Huseyin; Necmioğlu, Serdar; Kayikçi, Cuma

    2004-08-01

    The authors report the results achieved in patients with type III open tibial fractures who underwent primary autogenous bone grafting at the time of debridement and skeletal stabilisation. Twenty patients with a mean age of 35.8 years (range, 24-55) were treated between 1996 and 1999. Eight fractures were type IIIA, 11 were type IIIB, and 1 was type IIIC. At the index procedure, wound debridement, external fixation and autogenous bone grafting with bone coverage were achieved. The mean follow-up period was 46 months (range, 34-55). The mean time to fixator removal was 21 weeks (range, 14-35), and the mean time to union was 28 weeks (range, 19-45). Skin coverage was achieved by a myocutaneous flap in 2 patients, late primary closure in 4, and split skin grafting in 14. One (5%) of the patients experienced delayed union, and 1 (5%) developed infection. In tibial type III open fractures, skin coverage may be delayed, using the surrounding soft tissue to cover any exposed bone after thorough débridement and wound cleansing. Primary prophylactic bone grafting performed at the same time reduces the rate of delayed union, shortens the time to union, and does not increase the infection rate.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical performance of autogenously fibre laser beam welded Ti-6242 butt joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashaev, Nikolai, E-mail: nikolai.kashaev@hzg.de; Pugachev, Dmitry; Ventzke, Volker; Fomin, Fedor; Burkhardt, Irmela; Enz, Josephin; Riekehr, Stefan

    2017-05-10

    This work deals with the effects of laser beam power, focus position and advance speed on the geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties such as the tensile strength and microhardness of autogenously fibre laser beam welded Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (denoted as Ti-6242) butt joints used for high temperature applications. The Ti-6242 sheet employed here is characterized by a globular (α+β) microstructure. Laser beam welded butt joints consisted of a martensitic fusion zone, inhomogeneous heat affected zones and equiaxed base materials. The microhardness increased from 330 HV 0.3 in base material to 430 HV 0.3 in fusion zone due to the martensitic transformation. Butt joints showed the base material level of strength in tensile test. The local increase in microhardness provided a shielding effect that protected the Ti-6242 butt joint against mechanical damage during the static tensile load test. The predicted critical total underfill depth that does not reduce the tensile strength of the weld was determined to be 25% of the specimen thickness. - Highlights: • Autogenous fibre LBW of Ti-6242 was successfully achieved. • Butt joints showed low levels of porosity and an appropriate seam geometry. • Base material level of strength achieved for tensile strength. • Predicted critical underfill depth is 25% of the specimen thickness.

  9. Comparison of the effect of three autogenous bone harvesting methods on cell viability in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Haghgoo, Janet; Arabi, Seyed Reza; Hosseinipanah, Seyyed Mohammad; Solgi, Ghasem; Rastegarfard, Neda; Farhadian, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study was designed to compare the viability of autogenous bone grafts, harvested using different methods, in order to determine the best harvesting technique with respect to more viable cells. Methods. In this animal experimental study, three harvesting methods, including manual instrument (chisel), rotary device and piezosurgery, were used for harvesting bone grafts from the lateral body of the mandible on the left and right sides of 10 rabbits. In each group, 20 bone samples were collected and their viability was assessed using MTS kit. Statistical analyses, including ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests, were used for evaluating significant differences between the groups. Results. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between all the groups (P=0.000). Data analysis using post hoc Tukey tests indicated that manual instrument and piezosurgery had no significant differences with regard to cell viability (P=0.749) and the cell viability in both groups was higher than that with the use of a rotary instrument (P=0.000). Conclusion. Autogenous bone grafts harvested with a manual instrument and piezosurgery had more viable cells in comparison to the bone chips harvested with a rotary device. PMID:28748046

  10. Biofeedback, autogenic training, and progressive relaxation in the treatment of Raynaud's disease: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, F J; Surwit, R S; Pilon, R N

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-one female patients suffering from diagnosed idiopathic Raynaud's Disease were trained to raise digital skin temperature using either autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, or a combination of autogenic training and skin temperature feedback. Patients were instructed in the treatment procedures in three one-hour group sessions spaced one week apart. All patients were instructed to practice what they had learned twice a day at home. Patients kept records of the frequency of vasospastic attacks occurring over a four-week baseline period, and during the first four weeks and the ninth week of training. In addition, patients underwent four laboratory cold stress tests during which they were instructed to maintain digital temperature as the ambient temperature was slowly dropped from 26 degrees to 17 degrees C. Cold stress tests were given during week 1 of baseline and during weeks 1, 3, and 5 of training. No significant differences between the three behavioral treatment procedures were obtained. In addition, the ability of patients to maintain digital temperature during the cold stress challenge showed significant improvement from the first to the last tests. Symptomatic improvement was maintained by all patients nine weeks after the start of training. The implications of these findings for the behavioral treatment of Raynaud's Disease are discussed. PMID:6988380

  11. Effectiveness of autogenic relaxation training on children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Schmid, Katharina

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of autogenic relaxation training in a mildly disturbed outpatient population of children and adolescents with mostly internalizing symptoms, and/or some aggressive, impulsive, or attention deficit symptoms. Fifty children and adolescents from southern Germany (mean age 10.2 years; range 6-15 years; mostly intact middle class family background) participated in a group intervention program. Fifteen patients were randomly assigned to a waiting-list control group. Behavior symptoms (Child Behavior Checklist), psychosomatic complaints (Giessen Complaint List), and level of stress were assessed before and after the intervention or after the waiting phase. Individual goal attainment was evaluated at the end of the intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. The parent report on CBCL reflected reduced symptoms compared with control. The child report indicated reduced stress and psychosomatic complaints both in the intervention and control group, and no significant group x time interaction effects occurred on these scales. Effect sizes of 0.49 in the CBCL and 0.36 in the complaint list indicated clinically relevant effects of the intervention compared with the control group. At the end of the intervention, 56% of the children and 55% of the parents reported partial goal attainment, 38% of the children and 30% of the parents reported complete goal attainment; 71% of the parents confirmed partial goal attainment 3 months postintervention. Autogenic relaxation training is an effective broadband method for children and adolescents.

  12. Autogenous cultured growth plate chondrocyte transplantation in the treatment of physeal injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, R; Bohosiewicz, J; Gap, A; Bursig, H; Wysocka, A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study on New Zealand's white rabbits was to investigate the transplantation of autogenous growth plate cells in order to treat the injured growth plate. They were assessed in terms of measurements of radiological tibial varus and histological characteristics. An experimental model of plate growth medial partial resection of the tibia in 14 New Zealand white rabbits was created. During this surgical procedure the plate growth cells were collected and cultured. While the second surgery was being performed, the autologous cultured growth plate cells were grafted at the right tibia, whereas the left tibia was used as a control group. Histological examinations showed that the grafted right tibia presented the regular shape of the plate growth with hypertrophic maturation, chondrocyte columniation and endochondral calcification. Radiological study shows that the mean tibial deformity at the left angle was 20.29° (6.25 to 33) and 7.21° (5 to 10) in the right angle. This study has demonstrated that grafting of autogenous cultured growth plate cells into a defect of the medial aspect of the proximal tibial physis can prevent bone bridge formation, growth arrest and the development of varus deformity. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:310-16. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Evaluation of autogenous tooth transplantation for replacement of the missing or unrestorable mandibular molar tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahiduj Jaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the functional and occlusal stability of autogenous tooth transplantation. A total of 30 patients were included. Among them, 21 participants received transplanted first molar and the remaining 9 received transplanted second molar. In all the cases, donor tooth were third molar. In each participant, extraction of un-restorable first or second molar tooth was performed which was then replaced by atrumatic extracted third molar tooth. Each third molar tooth was placed in the recipient extracted socket, followed by the evaluation of the occlusion and then stabilized with arch bar and ligature wire. Clinical follow-up evaluation was performed at 15 days, 3 and 12 months in respect to occlusal stability, tooth mobility and periodontal status. It was found that 23 transplanted tooth were successful and the remaining 7 tooth need long-term observation for the final outcome, which was statistically significant. It can be concluded that the autogenous tooth transplantation can replace missing tooth to ensure the preservation of function, aesthetic and to prevent bone resorption of the missing area of the jaw, which can lead to exceptional esthetic and functional outcome.

  14. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  15. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  16. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  17. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  18. Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2001-01-01

    The influence of cement particle-size distribution on autogenous strains and stresses in cement pastes of identical water-to-cement ratios is examined for cement powders of four different finenesses. Experimental measurements include chemical shrinkage, to quantify degree of hydration; internal r...

  19. [Effect of autogenic training with cognitive and symbol therapy on the treatment of patients with primary headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsombók, Terézia; Juhász, Gabriella; Gonda, Xénia; Vitrai, József; Bagdy, György

    2005-01-01

    Only a minor part of headaches are associated with an organic abnormality in the nervous system. In case of migraine and tension headache, the main provoking factor is psychological stress. Furthermore, these syndromes often occur together with depression and anxiety disorders, and when these comorbid conditions are present headache attacks tend to be more frequent, longer and stronger, causing an increase in the consumption of antimigraine agents, and at the same time increase the consumption of antidepressant and anxiolytic agents. Further to drugs, modified versions of Schultz-type autogenic training is also frequently used for anxiolysis. The aim of our research was to study the effect of the cognitive and symbol therapy enhanced autogenic training on headache and related drug consumption in three different types of primary headaches. Twenty five female patients with migraine, tension-type headache or mixed headache participated in an eight-month follow-up study. Headache frequency, analgesic, antimigraine and anxiolytic consumption were measured by means of a headache diary. During the first four months (observation phase) patients became familiar with using the diary, and in the second four months they participated in autogenic training. The data of the second, third and fourth months were considered as baseline data. Our method decreased headache frequency and drug consumption in all three headache groups. This means that the cognitive and symbol therapy enhanced autogenic training is an effective alternative for medications in the treatment of primary headaches.

  20. A Single Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia; Meston, Cindy

    2017-10-03

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has recently been associated with female sexual function (Stanton, Lorenz, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). Below-average HRV was identified as a possible risk factor for sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Based on this newly established relationship between HRV and female sexual function, the present study examined the effect of autogenic training to increase HRV on acute physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. Specifically, vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), an index of genital sexual arousal, and subjective sexual arousal were assessed in 33 sexually functional women, aged 18 to 27, before and after a short session of autogenic training. Autogenic training, a relaxation technique that restores the balance between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, has been shown to significantly increase HRV (Miu, Heilman, & Miclea, 2009). After autogenic training, significant increases in both VPA (p <.05) and subjective sexual arousal (p <.005) were observed. Moreover, change in HRV from pre- to postmanipulation significantly moderated changes in subjective sexual arousal (p <.05) when it was measured continuously during the presentation of the erotic stimulus. This cost-effective, easy-to-administer behavioral intervention may have important implications for increasing sexual arousal in women.

  1. Effect of biofeedback-assisted autogenic training on headache activity and mood states in Korean female migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Park, Joo-Eon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2009-10-01

    Biofeedback with or without combined autogenic training is known to be effective for the treatment of migraine. This study aimed to examine the effect of biofeedback treatment on headache activity, anxiety, and depression in Korean female patients with migraine headache. Patients were randomized into the treatment group (n=17) and monitoring group (n=15). Mood states including anxiety and depression, and psychophysiological variables such as mean skin temperature of the patients were compared with those of the normal controls (n=21). We found greater treatment response rate (defined as > or =50% reduction in headache index) in patients with biofeedback-assisted autogenic training than in monitoring group. The scores on the anxiety and depression scales in the patients receiving biofeedback-assisted autogenic training decreased after the biofeedback treatment. Moreover, the decrease in their anxiety levels was significantly related to the treatment outcome. This result suggests that the biofeedback-assisted autogenic training is effective for the treatment of migraine and its therapeutic effect is closely related to the improvement of the anxiety level.

  2. The application of autogenic training in counseling center for mother and child in order to promote breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidas, Mercedes; Folnegović-Smalc, Vera; Catipović, Marija; Kisić, Marko

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether mothers with newborn children, the usage of autogenic training with advice on breastfeeding effect on: the decision and the duration of breastfeeding, increase maternal confidence and support. It was assumed that the above result in a higher percentage of mothers who exclusively breastfed baby during the first six months of child's life. The survey was conducted in the Association "For a healthy and happy childhood"-Counseling center for mother and child, in Bjelovar in 2010. The Counseling center was attended by 100 nursing mothers with children aged up to two months. They randomly went to the study or control group. Mothers of both groups were advised to successful breastfeeding. Study group has practiced autogenic training until the child's age of six months. In parallel, by using psychotherapeutic interview and specific questionnaires we collected data on the somatic, psychological and social situation of the mother, discovered mother's mental changes (anxiety, depression) that were treated. The results at the end of the study confirm the initial expected benefits from the application of autogenic training. Mothers of the study group were significantly more emotionally balanced with a higher self-esteem. Autogenous training with the advices for successful breastfeeding conducted in this counseling center contributed in significantly higher rate of breastfeeding children up to six months of life, improved mental and physical health of mother and child and their peculiar relationship.

