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Sample records for austrocedrus chilensis forests

  1. Resin Diterpenes from Austrocedrus chilensis

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    Verónica Rachel Olate

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen diterpenes belonging to the labdane, abietane and isopimarane skeleton classes were isolated from the resin of the Chilean gymnosperm Austrocedrus chilensis and identified by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. The diterpene 12-oxo-labda-8(17,13E-dien-19 oic acid is reported for the first time as a natural product and 14 diterpenes are reported for the first time for the species.

  2. Stand dynamics, spatial pattern and site quality in Austrocedrus chilensis forests in Patagonia, Argentina

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    Burns, S. L.; Goya, J. F.; Arturi, M. F.; Uapura, P. F.; Perez, C. A.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: The objective of this study was to analyze the stand structure and spatial pattern of two A. chilensis stands with contrasting soil conditions and different site qualities in order to explore if these differences lead to patterns similar to the ones observed under different precipitation conditions. Area of study: The study was carried out in two stands located near the city of El Bolson (41degree centigrade 56’S - 71 degree centigrade 33’ W), Rio Negro, Argentina. Material and Methods: We evaluated age difference between canopy strata (upper and lower) in two stands with different site qualities by means of a Mann-Whitney test. Dead individuals by diameter class were compared by means of a chi square test. Spatial distribution pattern was analyzed using the pair-correlation function and the mark-correlation function. Main results: Both sites exhibited a random spatial distribution of A. chilensis but different processes seem to underlie the patterns. In the low-quality site facilitation and continuous establishment led to a transient clumped spatial pattern. Mortality mediated by competition occurred mainly on small trees resulting in the current random pattern. On the other hand, spatial pattern in the high-quality site does not reflect a facilitation mediated recruitment. The upper strata established synchronously and subsequent regeneration was episodic. Research highlights: The results show that the differences in site quality may lead to different establishment spatial patterns, showing the importance of facilitation processes in sites with drier soil conditions and lower quality, although results may be site specific, due to the lack of replications. (Author)

  3. Stand dynamics, spatial pattern and site quality in Austrocedrus chilensis forests in Patagonia, Argentina

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    S.L. Burns

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this study was to analyze the stand structure and spatial pattern of two A. chilensis stands with contrasting soil conditions and different site qualities in order to explore if these differences lead to patterns similar to the ones observed under different precipitation conditions.Area of study: The study was carried out in two stands located near the city of El Bolsón (41° 56’S - 71° 33’ W, Rio Negro, Argentina.Material and Methods: We evaluated age difference between canopy strata (upper and lower in two stands with different site qualities by means of a Mann-Whitney test. Dead individuals by diameter class were compared by means of a chi square test. Spatial distribution pattern was analyzed using the pair-correlation function and the mark-correlation function.Main results: Both sites exhibited a random spatial distribution of A. chilensis but different processes seem to underlie the patterns. In the low-quality site facilitation and continuous establishment led to a transient clumped spatial pattern. Mortality mediated by competition occurred mainly on small trees resulting in the current random pattern. On the other hand, spatial pattern in the high-quality site does not reflect a facilitation mediated recruitment. The upper strata established synchronously and subsequent regeneration was episodic.Research highlights: The results show that the differences in site quality may lead to different establishment spatial patterns, showing the importance of facilitation processes in sites with drier soil conditions and lower quality, although results may be site specific, due to the lack of replications.Keywords: Spatial analysis; regeneration; mortality; competition; facilitation.Abbreviations used:  LQ: low-quality site; HQ: high-quality site.

  4. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina

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    Urretavizcaya, María F.; Gonda, Héctor E.; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  5. Phytophthora austrocedri Elicitates Changes in Diterpene Profile of Austrocedrus chilensis.

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    Olate, Verónica Rachel; Vélez, María Laura; Greslebin, Alina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-08-18

    The populations of the Andean Cupressaceae Austrocedrus chilensis have been severely affected by a disease caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora austrocedri. A study was undertaken to disclose changes in the resin composition of P. austrocedri-infected individuals, including naturally infected and artificially inoculated trees, compared with healthy A. chilensis trees. GC-MS and (1)H-NMR studies showed a clear differentiation among healthy and infected resins, with the diterpene isopimara-8(9),15-dien-19-ol as a relevant constituent in resins from infected trees. The effect of resin fractions from P. austrocedri infected trees on the pathogen was assessed by measuring the mycelial growth in agar plates. The most active fractions from resin obtained from infected trees inhibited fungal growth by nearly 50% at 1 mg/dish (35.37 µg/cm(2)). The main constituent in the active fractions were 18-hydroxymanool and the aldehyde torulosal. Both compounds are oxidation products of manool and can be a chemical response of the tree to the pathogen or be formed from the pathogen as a biotransformation product of manool by microbial oxidation. While the diterpene profiles from A. chilensis tree resins can easily differentiate healthy and P. austrocedri infected individuals, the possible conversion of manool to the antifungal derivatives 4 and 6 by the microorganism remains to be established.

  6. Phytophthora austrocedri Elicitates Changes in Diterpene Profile of Austrocedrus chilensis

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    Verónica Rachel Olate

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The populations of the Andean Cupressaceae Austrocedrus chilensis have been severely affected by a disease caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora austrocedri. A study was undertaken to disclose changes in the resin composition of P. austrocedri-infected individuals, including naturally infected and artificially inoculated trees, compared with healthy A. chilensis trees. GC-MS and 1H-NMR studies showed a clear differentiation among healthy and infected resins, with the diterpene isopimara-8(9,15-dien-19-ol as a relevant constituent in resins from infected trees. The effect of resin fractions from P. austrocedri infected trees on the pathogen was assessed by measuring the mycelial growth in agar plates. The most active fractions from resin obtained from infected trees inhibited fungal growth by nearly 50% at 1 mg/dish (35.37 µg/cm2. The main constituent in the active fractions were 18-hydroxymanool and the aldehyde torulosal. Both compounds are oxidation products of manool and can be a chemical response of the tree to the pathogen or be formed from the pathogen as a biotransformation product of manool by microbial oxidation. While the diterpene profiles from A. chilensis tree resins can easily differentiate healthy and P. austrocedri infected individuals, the possible conversion of manool to the antifungal derivatives 4 and 6 by the microorganism remains to be established.

  7. Micro-environmental changes induced by shape and size of forest openings: effects on Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings performance in a Pinus contorta plantation of Patagonia, Argentina

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    Pafundi, L.; Urretavizcaya, M.F.; Defosse, G.E.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: to analyze, within a Pinus contorta plantation, the effects of artificially created small rectangular and small medium circular canopy gaps on: i) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and soil temperature and moisture, and ii) survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings, species which formerly composed the natural forest of the area. Study area: A 2 ha stand of a Pinus contorta stand in Los Alerces National Park, Argentina (42°43’S, 71°43’W, 490 m.a.s.l.). Material and methods: The Pinus contorta stand was 25 yr old, 22 m height and 26 cm DBH, presenting 1000 trees ha-1 of density and 53 m2 ha-1 of basal area. In 2009, rectangular and circular gaps were created within the stand and then seedlings were planted. During two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012), PAR, soil temperature and moisture were measured in gaps and understory (control), and seedling survival and growth in gaps. Main results: During both seasons, soil temperature did not differ among gaps and control, whereas PAR and soil moisture were lower in control than in gaps. Seedling survival was high in all gaps regardless of species and season. Seedlings showed higher diameter growth in rectangular than in circular gaps. Research highlights: Austrocedrus chilensis and N. dombeyi seedlings survival is high and their growth slightly affected, when planted in differently-sized canopy gaps within a Pinus contorta plantation in Patagonia. However, other gap sizes and stand densities should be tested before recommending which one shows better results for reconverting monocultures into former native forests. Abbreviations used: PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation); DBH (Diameter at Breast Height); INTA (Argentinean Institute of Agricultural Technology); IFONA (Argentinean Forest Institute). (Author)

  8. Stable oxygen isotopes ( δ 18O) in Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings reflect climate variability in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina

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    Roig, F. A.; Siegwolf, R.; Boninsegna, J. A.

    2006-11-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ( δ 18O) composition of Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Endl. (Cupressaceae) tree rings potentially provide retrospective views of changes in environment and climate in the semi-arid lands of Patagonia. We report the development of the first annually resolved δ 18O tree-ring chronology obtained from natural forests of the foothills of the northwestern Patagonian Andes. The isotope record spans between 1890 and 1994 AD. We explore the probable links between this record and the climate of the region. Air temperatures during summer conditions are significantly, but not strongly, inversely correlated with annual δ 18O values from Austrocedrus tree rings. The strongest correlations are between the southern oscillation index (SOI) and the tree rings. The existence of millennial-age Austrocedrus trees in northern Patagonia provides interesting possibilities for examining these climate-related isotopic signals over most of the last 1,000 years.

  9. Stable oxygen isotopes (delta18(O)) in Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings reflect climate variability in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina.

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    Roig, F A; Siegwolf, R; Boninsegna, J A

    2006-11-01

    The stable oxygen isotope (delta (18)O) composition of Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Endl. (Cupressaceae) tree rings potentially provide retrospective views of changes in environment and climate in the semi-arid lands of Patagonia. We report the development of the first annually resolved delta (18)O tree-ring chronology obtained from natural forests of the foothills of the northwestern Patagonian Andes. The isotope record spans between 1890 and 1994 AD. We explore the probable links between this record and the climate of the region. Air temperatures during summer conditions are significantly, but not strongly, inversely correlated with annual delta (18)O values from Austrocedrus tree rings. The strongest correlations are between the southern oscillation index (SOI) and the tree rings. The existence of millennial-age Austrocedrus trees in northern Patagonia provides interesting possibilities for examining these climate-related isotopic signals over most of the last 1,000 years.

  10. Extremos geográficos de la distribución natural de Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae Geographic extremes of the natural range of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae

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    Mario J. Pastorino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El "Ciprés de la Cordillera " ( Austrocedrus chilensis (D.Don Pic. Ser. et Bizzarri es la conífera nativa de mayor importancia económica de los bosques templados de Argentina. Se han detectado en la bibliografía imprecisiones respecto al rango latitudinal en el que se desarrolla, las que motivaron este estudio. Se determinaron los extremos de ese rango en base a antecedentes bibliográficos, información provista por pobladores y expertos regionales, y reconocimientos en el campo. El extremo septentrional se ubica a los 32º 39' S (Región V de Valparaíso, Chile, y el extremo austral se halla a los 43º 44' S (Provincia de Chubut, Argentina, lo que representa una distancia de unos 1230 km . Esta variación latitudinal y el carácter fragmentario de su distribución natural apoyan la hipótesis de la existencia de ecotipos en la especie.The "Patagonian Cypress" ( Austrocedrus chilensis (D.Don Pic. Ser. et Bizzarri is the most economically important native conifer of the temperate forests of Argentina. Some inaccuracy was detected in the bibliography with respect to its latitudinal range, what motivates the present study. The location of the latitudinal extremes was determined based on bibliographic antecedents, local settlers' and experts' information, and field surveys. The northernmost extreme is located at 32º 39' S (Region V of Valparaíso, Chile, while the southernmost extreme at 43º 44' S (Chubut Province, Argentina. This 11 latitudinal grades range represents a distance of 1230 km. This broad latitudinal range and the fragmentary feature of its natural distribution area support the hypothesis of ecotypes for this species.

  11. Temporal progression trends of cypress mortality at permanent plots in a National forest reserve of Austrocedrus chilensis (Patagonia, Argentina)

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    El Mujtar, V. A.; Andermatten, E.; Perdomo, M. H.; Letourneau, F.; Grau, O.; Gallo, L. A.

    2011-07-01

    Longevity is a characteristic of forest trees that influences their responses to challenges by biotic and abiotic stresses and the temporal development of symptoms. Monitoring programs have been extensively used to detect the impact of climatic change, air pollution and outbreaks of pathogens on forest health, growth and dynamics. In Argentina, forests of Patagonian cypress are affected since mid twenty century by a mortality process called mal del cipres (cypress mortality), but information about their temporal progression is scarce. In the present work we used a database from a program of dasometric permanent plots to analyse the temporal development of cypress mortality on plot and tree level, and determine qualitatively the spatial distribution of affected trees. Particular pulses of appearance of affected trees shared by all plots, rapid or slow progress of mortality at tree level and a homogeneous distribution of affected trees without a clear pattern of expansion from a central point were determined. The results indicate that the episodic appearance of affected trees can be related with warm and dry climatic periods and suggest that the individuals affected by cypress mortality share some special characteristics such as genetic background, developmental conditions or physiological mechanisms for drought responses. (Author) 30 refs.

  12. Improving Survival and Growth of Planted Austrocedrus chilensis Seedlings in Disturbed Patagonian Forests of Argentina by Managing Understory Vegetation

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    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M. Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  13. The Decline of Austrocedrus Forests in Patagonia (Mal del Ciprés): Another Phytophthora-Caused Forest Disease

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    Alina Greslebin; Everett Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Austrocedrus chilensis, an indigenous Cupressaceae of the Patagonian Andes forests, is suffering a disease that has been called "Mal del Ciprés" (MDC). This disease was first reported more than 50 years ago but, in spite of many studies, its causes remained unclear until recently. The disease begins in the root system, the distribution...

  14. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae on Austrocedrus chilensis and its relation with mal del ciprés in Patagonia

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    A. G. Greslebin; E. M. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Field observations, isolations and pathogenicity tests were performed on Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees to determine the pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae and its role in the aetiology of the cypress disease mal del ciprés (MDC) in Argentina. It was found that P. austrocedrae...

  15. Seasonal Variation and Resin Composition in the Andean Tree Austrocedrus chilensis

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    Verónica Rachel Olate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the changes in resin composition in South American gymnosperms associated with the different seasons of the year. The diterpene composition of 44 resin samples from seven Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae trees, including male and female individuals, was investigated in three different seasons of the year (February, June and November. Twelve main diterpenes were isolated by chromatographic means and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The diterpene composition was submitted to multivariate analysis to find possible associations between chemical composition and season of the year. The principal component analysis showed a clear relation between diterpene composition and season. The most characteristic compounds in resins collected in summer were Z-communic acid (9 and 12-oxo-labda-8(17,13E-dien-19 oic acid methyl ester (10 for male trees and 8(17,12,14-labdatriene (7 for female trees. For the winter samples, a clear correlation of female trees with torulosic acid (6 was observed. In spring, E-communic acid (8 and Z-communic acid (9 were correlated with female trees and 18-hydroxy isopimar-15-ene (1 with male tree resin. A comparison between percent diterpene composition and collection time showed p < 0.05 for isopimara-8(9,15-diene (2, sandaracopimaric acid (4, compound (7 and ferruginol (11.

  16. Seasonal variation and resin composition in the Andean tree Austrocedrus chilensis.

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    Olate, Verónica Rachel; Soto, Alex; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2014-05-21

    Little is known about the changes in resin composition in South American gymnosperms associated with the different seasons of the year. The diterpene composition of 44 resin samples from seven Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees, including male and female individuals, was investigated in three different seasons of the year (February, June and November). Twelve main diterpenes were isolated by chromatographic means and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The diterpene composition was submitted to multivariate analysis to find possible associations between chemical composition and season of the year. The principal component analysis showed a clear relation between diterpene composition and season. The most characteristic compounds in resins collected in summer were Z-communic acid (9) and 12-oxo-labda-8(17),13E-dien-19 oic acid methyl ester (10) for male trees and 8(17),12,14-labdatriene (7) for female trees. For the winter samples, a clear correlation of female trees with torulosic acid (6) was observed. In spring, E-communic acid (8) and Z-communic acid (9) were correlated with female trees and 18-hydroxy isopimar-15-ene (1) with male tree resin. A comparison between percent diterpene composition and collection time showed p < 0.05 for isopimara-8(9),15-diene (2), sandaracopimaric acid (4), compound (7) and ferruginol (11).

  17. The role of stand composition on pre-dispersal seed predation in Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae in north west Patagonia El rol de la composición del bosque sobre la depredación predispersiva de semillas en Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae en el noroeste de la Patagonia

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    JOSÉ M VILLACIDE

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the variability of pre-dispersal seed predation by insects on Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae. This is a dioecious conifer endemic to southern South America (central Chile and the Chilean Argentinean Patagonia that grows naturally in pure and mixed stands, typically in association with broadleaved Nothofagus species. Seeds are attacked while still inside the cones, mainly by larvae of Nanodacna austrocedrella (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae. Our working hypothesis was that observed variations in pre-dispersal seed damage levels were related to forest stand composition, specifically to the relative abundance of A. chilensis versus accompanying Nothofagus species. We compared seed predation levels in six pairs of sites using a block design which included a mixed and a pure stand for each paired site. At each site, we manually collected 50 closed seed cones from each of five neighbouring adult trees of A. chilensis. Pre-dispersal seed damage was highly variable among trees and sites, with values ranging between 16.7 to 73.0 % of seeds damaged. We found significant differences in predation rates among stands differing in canopy composition. In mixed stands, with Nothofagus, the proportion of seeds attacked was always greater than that observed in the paired pure A. chilensis stand. We showed that canopy composition influenced the level of pre-dispersal seed predation by insects, supporting the hypothesis that damage increases in mixed stands. Our study is the first to present data on variations of pre-dispersal seed predation in A. chilensis at a large spatial scale, examining the effects of forest type. This information may be useful in planning for commercial A. chilensis seed harvesting, as well as for the conservation this endemic conifer.Estudiamos la variabilidad en la depredación predispersiva de semillas por insectos en Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don Pie. Serm. & Bizzarri (Cupressaceae. Esta especie es una conifera dioica end

  18. High genetic variation in marginal fragmented populations at extreme climatic conditions of the Patagonian Cypress Austrocedrus chilensis.

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    Arana, María Verónica; Gallo, Leonardo A; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Pastorino, Mario J; Sebastiani, Federico; Marchelli, Paula

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge about current patterns of genetic structure of populations together with the evolutionary history of a species helps to understand and predict the adaptation of populations to future climate change. We assayed variation at nuclear microsatellite markers among peripheral vs. continuous populations of the temperate South American species Austrocedrus chilensis, to investigate the role of historical vs. demographical forces in shaping population genetic structure. This species occurs in continuous populations in the west and central distribution range, but becomes highly fragmented at the eastern limit, which comprised ice-free areas during Quaternary glaciations and has extreme climatic conditions at present times. Bayesian analysis methods identified two contrasting patterns of genetic structure; (I) populations from humid, mesic and peri-glacial regions formed a single deme with relatively low genetic differentiation and high admixture levels whereas (II) a highly heterogeneous genetic structure with low level of admixture was found in the steppe, towards the east and northeast limit of the distribution range. In the steppe, population fragmentation, restricted gene flow and isolation-by-distance were also inferred. In addition, several small steppe populations showed high genetic diversity and divergent gene pools, suggesting that they constitute ancient refuges from pre-Holocene glaciations with just a subgroup of them contributing significantly to post-glacial spread. These results are discussed in relation to patterns of genetic variation found for other temperate species and the contribution of the particular southern Andes topography and climate to post-glacial spread.

  19. La fertilidad química del suelo y el «mal del ciprés» en Patagonia, Argentina Soil chemical fertility and austrocedrus chilensis disease in Patagonia, Argentina

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    Daniela Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de Austrocedrus chilensis sufren un proceso de mortalidad conocido como «mal del ciprés», cuya causa es aún discutida. Estudios previos sugieren la presencia de Phytophthora austrocedrae como agente causal de la mortalidad; sin embargo, el origen de la enfermedad continúa en estudio, dado que existen áreas afectadas no vinculadas con Phytophthora. El suelo, principalmente a través de sus características físicas y morfológicas, fue evidenciado como un factor asociado con la aparición y desarrollo de la enfermedad. En este trabajo, se evaluó la fertilidad química del suelo en relación al «mal del ciprés». Se seleccionaron cuatro sectores ubicados en el Valle «16 de Octubre» de la provincia del Chubut correspondientes a bosques puros y densos de A. chilensis. En cada sector se instalaron parcelas en áreas del bosque con síntomas severos de la enfermedad y en áreas sin síntomas. A su vez se incorporaron al estudio ocho parcelas control, ubicadas en bosques completamente sanos. Se tomaron muestras del horizonte A y se caracterizaron las propiedades químicas del suelo. No se encontraron deficiencias nutricionales y se observó un buen estado nutricional en todos los suelos analizados, aún en los bosques afectados, reflejándose en valores adecuados de materia orgánica, nitrógeno, bases y capacidad de intercambio catiónico. Se manifestaron diferencias entre los suelos bajo bosque afectado y suelos bajo bosques control en los contenidos de suma de bases, saturación de bases, calcio, pH NaF y fósforo. Estas diferencias podrían estar asociadas tanto a las condiciones de drenaje como a la presencia de Phytophthora.Austrocedrus chilensis forests suffer a widespread mortality locally known as «mal del ciprés» (cypress disease whose cause remains controversial. Previous studies suggested Phytophthora austrocedrae as the biotic cause; however, the origin of the mortality is still being studied since there are

  20. Efecto del Compost de Biosólidos en la producción de plantines de Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera Effect of Biosolids Compost on seedling production of Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera

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    Gustavo Basil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de compost de residuos urbanos como sustrato en contenedores es una alternativa interesante a nivel económico y ambiental, dado que reduciría el uso de turba y «tierra negra» en la producción de plantines, y la disposición de residuos en vertederos. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de 0, 30 y 50% de compost de biosólidos en el crecimiento inicial (primer año de ciprés de la cordillera, y el efecto durante los dos años siguientes de un tratamiento único con 50% de compost en el crecimiento posterior y el estado nutricional de los plantines. Se determinó diámetro y altura a 18, 25 y 37 meses, biomasa aérea y radicular a 25 y 37 meses, y concentración foliar de C, N, P, K, Ca y Mg a 37 meses. A pesar de que los tres tratamientos iniciales fueron homogeneizados al año en un único tratamiento con 50% de compost, se encontraron diferencias significativas de diámetro, altura y biomasa aérea y radicular entre los tratamientos originales en todas las fechas analizadas, correspondiendo los mayores valores a los tratamientos con compost. Al finalizar el ensayo, las concentraciones foliares de nutrientes fueron muy similares en todos los plantines, excepto Mg que fue mayor en el tratamiento original con 50% de compost. Los resultados muestran la importancia de los primeros meses de crecimiento en el desarrollo posterior de los plantines de ciprés y el valor potencial de los compost de biosólidos como sustrato para la producción de esta especie en contenedores.Using composts of urban waste, including biosolids, as substrates for containerized plant production is a sound economic and environmental alternative, since it could reduce the use of peat- and «black earth»-based media, and the disposal of organic wastes in landfills. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of 0, 30 and 50% biosolids compost on the initial growth (first year of cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis D. Don, and the effect

  1. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

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    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el aumento de radiación solar y disminución de agua en el suelo que ocurre al interior de los fragmentos. Para esto utilizamos a Aristotelia chilensis, especie que crece tanto en fragmentos como en bosque continuo, y comparamos parámetros relacionados a su morfología foliar en bosque y fragmentos y medimos su repercusión en la capacidad fotosintética de A. chilensis. En términos morfológicos, se observó una disminución del área foliar y del área foliar específica en los fragmentos, siendo 1,2 veces menor que en el bosque continuo. En los fragmentos, el grosor de la epidermis y del parénquima esponjoso son más de 1,3 veces mas gruesos que en el bosque continuo. El grosor del parénquima en empalizada, en cambio, no se vio modificado. La cantidad de nitrógeno en las hojas es 1,2 veces mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, mientras que el contenido de carbono no varía. La conductancia estomática en el bosque continuo fue 1,5 veces mayor que en los fragmentos. Aristotelia chilensis responde morfológica y fisiológicamente ante los cambios abióticos generados por la fragmentación de los bosques, lo que le permite sobrevivir tanto en ambientes de baja luminosidad como el bosque continuo y en ambientes de alta luminosidad y bajo contenido hídrico como los fragmentos de bosque, manteniendo tasas fotosintéticas semejantes en ambos ambientesFragmentation of the Maulino forest implies significant habitat loss, as well as the

  2. Composición, riqueza de especies y abundancia de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna asociados a Aristotelia chilensis (maqui en el bosque maulino fragmentado Composition, species richness and abundance of nocturnal folivorous insects associated with Aristotelia chilensis (maqui in the fragmented Maulino forest

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    XAVIERA DE LA VEGA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el bosque maulino, la herbivoría sobre Aristotelia chilensis (maqui es negativamente afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, siendo mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, particularmente a inicios de la temporada de crecimiento. Este fenómeno puede deberse a cambios en la dinámica de las poblaciones de defoliadores, esencialmente insectos. En este trabajo se evaluó la abundancia, riqueza de especies y composición de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna presentes en A. chilensis en un bosque continuo (600 ha y en ocho fragmentos remanentes (0,4-20 ha. Los muéstreos se realizaron mensualmente, entre agosto de 2005 y febrero de 2006, en 32 ejemplares adultos de A. chilensis en el bosque continuo y en 32 ejemplares en los fragmentos. Los insectos fueron muestreados durante las cinco primeras horas de la noche. Se recolectaron 890 insectos defoliadores, pertenecientes a 17 familias y 77 especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Coleóptera, Orthoptera y Lepidoptera, siendo todas nativas. La abundancia total no varió según el habitat. Sin embargo, la fragmentación incrementó o disminuyó la abundancia de algunas especies. La riqueza de especies por árbol tampoco fue afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, aunque el número total de especies fue considerablemente mayor en los fragmentos que en el bosque continuo. La similitud de especies fue mayor dentro del bosque continuo que entre el bosque continuo y los fragmentos o que entre los fragmentos. A principios de la temporada de crecimiento de A. chilensis (septiembre, la abundancia de Sericoides obesa fue significativamente mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos. Al avanzar en la temporada, Sericoides viridis se hizo más abundante en los fragmentos. Por el tamaño y la voracidad de los insectos del género Sericoides ellos serían los principales responsables de los patrones de defoliación de A. chilensis en el bosque maulino.At the Maulino forest

  3. Postglacial history of the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone (41-43°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Virginia; Whitlock, Cathy; Markgraf, Vera; Bianchi, María Martha

    2014-06-01

    Patagonian vegetation has dramatically changed in composition and distribution over the last 23,000 years. Although the vegetation history has been inferred from individual pollen records, the regional patterns and drivers of vegetation development are poorly understood. High resolution pollen and charcoal data from eleven sites located along the eastern flanks of the Patagonian Andes (41-43°S) were examined to reconstruct the Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of steppe/forest ecotone and separate the relative influence of climatic versus non-climatic factors in shaping the patterns of ecological change. Pollen data indicate that, as the Lateglacial climate became progressively wetter, the initial steppe vegetation was replaced by open forest of Nothofagus in the Lateglacial and early Holocene periods, and by closed forest in the late Holocene. Fire activity was lowest during the Lateglacial/early-Holocene transition and gradually increased through the Holocene. Prior to ca 5000 cal yr BP, the conifer Austrocedrus chilensis possibly persisted in isolated populations along the eastern boundary of its modern distribution. Cooler/more humid conditions after ca 5000 cal yr BP allowed the development of the modern mixed Nothofagus-Austrocedrus forest. The paleoenvironmental record points to the sensitivity of the forest/steppe ecotone in the past, not only to climate but also to complex environmental feedbacks that amplified the effects of climate change.

  4. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis), a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Susana Patricia; Cueto, Victor Rodolfo; Gorosito, Cristian Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis) is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May), elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug.), birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500-600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100-200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals showing a clear

  5. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis), a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Susana Patricia; Cueto, Victor Rodolfo; Gorosito, Cristian Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis) is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May), elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug.), birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500–600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100–200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals showing a clear

  6. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  7. Gracilaria chilensis(Gracilariales, Rhodophyta

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    Maximiliano D. Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria chilensis es un alga roja agarófita perteneciente a la clase Florideophyceae. En este estudio se describe la formación de pelos en talos mantenidos en cultivo en agua de mar enriquecida, bajo condiciones controladas de luz y temperatura. La inducción de los pelos fue realizada colocando porciones de talos en un medio de cultivo carente de compuestos nitrogenados. Se emplearon técnicas de microscopía óptica y electrónica de transmisión y barrido. Los pelos se desarrollan a partir de células corticales ovoides grandes. Estas células formadoras de pelos (CFPs son multinucleadas, poseen pequeños plástidos y una abundante red de retículo endoplasmático de disposición apical. La formación de los pelos comienza con el desarrollo de una protuberancia, inicialmente cubierta por una pared multilaminar, la cual se rompe junto con la pared del talo, con la consecuente elongación de la protuberancia. El pelo queda establecido cuando se produce una citocinesis en la base de la protuberancia, formándose una conexión citoplasmática obliterada o “pit plug” asimétrica entre la base del pelo y la CFP. Los pelos son unicelulares, poseen una vacuola y numerosos núcleos. Tienen un crecimiento activo dejando, al caerse, una cicatriz de forma concéntrica en la pared. Se compara este proceso con el descrito en otras especies de la clase. En medios de cultivo carentes de nitrógeno, el crecimiento del talo de G. chilensis fue menor, aumentando el número de pelos.