  3. Morphological variation and habitat modification are strongly correlated for the autogenic ecosystem engineer Spartina anglica (common cordgrass)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulzen, J.B.; Van Soelen, J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    We explored to what extent morphological variation and habitat modification are correlated for an autogenic ecosystem engineer, which is an organism that modifies its habitat via its own physical structures. The intertidal salt marsh species Spartina anglica is well known for its capacity to enhance

  4. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  5. Biogenesis of mitochondria in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds subjected to temperature stress and recovery involves regulation of the complexome, respiratory chain activity, organellar translation and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michal; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the cauliflower curd mitochondrial proteome was investigated under cold, heat and the recovery. For the first time, two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was used to study the plant mitochondrial complexome in heat and heat recovery. Particularly, changes in the complex I and complex III subunits and import proteins, and the partial disintegration of matrix complexes were observed. The presence of unassembled subunits of ATP synthase was accompanied by impairment in mitochondrial translation of its subunit. In cold and heat, the transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were uncorrelated. The in-gel activities of respiratory complexes were particularly affected after stress recovery. Despite a general stability of respiratory chain complexes in heat, functional studies showed that their activity and the ATP synthesis yield were affected. Contrary to cold stress, heat stress resulted in a reduced efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation likely due to changes in alternative oxidase (AOX) activity. Stress and stress recovery differently modulated the protein level and activity of AOX. Heat stress induced an increase in AOX activity and protein level, and AOX1a and AOX1d transcript level, while heat recovery reversed the AOX protein and activity changes. Conversely, cold stress led to a decrease in AOX activity (and protein level), which was reversed after cold recovery. Thus, cauliflower AOX is only induced by heat stress. In heat, contrary to the AOX activity, the activity of rotenone-insensitive internal NADH dehydrogenase was diminished. The relevance of various steps of plant mitochondrial biogenesis to temperature stress response and recovery is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Why Translation Is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper develops a definition of translation literality that is based on the syntactic and semantic similarity of the source and the target texts. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that absolute literal translations are easy to produce. Based on a multilingual corpus of alternative...... translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  7. Post-Translational Regulation of Polycystin-2 Protein Expression as a Novel Mechanism of Cholangiocyte Reaction and Repair from Biliary Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirli, Carlo; Villani, Ambra; Mariotti, Valeria; Fabris, Luca; Fiorotto, Romina; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Polycystin-2 (PC2 /TRPP2), a member of the transient receptor potential channels (TRP) family, is a non-selective calcium channel. Mutations in PC2/TRPP2 are associated with Polycystic Liver Diseases. PC2-defective cholangiocytes shows increased production of cAMP, PKA-dependent activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, HIF1α-mediated VEGF production, and stimulation of cyst growth and progression. Activation of the ERK/HIF1α/VEGF pathway in cholangiocytes plays a key role during repair from biliary damage. We hypothesized that PC2 levels are modulated during biliary damage/repair, resulting in activation of the ERK/HIF1α/VEGF pathway. Results PC2 protein expression, but not its gene expression, was significantly reduced in mouse livers with biliary damage (Mdr2−/−-KO, bile duct ligation, DDC-treatment). Treatment of colangiocytes with pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) donors and ER stressors), increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, HIF1α transcriptional activity, secretion of VEGF, VEGFR2 phosphorylation and downregulated PC2 protein expression without affecting PC2 gene expression. Expression of Herp and NEK, ubiquitin-like proteins that promote proteosomal PC2 degradation was increased. Pre-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 restored the expression of PC2 in cells treated with cytokines but not in cells treated with NO donors or with ER stressors. In these conditions, PC2 degradation was instead inhibited by interfering with the autophagy pathway. Treatment of DDC-mice and of Mdr2−/−-mice with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, restored PC2 expression and significantly reduced the ductular reaction, fibrosis and p-ERK1/2. In conclusion, in response to biliary damage, PC2 expression is modulated post-translationally by the proteasome or the autophagy pathways. PC2-dowregulation is associated with activation of ERK1/2 and increase of HIF1α-mediated VEGF secretion. Treatments able to restore PC2 expression and to reduce ductular reaction

  8. Redox regulation of antioxidant enzymes: post-translational modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity by resveratrol in diabetic rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Gökhan; Bozan, Davut; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir

    2014-08-01

    Resveratrol is a strong antioxidant that exhibits blood glucose-lowering effects, which might contribute to its usefulness in preventing complications associated with diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate resveratrol effects on catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene and protein expression, their phosphorylation states and activities in rat liver of STZ-induced diabetes. Diabetes increased the levels of total protein phosphorylation and p-CAT, while mRNA expression, protein levels, and activity were reduced. Although diabetes induced transcriptional repression over GPx, it did not affect the protein levels and activity. When resveratrol was administered to diabetic rats, an increase in activity was associated with an increase in p-GPx levels. Decrease in Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) gene expression in diabetes were associated with a decrease in CAT and GPx mRNA expression. A possible compensatory mechanism for reduced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes is proved to be nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2 and NFκB in diabetes which is confirmed by the increase in nuclear and decrease in cytoplasmic protein levels of Nrf2 and NFκB. Taken together, these findings revealed that an increase in the oxidized state in diabetes intricately modified the cellular phosphorylation status and regulation of antioxidant enzymes. Gene regulation of antioxidant enzymes was accompanied by nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and NFκB. Resveratrol administration also activated a coordinated cytoprotective response against diabetes-induced changes in liver tissues.

  9. Retrograde tracing of fluorescent gold after autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, X; Liu, W; Ding, Ming

    2016-01-01

    , the transplantation group using autologous sural nerve graft to repair spinal cord injury period and non-transplantation group was only exposed incision without treatment. In the 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, the retrograde tracing of FG Fluoro-Gold was performed to discover the recovery of the axial plasma......Objective To investigate the changes of the fluorescent gold retrograde tracing autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups, with modified Allen impact method to establish model of spinal cord injury. After 4 weeks.......01). Conclusion After spinal cord injury, autologous nerve graft was repaired and survived well and promote the recovery of spinal cord injury segment shaft pulp transportation function....

  10. Effect of an autogenous free fat graft on hemilaminectomy defects in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, J.; Koga, M.; Kishimoto, M.; Lee, K.J.; Iwasaki, T.; Miyake, Y.; Yamada, K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an autogenous free fat graft (FFG) on hemilaminectomy defects. Hemilaminectomy was performed at three levels in three beagles, and each defect was designated as a control site or a site treated with one of two different sizes of FFG. Subsequently, longitudinal computed tomography scanning and histopathological examination were performed. As a result, no postoperative dural adhesion was recognized at the sites where FFGs were placed regardless of the size of the FFG. Moreover, there was no compression of the spinal cord by the FFG. Therefore, it appears that postoperative dural adhesion was controlled by the FFG and that the possibility of FFG migration into the spinal canal is low in hemilaminectomy. In conclusion, placement of an FFG over the defect was considered useful for preventing complications in hemilaminectomy

  11. Histological evaluation of healing after transalveolar maxillary sinus augmentation with bioglass and autogenous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Sima, Catalin; Sima, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    the transalveolar osteotomy by means of a trephine bur and non-decalcified sections through the long axis of the cylinder were produced. After a strict selection process, taking into account the presurgical residual bone height and biopsy length, 8 and 15 biopsies representing the new tissues formed inside......OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate histologically the outcome of a bioglass and autogenous bone (at 1 : 1 ratio) composite implantation for transalveolar sinus augmentation. METHODS: In 31 patients, during implant installation ca. 4 months after sinus augmentation, biopsies were harvested through...... the sinus and the transalveolar osteotomy, respectively, qualified for analysis. The tissue fractions occupied by newly formed bone (mineralized tissue+bone marrow), soft connective tissue, residual biomaterial+empty spaces, and debris inside the sinus cavity or the transalveolar osteotomy were estimated...

  12. Effect of Cement Type on Autogenous Deformation of Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietro, Lura; Ye, Guang; van Breugel, Klaas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, measurements of non-evaporable water content, chemical shrinkage, autogenous deformation, internal relative humidity (RH), pore solution composition, and early-age elastic modulus are presented and discussed. All experiments were performed on Portland cement and blast-furnace slag...... (BFS) cement pastes. Self-desiccation shrinkage of the BFS cement paste was modeled based on the RH measurements, following the capillary-tension approach. The main findings of this study are: 1) self-desiccation shrinkage can be related to self-desiccation both for Portland and for BFS cement pastes......, taking into account the influence of the dissolved salts in the pore solution, 2) the BFS cement paste studied shows pronounced self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage, mainly caused by its very fine pore structure....

  13. Autogenic feedback training experiment: A preventative method for space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.

  14. Effects of autogenic training and antihypertensive agents on circadian and circaseptan variation of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Cornélissen, Germaine; Watanabe, Misako; Watanabe, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Ohkawa, Shi-ichiro; Kikuchi, Takenori; Halberg, Franz

    2003-10-01

    Even when the daily blood pressure mean is acceptable, too large a circadian amplitude of blood pressure largely increases cardiovascular disease risk. Autogenic training (N = 11), a non-pharmacologic intervention capable of lowering an excessive blood pressure variability, may be well-suited for MESOR-normotensive patients diagnosed with circadian-hyper-amplitude-tension (CHAT). Not all anti-hypertensive drugs affect blood pressure variability. Accordingly, long-acting carteolol (N = 11) and/or atenolol (N = 8) may be preferred to captopril retard (N = 13), nilvadipine (N = 8), or amlodipine (N = 7) for midline-estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR)-hypertensive patients with CHAT. Prospective outcome studies are needed to assess whether the relative merits of these treatments are in keeping with their effects on blood pressure and blood pressure variability.

  15. [Self-relaxation techniques for glaucoma patients. Significance of autogenic training, hypnosis and music therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelmann, T; Strempel, I

    2016-02-01

    Glaucoma is currently the second most common cause of severe visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Standard pharmaceutical and surgical interventions often fail to prevent progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To evaluate whether adjuvantly applied self-relaxation techniques can significantly impact intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion and the overall mental state of affected patients. A search of the literature was carried out and a comprehensive overview of currently available data is presented. Autogenic training, hypnosis and music therapy can significantly impact intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion and overall mental state of patients suffering from glaucoma. As all of these adjuvant therapeutic options are cost-effective, available almost everywhere and at anytime as well as without any known side effects, they can be useful additional techniques in the overall concept for treating glaucoma patients. Regular ocular examinations by an ophthalmologist are, however, mandatory.

  16. Autogenic training reduces anxiety after coronary angioplasty: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, N; White, A R; Ernst, E

    2004-03-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a method of autosuggestion with some potential for reducing anxiety. This study tests whether AT lowers anxiety levels experienced by patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. Fifty-nine patients were randomly assigned to receive regular AT or no such therapy as an adjunct to standard care for 5 months. The primary outcome measure was State Anxiety at 2 months. Qualitative information was generated by face-to-face interviews. State Anxiety showed a significant intergroup difference both at 2 and 5 months. This finding was corroborated by secondary outcome measures, for example, quality of life, and by qualitative information about patients' experiences. The results do not allow us to determine whether the observed effects are specific to AT or of a nonspecific nature. Our results suggest that AT may have a role in reducing anxiety of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.

  17. Autogenic-feedback training: A preventive method for space adaptation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Sharp, Joseph C.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made to date on the reduction of data for Spacelab 3 Shuttle experiment, No. 3AFT23 is reported. Four astronauts participated as subjects in this experiment. Crewmen A and B served as treatment subjects (i.e., received preflight training for control of their own motion sickness symptoms) and Crewmen C and D served as control (i.e., did not receive training). A preliminary evaluation of Autogenic Feedback Training (AFT) was made from visual inspections of graphs that were generated from the preflight and inflight and inflight physiological data which included: (1) Baseline rotating chair tests for all crewmen; (2) Posttraining rotating chair tests of treatment groups subjects; (3) Preflight data from Joint Integrated Simulations for all crewmen; and (4) Flight data for all crewmen during mission days 0 through 4, and mission day 6 for treatment subjects only. A summary of the findings suggested by these data is outlined.

  18. Autogenic geomorphic processes determine the resolution and fidelity of terrestrial paleoclimate records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Brady Z; Straub, Kyle M

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial paleoclimate records rely on proxies hosted in alluvial strata whose beds are deposited by unsteady and nonlinear geomorphic processes. It is broadly assumed that this renders the resultant time series of terrestrial paleoclimatic variability noisy and incomplete. We evaluate this assumption using a model of oscillating climate and the precise topographic evolution of an experimental alluvial system. We find that geomorphic stochasticity can create aliasing in the time series and spurious climate signals, but these issues are eliminated when the period of climate oscillation is longer than a key time scale of internal dynamics in the geomorphic system. This emergent autogenic geomorphic behavior imparts regularity to deposition and represents a natural discretization interval of the continuous climate signal. We propose that this time scale in nature could be in excess of 10 4 years but would still allow assessments of the rates of climate change at resolutions finer than the existing age model techniques in isolation.

  19. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  20. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  1. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified......The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Autogenous Radiocephalic Fistulas with the 'Eighth Note' Deformity for Hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Meijui; Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu; Chi Wenche; Liu Yichun; Chien Kofen; Liang Hueilung; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a unique 'eighth note' deformity of the autogenous radiocephalic fistula for hemodialysis and to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of its endovascular treatment. Over 3 years, a total of 808 patients and 558 autogenous radiocephalic fistulas were treated for vascular access dysfunction or thrombosis. These included 14 fistulas in 14 patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age, 58.2 ± 2.8 years; range 27-79 years) whose fistulograms before treatment resembled a musical note, the eighth note. Endovascular treatment sought to remodel the deformed vascular access to a classic radiocephalic fistula and increase the number of cannulation sites available for hemodialysis. The technical and clinical success rates were each 92.8% (13/14). Fistula remodeling was successful in 13 patients. The postintervention primary patency was 100% at 90 days, 91.7 ± 0.8% at 120 days, 78.6 ± 13.9% at 180 days, 62.9 ± 17.9% at 360 days, 31.4 ± 24.0% at 540 days, and 0% at 720 days. The postintervention secondary patency was 100% at 90 days, 100% at 120 days, 100% at 180 days, 85.7 ± 13.2% at 360 days, and 85.7 ± 13.2% at 720 days. No major complications were noted. Minor complications were found in 71.4% of patients, all of which resolved spontaneously. In conclusion, endovascular treatment of fistulas with the eighth note deformity can effectively increase the number of available cannulation sites, facilitate fistula maturation, and facilitate thromboaspiration after fistula thrombosis.