  8. Phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella), the main edible non-timber product from native Patagonian forests of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pildain, María B; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Morchella species are edible fungi in high demand and therefore command high prices in world markets. Phenotypic-based identification at the species-level remains inadequate because of their complex life cycles, minor differences and plasticity of morphological characteristics between species, and the lack of agreement between scientific and common names. In Patagonia-Argentina, morels are associated with native forests of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cordilleran or Chilean cypress) and Nothofagus antarctica (ñire) and several exotic conifers that were introduced from western North America. Little is known about their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other species in the genus. This work focused on the identification of collections of Morchella from Patagonia and their phylogenetic relationships with other species from the Northern Hemisphere. The comparison was made by analysis of DNA sequences obtained from four loci: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial RNA polymerase I gene (RPB1) for the complete collection; and ITS, RPB1, RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), and translation elongation factor (EF1-α) for the species-rich Elata Subclade. Analyses of individual and combined data sets revealed that Patagonian morels belong to the Elata Clade and comprised three strongly supported species-level lineages from both Patagonian native forest, and exotic trees introduced from western North America. One lineage was identified as Morchella frustrata phylogenetic species Mel-2, which is known from the USA and Canada. The second lineage, which appeared to be 'fire-adapted', was identified as Morchella septimelata phylogenetic species (Mel-7), which is also known from the USA. This species was collected from burned native forests mainly composed of A. chilensis and N. antarctica but also Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Blanco, which is native to western North America. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the third species from

  9. Sulfated Polyhydroxysteroids from the Antartic Ophiuroid Gorgonocephalus Chilensis

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Maier; Araya, E.; A. M. Seldes

    2000-01-01

    Five disulfated steroids and a mixture of monosulfated steroids were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the antarctic ophiuroid Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The structures were determined by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and FABMS.

  10. Sulfated Polyhydroxysteroids from the Antartic Ophiuroid Gorgonocephalus Chilensis

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    M. S. Maier

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Five disulfated steroids and a mixture of monosulfated steroids were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the antarctic ophiuroid Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The structures were determined by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and FABMS.

  11. Ignition probability of fine dead surface fuels of native Patagonian forests or Argentina

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    Lucas O. Bianchi

    2014-04-01

    .Keywords: Austrocedrus chilensi; Nothofagus antarctica; wildfire; fire behavior; fuel moisture; fire weather index.

  12. Observations on the behavior of Schroederichthys chilensis (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae

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    Daniel Flores

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schroederichthys chilensis, the redspotted catshark or chilean catshark, is an endemic species to Peruvian and Chilean waters. Observations on its behavior in the National Reserve System of Guano Islands, Islets, and Capes – Punta San Juan and Paracas National Reserve reveal that it curls when threatened. This hypothesized survival strategy has not been previously documented in this species and we recommend further studies to elucidate this behavior.

  13. Leaf phenology and its associated traits in the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae Fenología foliar y sus caracteres asociados en la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae

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    MARÍA ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-summer leaf demography of the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis growing near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, is described. Its specific leaf mass (SLM, g m-2 is compared to that of the deciduous and evergreen species of the Andean-Patagonian forests and to that of other communities abroad. The pattern of leaf emergence is intermediate, with leaf flush in spring (basal cohort, BC, followed by successive unfolding of the remaining leaves (distal cohort, DC during summer. The senescence of the BC occurs mainly in autumn, with a loss of 11-31 % of its SLM. The DC falls synchronously in mid-spring and the SLM loss in winter is 10-13 %. The SLM of A. chilensis (103.6 ± 6.2 g m-2 is intermediate when compared to the general mean values of deciduous (73.7 ± 15.9 g m-2 and evergreen species (154.8 ± 45.8 g m-2. The SLM of deciduous and evergreen species of three different forests near San Carlos de Bariloche varied significantly at the end of the growing season while that of A. chilensis showed more constant values. The periodicity of leaf production and senescence in A. chilensis allows the maintenance of one leaf cohort throughout the year, covering the carbon demand for flowering and leaf production in spring. This differentiates the deciduous from the wintergreen species, despite their similar mean leaf life span values, while the evergreen species have a longer leaf turnover. Considering the conditions for growth in each studied forest, the leaf life span was not the only factor determining the SLM value. This variable would also depend on multiple stresses that may act during the ontogenesis and evolution of the leaves in each phenological groupSe describe la demografía foliar después del verano de la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis, creciendo cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Se compara su peso específico foliar (SLM, g m-2 con los valores de especies deciduas y siempreverdes de los

  14. Bioactive Compounds of Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz and their Pharmacological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Di Marino, Cinzia; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, and biological activity of A. chilensis using information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic searches. Anthocyanins, other flavonoids, alkaloids, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, other bioactive molecules, and mineral elements are summarized. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions are presented, including antioxidant activity, inhibition of visible light-induced damage of photoreceptor cells, inhibition of α-glucosidase, inhibition of pancreatic lipase, anti-diabetic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic effects, anti-diabetes, effective prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of hair growth, anti-photo ageing of the skin, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Although some ethnobotanical uses have been supported in in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical classes of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of action are necessary. In addition, the toxicity and the side effects from the use of A. chilensis, as well as clinical trials, require attention.

  15. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Solidago chilensis in rats

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    Mariane Schneider

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSolidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae, is traditionally used to treat inflammation. However, phytochemical and pharmacology investigations are lacking. This study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract from S. chilensis aerial parts in rats. In oral glucose tolerance tests the rats received saline (0.5 ml/100 g in control group (C, hydroalcoholic extract (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6 or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6. After 30 min, glucose (4 g/kg was administered. Rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract 500 demonstrated decreased glucose levels at 180 min (-22.1%, when compared with group C, similar to glibenclamide. Moreover, treatment with hydroalcoholic extract 500 significantly increased the glycogen content in the liver and soleus muscle, and hydroalcoholic extract 250 specifically inhibited the enzyme maltase when compared with group C. Furthermore, all hyperglycemic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract (125, 250 and 500 exhibited an accentuated decrease in total cholesterol levels (-36.8%, -36.7% and -41.3%, respectively. Our results suggest that hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract could be associated with increased production and release of insulin as well as with insulinotropic and antioxidant effects.

  16. Efeitos farmacológicos do extrato aquoso de Solidago chilensis Meyen em camundongos Pharmacological effect of aqueous extract from Solidago chilensis Meyen on mice

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    F.L. Assini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul (Brasil encontrada principalmente na região Sul do Brasil onde é conhecida popularmente como arnica-do-mato. Na medicina popular, ela é utilizada como diurética, cicatrizante, e anti-inflamatória. No presente trabalho, os efeitos farmacológicos do extrato aquoso das raízes de S. chilensis foram avaliados em modelos experimentais in vivo de atividade tipo-antidepressiva, antiinflamatória, antinociceptiva, e locomotora. O extrato (25, 100 e 250 mg kg-1 foi administrado por via oral 30 min antes dos experimentos comportamentais. Os resultados mostram que, nas doses utilizadas, o extrato aquoso de S. chilensis não apresentou atividade tipo-antidepressiva apesar de induzir efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório significativos. Uma redução da atividade locomotora foi observada com a maior dose (250 mg kg-1 administrada, sugerindo efeito sobre o sistema nervoso central. Em conclusão, os resultados estão de acordo com a literatura acerca dos efeitos analgésicos e antiinflamatórios da planta, sugerindo também uma atividade do extrato de S. chilensis sobre o sistema nervoso central. Essas observações, porém, não excluem um possível efeito relaxante muscular periférico do extrato.Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae is a species native to South America (Brazil, found especially in the south region of Brazil, where it is commonly known as "arnica-do-mato". In folk medicine, it has been used as diuretic, healing and anti-inûammatory. In the present study, the pharmacological effects of aqueous extracts from roots of S. chilensis were assessed in vivo in experimental models for antidepressant, anti-inflammatory and locomotor-type activity. The extract (25, 50 and 250 mg kg-1 was administered by the oral route 30 minutes prior to behavioral tests. Results indicate that, at the employed levels, aqueous extract from S. chilensis did not show antidepressant

  17. Cell wall proteins in seedling cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J G; Cardemil, L

    1994-01-01

    Four cell wall proteins of cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis seedlings were characterized by PAGE and Western analyses using a polyclonal antibody, generated against soybean seed coat extensin. These proteins had M(r)s of 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 and 63,000, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The proteins exhibited a fluorescent positive reaction with dansylhydrazine suggesting that they are glycoproteins; they did not show peroxidase activity. The cell wall proteins were also characterized by their amino acid composition and by their amino-terminal sequence. These analyses revealed that there are two groups of related cell wall proteins in the cotyledons. The first group comprises the proteins of M(r)s 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 which are rich in glutamic acid/glutamine and aspartic acid/asparagine and they have almost identical NH2-terminal sequences. The second group comprises the M(r) 63,000 protein which is rich in proline, glycine, valine and tyrosine, with an NH2-terminal sequence which was very similar to that of soybean proline-rich proteins.

  18. (--8-Oxohobartine a New İndole Alkaloid from Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz

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    Cristian Paz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Aristotelia chilensis is considered a “super fruit” due to its high concentration of polyphenols displaying exceptional antioxidant capacities ORAC. From maqui berries have been reported several anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonoids, those benefits increase the attention to restudy the plant. From the leaves of A. chilensis several indole alkaloids have been reported, we in addition to aristoteline, aristone, aristoquinoline and 3-fromylindole report the spectroscopic elucidation of 8-oxo-9-dehydromakomakine (1, hobartine (2 and a new alkaloid named 8-oxohobartine (3. Compound 1 to 3 did not show bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus till 200 μg.

  19. Genome Sequence of Borrelia chilensis VA1, a South American Member of the Lyme Borreliosis Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihua; Ojaimi, Caroline; Fallon, John T; Travisany, Dante; Maass, Alejandro; Ivanova, Larisa; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2015-02-12

    Borrelia chilensis strain VA1 is a recently described South American member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex from Chile. Whole-genome sequencing analysis determined its linear chromosome and plasmids lp54 and cp26, confirmed its membership in the Lyme borreliosis group, and will open new research avenues regarding its pathogenic potential. Copyright © 2015 Huang et al.

  20. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to other types of climate archives, biogenic skeletons of a variety of different organisms (i.e. shells of bivalves, skeletal hard parts of corals or sponges) are increasingly used for high-resolution climate reconstructions. Bivalves are particularly suited for such analyses because they are geographically broadly distributed and have been shown to record climate and environmental information reliably and over long time intervals. Variation of environmental parameters such as food supply, substratum type, salinity, illumination, temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen or oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, among others, may affect growth pattern, shell structure, mineralogy, isotopic fractionation and chemistry. Thus, shell features, minor and trace element composition patterns and isotopic signals may serve as an archive of environmental history. In turn, palaeoclimatic parameters such as ambient temperature, precipitation gradients, seawater salinity and primary production can be reconstructed from the shells by means of sclerochronological and geochemical methods. However, the distribution of minor and trace elements in the biominerals is not only influenced by the environment or vital effects, but also by intrinsic biomineralisation parameters like the carbonate polymorphism and the mineral habit (Soldati et al., 2008a). Generally, it is assumed that the X2+ ions are replacing the Ca2+ ion in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure, but newest findings show that amorphous (or disordered) phases may play a role in hosting some of the elements use as proxies (Meibom et al., 2008; and Finch and Allison, 2007). In this work we focused on the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, a widely distributed inhabitant of lakes and rivers in southern South America. Thanks to its long life span and seasonal growth Diplodon mussels exhibit excellent characteristics to construct an accurate chronological archive, with time windows of up to around a

  1. Reproduction of the cold-water coral Primnoella chilensis (Philippi, 1894)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Ashley M.; Waller, Rhian G.; Försterra, Gunter

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the reproduction of a cold-water coral, Primnoella chilensis (Philippi, 1894) from the Comau and Reñihué fjords in Chilean Patagonia. Samples were collected in September and November of 2012 and April, June, and September of 2013 from three sites within the two fjords. The sexuality, reproductive mode, spermatocyst stage, oocyte size, and fecundity were determined using histological techniques. This species is gonochoristic with one aberrant hermaphrodite identified in this study. Reproduction was found to be seasonal, with the initiation of oogenesis in September and suggested a broadcast spawning event between June and September. The maximum oocyte size was 752.96 μm, suggesting a lecithotrophic larvae. The maximum fecundity was 36 oocytes per polyp. Male individuals were only found in April and June. In June, all four spermatocyst stages were present. This suggests that spermatogenesis requires less time than oogenesis in P. chilensis.

  2. Reproductive biology of Zearaja chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, C; Vargas-Caro, C; Oddone, M C; Concha, F; Flores, H; Lamilla, J; Bennett, M B

    2012-04-01

    Between 2000 and 2002, three artisanal landing sites were sampled in southern Chile, with data on population structure and reproductive development collected from 5477 yellownose skates Zearaja chilensis. Total length (L(T) ) ranged from 33 to 158 cm for females and 34 to 155 cm for males. No sexual dimorphism was evident in disc size (length or width) or in L(T)-mass relationships. The smallest mature female was 95 cm L(T) and the size at which 50% were mature (L(T50) ) was 109 cm. Males matured between 80 and 90 cm L(T) with a L(T50) of 88 cm. Although the largest Z. chilensis captured by the artisanal fishery was 155 cm L(T) , 89% of landings comprised relatively small, immature fish. This situation may compromise the stock integrity if intrinsic vulnerability and probable long-life span of Z. chilensis are considered. Consequences for the survival of the species and possible signs of a fishery collapse must be reviewed by management authorities by consideration of both artisanal and industrial landings in Chile.

  3. Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes. The shrub Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae is reported for the first time as a host plant for three Neotropical Polyommatini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae: Hemiargus ramon (Dognin, 1887, Leptotes trigemmatus (Butler, 1881 and Nabokovia faga (Dognin, 1895, based on two collections performed in the western slopes of the northern Chilean Andes in two consecutive summers. The relative abundance was always above 90% for N. faga while it was always less than 5% for H. ramon and L. trigemmatus. Furthermore, N. faga was not found on inflorescences of other native Fabaceae examined in the study site. This pattern suggests a close relationship between N. faga and D. pennellii var. chilensis, at least at a local scale.

  4. SIMULACIÓN MATEMÁTICA DEL PROCESO DE SECADO DE LA GRACILARIA CHILENA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF DRYING PROCESS OF CHILEAN GRACILARIA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS

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    Antonio Vega Gálvez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar y modelar la cinética de secado por aire caliente del alga Gracilaria (Gracilaria chilensis utilizando un secador convectivo diseñado y construido en la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de La Serena a cinco temperaturas de bulbo seco (30, 40, 50, 60 y 70ºC y velocidad de aire de 2.0±0.2 m.s-1. Para el modelado matemático se utilizan tres modelos empíricos (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page. Durante el experimento se observa solamente el periodo de velocidad decreciente, por lo que se utiliza la ecuación de la segunda Ley de Fick para el cálculo de la difusividad efectiva de agua. El proceso de secado presenta humedades finales entre 0.096 g agua/g m.s y 0.061 g agua/g m.s para 30ºC y 70ºC, respectivamente. Tanto la difusividad como los parámetros cinéticos k1, k2 y k3 de los modelos propuestos presentan dependencia con la temperatura y al evaluarlos con la ecuación de Arrhenius se obtienen energías de activación de 39.92, 33.85, 33.49 y 33.83 kJ·mol-1, respectivamente. De acuerdo a los análisis estadísticos que se utilizan (r2, SSE, RMSE y X², el modelo de Page muestra la mejor calidad de ajuste sobre los datos experimentales, otorgando así una buena herramienta para el modelado de la cinética de secado industrial de la Gracilaria chilensis y el cálculo del tiempo de secado a diferentes temperaturas, con el fin de alcanzar un contenido de humedad comercial aceptable internacionalmente.The aim of this research is to study and to model the hot air drying kinetics of Gracialaria algae (Gracilaria chilensis, using a convective drier -designed and built at the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de La Serena- at five dry bulb temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC and an air velocity of 2.0 ± 0.2 m.s-1. Three empirical models are used for the mathematic modeling (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page. During the experiment, only a falling rate period is observed, hence the Fick's second

  5. Tamaño relativo encefálico e índices cerebrales en Vanellus c. chilensis (Aves: Charadriidae Relative encephalic size and cerebral indices of Vanellus c. chilensis (Aves: Charadriidae

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    ESTELA PISTONE

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la composición cuantitativa encefálica y se estimaron índices cerebrales en Vanellus c. chilensis (tero o queltehue. Se estimó el volumen porcentual e índices cerebrales del encéfalo total y de siete de sus componentes, como así también los núcleos de relevo de las vías trigeminal, visual y acústica. El telencéfalo es el componente de mayor volumen relativo, siendo el neoestriado la estructura telencefálica de tamaño superior. El desarrollo del estriado propiamente dicho, tecto óptico y los núcleos de relevo de las vías visual y trigeminal concuerdan con la dieta carnívora de Vanellus c. chilensis. El tamaño relativo del Wulst y de los núcleos de la vía acústica se asocia a las complicadas tácticas que utiliza esta especie en la defensa del nido. Los índices cerebrales de las estructuras encefálicas analizadas indican que Vanellus c. chilensis es un ave progresivaThe quantitative encephalic composition and cerebral indices of Vanellus c. chilensis (southern lapwing were analyzed. The percentual volumes and cerebral indices for the whole encephalon and for seven components were calculated as well as relevous nuclei of the trigeminal, visual and acoustic pathways. The component of greater relative volume is the telencephalon. The neostriatum is the most developed encephalic structure. Developing of bulbus olfactorius, striatum, tectum opticum and relevous nuclei of visual and trigeminal pathways are according with the carnivorous diet of Vanellus c. chilensis. The relative size of Wulst and relevous nuclei of acoustic pathway appears associated with the complex tactics used by this species in the defense of nest. Cerebral indices of all the analyzed structures suggest that Vanellus c. chilensis is a progresive bird

  6. Detailed analyses of fresh and dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) berries and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, J E; Buchweitz, M; Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed chemical characterization of nutritionally-relevant, quality-determining constituents in dried and fresh fruits as well as juices of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) is provided. A total of 8 glycosylated anthocyanins was characterized in maqui fruits, being composed of differently substituted cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. During processing into juice, a substantial loss in total anthocyanin contents (TAC) was observed. TAC values were also reduced after drying of maqui berries. Likewise, the browning index (BI) of fresh fruits increased during processing. Being composed of flavonol glycosides and ellagic acids, 17 non-anthocyanin phenolics were characterized in all maqui samples. Besides characterizing phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, total phenolics, major sugars, non-volatile organic acids, minerals and trace elements were quantitated. Moreover, total lipid contents and the fruits' mainly unsaturated fatty acid profiles are reported. The presented results indicate the high potential of maqui as so far under-utilized but extremely pigment-rich "superfruit".

  7. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species.

  8. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz by steam drag

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    Ximena Araneda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz, to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile. Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moisture content, dry matter (DM, total ash, total sugars (AT, crude protein (PC, total polyphenols (PFT and total carbohydrates (CHT, the polyphenol content highlighting for unsweetened juice with 993.2 mg 100 mL-1 EAG and juice with sugar 829.208 mg 100 mL-1 EAG. Therefore, the technique allows to extract juice with minimal processing machin, presenting this high concentration of polyphenols.

  9. Ocean acidification and pathogen exposure modulate the immune response of the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Nicole; Saavedra, Luisa M; Vargas, Cristian A; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Détrée, Camille

    2017-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is one of the main consequences of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), impacting key biological processes of marine organisms such as development, growth and immune response. However, there are scarce studies on the influence of OA on marine invertebrates' ability to cope with pathogens. This study evaluated the single and combined effects of OA and bacterial infection on the transcription expression of genes related to antioxidant system, antimicrobial peptides and pattern recognition receptors in the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis. Individuals of M. chilensis were exposed during 60 days at two concentrations of pCO2 (550 and 1200 μatm) representing respectively current and future scenario of OA and were then injected with the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. Results evidenced an immunomodulation following the OA exposure with an up-regulation of C-type Lectin and Mytilin B and a down-regulation of Myticin A and PGRP. This immunomodulation pattern is partially counteracted after challenge with V. anguillarum with a down-regulation of the C-type lectin and Mytilin B and the up-regulation of Myticin A. In turn, these results evidence that pCO2-driven OA scenarios might triggers specific immune-related genes at early stages of infection, promoting the transcription of antimicrobial peptides and patterns recognition receptors. This study provides new evidence of how the immune response of bivalves is modulated by higher CO2 conditions in the ocean, as well one factor for the resilience of marine population upon global change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. De novo transcriptome analysis of the red seaweed Gracilaria chilensis and identification of linkers associated with phycobilisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorphal, María Alejandra; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Dagnino-Leone, Jorge; Vásquez, José Aleikar; Martínez-Oyanedel, José; Bunster, Marta

    2017-02-01

    This work reports the results of the Illumina RNA-Seq of a wild population of female haploid plants of Gracilaria chilensis (Bird et al., 1986) (Rhodophyta, Gigartinalis). Most transcripts were de novo assembled in 12,331 contigs with an average length of 1756bp, showing that 96.64% of the sequences were annotated with known proteins. In particular, the identification of linker proteins of phycobilisomes (PBS) is reported. Linker proteins have primary been identified in cyanobacteria but the information available about them in eukaryotic red alga is not complete, and this is the first report in G. chilensis. This resource will also provide the basis for the study of metabolic pathways related to polysaccharide production.

  11. Phospholipases and galactolipases trigger oxylipin-mediated wound-activated defence in the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Ulrich; Wiesemeier, Theresa; Weinberger, Florian; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the wound response of the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, in order to obtain insight into its interaction with epiphytic pests. After wounding, the host releases free fatty acids as well as the hydroxylated eicosanoids, 8R-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE) and 7S,8R-dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (7,8-di-HETE). While the release of free arachidonic acid and subsequent formation of 8-HETE is controlled by phospholipase A, 7,8-di-HETE production is independent of this lipase. This dihydroxylated fatty acid might be directly released from galactolipids. Physiologically relevant concentrations of oxylipins reduced spore settlement of Acrochaetium sp. (Rhodophyta, Acrochaetiaceae) and suppressed the development of hapteria in Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae) when these model epiphytes were exposed to artificial surfaces that contained 8-HETE or 7,8-di-HETE. Thus, the immediate release of oxylipins can be seen as G. chilensis defence against epiphytes.

  12. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  13. The Potential of Algarrobo ( Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75 % germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50 % germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30 % germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97 % at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  14. Pipunculidae (Diptera da região neotropical: I. Redescrição de Chalarus chilensis Collin, comb. n. e descrição de duas espécies novas da Amazônia

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    J. A. Rafael

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Chalarus chilensis Collin, comb. n. é redescrito a partir do tipo e duas novas espécies da Bacia Amazônica, C. amazonensis e C. connexus, são descritas.Chalarus chilensis, comb. n. , is redescribed from the type and two species from the Amazon Basin, C. amazonensis and C. connexus, are described.

  15. [Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Ugarte, V

    2000-06-01

    Cereal bars with peanut and walnut has shown to be snack foods of good organoleptic characteristics and high caloric value, due to their content of protein, lipids and carbohydrates. Cotyledons of mezquite seeds have a high protein content which biological quality improves with thermal processing like toasting, microwave or moist heat under pressure. The purposes of this research were to study the use of mezquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) in cereal bars with two different levels of peanut or walnut; and to determine the effect of two thermal treatment applied on the cotyledon upon the bar characteristics. Twelve different kind of bars were developed through the combination of two levels of peanut or walnut (15% and 18%); the use of mezquite cotyledon (0% and 6%); and the application of two thermal processing to the cotyledon (microwave and toasting). Cereal bars were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory characteristics: moisture, water activity, proximate chemical composition, sensory quality and acceptability. Moisture content of bars with peanut ranged between 10.4% and 10.9%; and for those with walnut, between 10.5% and 12.3%. Protein content was higher in the bars with mezquite cotiledon, being higher those with peanut. Thermal processing did not have any effect on the chemical composition. Bars with mezquite cotyledon treated by microwave showed a higher acceptability.

  16. Left-right asymmetries and shape analysis on Ceroglossus chilensis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.

    2013-10-01

    Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.

  17. Molecular evidence confirms that Proctoeces humboldti and Proctoeces chilensis (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) are the same species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, I M; Cardenas, L; Gonzalez, K; Jofré, D; George-Nascimento, M; Guiñez, R; Oliva, M E

    2010-12-01

    Two species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 have been described in marine organisms from Chile: P. humboldti George-Nascimento & Quiroga (1983), parasitizing the gonads of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), and P. chilensis Oliva (1984), an intestinal parasite of Sicyases sanguineus (Teleostei); both species were subsequently considered as P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960). To assist in the resolution of the taxonomic identification of Proctoeces species in marine organisms from Chile, phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences from the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene were performed. Several specimens of P. lintoni were isolated from keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.) and clingfish (S. sanguineus) from Bahia San Jorge (23°40'S) and Bahia Concepción (36°50'S). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using three different approaches: a neighbour-joining (NJ), a maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic analysis confirms that specimens of Proctoeces obtained from keyhole limpets and those specimens from the clingfish are in fact the same species. We prefer to consider our specimens as Proctoeces cf. lintoni, as the morphology of Proctoeces appears to be of doubtful value and genetic information about P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960) is not available. In addition, our results strongly suggest that there are at least three species in this genus.

  18. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego MONTALTI; Maricel GRA(N)A GRILLI; René E.MARAGLIANO; Guillermo CASSINI

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used.Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds.Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions:culmen,bill height and width,tarsus length and middle toe claw.The functions were tested on a sample of live flamingos from a zoo.The best classification for museum flamingos was given by a function using tarsus length,bill width and middle toe claw (97%).However,this function did not give the best classification for the zoo-based flamingos (81%) which had the best sex assignment by a function including measurements of tarsus,culmen and bill height and width (85%).This shows that a function giving good results in the sample from which it originated may not be as good when applied to another group of animals.Our study emphasizes the need for assessing the accuracy of a function by testing it with other methods to ensure its suitability when being applied.

  19. The myostatin gene of Mytilus chilensis evidences a high level of polymorphism and ubiquitous transcript expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-02-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a protein of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays a crucial role in muscular development for higher vertebrates. However, its biological function in marine invertebrates remains undiscovered. This study characterizes the full-length sequence of the Mytilus chilensis myostatin gene (Mc-MSTN). Furthermore, tissue transcription patterns and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. The Mc-MSTN cDNA sequence showed 3528 base pairs (bp), consisting of 161 bp of 5' UTR, 2,110 bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 1,257 bp encoding for 418 amino acids and with an RXXR proteolytic site and nine cysteine-conserved residues. Gene transcription analysis revealed that the Mc-MSTN has ubiquitous expression among several tissues, with higher expression in the gonads and mantle than in the digestive gland, gills, and hemolymph. Furthermore, high levels of polymorphisms were detected (28 SNPs in 3'-UTR and 9 SNPs in the coding region). Two SNPs were non-synonymous and involved amino acid changes between Glu/Asp and Thr/Ile. Until now, the MSTN gene has been mainly related to muscle growth in marine bivalves. However, the present study suggests a putative biological function not entirely associated to muscle tissue and contributes molecular evidence to the current debate about the function of the MSTN gene in marine invertebrates.

  20. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  1. Variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional del tunicado Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, en la costa de Chile Genetic variability and population structure in tunicate Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, in the coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA P ASTORGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El tunicado Pyura chilensis se ha considerado una especie de importancia ecológica, por concentrar una gran diversidad biológica en sus agregaciones y de importancia económica por ser un recurso de extracción por pescadores artesanales. Sin embargo, se han detectado cambios en la distribución y abundancia de sus poblaciones adjudicados a su sobreexplotación. Para llegar a establecer medidas de conservación de un recurso, es necesario entre otras cosas, conocer su variabilidad genética y su estructura poblacional, estimando los patrones y sus causas. Por lo tanto, en el presente trabajo se determinó el grado de variabilidad genética aloenzimática del piure P. chilensis y su estructura poblacional en base a tres localidades (Antofagasta, Talcahuano y Puerto Montt en la costa chilena. Los loci polimórficos obtenidos fueron Mdh-1 y Pgi-1. Los valores de Fst mostraron leve estructuración poblacional entre localidades (Fst 0,019 al igual que la prueba exacta de diferenciación genética (P = 0,031. Se observó diferenciación para la localidad de Puerto Montt en relación a las otras dos localidades en algunos de los dos loci. Los niveles de variabilidad observados en esta especie corresponden a lo esperados para otras ascidias. La estructuración genética poblacional puede ser explicada por una combinación de diferentes factores, entre los que destacan: (i el tiempo del periodo larval de 12 a 24 h, lo cual no facilitaría una amplia dispersión a lo largo de 2.500 km de costa y (ii las condiciones oceanográficas diferenciales entre localidades, junto a patrones de circulación cerrados que podrían llegar a restringir el flujo génico. Por último, proponemos que un conocimiento adecuado del grado de variabilidad, estructura y dinámica genética de las poblaciones son aspectos esenciales para tomar medidas de conservación de recursos explotados, tanto en ambientes abiertos como en áreas de manejoThe ascidian Pyura chilensis is an