  3. Unprotected autogenous bone block grafts in anterior maxilla: Resorption rates and clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosanić Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The use of autogenous bone grafts for augmentation of the resorbed alveolar ridge is still considered the gold standard in implant dentistry. The aim of this study was to analyze the resorption rate of autogenous bone block grafts from the retromolar region placed in the frontal segment of the upper jaw unprotected by barrier membranes, to assess the stability of implants placed into the grafted bone, as well as to monitor its changes during the healing period. Methods. The study included 18 patients with a total of 20 grafted sites. The residual alveolar ridge was measured before and after the augmentation and prior to implant placement. All implants were restored with provisional crowns within 48 hours after the placement. Implant stability was assessed using resonance frequency analysis. Results. The average period from ridge augmentation to reentry was 5.4 months (range 4–6 months. At reentry the healed alveolar ridge had a mean width of 6.1 ± 1.27 mm. The mean calculated width gain was 3.04 ± 1.22 mm. The overall surface resorption of block grafts was 0.68 ± 0.69 mm (18.85%. At the time of implant placement the mean value of implant stability quotient (ISQ was 71.25 ± 5.77. The lowest ISQ values were noted after three weeks of healing, followed by a gradual increase until week 12. After 12 weeks implants showed significantly higher ISQ values compared to primary stability (p < 0.05 Wilcoxon signed ranks test. During the 3-years followup period no cases of implant loss were recorded. Conclusion. Despite a significant resorption of bone grafts, it was possible to place implants in all the cases and to use the immediate loading protocol without affecting implant survival rate. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no.175021

  4. Memetics and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Chesterman

    2000-01-01

    Translation Studies is a branch of memetics. This is a claim, a hypothesis. More specifically, it is an interpretive hypothesis: I claim that Translation Studies can be thus interpreted, and that this is a useful thing to do because it offers a new and beneficial way of understanding translation.

  5. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    ), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  6. Translating Scientific Judgment, Technological Insight and Economic Theory Into Practical Policy Lessons: The Case of Climate Regulation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignone, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    Effective solutions to the climate change problem will require unprecedented cooperation across space, continuity across time and coordination between disciplines. One well-known methodology for synthesizing the lessons of physical science, energy engineering and economics is integrated assessment. Typically, integrated assessment models use scientific and technological relationships as physical constraints in a larger macroeconomic optimization that is designed to either balance the costs and benefits of climate change mitigation or find the least-cost path to an exogenously prescribed endpoint (e.g. atmospheric CO2 stabilization). The usefulness of these models depends to a large extent on the quality of the assumptions and the relevance of the outcome metrics chosen by the user. In this study, I show how a scientifically-based emissions reduction scenario can be combined with engineering-based assumptions about the energy system (e.g. estimates of the marginal cost premium of carbon-free technology) to yield insights about the price path of CO2 under a future regulatory regime. I then show how this outcome metric (carbon price) relates to key decisions about the design of a future cap-and-trade system and the way in which future carbon markets may be regulated.

  7. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  8. The Temple Translator's Workstation Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi

    1996-01-01

    .... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...

  9. Two genetic determinants acquired late in Mus evolution regulate the inclusion of exon 5, which alters mouse APOBEC3 translation efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like editing complex 3 (mA3, an intracellular antiviral factor, has 2 allelic variations that are linked with different susceptibilities to beta- and gammaretrovirus infections among various mouse strains. In virus-resistant C57BL/6 (B6 mice, mA3 transcripts are more abundant than those in susceptible BALB/c mice both in the spleen and bone marrow. These strains of mice also express mA3 transcripts with different splicing patterns: B6 mice preferentially express exon 5-deficient (Δ5 mA3 mRNA, while BALB/c mice produce exon 5-containing full-length mA3 mRNA as the major transcript. Although the protein product of the Δ5 mRNA exerts stronger antiretroviral activities than the full-length protein, how exon 5 affects mA3 antiviral activity, as well as the genetic mechanisms regulating exon 5 inclusion into the mA3 transcripts, remains largely uncharacterized. Here we show that mA3 exon 5 is indeed a functional element that influences protein synthesis at a post-transcriptional level. We further employed in vitro splicing assays using genomic DNA clones to identify two critical polymorphisms affecting the inclusion of exon 5 into mA3 transcripts: the number of TCCT repeats upstream of exon 5 and the single nucleotide polymorphism within exon 5 located 12 bases upstream of the exon 5/intron 5 boundary. Distribution of the above polymorphisms among different Mus species indicates that the inclusion of exon 5 into mA3 mRNA is a relatively recent event in the evolution of mice. The widespread geographic distribution of this exon 5-including genetic variant suggests that in some Mus populations the cost of maintaining an effective but mutagenic enzyme may outweigh its antiviral function.

  10. Adjuvant auricular electroacupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Auricular acupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernateck, Michael; Becker, Mareike; Schwake, Christine; Hoy, Ludwig; Passie, Torsten; Parlesak, Alexandr; Fischer, Michael J; Fink, Matthias; Karst, Matthias

    2008-08-01

    In contrast to psychological interventions the usefulness of acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not yet been demonstrated. The efficacy of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) was directly compared with autogenic training (AT). Patients with RA (n = 44) were randomized into EA or AT groups. EA and lessons in AT were performed once weekly for 6 weeks. Primary outcome measures were the mean weekly pain intensity and the disease activity score 28 (DAS 28); secondary outcome measures were the use of pain medication, the pain disability index (PDI), the clinical global impression (CGI) and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, which were assessed during the study period and 3 months after the end of treatment. At the end of the treatment and at 3-month follow-up a clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05) could be observed in all outcome parameters and both groups. In contrast to the AT group, the onset of these effects in the EA group could already be observed after the 2nd treatment week. In the 4th treatment week the EA group reported significantly less pain than the AT group (p = 0.040). After the end of treatment (7th week) the EA group assessed their outcome as significantly more improved than the AT group (p = 0.035). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the EA group was significantly reduced (p = 0.010), and the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly increased compared to the AT group (p = 0.020). The adjuvant use of both EA and AT in the treatment of RA resulted in significant short- and long-term treatment effects. The treatment effects of auricular EA were more pronounced. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  12. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  13. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  14. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  15. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  16. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Martha Pulido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  17. Computed tomography evaluation of autogenous graft in sinus lift surgery; Analise por tomografia computadorizada do enxerto autogeno na cirurgia de 'sinus lift'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Moscatiello, Rafael Andrade; Lima, Aida Maria Custodio de; Moscatiello, Vitoria Aparecida Muglia; Helio Kiitiro Yamashita [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Mosacatiello, Rafael Muglia; Nishiguchi, Celso Itiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Tecnica Operatoria e Cirurgia Experimental; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Anatomia Patologica

    2001-02-01

    The objective was to quantify bone formation within autogenous bone grafts and autogenous bone grafts in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained either from apheresis or centrifugation using computed tomography. This prospective, double-blind study was conducted in 34 male and female adult patients (mean age of 28 years and 8 months), with either unilateral or bilateral pneumatization of the maxillary sinuses, requiring bone graft for dental implant. All patients were submitted to computed tomography examinations prior and six months after sinus lift surgery. Fifty-three maxillary sinuses were operated and divided into three distinct groups: autogenous bone graft, autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by centrifugation, and autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by apheresis. The results showed that computed tomography demonstrated bone growth in height and width between the initial and the follow-up computed tomography scans in all three groups. However, no statistical difference was found either for bone height or width. It was concluded that clinical evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of autogenous bone grafts, particularly when used in combination with bone growth factors such as platelet-rich plasma, which allow prosthetic and functional restoration of maxillofacial structures through fixation of dental implants. (author)

  18. [Substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide in patients with progressive scleroderma. Determination of plasma level before and after autogenic training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, U F; Weber, B; Seikowski, K

    1995-02-01

    In 12 patients suffering from systemic sclerosis (SSc) the influence of autogenic training on the plasma level of the neuropeptides substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied. Compared with healthy controls the SSc patients exhibited significantly elevated levels of substance P (mean +/- SD: 7.1 +/- 3.2 pmol/l vs 1.6 +/- 1.6 pmol/l). Apart from variations the VIP plasma concentration did not significantly differ from that in healthy controls (mean +/- SD 10.7 +/- 7.1 pmol/l versus 12.0 +/- 5.3 pmol/l). Autogenic training did not bring about any significant changes in the plasma levels of neuropeptides.

  19. The effect of butyric acid with autogenous omental graft on healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, S; Moslemi, H R; Dehghan, M M; Sedaghat, R; Mazaheri Nezhad, R; Rezaee Moghaddam, D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the role of local injection of butyric acid (BA) with autogenous omental graft was evaluated in healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits. Nine adult male New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and a partial thickness tenotomy was created on both hindlimbs. In treated group, omental graft was secured in place using BA soaked polygalactin 910 suture. In control group, the graft was sutured without BA. Butyric acid and normal saline were injected daily to treatment and control groups for three days, respectively. Based on the findings, on day 15 after injury, the tendon sections showed that healing rate in BA treated group was higher than that in control group. Furthermore, at days 28 and 45, comparison between BA treated and control groups demonstrated that BA increased the healing rate but with no significance. In summary, results of this study show that application of BA with autogenous omental graft can improve healing process of damaged Achilles tendon.

  20. Hard and Soft Tissue Management of a Localized Alveolar Ridge Atrophy with Autogenous Sources and Biomaterials: A Challenging Clinical Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Maiorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particularly in the premaxillary area, the stability of hard and soft tissues plays a pivotal role in the success of the rehabilitation from both a functional and aesthetic aspect. The present case report describes the clinical management of a localized alveolar ridge atrophy in the area of the upper right canine associated with a thin gingival biotype with a lack of keratinized tissue. An autogenous bone block harvested from the chin associated with heterologous bone particles was used to replace the missing bone, allowing for a prosthetic driven implant placement. Soft tissues deficiency was corrected by means of a combined epithelialized and subepithelial connective tissue graft. The 3-year clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated symmetric gingival levels of the upper canines, with physiological peri-implant probing depths and bone loss. Thus, the use of autogenous tissues combined with biomaterials might be considered a reliable technique in case of highly aesthetic demanding cases.

  1. Discourse Analysis in Translator Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gülfidan Ayvaz

    2015-01-01

    Translator training enables students to gain experience in both linguistic parameters and translation practice. Discourse Analysis is one of the strategies that lead to a better translation process and quality in translation. In that regard, this study aims to present DA as a translation strategy for translation practice and a useful tool for translator training. The relationship between DA and Translator Training is not widely studied. Therefore this study aims to define DA and how it can be...

  2. Comparative studies on the biology and filarial susceptibility of selected blood-feeding and autogenous Aedes togoi sub-colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluck Junkum

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding and autogenous sub-colonies were selected from a laboratory, stock colony of Aedes togoi, which was originally collected from Koh Nom Sao, Chanthaburi province, Southeast Thailand. Comparative biology and filarial susceptibility between the two sub-colonies (blood-feeding: F11, F13; autogeny: F38, F40 were investigated to evaluate their viability and vectorial capacity. The results of comparison on biology revealed intraspecific differences, i.e., the average egg deposition/gravid female (F11/F38; F13/F40, embryonation rate (F13/F40, hatchability rate (F11/F38; F13/F40, egg width (F11/F38, wing length of females (F13/F40, and wing length and width of males (F11/F38 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly greater than that in the autogenous sub-colony; and egg length (F11/F38 and width (F13/F40, and mean longevity of adult females (F11/F38 and males (F13/F40 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly less than that in the autogenous sub-colony. The results of comparison on filarial susceptibility demonstrated that both sub-colonies yielded similar susceptibilities to Brugia malayi [blood-feeding/autogeny = 56.7% (F11/53.3%(F38, 60%(F13/83.3%(F40] and Dirofilaria immitis [blood-feeding/autogeny = 85.7%(F11/75%(F38, 45%(F13/29.4%(F40], suggesting autogenous Ae. togoi sub-colony was an efficient laboratory vector in study of filariasis.

  3. Hard and Soft Tissue Management of a Localized Alveolar Ridge Atrophy with Autogenous Sources and Biomaterials: A Challenging Clinical Case

    OpenAIRE

    C. Maiorana; D. Andreoni; P. P. Poli

    2016-01-01

    Particularly in the premaxillary area, the stability of hard and soft tissues plays a pivotal role in the success of the rehabilitation from both a functional and aesthetic aspect. The present case report describes the clinical management of a localized alveolar ridge atrophy in the area of the upper right canine associated with a thin gingival biotype with a lack of keratinized tissue. An autogenous bone block harvested from the chin associated with heterologous bone particles was used to re...

  4. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Mitigates the Effects of Spatial Disorientation to Simulated Orion Spacecraft Re-Entry: Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Reschke, Millard F.; Gebreyesus, Fiyori; Rocha, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    NASA has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation to future astronauts during re-entry of the proposed Orion spacecraft. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 6-hour physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these effects. Twenty subjects were assigned to two groups (AFTE and Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender. All subjects received a standard rotating chair test to determine motion sickness susceptibility; three training sessions on a manual performance task; and four exposures to a simulated Orion re-entry test in the rotating chair. Treatment subjects were given two hours of AFTE training before each Orion test. A diagnostic scale was used to evaluate motion sickness symptom severity. Results showed that 2 hours of AFTE significantly reduced motion sickness symptoms during the second Orion test. AFTE subjects were able to maintain lower heart rates and skin conductance levels and other responses than the control group subjects during subsequent tests. Trends show that performance was less degraded for AFTE subjects. The results of this study indicate that astronauts could benefit from receiving at least 2 hours of preflight AFTE. In addition, flight crews could benefit further by practicing physiologic self-regulation using mobile devices.