  2. Ciclo gonadal del chorito Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en dos localidades del sur de Chile Gonadal cycle of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae at two localities in southern of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó de forma cualitativa y cuantitativa el ciclo gonadal del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis en las localidades de Chaihuín y bahía Yal, sur de Chile, entre octubre 2007 y junio 2008. Por medio de análisis histológico gonadal se determinaron cuatro estadios gametogénicos y a su vez se estimó en forma cuantitativa, el Volumen de la Fracción Gamética (VFG, el porcentaje de tejido interfolicular y el índice gonadal. El análisis cuantitativo (VFG fue el mejor indicador para determinar los desoves. En los ejemplares de Chaihuín se observaron dos eventos de emisión gamética en forma simultánea en ambos sexos, que ocurrieron en octubre y marzo. Sin embargo, en los ejemplares de bahía Yal se registraron cuatro desoves, principalmente de marzo a junio (otoño, cuando la temperatura del agua disminuyó. Se determinó una escasa relación entre el Índice Gonadosomático (IG y los estadios gametogénicos, al igual que entre el IG y el porcentaje de ovocitos maduros, por ende el IG no sería un indicador apropiado para los desoves en esta especie. Se sugiere la revisión del periodo de veda de Mytilus chilensis (1 noviembre a 31 diciembre, ya que la mayor parte de los individuos de las poblaciones estudiadas, maduran principalmente en octubre. En ambas localidades, el porcentaje de tejido conjuntivo de los especímenes estudiados fluctúo entre 15 y 70% de cobertura gonadal. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron diferencias en los ciclos reproductivos de Mytilus chilensis entre las localidades analizadas, las que se podrían atribuir a diferencias ambientales (e.g. temperatura causadas por el gradiente latitudinal.A qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out of the gonadal cycle of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis from Chaihuín and Yal bay, southern Chile, between October 2007 and June 2008. Four gametogenic stages were determined using histological analysis of the gonads, and quantitative estimates were made of the Gametic Volume

  3. Short-term feeding response of the mussel Mytilus chilensis exposed to diets containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Respuesta alimentaria inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis expuesto a dietas conteniendo el dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella

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    JORGE M NAVARRO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-term feeding response of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis was measured using four diets containing different proportions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. The diets containing the highest concentrations of the dinoflagellate showed the greatest effect on the feeding activity in the mussel, with clearance and ingestión rates significantly reduced during the first hours of exposure. After this period, M. chilensis demonstrated a capacity to acclimate to the toxic diets, with feeding parameters reaching values similar to those of untreated control organisms. It was not clear if the negative effect on the feeding behavior was caused by the presence of the paralytic toxin, or due to the larger size of the dinoflagellate cells in comparison with cells of Isochrysis galbana used in the control diet. However, parallel studies with diets containing the nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium affine of similar size and shape to that of A. catenella, suggested the cell size was the main cause for impairment of feeding behavior. The capacity for acclimation to either toxin or cell size by M. chilensis makes it a good indicator species for the early detection of harmful PSP events, since its relative insensitivity to the toxin allows it to quickly recover normal feeding behavior and permits it to accumulate PSP in its tissues in a short timeLa respuesta inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis fue medida bajo cuatro dietas que contenían diferentes proporciones del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella. Las dietas que contenían las concentraciones más altas de este dinoflagelado mostraron el mayor efecto durante las primeras horas de exposición. Después de este periodo inicial, M. chilensis demostró la capacidad para aclimatarse a estas dietas tóxicas, con parámetros de alimentación que alcanzaron valores similares a aquellos de los organismos controles. No fue claro si el efecto negativo sobre la conducta de alimentación fue

  4. Anatomía comparada del sistema digestivo de las rayas Urotrygon chilensis y Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes Comparative anatomy of the digestive system of the skates, Urotrygon chilensis and Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes

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    ABRAHAM KOBELKOWSKY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La organización general del sistema digestivo de la raya pinta Urotrygon chilensis y la raya de espina Dasyatis sabina corresponde al patrón morfológico general de los Myliobatiformes. La dentición de estas especies muestra un dimorfismo sexual, consistente en dientes planos en las hembras y dientes puntiagudos en los machos. Entre los músculos mandibulares, el adductor mandibulae es el más complejo. Las cavidades bucofaríngea y visceral son aplanadas dorsoventralmente. El esófago es relativamente largo, el estómago tiene forma de U, el intestino está regionalizado en duodeno, intestino valvular y recto. El mesenterio dorsal está restringido al recto y la glándula rectal. Los caracteres morfológicos más notables que diferencian el sistema digestivo de las dos especies son: la presencia de esfínter cardiaco y la forma en S del recto en U. chilensis, la presencia de escotaduras en las mandíbulas y el mayor número de vueltas de la válvula espiral en D. sabina.The general organization of the digestive system of the rays Urotrygon chilensis and Dasyatis sabina fits with the general morphological pattern of the Myliobatiformes. Dentition of both species shows sexual dimorphism, having the females flattened teeth whereas pointed teeth the males. Among the mandibular muscles, the adductor mandibulae is the most complex. Both the buccopharyngeal and the visceral cavities are dorsoventrally flattened. The esophagus is long, the stomach is U shaped, and the intestine is formed by the duodene, valvular intestine and rectum. The dorsal mesentery is restricted to the rectum and rectal gland. The main morphological characters differentiating both species are: the presence in U. chilensis of the cardiac sphincter and the S shape of the rectum, and the presence in D. sabina of mandibular notches and a higher number of coils of the valvular fold of the intestine.

  5. Bonamia ostreae in the New Zealand oyster Ostrea chilensis: a new host and geographic record for this haplosporidian parasite.

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    Lane, Henry S; Webb, Stephen Charles; Duncan, John

    2016-02-11

    Previous reports of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae have been restricted to the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, and both eastern and western North America. This species is reported for the first time in New Zealand infecting the flat oyster Ostrea chilensis. Histological examination of 149 adult oysters identified 119 (79.9%) infected with Bonamia microcells. Bonamia generic PCR of several oysters followed by DNA sequencing of a 300 bp portion of the 18S rDNA gene produced a 100% match with that of B. ostreae. All DNA-sequenced products also produced a B. ostreae PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) profile. Bonamia species-specific PCRs further detected single infections of B. exitiosa (2.7%), B. ostreae (40.3%), and concurrent infections (53.7%) with these 2 Bonamia species identifying overall a Bonamia prevalence of 96.6%. Detailed histological inspection revealed 2 microcell types. An infection identified by PCR as B. ostreae histologically presented small microcells (mean ± SE diameter = 1.28 ± 0.16 µm, range = 0.9-2 µm, n = 60) commonly with eccentric nuclei. A B. exitiosa infection exhibited larger microcells (mean ± SE diameter = 2.12 ± 0.27 µm, range = 1.5-4 µm, n = 60) with more concentric nuclei. Concurrent infections of both Bonamia species, as identified by PCR, exhibited both types of microcells. DNA barcoding of the B. ostreae-infected oyster host confirmed the identification as O. chilensis. A suite of other parasites that accompany O. chilensis are reported here for the first time in mixed infection with B. ostreae including apicomplexan X (76.5%), Microsporidium rapuae (0.7%) and Bucephalus longicornutus (30.2%).

  6. Uncovering the Complex Transcriptome Response of Mytilus chilensis against Saxitoxin: Implications of Harmful Algal Blooms on Mussel Populations

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    Detree, Camille; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Roberts, Steven; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis. For this, RNA-seq and RT-qPCR approaches were used to evaluate the transcriptomic response of M. chilensis to a purified STX as well as in vivo Alexandrium catenella exposure. Approximately 800 million reads were assembled, generating 138,883 contigs that were blasted against the UniProt Mollusca database. Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) involved in mussel immunity, such as Toll-like receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptors, and scavenger-like receptors were found to be strongly upregulated at 8 and 16 h post-STX injection. These results suggest an involvement of PRRs in the response to STX, as well as identifying potential, novel STX-interacting receptors in this Chilean mussel. This study is the first transcriptomic overview of the STX-response in the edible species M. chilensis. However, the most significant contribution of this work is the identification of immune receptors and pathways potentially involved in the recognition and defense against STX’s toxicity and its impact of harmful algae blooms on wild and cultivated mussel populations. PMID:27764234

  7. A new species of predaceous midge in the Patagonian genus Austrosphaeromias with a redescription of A. chilensis (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of predaceous midge, Austrosphaeromias setosa sp. nov., is described and illustrated from adult males and females collected in the Patagonian-Andean region of Argentina and Chile. Based on examination of the type species of Austrosphaeromias Spinelli, 1997 and recently collected specimens from near the type-locality, the female and previously unknown male of Austrosphaeromias chilensis (Ingram & Macfie, 1931 are also described and illustrated. Descriptions are accompanied by color photographs and illustrations of key features of females and males of both species. We also provide a key to adult females and males of the four species of Austrosphaeromias.

  8. Actividad biológica del veneno de Anthothoe chilensis (Lesson, 1830 (Actiniaria: Sagartiidae

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    Fernando Retuerto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre características bioquímicas, actividad hemolítica, citotóxica y citolítica de tres fracciones del veneno de la anémona de mar Anthothoe chilensis. Los tentáculos de 78 ejemplares de A. chilensis, provenientes de la Isla Cabinza-San Lorenzo, Lima, fueron procesados obteniendo un filtrado, el cual se fraccionó por precipitación con tres puntos de saturación con acetona fría: I (20%, II (50%, III (80%. El filtrado mostró una concentración proteica de 1,8 mg/mL. Las pruebas de detección de carbohidratos totales demostraron la presencia de 1,401 mg de glucosa/ml de solución en el filtrado; mientras que la electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida en presencia de dodecil sulfato de sodio (PAGE-SDS evidenció proteínas de 14 a 94 kDa, de las cuales la mayor parte fueron glicoproteínas. Se encontró actividad hemolítica sobre eritrocitos humanos en las fracciones I y II. La fracción III tuvo la actividad fosfolipásica más alta. Las tres fracciones tuvieron una ligera actividad proteolítica sobre caseína siendo la más activa la fracción I. Los efectos citotóxico y citológico fueron evaluados aplicando el Ensayo de Toxicidad en Embriones de Erizo de mar (SET. Las anormalidades morfológicas fueron evaluadas a las 48 horas de desarrollo. Las anormalidades citológicas fueron evaluadas en el estadio de gástrula tardía. Las tres fracciones acetónicas produjeron daños citotóxicos y citológicos importantes en los embriones de erizo de mar. Los efectos sobre los embriones fueron retrasar su desarrollo y producir anomalías morfológicas como lisis de blástulas y exogastrulación. Los daños citológicos observados fueron núcleos heteropicnóticos, núcleos gigantes y espacios celulares anormales. La fracción II fue la más citotóxica produciendo una mortalidad de 75,52 ± 5,5% en los primeros estadíos con 1,0 μg/mL. La fracción I produjo el mayor porcentaje de anomalías en los embriones

  9. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content.

  10. Differences in sperm ultrastructure between Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae: could be used as a taxonomic trait?

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    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm ultrastructure has been used to solve several systematic and phylogenetic problems in marine invertebrates. The sperm ultrastructure of the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis corresponds to the ect-aquasperm type. Sperm from both taxa measured 55-60 μm between head (acrosome + nucleus, midpiece (only 5 mitochondria and the flagellum which in its end piece has a smaller diameter tail. The differences between both taxa are clearly shown, in the structure of the acrosome and nucleus. Therefore, according to our results and those reported in the literature, we indicate that Chilean native mussel sperm is different from other species of the Mytilus complex (M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. These differences in sperm ultrastructure found in M. chilensis, are another trait that can be used to validate the taxonomic status of the species. Differences in sperm morphology are related with reproductive isolation, and probably will be useful to understand future data on speciation. Finally, we discussed the finding that Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm from Chile have an acrosome notoriously smaller than those reported for specimens from Europe and Africa, though they have a great similarity with specimens from Japan, as reported in the literature.

  11. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

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    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  12. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  13. Crecimiento de juveniles de congrio colorado Genypterus chilensis en condiciones de cultivo

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    Rolando Vega

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El congrio colorado Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 es un pez altamente demandado por el mercado chileno. Las capturas han disminuido y mantenido bajo 1.000 ton anuales en la década 2000-2010 con un precio de US$7 kg-1. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento de juveniles de primera generación producida de padres silvestres en condiciones de cultivo. Se estimó el crecimiento de 128 juveniles durante cinco meses en el hatchery del CIMARQ, Valparaíso, Chile, distribuidos en cinco grupos de talla en estanques con agua marina (35 g L-1 y rango de temperatura de 12-14°C. Los pesos promedios iniciales variaron desde el grupo menor de 4 g (11 cm al mayor de 23 g (18 cm. Estos fueron alimentados con pellet comercial para peces marinos. Se midió mensualmente la longitud total (cm, peso (g y se estimó sus promedios, porcentaje de crecimiento en peso, tasa de crecimiento específico, coeficiente de crecimiento termal y factor de conversión. A los cinco meses el grupo menor alcanzó un peso promedio de 16 ± 7 g (16 ± 2 cm y el mayor 75 ± 17 g (27 ± 6 cm. Los pesos promedios mensuales se ajustaron con R² = 0,9 a las ecuaciones P = 3,845e0,300t y P = 20,63e0,240t. Los factores de conversión fluctuaron entre 8,6 y 0,3 al mes 5 para el grupo menor y de 0,6 a 0,2 para el mayor. Si se proyecta el crecimiento desde el peso inicial de 4 y 23 g hasta el peso de cosecha de 2 kg, éste se obtendría entre 26 y 18 meses para los grupos menor y mayor respectivamente.

  14. Pharmacological reports about gastroprotective effects of methanolic extract from leaves of Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica) and its components quercitrin and afzelin in rodents.

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    de Barros, Mariel; Mota da Silva, Luisa; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cury, Benhur Judah; de Moura Burci, Ligia; Santin, José Roberto; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Monache, Franco Delle; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2016-04-01

    Solidago chilensis Meyenmost (Asteraceae), popularly known as "Brazilian arnica" or "arnica-do-campo," is widely used in the folk medicine to treat gastric disorders. Based on this, the gastroprotective activity of S. chilensis methanolic extract was investigated. Besides, a phytochemical study allowed isolation of two flavonoids (quercitrin and afzelin). The gastroprotective effects were investigated in acute gastric ulcer models, and the antisecretory activity was assessed in vivo and in vitro. The adhered mucus levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were quantified in ulcerated tissues. The contribution of isolated compounds in extract effects was evaluated, and its doses were calculated according to its yield. To evaluate the in vivo healing properties of S. chilensis methanolic extract, a chronic gastric ulcer was induced in mice by 10 % acetic acid. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels was also performed at the site of the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. In parallel, effects on cell viability and cell proliferation of fibroblasts (L929 cells) were determined by in vitro trials. Firstly, the S. chilensis methanolic extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) reduced the ulcer area induced by ethanol/HCl in mice when compared to the vehicle group. Moreover, the S. chilensis extract (300 mg/kg) prevented the mucus depletion, the increase in MPO activity and the decrease in the GSH levels in the ulcerated gastric tissue. The S. chilensis extract also was able to decrease the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The antisecretory effect of the extract (100 mg/kg, intraduodenal (i.d.)) was confirmed by the reduction in the volume and acidity in parallel to an increase in the pH of gastric content. In addition, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg, but not 0.46 mg/kg) and afzelin (0.026 and 0.078 mg/kg) decreased the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric ulcer. In this model, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg) prevented the depletion

  15. Tracing the trans-pacific evolutionary history of a domesticated Seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis with archaeological and genetic data.