  5. [Fusion of reconstructed titanic plate, vertebral pedical screws and autogenous granulated cancellous bone graft in posterior occipitocervical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dejun; Song, Yueming

    2006-08-01

    To explore the technique of fusing the reconstructed titanic plate, the C2 pedical screws, and the autogenous granulated cancellous bone graft in the occipitocervical region. From April 2002 to January 2005, 19 patients aged 31-67 years with occipitocervical instability underwent the occipitocervical fusion using the reconstructed plate, C2 pedical screws, and autogenous granulated cancellous bone graft. Of the patients, 8 had complex occipitocervical deformity, 8 had old atlantoaxial fracture and dislocation, 2 had rheumatoid arthritis and anterior dislocation of the atlantoaxial joint, and 1 had cancer of the deltoid process of the axis. No complication occurred during and after operation. The follow-up for an average of 16 months in 19 patients showed that all the patients achieved solid bony fusion in the occipitocervical region. There was no broken plate, broken screw, looseness of the internal fixation or neurovascular injury. The fixation of the C2 pedical screws with the reconstructed titanic plate is reliable, the insertion is easy, and the autogenous granulated cancellous bone graft has a high fusion rate, thus resulting in a satisfactory effect in the occipitocervical fusion.

  6. Microstructure Characterization and Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Autogenous and Hybrid Friction Stir Welded Al-Cu-Li 2195 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixian; Arbegast, William J.; Meletis, Efstathios I.

    1997-01-01

    Friction stir welding process is being evaluated for application on the Al-Cu-Li 2195 Super-Light Weight External Tank of the Space Transportation System. In the present investigation Al-Cu-Li 2195 plates were joined by autogenous friction stir welding (FSW) and hybrid FSW (friction stir welding over existing variable polarity plasma arc weld). Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to characterize microstructures of the weldments processed by both welding methods. TEM observations of autogenous FSW coupons in the center section of the dynamically-recrystallized zone showed an equiaxed recrystallized microstructure with an average grain size of approx. 3.8 microns. No T(sub 1), precipitates were present in the above-mentioned zone. Instead, T(sub B) and alpha precipitates were found in this zone with a lower population. Alternate immersion, anodic polarization, constant load, and slow strain tests were carried out to evaluate the general corrosion and stress-corrosion properties of autogenous and hybrid FSW prepared coupons. The experimental results will be discussed.

  7. Autogenic Versus Allogenic Controls on the Evolution of a Coupled Fluvial Megafan-Mountainous Catchment System: Insight from Numerical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchene, M.; van der Beek, P.; Carretier, S.; Mouthereau, F.

    2017-12-01

    Alluvial megafans are sensitive recorders of landscape evolution, controlled by both autogenic processes and allogenic forcing, and they are influenced by the coupled dynamics of the fan with its mountainous catchment. The Mio-Pliocene Lannemezan megafan in the northern Pyrenean foreland (SW France) was abandoned by its mountainous feeder stream during the Quaternary and subsequently incised. The flight of alluvial terraces abandoned along the stream network may suggest a climatic control on the incision. We use a landscape evolution numerical model (CIDRE) to explore the relative roles of autogenic processes and external forcing in the building, abandonment and incision of a foreland megafan, and we compare the results with the inferred evolution of the Lannemezan megafan. Autogenic processes are sufficient to explain the building of a megafan and the long-term entrenchment of its feeding river on time and space scales that match the Lannemezan setting. Climate, through temporal variations in precipitation rate, may have played a role in the episodic pattern of incision on a shorter timescale. In contrast, base-level changes, tectonic activity in the mountain range or tilting of the foreland through flexural isostatic rebound do not appear to have played a role in the abandonment of the megafan.

  8. Autogenous bone particle/titanium fiber composites for bone regeneration in a rabbit radius critical-size defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huanxin; Ji, Ye; Tian, Qi; Wang, Xintao; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Yicai; Xu, Jun; Wang, Nanxiang; Yan, Jinglong

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effects of autogenous bone particle/titanium fiber composites on repairing segmental bone defects in rabbits. A model of bilateral radial bone defect was established in 36 New Zealand white rabbits which were randomly divided into 3 groups according to filling materials used for bilaterally defect treatment: in group C, 9 animal bone defect areas were prepared into simple bilateral radius bone defect (empty sham) as the control group; 27 rabbits were used in groups ABP and ABP-Ti. In group ABP, left defects were simply implanted with autogenous bone particles; meanwhile, group ABP-Ti animals had right defects implanted with autogenous bone particle/titanium fiber composites. Animals were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively, after operation. Micro-CT showed that group C could not complete bone regeneration. Bone volume to tissue volume values in group ABP-Ti were better than group ABP. From histology and histomorphometry Groups ABP and ABP-Ti achieved bone repair, the bone formation of group ABP-Ti was better. The mechanical strength of group ABP-Ti was superior to that of other groups. These results confirmed the effectiveness of autologous bone particle/titanium fiber composites for promoting bone regeneration and mechanical strength.

  9. Effect of autogenic training on cardiac autonomic nervous activity in high-risk fire service workers for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Satoko; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Satoko; Shirakawa, Taro

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effect of autogenic training (AT) on cardiac autonomic nervous activity in fire services workers with the use of the questionnaire of the Japanese-language version of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-J) and indexes of heart rate variability. We studied 22 male fire services workers who were divided into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related stress group (n=10) and control group (n=12). They underwent AT twice or three times a week for 2 months. Posttraumatic stress disorder-related stress group showed a significantly higher cardiac sympathetic nervous activity and a significantly lower cardiac parasympathetic nervous activity than control group at baseline. Autogenic training significantly decreased cardiac sympathetic nervous activity and significantly increased cardiac parasympathetic nervous activity in both groups. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the total points of IES-R-J. Autogenic training is effective for ameliorating the disturbance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and psychological issues secondary to PTSD.

  10. Reduced heart rate variability and vagal tone in anxiety: trait versus state, and the effects of autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C; Heilman, Renata M; Miclea, Mircea

    2009-01-28

    This study investigated heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy volunteers that were selected for extreme scores of trait anxiety (TA), during two opposite psychophysiological conditions of mental stress, and relaxation induced by autogenic training. R-R intervals, HF and LF powers, and LF/HF ratios were derived from short-term electrocardiographic recordings made during mental stress and relaxation by autogenic training, with respiratory rate and skin conductance being controlled for in all the analyses. The main finding was that high TA was associated with reduced R-R intervals and HF power across conditions. In comparison to mental stress, autogenic training increased HRV and facilitated the vagal control of the heart. There were no significant effects of TA or the psychophysiological conditions on LF power, or LF/HF ratio. These results support the view that TA, which is an important risk factor for anxiety disorders and predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, is associated with autonomic dysfunction that seems likely to play a pathogenetic role in the long term.

  11. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  12. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Effects of Autogenous Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate on Radiographic Integration of Femoral Condylar Osteochondral Allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, Lasun O; Stannard, James P; Cook, Cristi R; Kfuri, Mauricio; Crist, Brett D; Smith, Matthew J; Cook, James L

    2017-10-01

    Transplantation of fresh osteochondral allografts (OCAs) is an attractive treatment option for symptomatic articular cartilage lesions in young, healthy patients. Because the lack of OCA bone integration can be a cause of treatment failure, methods for speeding and enhancing OCA bone integration to mitigate this potential complication are highly desirable. To determine if autogenous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMC) treatment of large femoral condylar OCAs would be associated with superior radiographic OCA bone integration compared with nontreated allografts during the critical first 6 months after surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A review of patients enrolled in a prospective registry who were treated with transplantation of large OCAs to one or both femoral condyles at our institution from March 12, 2013 to March 14, 2016 was performed. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on BMC treatment versus no BMC treatment; the treatment was nonrandomized and was rooted in a shift in practice and a continuing effort to optimize OCA transplantation at our institution. Patients were excluded if they did not have orthogonal view radiographs performed at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Each condyle undergoing OCA transplantation was assessed individually by an independent musculoskeletal radiologist, who was blinded to the treatment group and time point. OCAs were assessed with respect to graft integration (0%-100%; 0 = no integration, 100 = complete integration) and degree of sclerosis (0-3; 0 = normal, 1 = mild sclerosis, 2 = moderate sclerosis, and 3 = severe sclerosis) of the graft at each time point. This study identified 17 condyles in 15 patients who underwent OCA transplantation without BMC and 29 condyles in 22 patients who underwent OCA transplantation with BMC. The BMC group had significantly ( P = .033) higher graft integration scores at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Graft sclerosis was significantly ( P

  14. Autogenous healing and reinforcement corrosion of water-penetrated separation cracks in reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, W.; Biscoping, M.

    1998-01-01

    Depending on the crack width, the thickness of the structure, the water pressure, and the degree of acid of the water, long-term investigations have been performed over a period of 2 years with respect to the autogenous healing and reinforcement corrosion of water-penetrated separation cracks in reinforced concrete by the University of Kaiserslautern, supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). For the waters penetrating the cracks deionised water (neutral, pH=7.0), and boric acid treated deionised water with a pH-value of 6.1 and 5.2 (weakly acid waters) were used. A complete autogenous healing could not be observed. The water penetrating the cracks could hardly be measured with a pH-value of 7.0 at the end of the test. While naturally at the beginning of the test, no influence of the water-chemical degree of the acids could be determined, the existing flow-through quantities towards the end of the test period depended clearly on the crack width and the pH-value. With an increasing crack width and an increasing acid-degree larger flow-through quantities were measured. Depending on the pH-value and the crack width it was determined whether and to which extent corrosion developed at the reinforcing steel bars crossing the cracks. With a crack width of 0.1 mm, corrosion was not to be observed in any case. For the test specimens with a crack width of 0.2 mm a start of the corrosion was found depending on the pH-value. With an increasing width of the crack, an increasing corrosion development is to be expected for test specimens penetrated by acid water. For a crack width of 0.4 mm and a pH-value of 5.2, the highest corrosion development was to be observed, however, there were weakenings of the cross section not worth being mentioned even after a 2-year test period. (orig.)

  15. Translation and Intertextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intends to describe and Presents a new theory of translation based on the "Intertextuality" unlike the Translation theories that presented to date, what all are based on the principle of "Equivalence". Our theory is based on the examples of Arabic poetry translated into Persian poetry. The major findings of this study show that the Intertextuality can serve as a link between the original text and the target. it can also interact with other texts is the translation result in the target language, Whtich is the book of poetic eloquence is addressed and was mentioned Literary robbery.

  16. Effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty on the stenosis of autogenous radiocephalic ateriovenous fistula for hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Min; Kim, Jeong Ho; Byun, Sung Su; Kang, Jin MMo; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seonam University College of Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on stenosis of autogenous radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCF) for hemodialysis and to determine the factors influencing patency. This retrospective study included 136 patients referred for PTA of RCF stenosis between March 2005 and July 2014. The technical success rate, complications, and patency rate were evaluated. The following factors were analyzed as they might influence patency: age, gender, site and duration of arteriovenous fistula, underlying disease, body mass index, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, peripheral artery or coronary artery occlusive disease, stenosis length/grade, cutting balloon, and balloon size. The initial technical success rate was 91.9% (125/136). Complications included vessel rupture (n = 2) and vessel dissection (n = 2). The patency rates at 6, 12, 24, and 48 months after PTA were 81.9, 67.1, 52.7, and 42.3%, respectively. The patency rate was higher in cases with longer (> 3 cm) stenosis (p = 0.04). Use of cutting balloon and larger size of balloon catheter made the patency longer, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.637, 0.258). PTA is a safe and effective way to manage stenosis in RCF. The length of stenosis was the only factor which affected the patency rate in this study.

  17. Influence of bouncing and assisted autogenic drainage on acid gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ginderdeuren, Filip; Vandenplas, Yvan; Deneyer, Michel; Vanlaethem, Sylvie; Buyl, Ronald; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2017-08-01

    To determine the influence of modern airway clearance techniques using assisted autogenic drainage (AAD), whether or not combined with bouncing, on acid gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in infants reflux episodes (RE) and the refluxindex (RI) were the outcome measures. The results obtained during (T15) and 15 min after the intervention (T30) were compared to a period of 15 min before treatment (T0). The results of 150 infants, evenly distributed over the three treatment groups, were analyzed. No significant differences were found in number of RE at T15 and T30 compared to T0 in the bouncing group (P = 0.42), the AAD group (P = 0.14), and the BAAD group (P = 0.91). RI was significantly lower in the AAD group at T15 compared to T0 (P < 0.01). No differences in RI were found in the bouncing group (P = 0.28), nor in the BAAD group (P = 0.81). Bouncing, AAD and BAAD do not induce, nor aggravate acid GOR in infants under the age of 1 year. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A new autogenous mobile system driven by vibration without impacts, excited by an impulse periodic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong The-Hung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a new proposed design for autogenous mobile systems which can move without any external mechanisms such as legs or wheels. A Duffing oscillator with a cubic spring, which is excited by an impulse periodic force, is utilized to drive the whole system. The rectilinear motion of the system is performed employing the periodically oscillation of the internal mass interacting without collisions with the main body. Utilizing the nonlinear restoring force of the cubic spring, the system can move in desired directions. When the ratio between the excitation force and the friction force is smaller than 2.5, backward or forward motion can be easily achieved by applying an excitation force in the same desired direction. Different from other vibro-impact drifting devices, no impact needed to drive the new proposed system. This novel structure allows to miniaturize the device as well as to simplify the control algorithm thus can significantly expand applicability of the proposed system.

  19. Cephalic Arch Stenosis in Autogenous Haemodialysis Fistulas: Treatment With the Viabahn Stent-Graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawyer, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.shawyer@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Fotiadis, Nicos I., E-mail: fotiadis.nicholas@gmail.com [Royal Marsden Hospital, Radiology Department, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Namagondlu, Girish, E-mail: girish.namagondlu@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Renal Medicine Department (United Kingdom); Iyer, Arun, E-mail: arun.iyer@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Blunden, Mark, E-mail: mark.blunden@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Raftery, Martin, E-mail: martin.raftery@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Yaqoob, Magdi, E-mail: magdi.yaqoob@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Renal Medicine Department (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is an important and common cause of dysfunction in autogenous haemodialysis fistulas that requires multiple reinterventions and aggressive surveillance. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the Viabahn stent-graft for the management of CAS. Between April 2005 and October 2011, 11 consecutive patients [four men and seven women (mean age 56.7 years)] with CAS and dysfunctional fistulas were treated with insertion of 11 Viabahn stent-grafts. Six stent-grafts were inserted due to residual stenosis after angioplasty and five for fistuloplasty-induced rupture. No patient was lost to follow-up. The technical and clinical success rate was 100 %. Primary access patency rates were 81.8 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.482-0.977] at 6 months and 72.7 % (95 % CI 0.390-0.939) at 12 months. Secondary access patency rates were 90.9 % at 6 months (95 % CI 0.587-0.997). There were no procedure-related complications. Mean follow-up was 543.8 days (range 156-2,282). The use of the Viabahn stent-graft in the management of CAS is technically feasible and, in this small series, showed patency rates that compare favorably with historical data of angioplasty and bare stents.

  20. Cephalic Arch Stenosis in Autogenous Haemodialysis Fistulas: Treatment With the Viabahn Stent-Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawyer, Andrew; Fotiadis, Nicos I.; Namagondlu, Girish; Iyer, Arun; Blunden, Mark; Raftery, Martin; Yaqoob, Magdi

    2013-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is an important and common cause of dysfunction in autogenous haemodialysis fistulas that requires multiple reinterventions and aggressive surveillance. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the Viabahn stent-graft for the management of CAS. Between April 2005 and October 2011, 11 consecutive patients [four men and seven women (mean age 56.7 years)] with CAS and dysfunctional fistulas were treated with insertion of 11 Viabahn stent-grafts. Six stent-grafts were inserted due to residual stenosis after angioplasty and five for fistuloplasty-induced rupture. No patient was lost to follow-up. The technical and clinical success rate was 100 %. Primary access patency rates were 81.8 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.482–0.977] at 6 months and 72.7 % (95 % CI 0.390–0.939) at 12 months. Secondary access patency rates were 90.9 % at 6 months (95 % CI 0.587–0.997). There were no procedure-related complications. Mean follow-up was 543.8 days (range 156–2,282). The use of the Viabahn stent-graft in the management of CAS is technically feasible and, in this small series, showed patency rates that compare favorably with historical data of angioplasty and bare stents.

  1. Autogenic-feedback training exercise is superior to promethazine for control of motion sickness symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms affect approximately 50% of the crew during space travel and are commonly treated with intramuscular injections of promethazine. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of three treatments for motion sickness: intramuscular injections (i.m.) of promethazine, a physiological training method (autogenic-feedback training exercise [AFTE]), and a no-treatment control. An earlier study tested the effects of promethazine on cognitive and psychomotor performance and motion sickness tolerance in a rotating chair. For the present paper, motion sickness tolerance, symptom reports, and physiological responses of these subjects were compared to matched subjects selected from an existing database who received either AFTE or no treatment. Three groups of 11 men, between the ages of 33 and 40 years, were matched on the number of rotations tolerated during their initial rotating-chair motion sickness test. The motion sickness test procedures and the 7-day interval between tests were the same for all subjects. The drug group was tested under four treatment conditions: baseline (no injections), a 25 mg dose of promethazine, a 50 mg dose of promethazine, and a placebo of sterile saline. AFTE subjects were given four 30-minute AFTE sessions before their second, third, and fourth motion sickness tests (6 hours total). The no-treatment control subjects were only given the four rotating-chair tests. Motion sickness tolerance was significantly increased after 4 hours of AFTE when compared to either 25 mg (p training.

  2. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Response of spinal myoclonus to a combination therapy of autogenic training and biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempuraj Duraisamy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clinical evidence indicates that certain types of movement disorders are due to psychosomatic factors. Patients with myoclonic movements are usually treated by a variety of therapeutic agents. Autogenic training (AT, a recognized form of psychosomatic therapies, is suitable for certain types of neurological diseases. We describe a patient with myoclonus who failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. His symptoms were exaggerated by psychogenic factors, especially anger. Case presentation A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, Preventive Welfare Clinic, for severe paroxysmal axial myoclonus of the left shoulder and abdominal muscles. The initial diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus". The myoclonic movements did not occur during sleep but were aggravated by bathing, alcohol drinking, and anger. Psychological examination indicated hostile attribution. Although considered not to be a case of psychogenic myoclonus, a "psychogenic factor" was definitely involved in the induction of the organic myoclonus. The final diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus accompanied by features of psychosomatic disorders". The patient underwent psychosomatic therapy including AT and surface electromyography (EMG-biofeedback therapy and treatment with clonazepam and carbamazepine. Results AT and EMG-biofeedback resulted in shortening the duration and reducing the amplitude and frequency of the myoclonic discharges. Conclusion Psychosomatic therapy with AT and surface EMG-biofeedback produced excellent improvement of myoclonic movements and allowed the reduction of the dosage of conventional medications.

  4. Perceived changes associated with autogenic training for anxiety: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakul, Levent; Holttum, Sue; Bowden, Ann

    2009-12-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a behaviourally orientated intervention usually taught in eight or nine sessions in the United Kingdom: clients are taught six simple mental formulae designed to induce a calm state of mind and body, five additional emotional expression exercises, and individually tailored 'personal formulae' for supporting positive change. In the absence of existing psychological (as opposed to neuro-physiological) models of AT's mechanisms, this study aimed to produce the first such model, drawing on the perceptions of recent AT clients. An abbreviated form of grounded theory was used to explore retrospectively and in detail the experiences of a small sample of people of the process of change. Forty people were approached and 12 women participated who had completed AT in group form after referral for anxiety. Each was interviewed individually. A preliminary model of change was produced, grounded in the interview data. Factors reported to be salient were learning in a group, the core AT experience (the six standard exercises), difficulties with practice, the importance of regular practice integrated into daily life, and enhanced well-being and coping, which incorporated reduced worrying and clearer thinking. Limitations of the study are discussed, as are areas for further research and implications for anxiety treatment. This was a small study with a self-selected sample. However, theoretical generalizations can be made about the process of change. Since AT does not specifically focus on challenging negative cognitions, the cognitive changes reported have implications for anxiety treatments.

  5. Autogenic-Feedback Training: A Potential Treatment for Orthostatic Intolerance in Aerospace Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.; Stevenson, J.; Maloney, S.; Knapp, J.

    1994-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder that are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily, and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The current pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, autogenic-feedback training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine training (15-30-minute) sessions. At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures, that the subjects made ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings indicate that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  6. Autogenic-feedback training: A potential treatment for post-flight orthostatic intolerance in aerospace crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neil E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shapiro, David

    1993-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance was identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority was given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures that the subjects made, ranged between 20 and 5O mmHg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  7. Autogenic Training as a behavioural approach to insomnia: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Ann; Lorenc, Ava; Robinson, Nicola

    2012-04-01

    Insomnia is commonly associated with chronic health problems. Behavioural and cognitive factors often perpetuate a vicious cycle of anxiety and sleep disturbance, leading to long-term insomnia. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence currently recommends behavioural approaches before prescribing hypnotics. Behavioural approaches aim to treat underlying causes, but are not widely available. Research usually includes patients diagnosed with insomnia rather than secondary, co-morbid sleep- related problems. To examine the effectiveness of autogenic training (AT) as a non-drug approach to sleep-related problems associated with chronic ill health. Prospective pre- and post-treatment cohort study. AT centre, Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. All patients referred for AT from April 2007 to April 2008 were invited to participate. Participants received standard 8-week training, with no specific focus on sleep. Sleep questionnaires were administered at four time points, 'Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile' (MYMOP) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, before and after treatment. Results before and after treatment were compared. Camden and Islington Community Local Research and Ethics Committee approved the study. The AT course was completed by 153 participants, of whom 73% were identified as having a sleep-related problem. Improvements in sleep patterns included: sleep onset latency (P = 0.049), falling asleep quicker after night waking (P training. AT may provide an approach to insomnia that could be incorporated into primary care.

  8. Relaxation and health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis: the example of autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Georgina; Andersen, Mark B; Morris, Tony

    2005-06-01

    This study was a pilot project to explore the effect of an autogenic training program (AT; a relaxation intervention) on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and well-being for people with multiple sclerosis. Participants either met weekly for sessions in AT for 10 weeks (n = 11) or were assigned to the control group (n = 11). The AT group was also asked to practice the technique daily at home. Scales designed to measure HRQOL and aspects of well-being (mood and depressed affect) were taken preintervention and at week 8 of the 10-week program. ANCOVAs using a measure of social support and pretest scores as covariates revealed that at the posttest the AT group reported more energy and vigor than the control group and were less limited in their roles due to physical and emotional problems. Future research should involve studies conducted over an extended period, together with sufficiently sized samples to explore the effect of frequency of practice of relaxation training on HRQOL and well-being for people with multiple sclerosis.

  9. Response of spinal myoclonus to a combination therapy of autogenic training and biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koreaki; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Conti, Pio

    2007-10-12

    Clinical evidence indicates that certain types of movement disorders are due to psychosomatic factors. Patients with myoclonic movements are usually treated by a variety of therapeutic agents. Autogenic training (AT), a recognized form of psychosomatic therapies, is suitable for certain types of neurological diseases. We describe a patient with myoclonus who failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. His symptoms were exaggerated by psychogenic factors, especially anger. A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, Preventive Welfare Clinic, for severe paroxysmal axial myoclonus of the left shoulder and abdominal muscles. The initial diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus". The myoclonic movements did not occur during sleep but were aggravated by bathing, alcohol drinking, and anger. Psychological examination indicated hostile attribution. Although considered not to be a case of psychogenic myoclonus, a "psychogenic factor" was definitely involved in the induction of the organic myoclonus. The final diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus accompanied by features of psychosomatic disorders". The patient underwent psychosomatic therapy including AT and surface electromyography (EMG)-biofeedback therapy and treatment with clonazepam and carbamazepine. AT and EMG-biofeedback resulted in shortening the duration and reducing the amplitude and frequency of the myoclonic discharges. Psychosomatic therapy with AT and surface EMG-biofeedback produced excellent improvement of myoclonic movements and allowed the reduction of the dosage of conventional medications.

  10. Histological evaluation of the influence of magnetic field application in autogenous bone grafts in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponzoni Deise

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone grafts are widely used in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. The influence of electromagnetic fields and magnets on the endogenous stimulation of target tissues has been investigated. This work aimed to assess the quality of bone healing in surgical cavities filled with autogenous bone grafts, under the influence of a permanent magnetic field produced by in vivo buried devices. Methods Metal devices consisting of commercially pure martensitic stainless steel washers and titanium screws were employed. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental and 3 control groups. A surgical bone cavity was produced on the right femur, and a bone graft was collected and placed in each hole. Two metallic washers, magnetized in the experimental group but not in the control group, were attached on the borders of the cavity. Results The animals were sacrificed on postoperative days 15, 45 and 60. The histological analysis of control and experimental samples showed adequate integration of the bone grafts, with intense bone neoformation. On days 45 and 60, a continued influence of the magnetic field on the surgical cavity and on the bone graft was observed in samples from the experimental group. Conclusion The results showed intense bone neoformation in the experimental group as compared to control animals. The intense extra-cortical bone neoformation observed suggests that the osteoconductor condition of the graft may be more susceptible to stimulation, when submitted to a magnetic field.

  11. Lost in Translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Translating sacred scriptures is not only a praxis that is crucial for the fruitful, i.e. non-distorted and unbiased dialogue between different religious traditions, but also raises some fundamental theoretical questions when it comes to translating the sacred texts of the religious other or

  12. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  13. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  14. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  15. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  16. Measuring Translation Literality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess this...

  17. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  18. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  19. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  20. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory...

  1. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  2. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  3. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  4. Plant Translation Factors and Virus Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sanfaçon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. Emerging evidence that translation repression operates as an alternative antiviral RNA silencing mechanism is also discussed. Understanding the mechanisms that control the development of natural viral resistance and the emergence of virulent isolates in response to these plant defense responses will provide the basis for the selection of new sources of resistance and for the intelligent design of engineered resistance that is broad-spectrum and durable.

  5. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  6. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  7. A study of 23 unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus: open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of bone powder with autogenous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Hyung; Micic, Ivan Dragoljub; Jeon, In-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration and local injection of steroid, autologous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to curettage and open bone-grafting. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of demineralized bone powder with autogenous bone marrow in management of calcaneal cysts. Twenty-three calcaneal unicameral cysts in 20 patients were treated. Lyophilized irradiated chip allogeneic bone (CAB) and autogenous bone marrow were used for treatment of 13 cysts in 11 patients, and 10 cysts in 9 patients were treated with percutaneous injection of irradiated allogeneic demineralized bone powder (DBP) and autogenous bone marrow. There were 11 males and 9 female patients with mean age of 17 years. The patients were followed for an average of 49.4 months. Complete healing was achieved in 9 cysts treated with chip allogeneic bone and in 5 cysts treated with powdered bone. Four cysts treated with CAB and 3 cysts treated with DBP healed with a defect. Two cysts treated with powdered bone and autogenous bone marrow were classified as persistent. No infections or pathological fractures were observed during the followup period. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of allogeneic bone powder with autogenous bone marrow is a minimal invasive method and could be an effective alternative in the treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts. The postoperative morbidity was low, the hospital stay was brief, and patient's comfort for unrestricted activity was enhanced.

  8. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  9. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  10. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  11. Translation of feminine: Szymborska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Donata Guerizoli Kempinska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v1n33p35 The paper discusses the problems present in the process of the translation of the feminine, related to the discursive articulations of the gender and to the socio-historical conditions of its construction. The differences between languages make this articulation hard to transpose and such is the case in some of Wisława Szymborska’s poems. An attentive reading of her work and of its translations in different languages reveals that the transposition of its specifically feminine humor is also a challenge for the translator

  12. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  13. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  14. A phased translation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  15. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  16. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.