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    Marie-Laure Guillemin

    Full Text Available The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and we suggest that migration probably occurred via rafting. Furthermore, the remarkably low microsatellite diversity found in the Chilean populations compared to those in New Zealand is consistent with a recent genetic bottleneck as a result of over-exploitation of natural populations and/or the process of domestication. Therefore, the aquaculture of this seaweed, based essentially on clonal propagation, is occurring from genetically depressed populations and may be driving the species to an extinction vortex in Chile.

  16. INFECCIÓN DE HYPOLOBOCERA CHILENSIS EIGENMANI POR METACERCARIAS DE PARAGONIMUS MEXICANUS (= PERUVIANUS EN EL DISTRITO DE CONDEBAMBA (CAJAMARCA, PERÚ

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    Alina Huiza F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cangrejos de rio Hypolobocera chilensis eigenmanni fueron colectados de acequias durante el año 1997 en estación seca (mayo a diciembre en Chaquicocha, Área que pertenece al distrito de Condebamba (departamento de Cajamarca en la parte norte del Perú. Ciento treinta y un cangrejos colectados fueron transportados al Laboratorio de Parasitología y examinados por disección, 27 de 131 (20,6% estaban infectados por metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus(=peruvianus. La intensidad de la infección fue de 1 a 5 en la mayoría de los; casos (81,5% con un promedio de 4,85 por cangrejo. Estos datos son diferentes; a los de estudios anteriores; en la misma Área donde fueron más; altos, lo que indica una tendencia al decrecimiento del número de cangrejos infectados.

  17. Tracing the trans-pacific evolutionary history of a domesticated Seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with archaeological and genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Valero, Myriam; Faugeron, Sylvain; Nelson, Wendy; Destombe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred via rafting. Furthermore, the remarkably low microsatellite diversity found in the Chilean populations compared to those in New Zealand is consistent with a recent genetic bottleneck as a result of over-exploitation of natural populations and/or the process of domestication. Therefore, the aquaculture of this seaweed, based essentially on clonal propagation, is occurring from genetically depressed populations and may be driving the species to an extinction vortex in Chile.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC MARKERS LINKED TO SEX DETERMINATION IN THE HAPLOID-DIPLOID RED ALGA GRACILARIA CHILENSIS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Huanel, Oscar R; Martínez, Enrique A

    2012-04-01

    Bulk segregant analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) methods were used to identify sex-linked molecular markers in the haploid-diploid rhodophyte Gracilaria chilensis C. J. Bird, McLachlan et E. C. Oliveira. One hundred and eighty 10 bp primers were tested on three bulks of DNA: haploid males, haploid females, and diploid tetrasporophytes. Three RAPD primers (OPD15, OPG16, and OPN20) produced male-specific bands; and one RAPD primer (OPD12), a female-specific band. The sequences of the cloned putative sex-specific PCR fragments were used to design specific primers for the female marker SCAR-D12-386 and the male marker SCAR-G16-486. Both SCAR markers gave unequivocal band patterns that allowed sex and phase to be determined in G. chilensis. Thus, all the females presented only the female band, and all the males only the male band, while all the tetrasporophytes amplified both male and female bands. Despite this sex-specific association, we were able to amplify SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 in both sexes at low melting temperature. The differences between male and female sequences were of 8%-9% nucleotide divergence for SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486, respectively. SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 could represent degenerated or diverged sequences located in the nonrecombining region of incipient sex chromosomes or heteromorphic sex chromosomes with sequence differences at the DNA level such that PCR primers amplify only one allele and not the other in highly specific PCR conditions. Seven gametic progenies composed of 19 males, 19 females, and the seven parental tetrasporophytes were analyzed. In all of them, the two SCAR markers segregated perfectly with sexual phenotypes.

  19. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

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    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  1. Up-regulation of lipoxygenase, phospholipase, and oxylipin-production in the induced chemical defense of the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Florian; Lion, Ulrich; Delage, Ludovic; Kloareg, Bernard; Potin, Philippe; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-07-01

    The red alga Gracilaria chilensis is commercially farmed for the production of agar hydrocolloids, but some susceptible algae in farms suffer from intense epiphyte growth. We investigated the induced chemical defense response of G. chilensis against epiphytes and demonstrated that an extract of an epiphyte-challenged alga can trigger a defense response. The hormonally active metabolites were purified by RP-HPLC. Treatment with the extract or the purified fraction changed the chemical profile of the alga and increased resistance against epiphyte spores. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme assays demonstrated that this metabolic response occurs after an increase in lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 activity. Although this suggests the involvement of regulatory oxylipins, neither jasmonic acid nor the algal metabolite prostaglandin E2 triggers comparable defense responses.

  2. Contenido energetico de algunos invertebrados bentonicos de la costa de Chile y fluctuación anual em Mytilus chilensis Hupe 1854

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    William E Duarte

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Caloric values, ash and hydric percentages were obtained from the most abundant benthic invertebrates of Corral Bay, from which this information was not previously available. The range of these values is not different to those of related taxonomic groups of other oceans. Annual fluctuations of these paramenters were studied in Mytilus chilensis so as to obtain a quantitative estimation of the variation of these values.

  3. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

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    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  4. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  5. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK cultured in cellulose pulp mill effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

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    Tobella, Lorena M; Bunster, Marta; Pooley, Amalia; Becerra, José; Godoy, Felix; Martínez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymer is synthesized by different bacterial species. There has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable polymers; however, the high cost of PHA production has restricted its applications. Kraft cellulose industry effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (10 or 20 microg ml(-1)) were used by the bacteria Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK to synthesize PHA. In this condition, S. chilensis S37 was able to grow and degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (ca. 60%) and 80% of these cells accumulated PHA. Wautersia PZK completely degraded 2,4,6-TCP and more than 90% of the cells accumulated PHA in 72 h. The PHA detection was performed by flow cytometry and polyester composition was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), indicating that these polymers are made by 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid for S37 and PZK strains, respectively. Results demonstrated that strains' growth and PHA production and composition are not modified in cellulose effluents with or without 2,4,6-TCP (10-20 microg ml(-1)). Therefore, our results indicate that S. chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK are able to degrade a toxic compound such as a 2,4,6-TCP and simultaneously produce a valuable biopolymer using low-value substrates.

  6. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

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    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  7. Evaluación del potencial reproductivo del chorito (Mytilus chilensis de dos poblaciones naturales sometidas a diferentes temperaturas de acondicionamiento Assessment of the reproductive potential of the mussel (Mytilus chilensis from two natural populations subjected to different conditioning temperatures

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    Luis Lagos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus chilensis tiene ciclos reproductivos que varían latitudinalmente. Presenta reducida diferenciación genética y morfológica debido a un gran potencial de dispersión. Se acondicionaron reproductores de bahía Yaldad (Chiloé y bahía Zenteno (Punta Arenas a 9 ± 0,5°C y 15 ± 0,5°C, alimentados con dieta (1:1 de Isochrysis galbana y Chaetoceros neogracile. Se espera dilucidar si el acondicionamiento a diferentes temperaturas produce variaciones en el potencial reproductivo de las poblaciones. El menor desarrollo gonadal se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 9°C, mientras que el mayor se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 15°C provenientes de Chiloé. La fecundidad de los reproductores de Yaldad fue mayor que los de Zenteno. El diámetro de los ovocitos fue mayor en los reproductores de Zenteno y en ambas poblaciones fue mayor a 9°C. Ni el porcentaje de huevos fecundados ni el porcentaje de eclosión de larvas D mostraron diferencias significativas entre las poblaciones a ninguna de las temperaturas de acondicionamiento. De acuerdo con estos resultados, no se logra establecer diferencias en el potencial reproductivo en las poblaciones y bajo las condiciones de este estudio.The reproductive cycles of Mytilus chilensis vary latitudinally. This species has reduced genetic and morphological differentiation due to its high potential for dispersal. Broodstocks from Yaldad Bay (Chiloé and Zenteno Bay (Punta Arenas were conditioned at 9 ± 0.5°C and 15 ± 0.5°C, and were fed a diet (1:1 of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros neogracile. We expected to determine whether conditioning at different temperatures produces changes in the reproductive potential of the populations. Gonadal development was lowest in the broodstocks conditioned at 9°C, and highest in those conditioned at 15°C, from Chiloé. Fertility was greater in broodstocks from Yaldad than in those from Zenteno. Oocyte diameter was greater in broodstocks

  8. Size structure and sexual maturity of the golden crab (Chaceon chilensis exploited off Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile Estructuras de tallas y madurez en el cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis explotado alrededor de la isla Robinson Crusoe, Chile

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    Aurora Guerrero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden crab (Chaceon chilensis specimens were analyzed after being caught with traps by artisanal fishermen off Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Of the 13,027 individuals caught between 300 and 1,000 m depth, 97.9% were male (12,754 and the rest female (273. The carapace length (CL of the sampled crabs was measured and, on average, the males (CL: 118.9 mm were larger than the females (CL: 94.3 mm. On the north side of the island, the specimens presented lower average sizes (112.2 mm whereas, in the remaining zones, the average carapace lengths were similar (CL: 117.1-119.5 mm. In bathymetric terms, an increasing trend was seen between average size and depth, with sizes over 123 mm CL found beginning at 750 m depth. A comparison of linear regressions between the carapace length and chela length of males revealed physical maturity at 100 mm CL, whereas a numerical analysis showed the size at first sexual maturity (SSM50% to be 109 mm CL.Se analizaron ejemplares de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis capturados mediante trampas por pescadores artesanales en torno a la isla Robinson Crusoe del archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, entre 300 y 1.000 m de profundidad. Se midió la longitud cefalotorácica (LC de 13.027 individuos de los cuales 12.754 correspondieron a machos y únicamente 273 a hembras, con un claro predominio de machos (97,9%, fueron de talla promedio superior a las hembras (118,9 y 94,3 mm de LC, respectivamente. En el sector norte de la isla, se encontraron ejemplares con menor talla media (112,2 mm que en las zonas restantes, la longitud cefalotorácica media presentó valores similares (117,1 a 119,5 mm de LC. Se encontró una tendencia creciente entre la talla media y la profundidad, registrándose a partir del estrato de 750 m tallas promedio superiores a 123 mm de LC. Mediante la comparación de regresiones lineales entre la longitud cefalotorácica y la longitud de la quela, en machos se estableci

  9. Domestication and sustainable production of wild crafted plants with special reference to the Chilean Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis

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    Vogel, Hermine

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle threats for sustainable production of wild collected medicinal plants are related to ecological factors, such as endemism, and botanical factors critical for survival, such as the collection of roots or barks or slow growing species. The sustainable way to produce raw material on a large scale would be species specific management of the wild resources that guarantees conservation of biodiversity, or bringing the species under cultivation. A checklist proposed by WHO, UICN and WWF (1993 indicates that domestication of any medicinal plant concerns plant selection and breeding, studies about propagation, cultivation techniques, plant protection, time of harvest, among others. The different domestication steps are illustrated for the Chilean maqui (Aristotelia chilensis, a wild tree whose fruits are demanded in increasing volumes by the international market because of its high antioxidant capacity. High yielding plants with good fruit quality have been selected from wild populations and accessions have been cultivated under different environmental conditions to select the most suitable genotypes for the establishment of commercial orchards.

  10. Distribution and growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in southern Chilean clams (Venus antiqua) and blue mussels (Mytilus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Carlos P; Yévenes, Marco; Rodriguez-Benito, Cristina; Godoy, Félix A; Ruiz, Magdalena; Cachicas, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution and growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the inland sea of southern Chile, where the world's largest foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak by the pandemic strain O3:K6 occurred in 2005. Intertidal samples of Mytilus chilensis and Venus antiqua were collected around port towns between 41°28'S and 43°07'S, during April to May 2011 and January to March 2012. We used most probable number real-time polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) for enumeration of the tlh, tdh, and trh genes in freshly harvested bivalves and after a controlled postharvest temperature abuse. Pathogenic markers (tdh+ or trh+) were not detected. Total V. parahaemolyticus (tlh+) in freshly harvested samples reached up to 0.38 and 3.66 log MPN/g in 2011 and 2012, respectively, with values close to or above 3 log MPN/g only near Puerto Montt (41°28'S, 72°55'W). Enrichments by temperature abuse (>2 log MPN/g) occurred mainly in the same zone, regardless of the year, suggesting that both natural or anthropogenic exposure to high temperatures were more critical. Lower salinity and higher sea surface temperature in Reloncaví Sound and Reloncaví Estuary were consistent with our observations and allowed confirmation of the existence of a high-risk zone near Puerto Montt. Based on the results, a strategy focused on risk management inside this defined hazard zone is recommended.

  11. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

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    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  12. RETINAL MORPHOLOGY AND ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY IN TWO VISUALLY FORAGING CHARADRIIFORMES BIRDS WITH DIFFERENT FEEDING ACTIVITY RHYTHMS: THE DOUBLE-STRIPED THICK-KNEE (BURHINUS BISTRIATUS WAGLER, 1829 AND THE SOUTHERN LAPWING (VANELLUS CHILENSIS L., 1758

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    Liliana Figueroa R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study compares the visual function of the Double-striped Thick-knee (Burhinus bistriatus Wagler,1829, which forages primarily during dusk and at night, and the Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis L., 1758, which is known to forage during daytime and occasionally at night, analyzing morphological and electrophysiological aspects of their retina. The fact that thick-knees have large eyes and are nocturnally actives suggest that, compared with the diurnal lapwing, they should have a very sensitive retina under low light intensity. Electroretinograms (ERGs were obtained from anesthetized live birds at different light intensities in photopic and scotopic conditions, and the retinae were subsequently processed for histological analysis. The scotopic ERG b-waves of B. bistriatus, at all light intensities, were always of larger amplitude than those of V. chilensis. However, the a-waves of both species were of similar amplitude. Under photopic conditions, V. chilensis yield highest a- and b-wave amplitudes than B. bistriatus. The latter has a larger dialated pupil diameter and a greater axial length/equatorial diameter ratio than V. chilensis. Likewise, the rod density of B. bistriatus significantly exceeds that of V. chilensis. In the latter, cone density tends to be higher than in B. bistriatus while the rods:cones ratio were lower. Rod outer segments of B. bistriatus strongly exceed in length those of any other Charadriiformes species studied so far, but are thinner than those of V. chilensis. In contrast, the latter has thicker cone outer segments and outer and inner plexiform layers than B. bistriatus. Similarly, ganglion cells are more abundant per unit area in V. chilensis. Our combined results reveal a higher retinal sensitivity of B. bistriatus under low light conditions, in accordance with their crepuscular and nocturnal foraging strategies. V. chilensis, although mainly active during daylight, appears to have a moderate retinal

  13. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory.