  17. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  18. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  19. A combined approach of enamel matrix derivative gel and autogenous bone grafts in treatment of intrabony periodontal defects. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, George; Jin, Lijian

    2003-04-01

    Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has recently been introduced as a new modality in regenerative periodontal therapy. This case report demonstrates a combined approach in topical application of EMD gel (Emdogain) and autogenous bone grafts for treatment of intrabony defects and furcation involvement defects in a patient with chronic periodontitis. The seven-month post-surgery clinical and radiographic results were presented. The combined application of EMD gel with autogenous bone grafts in intrabony osseous defects resulted in clinically significant gain of attachment on diseased root surfaces and bone fill on radiographs. Further controlled clinical studies are required to confirm the long-term effectiveness of the combination of EMD gel and autogenous bone grafts in treatment of various osseous defects in subjects with chronic periodontitis.

  20. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  1. Clinical trial comparing autogenous fascia lata sling and Gore-Tex suspension in bilateral congenital ptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsamkary MA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mahmoud Ahmed Elsamkary,1 Maged Maher Salib Roshdy1,2 1Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Pediatric Ophthalmology Department, Al Watany Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To study the effect of autogenous fascia lata sling (AFLS versus Gore-Tex suspension (GTS regarding the functional and aesthetic outcomes in patients with bilateral congenital ptosis. Patients and methods: A prospective comparative randomized single-center study enrolled 110 patients with bilateral congenital ptosis. One group (n=55 underwent AFLS and the second group (n=55 underwent GTS. Exclusion criteria were good levator function, absent Bell’s phenomenon, and abnormal ocular motility. Follow-up period was 2 years. Functional outcome was measured from digital photos by analysis of upper eyelid margin position relative to the superior limbus and classified as very good (<3 mm, good (3–5 mm, poor (>5 mm, and recurrent. Aesthetic outcome was assessed in terms of lid contour, symmetry of eyelid height, and lid crease presence. Complications were also reported. Results: Failure rate (recurrence and complications was less in AFLS (P=0.035. Symmetrical lid height and good contour were more frequently attained by AFLS (P=0.007 and 0.047, respectively. However, the frequency of very good, good, poor, recurrence, lagopthalmos, ectropion, infection, and formed lid crease individually showed no statistically significant difference (P=0.252, 0.482, 1, 0.489, 0.438, 1, 0.618, and 0.506, respectively. Conclusion: AFLS is a better choice in surgery for patients with bilateral congenital ptosis because it has fewer complications and a lesser recurrence rate than GTS. Keywords: ptosis surgery, surgical outcomes, ptosis recurrence, lagophthalmos

  2. Assisted autogenic drainage in infants and young children hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, Lieselotte; Jelsma, Jennifer; Human, Anri; Rahim, Sameer; Morrow, Brenda M

    2018-01-01

    Pneumonia is the most important respiratory problem in low-to-middle income countries. Airway clearance therapy continues to be used in children with pneumonia and secretion retention; however, there is lack of evidence to support or reject this treatment. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the efficacy and safety of assisted autogenic drainage (AAD) compared to standard nursing care in children hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia. A single-blinded pilot RCT was conducted on 29 children (median age 3.5 months, IQR 1.5-9.4) hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia. The intervention group received standard nursing care with additional bi-daily AAD, for 10 to 30 min. The control group only received standard nursing care, unless otherwise deemed necessary by the physician or physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure was duration of hospitalization. The secondary outcome measures included days of fever and supplemental oxygen support; respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate adjusted for age; RR and oxygen saturation pre-, post-, and 1-hr post-treatment; oxygen saturation; adverse events; and mortality. No difference was found for duration of hospitalization (median 7.5 and 7.0 days for the control and intervention groups, respectively); however, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a strong tendency towards a shorter time to discharge in the intervention group (p = .06). No significant differences were found for the other outcome measures at time of discharge. No adverse events were reported. Within the intervention group, a significant reduction in RR adjusted for age was found. As no adverse events were reported, and AAD did not prolong hospitalization; AAD might be considered as safe and effective in young children with uncomplicated pneumonia. However, a larger multicentred RCT is warranted to determine the efficacy of AAD compared to standard nursing care. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Bridging Graft in Irreparable Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: Autogenic Biceps Graft versus Allogenic Dermal Patch Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sung Min; Oh, Joo Han

    2017-12-01

    Few comparative studies have reported on the use of biologic grafts for irreparable massive rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of arthroscopic bridging graft in irreparable massive rotator cuff tears using an autogenic long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) or an allogenic dermal patch (ADP). We retrospectively reviewed 24 patients treated using the LHBT (group I) and eight patients with complete rupture of the LHBT treated using an ADP (group II) since 2011. Preoperative Goutallier's fatty degeneration, range of motion (ROM), visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score were assessed and healing failure was evaluated at 1 year after surgery by ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging. The mean fatty degeneration in groups I and II was 3.9 and 3.6 for the supraspinatus ( p = 0.288), 2.7 and 2.9 for the infraspinatus ( p = 0.685), 0.9 and 1.3 for the subscapularis ( p = 0.314), and 1.3 and 3.0 for the teres minor ( p = 0.005), respectively. Subscapularis tears were found in 8 patients (33.3%) in group I and in 7 patients (87.5%) in group II ( p = 0.023). Mean ROMs and functional scores improved significantly in group I (forward flexion: 121.7° to 153.3°, p = 0.010; external rotation: 32.7° to 52.7°, p = 0.001; external rotation at 90°: 63.3° to 74.5°, p = 0.031; internal rotation: T10.5 to T9.3, p = 0.045; VAS: 7.0 to 1.1, p rotator cuff tears, especially in patients with severe fatty degeneration in the teres minor or combined biceps and subscapularis tears.

  4. Cerebral somatic pain modulation during autogenic training in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglatzki, R P; Schlamann, M; Gasser, T; Ladd, M E; Sure, U; Forsting, M; Gizewski, E R

    2012-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are increasingly employed in different conscious states. Autogenic training (AT) is a common clinically used relaxation method. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cerebral modulation of pain activity patterns due to AT and to correlate the effects to the degree of experience with AT and strength of stimuli. Thirteen volunteers familiar with AT were studied with fMRI during painful electrical stimulation in a block design alternating between resting state and electrical stimulation, both without AT and while employing the same paradigm when utilizing their AT abilities. The subjective rating of painful stimulation and success in modulation during AT was assessed. During painful electrical stimulation without AT, fMRI revealed activation of midcingulate, right secondary sensory, right supplementary motor, and insular cortices, the right thalamus and left caudate nucleus. In contrast, utilizing AT only activation of left insular and supplementary motor cortices was revealed. The paired t-test revealed pain-related activation in the midcingulate, posterior cingulate and left anterior insular cortices for the condition without AT, and activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex under AT. Activation of the posterior cingulate cortex and thalamus correlated with the amplitude of electrical stimulation. This study revealed an effect on cerebral pain processing while performing AT. This might represent the cerebral correlate of different painful stimulus processing by subjects who are trained in performing relaxation techniques. However, due to the absence of a control group, further studies are needed to confirm this theory. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  5. Effectiveness of autogenic training in improving motor performances in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajimsha, M S; Majeed, Nisar A; Chinnavan, Elanchezhian; Thulasyammal, Ramiah Pillai

    2014-06-01

    Relaxation training can be an important adjunct in reducing symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Autogenic Training (AT) is a simple, easily administered and inexpensive technique for retraining the mind and the body to be able to relax. AT uses visual imagery and body awareness to promote a state of deep relaxation. To investigate whether AT when used as an adjunct to Physiotherapy (PT) improves motor performances in PD in comparison with a control group receiving PT alone. Randomized, controlled, single blinded trial. Movement Disorder Clinic and Department of Physiotherapy, Sree Chithira Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology in Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Patients with PD of grade 2 or 3 of Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale (N = 66). AT group or control group. The techniques were administered by Physiotherapists trained in AT and consisted of 40 sessions per patient over 8 weeks. Motor score subscale of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used to measure the motor performances. The primary outcome measure was the difference in Motor score subscale of UPDRS scores between Week 1 (pretest score), Week 8 (posttest score), and follow-up at Week 12 after randomization. The simple main effects analysis showed that the AT group performed better than the control group in weeks 8 and 12 (P < .005). Patients in the AT and control groups reported a 51.78% and 35.24% improvement, respectively, in their motor performances in Week 8 compared with that in Week 1, which persisted, in the follow-up (Week 12) as 30.82% in the AT group and 21.42% in the control group. This study provides evidence that AT when used as an adjunct to PT is more effective than PT alone in improving motor performances in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NASA-Navy Telemedicine: Autogenic Feedback Training Exercises for Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acromite, Michael T.; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; Davis, Carl; Porter, Henry O.

    2010-01-01

    Airsickness is the most significant medical condition affecting naval aviation training. A 2001 study showed that airsickness was reported in 81% of naval aviation students and was associated with 82% of below average flight scores. The cost to a single training air-wing was over $150,000 annually for fuel and maintenance costs alone. Resistent cases are sent to the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (NAMI) for evaluation and desensitization in the self-paced airsickness desensitization (SPAD) program. This approach is 75% successful, but can take up to 8 weeks at a significant travel cost. NASA Ames Research Center's Autogenic Feedback Training Exercises (AFTE) uses physiological and biofeedback training for motion sickness prevention. It has a remote capability that has been used from Moffett Field, CA to Atlanta, GA . AFTE is administered in twelve (30-minute) training sessions. The success rate for the NASA AFTE program has been over 85%. Methods: Implementation Phases: Phase I: Transfer NASA AFTE to NAMI; NASA will remotely train aviation students at NAMI. Phase II: NAMI-centered AFTE application with NASA oversight. Phase III: NAMI-centered AFTE to remotely train at various Navy sites. Phase IV: NAMI to offer Tri-service application and examine research opportunities. Results: 1. Use available telemedicine connectivity between NAMI and NASA. 2. Save over $2,000 per student trained. 3. Reduce aviation training attrition. 4. Provide standardization of multi-location motion sickness training. 5. Future tri-service initiatives. 6. Data to NASA and Navy for QA and research opportunities.

  7. [Autogenic training in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhr, M; Röpcke, B; Pistor, K; Eggers, C

    1997-04-01

    This paper discusses psychosocial influences of diabetes mellitus type 1 on children and young patients. A group of 21 patients, age 9 to 14 years with Diabetes mellitus type 1 attended a course in "Autogenic Training" for a period of 11 weeks. From the multidimensional questionnaire for children (PFK 9-14, SETZ U. RAUSCHE 1976) 15 dimensions of personality and 5 second rank factors were extracted at the beginning and at the end of training and 5 months later. Additionally HbA1-scores were assessed at the beginning and at the end at a 2 month and a 5 month-follow-up. At the beginning of the course only on one of the 15 scales a significant difference could be observed between experimental group and age related normal population. After training 5 scales and one second rank factor showed significant changes. Significant reduction was observed in: "need for aggressive forms of dominance behaviour" "feeling of submission with respects to other:", "emotional lability" and "tendency for dependence on adults". A significantly increased score was observed in the scale measuring "self confidence regarding one's own meaning, decisions and planning ability". The second rank faktor "neuroticism" was significantly reduced. Against expectations there was no reduction in HbA1 scores. At the end of training HbA1 scores even had increased significantly. But this might have been related to the high frequency of infections during this course. In subjective ratings of training evaluation most of the course members and their parents described fewer problems with attention, less test-anxiety and less aggression and nervousness. The results of this prospective pilot-study are discussed in terms of the psychodynamic influence on diabetes.

  8. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zethsen, Karen Korning; Askehave, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  9. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  10. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  11. Self-organization in irregular landscapes: Detecting autogenic interactions from field data using descriptive statistics and dynamical systems theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L.; Watts, D.; Khurana, A.; Anderson, J. L.; Xu, C.; Merritts, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The classic signal of self-organization in nature is pattern formation. However, the interactions and feedbacks that organize depositional landscapes do not always result in regular or fractal patterns. How might we detect their existence and effects in these "irregular" landscapes? Emergent landscapes such as newly forming deltaic marshes or some restoration sites provide opportunities to study the autogenic processes that organize landscapes and their physical signatures. Here we describe a quest to understand autogenic vs. allogenic controls on landscape evolution in Big Spring Run, PA, a landscape undergoing restoration from bare-soil conditions to a target wet meadow landscape. The contemporary motivation for asking questions about autogenic vs. allogenic controls is to evaluate how important initial conditions or environmental controls may be for the attainment of management objectives. However, these questions can also inform interpretation of the sedimentary record by enabling researchers to separate signals that may have arisen through self-organization processes from those resulting from environmental perturbations. Over three years at Big Spring Run, we mapped the dynamic evolution of floodplain vegetation communities and distributions of abiotic variables and topography. We used principal component analysis and transition probability analysis to detect associative interactions between vegetation and geomorphic variables and convergent cross-mapping on lidar data to detect causal interactions between biomass and topography. Exploratory statistics revealed that plant communities with distinct morphologies exerted control on landscape evolution through stress divergence (i.e., channel initiation) and promoting the accumulation of fine sediment in channels. Together, these communities participated in a negative feedback that maintains low energy and multiple channels. Because of the spatially explicit nature of this feedback, causal interactions could not

  12. Treatment of active unicameral bone cysts with percutaneous injection of demineralized bone matrix and autogenous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougraff, Bruce T; Kling, Thomas J

    2002-06-01

    The treatment of unicameral bone cysts varies from open bone-grafting procedures to percutaneous injection of corticosteroids or bone marrow. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous injection of a mixture of demineralized bone matrix and autogenous bone marrow for the treatment of simple bone cysts. Twenty-three patients with an active unicameral bone cyst were treated with trephination and injection of allogeneic demineralized bone matrix and autogenous bone marrow. The patients were followed for an average of fifty months (range, thirty to eighty-one months), at which time pain, function, and radiographic signs of resolution of the cyst were assessed. The average time until the patients had pain relief was five weeks, and the average time until the patients returned to full, unrestricted activities was six weeks. Bone-healing at the site of the injection was first seen radiographically at three to six months. No patient had a pathologic fracture during this early bone-healing stage. Cortical remodeling was seen radiographically by six to nine months, and after one year the response was usually complete, changing very little from then on. Five patients required a second injection because of recurrence of the cyst, and all five had a clinically and radiographically quiescent cyst after an average of thirty-six additional months of follow-up. Seven of the twenty-three patients had incomplete healing manifested by small, persistent radiolucent areas within the original cyst. None of these cysts increased in size or resulted in pain or fracture. Percutaneous injection of allogeneic demineralized bone matrix and autogenous bone marrow is an effective treatment for unicameral bone cysts.

  13. Management of unicameral bone cyst by using freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft impregnate with autogenous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, N K; Das, K P; Alam, M S; Kaiser, M S

    2014-07-01

    Unicameral bone cyst is a common benign bone tumor and most frequent cause of the pathological fracture in children. We have started a prospective study for that treatment of unicameral bone cyst by using freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft impregnated with autogenous bone marrow in the department of Orthopaedics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) during May 1999 to April 2012. Aim of this study was to see Freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft impregnate with autogenous bone marrow a satisfactory graft material in the treatment of unicameral bone cyst as well as factors such as patients age, sex, cyst size and site of lesion influence on cyst healing. A total 35 patients of unicameral bone cyst were operated. In this study out of 35 patients, male were 22(62.86%) and female were 13(37.14). Male Female ratio 22:13(1.70:1) Age of the patients ranging from 2 years 6 month to 20 years, mean age 12.18 years more common 11 years to 20 years 29(82.86%) patients. Common bones sites involvements are proximal end of Humerus 20(57.14%), proximal end of Femur 7(20 %), proximal end of Tibia 3(8.57%), Calcanium 2(5.71%), proximal end of Ulna 1(2.86%), shaft of Radius 1(2.86%) and Phalanx 1(2.86%). Final clinical outcome of unicameral bone cyst treated by thorough curettage of cavity and tightly filled with freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft impregnate with autogenous bone marrow in which healed (success rate) 88.57% (31) and recurrence rate is 11.43% (4). P value is unicameral bone cyst.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUTOGENIC DRAINAGE VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH 15 MINUTES POST THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kiran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD and autogenic drainage (AD on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done on 60 patients with COPD. Dividing Patients into two group and patients were treated with PD or AD in separate Groups. The effectiveness of the treatment was measured up to 6 days. Pulse oximetry was monitored and sputum was collected immediately after treatment and 15 minutes following each treatment. Results: The results of the study shown that there was significant difference in the amount of sputum recovered with AD (14.0±3.5 g vs PD (24.4±3.0 g and significant differences in Oxygen saturation; during PD fell from 93.3±0.7% to 91.2±0.8% (p<0.01 and required 15 min following treatment to return to baseline. Oxygen saturation did not fall during AD and increased to gradually following complete treatment days (baseline, 93.3±0.8%; p<0.01. Conclusion: Hence this study concludes that Autogenic drainage is more effective in improving spo2 in COPD & does not cause a sudden fall in spo2 as occurs in Postural drainage immediately after therapy. And it can be better tolerated by patients with COPD while producing fewer benefits in sputum clearance. In concern to mean amount of secretion removal Postural is found to be more effective

  15. Modified Weaver-Dunn Procedure Versus The Use of Semitendinosus Autogenous Tendon Graft for Acromioclavicular Joint Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Galal; Safwat, Hesham; Seddik, Mahmoud; Al-Shal, Ehab A; Al-Sebai, Ibrahim; Negm, Mohame

    2016-01-01

    The optimal operative method for acromioclavicular joint reconstruction remains controversial. The modified Weaver-Dunn method is one of the most popular methods. Anatomic reconstruction of coracoclavicular ligaments with autogenous tendon grafts, widely used in treating chronic acromioclavicular joint instability, reportedly diminishes pain, eliminates sequelae, and improves function as well as strength. To compare clinical and radiologic outcomes between a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure and an anatomic coracoclavicular ligaments reconstruction technique using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft. Twenty patients (mean age, 39 years) with painful, chronic Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations were subjected to surgical reconstruction. In ten patients, a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure was performed, in the other ten patients; autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft was used. The mean time between injury and the index procedure was 18 month (range from 9 - 28). Clinical evaluation was performed using the Oxford Shoulder Score and Nottingham Clavicle Score after a mean follow-up time of 27.8 months. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were compared. In the Weaver-Dunn group the Oxford Shoulder Score improved from 25±4 to 40±2 points. While the Nottingham Clavicle Score increased from 48±7 to 84±11. In semitendinosus tendon graft group, the Oxford Shoulder Score improved from 25±3 points to 50±2 points and the Nottingham Clavicle Score from 48±8 points to 95±8, respectively. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the semitendinosus tendon graft achieved better Oxford Shoulder Score and Nottingham Clavicle Score compared to the modified Weaver-Dunn procedure.

  16. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  17. Translational Control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Bradley R.; Sullivan, William J.; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis. PMID:23243065

  18. Translational control in Plasmodium and toxoplasma parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Joyce, Bradley R; Sullivan, William J; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis.

  19. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  20. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  1. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  2. Protein Translation and Signaling in Human Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Esnault

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that, unlike IL-5 and GM-CSF, IL-3 induces increased translation of a subset of mRNAs. In addition, we have demonstrated that Pin1 controls the activity of mRNA binding proteins, leading to enhanced mRNA stability, GM-CSF protein production and prolonged eosinophil (EOS survival. In this review, discussion will include an overview of cap-dependent protein translation and its regulation by intracellular signaling pathways. We will address the more general process of mRNA post-transcriptional regulation, especially regarding mRNA binding proteins, which are critical effectors of protein translation. Furthermore, we will focus on (1 the roles of IL-3-driven sustained signaling on enhanced protein translation in EOS, (2 the mechanisms regulating mRNA binding proteins activity in EOS, and (3 the potential targeting of IL-3 signaling and the signaling leading to mRNA binding activity changes to identify therapeutic targets to treat EOS-associated diseases.

  3. Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations

    OpenAIRE

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.

  4. Trans-acting translational regulatory RNA binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Robert F; Smith, Tom S; Mulroney, Thomas; Queiroz, Rayner M L; Pizzinga, Mariavittoria; Dezi, Veronica; Villenueva, Eneko; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Lilley, Kathryn S; Willis, Anne E

    2018-05-01

    The canonical molecular machinery required for global mRNA translation and its control has been well defined, with distinct sets of proteins involved in the processes of translation initiation, elongation and termination. Additionally, noncanonical, trans-acting regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary to provide mRNA-specific translation, and these interact with 5' and 3' untranslated regions and coding regions of mRNA to regulate ribosome recruitment and transit. Recently it has also been demonstrated that trans-acting ribosomal proteins direct the translation of specific mRNAs. Importantly, it has been shown that subsets of RBPs often work in concert, forming distinct regulatory complexes upon different cellular perturbation, creating an RBP combinatorial code, which through the translation of specific subsets of mRNAs, dictate cell fate. With the development of new methodologies, a plethora of novel RNA binding proteins have recently been identified, although the function of many of these proteins within mRNA translation is unknown. In this review we will discuss these methodologies and their shortcomings when applied to the study of translation, which need to be addressed to enable a better understanding of trans-acting translational regulatory proteins. Moreover, we discuss the protein domains that are responsible for RNA binding as well as the RNA motifs to which they bind, and the role of trans-acting ribosomal proteins in directing the translation of specific mRNAs. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > RNA-Protein Complexes Translation > Translation Regulation Translation > Translation Mechanisms. © 2018 Medical Research Council and University of Cambridge. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Autogenous platelet-rich plasma gel with acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix for treatment of deep II degree burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tianzhi; Zhu, Jingmin; Hu, Wenbo; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Zhenhui; Wen, Xuehui; Zhou, Zhi; Lu, Gang; Liu, Jingjie; Li, Wen

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of autogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel with acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix in the treatment of deep II degree burns. From January 2007 to December 2009, 30 cases of deep II degree burns were treated. There were 19 males and 11 females with an average age of 42.5 years (range, 32-57 years). The burn area was 10% to 48% of total body surface area. The time from burn to hospitalization was 30 minutes to 8 hours. All patients were treated with tangential excision surgery, one side of the wounds were covered with autogenous PRP gel and acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix (PRP group), the other side of the wounds were covered with acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix only (control group). The healing rate, healing time, infection condition, and scar formation were observed. At 7 days after operation, the infection rate in PRP group (6.7%, 2/30) was significantly lower than that in control group (16.7%, 5/30, P deep II degree burns as well as alleviate the scar proliferation.

  6. Effects of Autogenic Drainage on Sputum Recovery and Pulmonary Function in People with Cystic Fibrosis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kimbly; Osterling, Kristin; Gilbert, Robert; Dechman, Gail

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of short- and long-term use of autogenic drainage (AD) on pulmonary function and sputum recovery in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). The authors conducted a systematic review of randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials in which participants were people with CF who use AD as their sole airway clearance technique. Searches in 4 databases and secondary sources using 5 key terms yielded 735 articles, of which 58 contained the terms autogenic drainage and cystic fibrosis. Ultimately, 4 studies, 2 of which were long term, were included. All measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and found no change. The long-term studies were underpowered to detect change in FEV1; however, the short-term studies found a clinically significant sputum yield (≥4 g). AD has been shown to produce clinically significant sputum yields in a limited number of investigations. The effect of AD on the function of the pulmonary system remains uncertain, and questions have emerged regarding the appropriateness of FEV1 as a valid measure of airway clearance from peripheral lung regions. Further consideration should be given to the use of FEV1 as a primary measure of the effect of AD.

  7. Synthesis of MnV{sup 2}O{sup 6} under autogenous hydrothermal conditions and its anodic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Michio; Morishita, Takahiro; Hirano, Masanori; Gupta, Vinay; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi [Faculty of Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Anhydrous crystalline powders of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} (brannerite) were successfully precipitated from mixed aqueous solution of Mn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} with a metal ion concentration of 0.01-1.0 mol/l at 135-200 C under autogenous hydrothermal condition in a closed vessel. The characterization of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} synthesized was carried out by XRD, TG, TEM and anodic performance measurement. In case of mixtures with a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mol/l, single phase anhydrous crystalline MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} with homogeneous thin rod-like particles were synthesized by autogenous hydrothermal process, though starting reagent V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was not fully dissolved. They showed high anodic performance in lithium ion batteries; high charge capacity as 600 mA h/g even after the 10th cycle and stable cyclic performance. MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} powders synthesized from relatively high concentration of metal ions showed an abrupt increase in charge capacity after third or fourth discharge/charge cycles, though the first cycle showed rather high irreversible capacity.

  8. Alcohol extract of Schinu sterebinthifolius raddi (anacardiaceae) as a local antimicrobial agent in severe autogenously fecal peritonitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Maria Cecília Santos Cavalcanti; Gadelha, Diego Nery Benevides; Oliveira, Thárcia Kiara Beserra; Brandt, Carlos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    To develop an alcoholic extract of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi and to test its impact on autogenously fecal peritonitis in Wistar rats. The inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi was kept for seven days in 70% ethanol alcohol. The total elimination of the solvent was performed in a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure at 55-60°C. Four milliliter of this extract was injected, after 24 h, into the abdominal cavity of six out of eight survival rats that underwent autogenously fecal peritonitis with five milliliter of 10% filtered fecal suspension. They were clinically followed up for 45 days when they were euthanized. The necropsy findings (inventory) of the abdominal and thorax cavities were inspected and the main findings were recorded and photographed. The investigation was approved by the Ethics Committee. Two out of six survival rats that were critically ill after 24 h died within the 12 h after the extract injection into the abdominal cavity. Four rats that were also critically ill recovered and gradually became healthy, eating well, regaining weight and moving normally in the cage. At 45 days post severe peritonitis the necropsy findings revealed few signs of residual infection on the abdominal and thorax cavities. There were no bowel adhesions. The impact of alcoholic extract of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi was considered very positive and promising as natural local antiseptic against very severe peritonitis in Wistar rats.

  9. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.

  10. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  11. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  12. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a s...

  13. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  14. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  15. Dysregulated Translational Control: From Brain Disorders to Psychoactive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eSantini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a plethora of studies utilizing pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic approaches have shown that precise translational control is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the formation of long-term memory. Moreover, more recent studies indicate that alterations in translational control are a common pathophysiological feature of human neurological disorders, including developmental disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, translational control mechanisms are susceptible to modification by psychoactive drugs. Taken together, these findings point to a central role for translational control in the regulation of synaptic function and behavior.

  16. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  17. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  18. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  19. The role of ubiquinone supplementation on osteogenesis of nonvascularized autogenous bone graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Taufiqurrahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ubiquinone is one of food supplement which is known have positive effect in wound healing. However the study to evaluate the possible role of ubiquinone in bone healing in autogenous bone grafting after mandibular resection has not been studied. An in vitro study is required to evaluate whether ubiquinone or coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10 has a positive effect on osteogenesis. Viability test of CoQ10 and a model of osteogenic-induced and hypoxic-condition mesenchymal stem cell culture were established to support the study. Purpose: The study was made to evaluate the role of ubiquinone in osteogenesis by analyzing the toxicity effect and the optimal dose of CoQ10 that might interfere in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC that was dose in cell culture medium. The BM-MSC culture under hypoxia condition were also observed. Method: The toxicity and the optimum viability concentration of ubiquinone were observed using MTT assay. The osteogenic differentiation under hypoxic condition was done on BM-MSC in osteogenic medium that composed of ascorbic acid, glycerolphosphate and dexamethasone in hypoxia chamber for 21 days. Osteogenic differentiation and cellular hypoxia features were tested with immunocytochemical staining using anti-Runx2 and anti-HIF1α monoclonal antibody, respectively. Result: The maximum density value of  1.826 was found in the group of ubiquinone concentration of 75μM/ml, increasing of in concentration of ubiquinone resulted with the decrease ofoptical density of CoQ10. Statistic analysis using Anova showed with no significant difference among groups with various concentration. Immunocytochemical staining showed that Runx2 expression in 3% hypoxia group (p<0.05. Conclusion:Ubiquinone was found non toxic in its optimum dose of 75μM/ml, showed by optimum result in the expression ofRunx2 and HIF1α further study is necessary to evaluate the angiogenic and osteogenic effect ofubiquione.