  14. Climate-vegetation-fire linkages on decadal-to-millennial time scales along the Patagonian forest-steppe ecotone (41 - 43°S)

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    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Patagonian vegetation has dramatically changed in composition and distribution over the last 16,000 years. Although patterns of vegetation change are relatively clear, our understanding of the processes that produce them is limited. In this study, we reconstructed the vegetation and fire history of the North Patagonian forest-steppe ecotone (41 - 43°S) and linked past ecological changes to variations in large-scale synoptic controls of climate and past human activity. Postglacial vegetation and fire dynamics were inferred from high-resolution pollen and charcoal records from seven lakes located along the forest-steppe ecotone in the eastern flanks of the Andes. We fit Mixed Generalized Additive Models to these time series to estimate regional trends in vegetation composition and biomass burning through time, and compared them with independent paleoclimate data so as to assess long-term vegetation-fire-climate linkages. Pollen data indicate that late-glacial steppe was replaced by open forest in the early Holocene and by closed forest in the middle and late Holocene. Fire activity was lowest during the late-glacial to early-Holocene transition and gradually increased through the Holocene. Long-term vegetation and fire patterns responded to variations in seasonal and annual insolation and their effect on moisture during the growing season. Submillennial-scale precipitation variability explained much of the fine-scale ecotonal behavior, mainly through its effect on fire, which can amplify or override the direct influence of climate on ecotone composition. During the late Holocene, in particular, century-long oscillations in forest composition were largely driven by changes in humidity, associated with the strengthening of the westerlies and ENSO variability. Humid periods (4900-3800 cal yr BP, 2850-1350 cal yr BP) promoted Nothofagus forest, and dry times (3800-2850 cal yr BP, 1350-450 cal yr BP) favored Austrocedrus expansion. At intermediate moisture levels

  15. Pesca artesanal de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile Artisanal fishing for golden crab (Chaceon chilensis off the Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile

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    Mauricio Ahumada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la pesca artesanal de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis en las islas Robinson Crusoe y Santa Clara, en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, desarrollada entre julio de 2005 y mayo de 2006. Se dan a conocer aspectos biológico-pesqueros relativos a esfuerzo y rendimientos de pesca, proporción sexual, así como los resultados de una evaluación directa de biomasa vulnerable mediante el método de area de influencia de las trampas. La extracción se efectuó fundamentalmente en el cuadrante NE de ambas islas, mediante botes de madera de 9,0 m de eslora. Se monitorearon 157 salidas de pesca y se capturaron 13.903 ejemplares, los cuales mayoritariamente fueron machos (97,5%. La CPUE promedio fue 16,7 ejemplares por trampa y de 13,5 ejemplares comerciales por trampa. A partir del muestreo sistemático, se detectó al recurso entre 300 y 1000 m de profundidad, con mayores rendimientos entre 400 y 500 m de profundidad (19,8 y 15,9 ejemplares por trampa. Se consideran y discuten dos escenarios de evaluación de stock para ejemplares de talla comercial en el area actualmente explotada (45,8 km , el primero estimó un radio efectivo para las trampas de 13,4 m (area de 564,1 m , con una biomasa vulnerable de 1.002 ton, equivalentes a 832.983 ejemplares, mientras que el segundo consideró un radio de 30,0 m con una biomasa vulnerable de 203 ton equivalente a 168.587 ejemplares.This work describes the artisanal golden crab (Chaceon chilensis fishery off Robinson Crusoe and Santa Clara islands in the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile developed between July 2005 and May 2006. We report biological fishery aspects related to the físhing efforts and yields, the sexual proportion of the catch, and the results of a direct evaluation of the vulnerable biomass done using the trap area of influence method. The extraction was done mainly in the NE quadrant of both islands from wooden boats (9.0 m length. Monitoring was done during 157 f

  16. First Harvestman Record for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, with Morphological Notes on Acropsopilio chilensis (Opiliones: Caddidae: Acroposopilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Abel; Ramírez, Martín J; Soto, Eduardo M; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-08-15

    Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri, 1904 (Eupnoi: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae), is recorded for Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. This is the first harvestman species recorded for the Juan Fernández Archipelago and also the first extra-continental record for this species. During the comparison with continental co-specific specimens, some previously unknown, remarkable morphological characteristics were discovered, among them: the absence of ovipositor seminal receptacles and tracheal system, small and probably imperforate spiracles and the presence of a subdistal spiny structure, maybe a stylus, in the major branch of the penis. 

  17. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  18. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS.

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    Adriana Bastías

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%, followed by tetranucleotide (26% and trinucleotide motifs (24%. The motif AG/CT (28.4% was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species.

  19. Toxicity of Porella chilensis sesqui- and diterpenoids against larvae of the corn pest Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidotera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, F L; Gilabert, M; Alcaide, M F; Bardón, A

    2012-10-01

    Porella, the largest genus of the family Porellaceae (Hepaticae) is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions of South America. Most Porella species are rich sources of sesqui- and diterpenoids, many of which show interesting biological activities. Secondary metabolites produced by plants can interact with insects and act as antifeedants and growth regulators affecting hormone and nervous systems as well as stomach and muscle tissues. A previous chemical investigation of a Patagonian collection of Porella chilensis yielded sesqui- and diterpenoids that were now evaluated for their effects against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a serious pest affecting corn crops mainly in the Americas. Four pinguisanes (1-4), three fusicoccanes (5-7), and one aromadendrane (8) from P. chilensis displayed larvicidal activity against S. frugiperda when incorporated to the larval diet at 100 and 200 μg/g of diet with a significant decrease in the larval growing rate. The observed effects were in part produced by severe alterations of the epithelial cells of the midgut as indicated by our histological studies.

  20. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry

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    Javier Villacreses

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1. High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs: ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV, Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP; ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs, AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq. Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant.

  1. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Constituents from a Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis) Dietary Supplement Ingredient As Markers for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Yuan, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Benatrehina, P Annécie; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Naman, C Benjamin; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2017-10-04

    Bioassay-guided phytochemical investigation of a commercially available maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract used in botanical dietary supplement products led to the isolation of 16 compounds, including one phenolic molecule, 1, discovered for the first time from a natural source, along with several known compounds, 2-16, including three substances not reported previously in A. chilensis, 2, 14, and 15. Each isolate was characterized by detailed analysis of NMR spectroscopic and HRESIMS data and tested for their in vitro hydroxyl radical scavenging and quinone-reductase inducing biological activities. A sensitive and accurate LC-DAD-MS method for the quantitative determination of the occurrence of six bioactive compounds, 6, 7, 10-12, and 14, was developed and validated using maqui berry isolates purified in the course of this study as authentic standards. The method presented can be utilized for dereplication efforts in future natural product research projects or to evaluate chemical markers for quality assurance and batch-to-batch standardization of this botanical dietary supplement component.

  2. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-03

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant.

  3. A Clinical Trial with Brazilian Arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen) Glycolic Extract in the Treatment of Tendonitis of Flexor and Extensor Tendons of Wrist and Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ary Gomes; Machado, Elbe Rodrigues; de Almeida, Leonardo Mendes; Nunes, Ricardo Marcelo Menezes; Giesbrecht, Patrícia Caldeira Pena; Costa, Regina Mamed; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo Machado

    2015-06-01

    One of the Brazilian arnicas, Solidago chilensis Meyen, is a species of the Asteraceae family. This plant is known by this common name because it shares remarkably similar organoleptic properties with the genus Arnica L., also within the family Asteraceae. We examined the effectiveness of the S. chilensis fluid extract used externally for treating tendinitis of flexor and extensor tendons of wrist and hand in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical pharmacological studies. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Scientific Research in Human Beings at University Vila Velha-UVV. Two daily skin applications on the arm skin of a gel cream containing a 5% glycolic plant extract were administered to eight volunteers for 21 days. Among the volunteers, one of their arms was used as the placebo group, and the other one was used as a test group. Statistical data analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the perception of pain in the arms in the test group, when it was compared to those receiving only the placebo.

  4. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves.

  5. Valoración biogeográfica del bosque mediterráneo esclerófilo con palmeras (Jubaea chilensis Mol (Baillon en la cuenca del Quiteño (Chile, a partir de la aplicación del método de valoración LANBIOEVA

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    Quintanilla Pérez, Victor G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is based on research work that has been carried out for more than 20 years with the purpose of consolidating a method of biogeographic valuation of different plant scenes at a global scale. A few years ago, as a result of a research stay, different units of the Mediterranean environment of Chile were assessed. Among the results, the sclerophyllous Mediterranean forest with palms (Jubaea chilensis clearly called one’s attention because it not only achieved the highest scores in this setting, but it got the absolute record to date. The paper is centered on, presents and analyzes the results obtained in that unit, but this time with systematic inventories and assessments made in 2015. The base study area is concentrated in a small microbasin, El Quiteño, in the coastal mountains of Viña del Mar. The natural and cultural values do not differ from some formations of the surrounding, even from formations situated in the European setting, yet the conservation priority shoots up taking into account that the participations referred to the global threat factor are very high.El artículo se basa en un trabajo de investigación desarrollado desde hace más de 20 años con el fin de consolidar un método de valoración biogeográfica de diferentes paisajes vegetales a escala global. Hace unos años, como consecuencia de una estancia de investigación, se valoraron diferentes unidades del ámbito mediterráneo de Chile. En los resultados llamaba la atención, sobremanera, el bosque mediterráneo esclerófilo con palmeras (Jubaea chilensis, ya que alcanzaba las puntuaciones más elevadas de este ámbito, y obtenía –además– el record absoluto hasta la fecha. El artículo se centra, expone y analiza los resultados obtenidos en la mencionada unidad, pero esta vez con inventarios y valoraciones sistemáticas realizadas en el año 2015. El área base de estudio se concentra en una pequeña microcuena: El Quiteño, del litoral monta

  6. Evaluación y comparación de la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de huevos de Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 Evaluation and comparison of the efficiency of two incubation systems for Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 eggs

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    Rolando Vega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente la tendencia de la acuicultura mundial está orientada hacia la diversificación de los cultivos, principalmente de especies nativas. El congrio colorado Genypterus chilensis es un pez nativo de alta demanda gastronómica y explotación estacional que lo proyecta como candidato para el desarrollo de su tecnología de cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de masas de huevos de G. chilensis, uno con circuito cerrado de agua (SICC y el otro con circuito abierto (SICA; su eficiencia fue medida por el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos. Dos ensayos fueron realizados midiendo y comparando los porcentajes de fecundación y eclosión de huevos en cuatro réplicas entre los dos sistemas, encontrándose solo diferencias significativas entre los porcentajes de fecundación del bioensayo 2. El bioensayo 1 tuvo un 81% promedio de fecundación de los huevos y el porcentaje promedio de eclosión para el SICC fue 42,9 ± 34,5% y para el SICA fue 0,0 ± 0,0%. El bioensayo 2 tuvo un porcentaje promedio de fecundación de los huevos de 87,3 ± 2,6% para el SICC y 79,8 ± 3,2% para el SICA y el porcentaje promedio de eclosión para el SICC fue 27,9 ± 33,7% y para el SICA fue 4,8 ± 5,6%. Se discuten los parámetros de incubación para obtener una máxima eclosión y se entrega una proposición para mejorar el sistema SICC. El sistema de incubación con circuito cerrado de agua generó mayores sobrevivencias en los huevos de G. chilensis.The current trend in world aquaculture is towards the diversification of cultures, mainly native species. The red cusk eel Genypterus chilensis is a native Chilean species of high gastronomic demand and seasonal exploitation that is projected as a candidate for the development of farming technology. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of two incubation systems for G. chilensis egg masses, one with a closed water circuit (SICC and the other with an

  7. Biología reproductiva de Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae en una población de Aucó (centro-norte de Chile Reproductive biology of Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae in a population of Aucó (north-central Chile

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    Lorena H. Suárez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus chilensis es una hierba perenne, única representante endémica de la familia Convolvulaceae en Chile. Se estudió el sistema de reproducción, fenología, morfología y longevidad floral de C. chilensis en una población natural ubicada en la localidad de Aucó, dentro de la Reserva Nacional Las Chinchillas, IV Región, Chile. Se montó un experimento de polinización controlada considerando los tratamientos de polinización natural, polinización cruzada, autopolinización manual, autopolinización automática y apomixis, evaluándose su efecto sobre la formación de frutos y el número de semillas producidas por fruto. Adicionalmente, se compararon los siguientes atributos de la progenie según tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada: peso de semilla, germinación, altura y número de hojas de plántulas de ocho semanas en condiciones de invernadero. Se encontró que C. chilensis es una especie autocompatible, parcialmente autógama (capaz de autopolinizarse sin mediador y parcialmente apomíctica (capaz de producir semillas sin participación de gameto masculino. La longevidad floral fue estimada en 5,25 h. Durante este período, aproximadamente en 1,5 h hay disponibilidad de polen en los estambres. El período de floración se extiende por 22 semanas (agosto a enero. El tratamiento de apomixis presentó el menor porcentaje de formación de frutos y la menor cantidad de semillas por flor en comparación a los tratamientos de polinización natural, cruzada manual, autopolinización automática y autopolinización manual, los cuales no mostraron diferencias entre sí en ambos atributos. El tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada no afecta el desempeño de la progenie en los atributos de semilla y plántula evaluadosThe perennial herb Convolvulus chilensis is the only endemic species of the Convolvulaceae in Chile. The breeding system, phenology, morphology and floral longevity of C

  8. Paragonimus y paragonimiasis en el norte peruano. Infección natural de Pseudothelphusa chilensis por metacercarias de Paragonimus Braun, 1899

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    César Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el índice de infección natural y la intensidad del parasitismo en cangrejos recolectados en tres provincias del Departamento de Cajamarca, Perú, habiéndose encontrado metacercarias de Paragonimus Braun, 1899 en el 43.97% de 539 especímenes de Pseudothelphusa chilensis Milne Edwards, 1843, único cangrejo hallado en la zona. El órgano parasitado fue casi exclusivamente el hepatopancreas, siendo 10.33 el número promedio de metacercarias por cangrejo. Las formas adultos logradas mediante inoculación de las metacercarias, fueron identificadas como Paragonimus peruvianus Miyazaki, Ibáñez y Miranda, 1969, con excepción de tres ejemplares que correspondieron a lo especie Paragonimus caliensis Little, 1968.

  9. Escherbothrium molinae n. gen. et n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Triloculariidae) in Urotrygon chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Urolophidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, R; Brooks, D R

    1994-10-01

    Cestodes collected in spiral valves of the stingray Urotrygon chilensis from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica represent an undescribed species of Tetraphyllidea. By possessing more than 2 loculi as well as an apical sucker on each bothridium, the new species is diagnosably distinct from all other tetraphyllidean genera; therefore, a new genus is proposed for it. The new species also possesses globular structures irregularly arranged on the surface of the bothridia. We found similar structures on the bothridial faces of Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris, possibly indicating phylogenetic relationships with the new species. This possibility is enhanced by the observation that the bothridia of T. acanthiaevulgaris comprise 2 loculi and an apical sucker, rather than 3 loculi.