  20. Case report: a case of intractable Meniere's disease treated with autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Nakai, Kimiko; Kunihiro, Takanobu; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2008-01-25

    Psychological stress plays an important role in the onset and course of Meniere's disease. Surgical therapy and intratympanic gentamicin treatment are options for cases that are intractable to conventional medical therapy. Psychotherapy, however, including autogenic training (AT), which can be used for general relaxation, is not widely accepted. This paper describes the successful administration of AT in a subject suffering from intractable Meniere's disease. A 51-year-old male patient has suffered from fluctuating right sensorineural hearing loss with vertigo since 1994. In May 2002, he was first admitted to our hospital due to a severe vertigo attack accompanied by right sensorineural hearing loss. Spontaneous nystagmus toward the right side was observed. Since April 2004, he has experienced vertigo spells with right-sided tinnitus a few times per month that are intractable to conventional medical therapy. After four months, tympanic tube insertion was preformed in the right tympanic membrane. Intratympanic injection of dexamethasone was ineffective. He refused Meniett therapy and intratympanic gentamicin injection. In addition to his vertigo spells, he suffered from insomnia, tinnitus, and anxiety. Tranquilizers such as benzodiazepines and antidepressants such as serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) failed to stop the vertigo and only slightly improved his insomnia. In December 2006, the patient began psychological counseling with a psychotherapist. After brief psychological counseling along with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), he began AT. He diligently and regularly continued his AT training in his home according to a written timetable. His insomnia, tinnitus, and vertigo spells disappeared within a few weeks after only four psychotherapy sessions. In order to master the six standard formulas of AT, he underwent two more sessions. Thereafter, he underwent follow-up for 9 months with no additional treatment. He is now free from drugs, including

  1. Autogenic training to manage symptomology in women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Elizabeth A; Kanji, Nasim; Ernst, Edzard; Barbir, Mahmoud; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To explore autogenic training (AT) as a treatment for psychological morbidity, symptomology, and physiological markers of stress among women with chest pain, a positive exercise test for myocardial ischemia, and normal coronary arteries (cardiac syndrome X). Fifty-three women with cardiac syndrome X (mean +/- SD age, 57.1 +/- 8 years) were randomized to an 8-week AT program or symptom diary control. Symptom severity and frequency, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ), and Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index (QLI), blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and plasma catecholamines were measured before and after intervention and at the 8-week follow-up. Women who underwent AT had improved symptom frequency (8.04 +/- 10.08 vs 1.66 +/- 2.19, P < 0.001) compared with control women and reduced symtom severity (2.08 +/- 1.03 vs 1.23 +/- 1.36, P = 0.02) and frequency (6.11 +/- 3.17 vs 1.66 +/- 2.19, P < G 0.001) post-AT compared with baseline within group. Within-group improvements among women who underwent AT include QLI health functioning (17.80 +/- 5.74 vs 19.41 +/- 5.19, P = 0.04) and CAQ fear (1.53 +/- 0.61 vs 1.35 +/- 0.56, P = 0.02) post-AT and QLI health functioning (17.80 +/- 5.74 vs 20.09 +/- 5.47, P = 0.01), CAQ fear (1.53 +/- 0.61 vs 1.30 +/- 0.67, P = 0.002), CAQ total (1.42 +/- 0.54 vs 1.29 +/- 0.475, P = 0.04), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait anxiety (42.95 +/- 11.19 vs 38.68 +/- 11.47, P = 0.01), and QLI quality of life (20.67 +/- 5.37 vs 21.9 +/- 4.89, P = 0.02) at follow-up. An 8-week AT program improves symptom frequency, with near-significant improvements in symptom severity in women with cardiac syndrome X.

  2. Case report: a case of intractable Meniere's disease treated with autogenic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakai Kimiko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress plays an important role in the onset and course of Meniere's disease. Surgical therapy and intratympanic gentamicin treatment are options for cases that are intractable to conventional medical therapy. Psychotherapy, however, including autogenic training (AT, which can be used for general relaxation, is not widely accepted. This paper describes the successful administration of AT in a subject suffering from intractable Meniere's disease. Case presentation A 51-year-old male patient has suffered from fluctuating right sensorineural hearing loss with vertigo since 1994. In May 2002, he was first admitted to our hospital due to a severe vertigo attack accompanied by right sensorineural hearing loss. Spontaneous nystagmus toward the right side was observed. Since April 2004, he has experienced vertigo spells with right-sided tinnitus a few times per month that are intractable to conventional medical therapy. After four months, tympanic tube insertion was preformed in the right tympanic membrane. Intratympanic injection of dexamethasone was ineffective. He refused Meniett therapy and intratympanic gentamicin injection. In addition to his vertigo spells, he suffered from insomnia, tinnitus, and anxiety. Tranquilizers such as benzodiazepines and antidepressants such as serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs failed to stop the vertigo and only slightly improved his insomnia. In December 2006, the patient began psychological counseling with a psychotherapist. After brief psychological counseling along with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, he began AT. He diligently and regularly continued his AT training in his home according to a written timetable. His insomnia, tinnitus, and vertigo spells disappeared within a few weeks after only four psychotherapy sessions. In order to master the six standard formulas of AT, he underwent two more sessions. Thereafter, he underwent follow-up for 9 months with no

  3. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  4. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  5. Translational control of Nrf2 within the open reading frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Leal, Oscar; Barrero, Carlos A.; Merali, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Identification of a novel Nrf2 translational repression mechanism. •The repressor is within the 3′ portion of the Nrf2 ORF. •The translation of Nrf2 or eGFP is reduced by the regulatory element. •The translational repression can be reversed with synonymous codon substitutions. •The molecular mechanism requires the mRNA sequence, but not the encoded amino acids. -- Abstract: Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that is essential for the regulation of an effective antioxidant and detoxifying response. The regulation of its activity can occur at transcription, translation and post-translational levels. Evidence suggests that under environmental stress conditions, new synthesis of Nrf2 is required – a process that is regulated by translational control and is not fully understood. Here we described the identification of a novel molecular process that under basal conditions strongly represses the translation of Nrf2 within the open reading frame (ORF). This mechanism is dependent on the mRNA sequence within the 3′ portion of the ORF of Nrf2 but not in the encoded amino acid sequence. The Nrf2 translational repression can be reversed with the use of synonymous codon substitutions. This discovery suggests an additional layer of control to explain the reason for the low Nrf2 concentration under quiescent state

  6. Translational Control of Cell Division by Elongator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelie Bauer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Elongator is required for the synthesis of the mcm5s2 modification found on tRNAs recognizing AA-ending codons. In order to obtain a global picture of the role of Elongator in translation, we used reverse protein arrays to screen the fission yeast proteome for translation defects. Unexpectedly, this revealed that Elongator inactivation mainly affected three specific functional groups including proteins implicated in cell division. The absence of Elongator results in a delay in mitosis onset and cytokinesis defects. We demonstrate that the kinase Cdr2, which is a central regulator of mitosis and cytokinesis, is under translational control by Elongator due to the Lysine codon usage bias of the cdr2 coding sequence. These findings uncover a mechanism by which the codon usage, coupled to tRNA modifications, fundamentally contributes to gene expression and cellular functions.

  7. Lateral ridge augmentation with Bio-Oss alone or Bio-Oss mixed with particulate autogenous bone graft: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aludden, H C; Mordenfeld, A; Hallman, M; Dahlin, C; Jensen, T

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcomes when using Bio-Oss alone or Bio-Oss mixed with particulate autogenous bone grafts for lateral ridge augmentation. A search of the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted. Human studies published in English from 1 January 1990 to 1 May 2016 were included. The search provided 337 titles and six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Considerable variation prevented a meta-analysis from being performed. The two treatment modalities have never been compared within the same study. Non-comparative studies demonstrated a 3-year implant survival of 96% with 50% Bio-Oss mixed with 50% autogenous bone graft. Moreover, Bio-Oss alone or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone graft seems to increase the amount of newly formed bone as well as the width of the alveolar process. Within the limitations of this systematic review, lateral ridge augmentation with Bio-Oss alone or in combination with autogenous bone graft seems to induce newly formed bone and increase the width of the alveolar process, with high short-term implant survival. However, long-term studies comparing the two treatment modalities are needed before final conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autogenous transplantation of rib cartilage preserved in glycerol, after removal of the perichondrium, to the malar process of rats--a histological study (Part I).

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, T.; Gabrielli, M. A.; de Oliveira Júnior, O. B.; Marcantonio, E.; Gabrielli, M. F.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-two male albino rats received autogenous transplants of glycerol-preserved rib cartilage into the malar process. The animals were divided into two groups which received preserved cartilage with or without perichondrium. The implants were well tolerated and removal of the perichondrium enhanced the rate of resorption and bone replacement of the material.

  9. Intractable depression successfully treated with a combination of autogenic training and high-dose antidepressant in department of otorhinolaryngology: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Nakai, Kimiko; Murakami, Masato; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2009-08-14

    Patients suffering from ear discomfort are commonly encountered in the department of otolaryngology. If various clinical examinations do not reveal any objective findings, then the patients are referred to the department of internal medicine or psychiatry. Psychotherapy is recommended in some cases. This paper describes the successful administration of autogenic training in a patient suffering from ear discomfort due to major depression. We present a case of intractable depression that was successfully treated with a combination of psychotherapy, administered by a clinical psychologist, and high-dose antidepressant. The patient was a 36-year-old female with hearing discomfort in her left ear. In 2003, she experienced insomnia and an appetite loss, and her condition was diagnosed as major depression along with an avoidant personality disorder. Her depression has not been improved with antidepressant treatment for 3 years in department of psychosomatic medicine. She was referred to our department because of ear discomfort in her left ear. There was no abnormality in her physical examinations. She wanted to be treated in department of otorhinolaryngology. We increased the dose of fluvoxamine maleate up to 200 mg/day, and introduced cognitive therapy and autogenic training by a clinical psychologist. Eventually, her depressive state as well as the hearing complaint was markedly alleviated. Autogenic training can be a viable and acceptable treatment option for patients who fail to respond to other therapies. This case emphasizes the importance of autogenic training as a method to control physical symptom of depression.

  10. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  11. George Sigerson: Charcot's translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J B

    1997-04-01

    Senator George Sigerson (1836-1925), Dublin's first neurologist, was also a significant contributor to Anglo-Irish literature. His medical career and literary accomplishments are outlined, the focus of the article being Sigerson's friendly relationship with Charcot (with whom he corresponded), and whose Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux he translated.

  12. Intermediation, Brokerage and Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönke, Jana; Müller, Markus-Michael; Risse, Thomas; Draude, Anke; Börzel, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Brokerage, a term prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, has returned. A huge literature analyses how brokers and intermediators— such as government officials, heads of non-governmental organization (NGOs), translators, neo-traditional authorities— strategically negotiate flows of resources and political

  13. Made in translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Evolution of highly functionalized DNA could enable the discovery of artificial nucleic acid sequences with different properties to natural DNA. Now, an artificial translation system has been designed that can support the evolution of non-natural sequence-defined nucleic acid polymers carrying eight different functional groups on 32 codons.

  14. Allogenic and Autogenic Signals in the Detrital Zircon U-Pb Record of the Deep-Sea Bengal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, M. D.; Rogers, K. G.; Gleason, J. D.; Najman, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Himalayan-sourced Ganges-Brahmaputra river system and the deep-sea Bengal Fan represent Earth's largest sediment-dispersal system. This presentation summarizes a new detrital zircon U-Pb (DZ) provenance record from the Bengal Fan from cores collected during IODP Expedition 354, with coring sites located 1350 km downdip from the shelf margin. Each of our 15 samples were collected from medium- to fine-grained turbidite sand and, based on shipboard biostratigraphic analyses, our samples are late Miocene to late Pleistocene in age. Each sample was analyzed by LA-ICPMS at the Arizona Laserchron facility, with an average of n=270 concordant U-Pb ages per sample. Our goals are to use these data to evaluate the influence of allogenic controls vs. autogenic processes on signal propagation from source-to-sink. At the first order, large-scale sediment transfer to the Bengal Fan clearly records the strong tectonic and climatic forcing associated with the Himalayas and Ganges-Brahmaputra system: after up to 2500 km of river transport, and 1350 km of transport in turbidity currents, the DZ record faithfully represents Himalayan source terrains. The sand-rich turbidite part of the record is nevertheless biased towards glacial periods when rivers extended across the shelf in response to climate-forced sea-level fall, and discharged directly to slope canyons. However, only part of the Bengal Fan DZ record represents either the Ganges or the Brahmaputra, with most samples representing varying degrees of mixing of sediments from the two systems: this mixing, or the lack thereof, represents the signal of autogenic avulsions on the delta plain that result in the two river systems delivering sediment separately to the shelf margin, or together as they do today. Within the allogenic framework established by tectonic processes, the climatic system, and global climate-forced sea-level change, the DZ U-Pb record of sediment mixing or the lack thereof provides a fingerprint of autogenic

  15. On Deletion of Sutra Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-juan

    2017-01-01

    Dao An's the metaphor of translation "wine diluted with water' ' expressed a view about translation that had been abridged.Later Kumarajiva provided metaphor "rice chewed—tasteless and downright disgusting".Both of them felt regretted at the weakening of taste,sometimes even the complete loss of flavor caused by deletion in translation of Buddhist sutras.In early sutra translation,deletion is unavoidable which made many sutra translators felt confused and drove them to study it further and some even managed to give their understanding to this issue.This thesis will discuss the definition,and what causes deletion and the measures adopted by the sutra translators.

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of... and Translation of Contract (FEB 2000) In the event of inconsistency between any terms of this...

  17. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  18. (Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, ...

  19. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  20. Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the respective translators struggled sporadically through certain ideological constraints in order to provide a satisfactory narrative. Their inability to internalise the principles contained in the Freedom Charter resulted in them presenting a 'framed' translation ...