  10. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of medium-term exposure to elevated pCO(2) levels on the physiological energetics of the mussel Mytilus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jorge M; Torres, Rodrigo; Acuña, Karin; Duarte, Cristian; Manriquez, Patricio H; Lardies, Marco; Lagos, Nelson A; Vargas, Cristian; Aguilera, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of medium-term exposure to elevated pCO(2) levels (750-1200 ppm) on the physiological processes of juvenile Mytilus chilensis mussels over a period of 70 d in a mesocosm system. Three equilibration tanks filled with filtered seawater were adjusted to three pCO(2) levels: ~380 (control), ~750 and ~1200 ppm by bubbling air or an air-CO(2) mixture through the water. For the control, atmospheric air (with aprox. 380 ppm CO(2)) was bubbled into the tank; for the 750 and 1200 ppm treatments, dry air and pure CO(2) were blended to each target concentration using mass flow controllers for air and CO(2). No impact on feeding activity was observed at the beginning of the experiment, but a significant reduction in clearance rate was observed after 35 d of exposure to highly acidified seawater. Absorption rate and absorption efficiency were reduced at high pCO(2) levels. In addition, oxygen uptake fell significantly under these conditions, indicating a metabolic depression. These physiological responses of the mussels resulted in a significant reduction of energy available for growth (scope for growth) with important consequences for the aquaculture of this species during medium-term exposure to acid conditions. The results of this study clearly indicate that high pCO(2) levels in the seawater have a negative effect on the health of M. chilensis. Therefore, the predicted acidification of seawater associated with global climate change could be harmful to this ecologically and commercially important mussel.

  12. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

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    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  13. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  14. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  15. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  16. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  17. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis), a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Susana Patricia; Cueto, Victor Rodolfo; Gorosito, Cristian Andr?s

    2017-01-01

    Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a resul...

  18. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D. chilensis

  19. Production and performance of larvae and spat of pure and hybrid species of Mytilus chilensis and M. galloprovincialis from laboratory crosses Producción y comportamiento de larvas de especies puras e híbridas entre Mytilus chilensis y Mytilus galloprovincialis obtenidas en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Toro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult specimens of M. galloprovincialis from Concepción Bay and M. chilensis from Yaldad Bay, Chile, were transferred to the laboratory to produce crosses of "pure" and "hybrid" species in order to evaluate early larval development and growth. These variables are important for understanding the dynamics of these two mussel species in this potential hybrid zone where they occur sympatrically. The study showed that fertilization occurred in all crosses and significant differences were not detected between pure lines and hybrids in terms of the percentage of eggs that developed into larvae. Hybrid larvae and spat from both reciprocal crosses grew significantly more than those from pure lines, although valve length values were within the ranges reported in the literature.Ejemplares adultos de M. galloprovincialis de la bahía de Concepción y de M. chilensis de la bahía de Yaldad, Chile, se trasladaron al laboratorio para realizar cruzamientos puros de cada especie e híbridos, para evaluar el desarrollo larval temprano y su crecimiento. Estas variables son importantes para entender la dinámica de estas dos especies de mitílidos en esta potencial zona híbrida donde se encuentran en forma simpátrica. El estudio mostró que la fertilización ocurrió en todos los cruzamientos y no se detectó diferencias significativas entre líneas puras e híbridas en el porcentaje de huevos que se desarrollaron a larvas. Las larvas y juveniles híbridos de ambos cruzamientos recíprocos crecieron significativamente más que las larvas de los cruzamientos de especies puras, aunque los valores de longitud de la valva están dentro de los rangos reportados en la bibliografía.

  20. El uso de moluscos de agua dulce (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus en el sitio Angostura 1 (Departamento de General Conesa, Río Negro The use of freshwater mollusks (Diplodon Chilensis patagonicus at Angostura 1 site (General Conesa District, Río Negro province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Prates

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta nota se presentan los resultados del estudio de las valvas de moluscos de agua dulce (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus recuperadas en el componente inferior del sitio arqueológico Angostura 1 (Departamento de General Conesa, provincia de Río Negro. Los atributos tenidos en cuenta para el análisis de los especímenes fueron: lateralidad de las valvas, tamaño, estado de fragmentación y presencia de periostraco; en forma secundaria se consideraron otras variables tales como evidencias de combustión y relación espacial con el resto de los materiales. A partir de estos datos y de la información contextual se propone la asociación de las valvas con el registro arqueológico del sitio (materiales líticos, cerámicos, óseos y vegetales y se discuten algunos procesos de formación vinculados con la actividad humana.This note presents the results of an analysis of freshwater mollusk shells (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus recovered from the lower cultural component of the Angostura 1 archaeological site (General Conesa District, Rio Negro Province, Argentina. Primarily, morphological features of this assemblage were analyzed, including: laterality, size, state of fracture, and the presence of periostracum. Secondarily, burning evidence and spatial relationships were considered. Site formation processes linked to human activity are discussed in light of these results and the contextual information from the site, i.e., mollusk shells associated with other archaeological remains (lithics, pottery, bones, and organic remains. It is proposed that the presence of freshwater mollusk shells in Angostura 1 site is linked to human activity.

  1. Comparación de métodos analíticos para la determinación de materia orgánica en suelos de la región Andino-Patagónica: efectos de la vegetación y el tipo de suelo Comparison of analytical methods for determining soil organic matter in Patagonian Andean Region: effects of vegetation and soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila La Manna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de la materia orgánica (MO resulta fundamental para el conocimiento de la productividad agrícola y forestal de los suelos. En este estudio se evaluó la relación entre los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO determinados por pérdida por ignición (MO PI y combustión húmeda de Walkley-Black (MO CH en suelos de la Región Andino Patagónica. La relación se evaluó para suelos volcánicos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos y con distintos tipos de vegetación: plantaciones de Pinus ponderosa, bosques de Austrocedrus chilensis, arbustales, estepa arbustiva y estepa herbácea. Se seleccionaron 100 sitios de muestreo, donde se tomaron muestras compuestas del horizonte A para la determinación de MO CH y MO PI. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza y regresiones simples. MO CH fue siempre inferior a MO PI. Esto es esperable dado que MO PI incluye la MO total, mientras que MO CH discrimina las formas de carbono fuertemente condensadas. Si bien no se detectaron diferencias en la relación entre los métodos analíticos para suelos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos, sí existió una fuerte relación entre la presencia de estos y los contenidos absolutos de MO. La relación entre los métodos analíticos varió según el tipo de vegetación. Los suelos que sustentan vegetación de estepa herbácea y plantación de pino ponderosa presentaron las mayores diferencias entre los dos métodos analíticos. MO CH fue, en promedio, un 37% inferior a MO PI para estos tipos de vegetación, siendo significativamente superior a lo hallado en arbustales (26%. Los suelos con bosque denso de Austrocedrus chilensis y estepa arbustiva presentaron valores intermedios (30 y 35%, respectivamente. Las plantaciones de pino ponderosa (primera rotación, edad promedio 21 años fueron realizadas en áreas de estepa herbácea. Las similitudes encontradas entre ambos suelos podrían estar asociadas a características de la MO propias del

  2. Forest Histories & Forest Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...

  3. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  4. Perturbaciones de los fuegos de verano en la palma mas austral del mundo (Jubaea Chilensis (mol. Baillon en microcuencas costeras de la Zona Mediterranea de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Quintanilla Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los principales factores de degradación de las microcuencas costeras de la región de Valparaíso corresponde a los incendios forestales, como también a la expansión urbana y a las obras de infraestructura, que han implicado una importante disminución de la superficie vegetal nativa y que posee especies de un alto valor geobotánico y endémico, como es el caso de la palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis. Esta palmera se encuentra en la formación del bosque esclerófilo de Chile central (30o-37oS., área en la cual ocurren la mayor parte de los fuegos vegetales durante el vera- no en el país. A través de los registros de incendios que comprende el período 2000-2012, se han definido en el área de estudio los sectores críticos con mayor impacto de los fuegos; información que es complementada con la aplicación de índices de vegetación (NDVI a partir de imágenes satelitales Landsat e imágenes Theos-I de diferentes temporadas de verano.

  5. Conserved and species-specific oxylipin pathways in the wound-activated chemical defense of the noninvasive red alga Gracilaria chilensis and the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempt, Martin; Weinberger, Florian; Grosser, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Summary Chemical defense of the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been studied and compared to that of the noninvasive but related Gracilaria chilensis. Both species rely on a wound-activated chemical defense that makes them less attractive to the herbivorous sea snail Echinolittorina peruviana. The chemical stress response of both species was monitored by LC–ESIMS-based metabolic profiling and revealed commonalities and differences. Both algae rely on a rapid lipoxygenase mediated transformation of arachidonic acid to known and novel oxylipins. Common products are 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and a novel eicosanoid with an unusual γ-lactone moiety. Several prostaglandins were predominantly formed by the invasive species. The role of some of these metabolites was investigated by surveying the attachment of E. peruviana on artificial food containing the respective oxylipins. Both algae species are defended against this general herbivore by 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, whereas the prostaglandins and the novel oxylipins were inactive at naturally occurring concentrations. The role of different oxylipins in the invasive potential of Gracilaria spp. is discussed. PMID:22423296

  6. Conserved and species-specific oxylipin pathways in the wound-activated chemical defense of the noninvasive red alga Gracilaria chilensis and the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rempt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense of the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been studied and compared to that of the noninvasive but related Gracilaria chilensis. Both species rely on a wound-activated chemical defense that makes them less attractive to the herbivorous sea snail Echinolittorina peruviana. The chemical stress response of both species was monitored by LC–ESIMS-based metabolic profiling and revealed commonalities and differences. Both algae rely on a rapid lipoxygenase mediated transformation of arachidonic acid to known and novel oxylipins. Common products are 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and a novel eicosanoid with an unusual γ-lactone moiety. Several prostaglandins were predominantly formed by the invasive species. The role of some of these metabolites was investigated by surveying the attachment of E. peruviana on artificial food containing the respective oxylipins. Both algae species are defended against this general herbivore by 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, whereas the prostaglandins and the novel oxylipins were inactive at naturally occurring concentrations. The role of different oxylipins in the invasive potential of Gracilaria spp. is discussed.

  7. Genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the haploid-diploid red alga Gracilaria chilensis: how farming practices favor asexual reproduction and heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Viard, Frederique; Correa, Juan A; Valero, Myriam

    2008-06-01

    The extent of changes in genetic diversity and life-history traits associated with farming was investigated in the haploid-diploid red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, cultivated in Chile. This alga belongs to one of the most frequently cultivated seaweed genera around the world. Fifteen farmed populations, 11 wild populations, and two subspontaneous populations were sampled along the Chilean coast. The frequency of reproductive versus vegetative individuals and of haploid versus diploid individuals was checked in each population. In addition, the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations was analyzed using six microsatellite markers. Our results first demonstrated that farmed populations are maintained almost exclusively by vegetative propagation. Moreover, the predominance of diploid individuals in farms showed that farming practices had significantly modified life-history traits as compared to wild populations. Second, the expected reduction in genetic diversity due to a cultivation bottleneck and subsequent clonal propagation was detected in farms. Finally, our study suggested that cultural practices in the southern part of the country contributed to the spread of selected genotypes at a local scale. Altogether, these results document for the first time that involuntary selection could operate during the first step of domestication in a marine plant.

  8. Crecimiento, mortalidad y evaluación de la población de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis explotado en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile Growth, mortality, and stock assessment of the golden crab (Chaceon chilensis population exploited in the Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Canales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la información mensual de composición de tamaño recopilada en el monitoreo de la pesca artesanal sobre cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis realizado entre julio de 2005 y mayo de 2006, para evaluar los parámetros de crecimiento, mortalidad natural y puntos biológicos de referencia de los machos sobre los cuales se basa esta pesquería. Se estableció una longevidad promedio de 20 años y una mortalidad natural en torno a M = 0,27 año-1 . La talla crítica se determinó a los 110 mm de longitud cefalotorácica (Lc, que es levemente inferior a la talla de primera captura de 114 mm de Lc. De acuerdo al análisis efectuado, se explotan individuos entre 4 y 10 años de vida. Mediante análisis de equilibrio se determina que la población se encuentra en 82% de la condición virginal, que se refleja en una talla promedio en las capturas de 128 mm de Lc. Una eventual reducción de la población a un límite del 40% de la condición original, se consigue aumentando en tres veces el nivel actual de desembarques, lo que se traduciría en una talla media en las capturas de 118 mm de Lc. Finalmente, se recomiendan distintos puntos biológicos de referencia para garantizar una explotación sustentable en el tiempo.Monthly information on the size composition of golden crab (Chaceon chilensis catches compiled while monitoring the artisanal fishery (July 2005 through May 2006 is analyzed in order to evalúate the growth parameters, natural mortality, and biological reference points in male specimens, the basis of the fishery. Average longevity was found to be 20 years and natural mortality around M = 0.27. The critical size was determined to be around 110 mm carapace length (Lc, slightly lower than that of the first catch (114 mm Lc. According to this analysis, individuals between 4 and 10 years of age are exploited. A balance analysis revealed that 82% of the population is virginal, as reflected in an average size-at-catch of about 128 mm Lc

  9. Cruzamientos interpoblacionales en Mytilus chilensis, un bivalvo de importancia comercial y sus efectos sobre el crecimiento en longitud de la valva durante la etapa larval Inter-population breeding in Mytilus chilensis, an economically important bivalve, and its effects on the shell length during the larval stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Toro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos poblaciones naturales de Mytilus chilensis aisladas geográficamente fueron utilizadas para realizar los cruzamientos experimentales en el presente trabajo. En todos los cruzamientos, utilizando un diseño factorial con réplicas, ocurrió fertilización de las ovas, no detectándose diferencias significativas entre los cruzamientos intra e interpoblacionales en cuanto al porcentaje de ovas que desarrollaron larvas al día 4 (P > 0,05. Sin embargo, el porcentaje de larvas anormales al día 4 fue significativamente mayor en los cruzamientos interpoblacionales (P Two geographically separated natural populations of Mytilus chilensis were utilized to carry out the experimental crosses on the present study. In every crossing, using the factorial design with replication, fertilization of eggs occurred without detection of significant differences among inter and intra-population crosses in relation to percentage of eggs developed into larvae at day 4 (P > 0.05. However, the percentage of abnormal larvae at day 4, was significantly higher among inter-population crosses (P < 0.05. The larvae from each cross were placed into a 200 l fiber-glass tank containing 1 µm filtered and U.V. treated fresh sea water, at a density of 100 larvae per ml. A high cell concentration of the micro algae Isochrysis galbana was used as food. Samples for analyzing larval growth were taken from the larval cultures at 4, 10 and 20 days after fertilization. Larval samples were videotyped from a plankton decantation chamber in an inverted microscope fitted with a Pulnex video camera. Selected images were captured for subsequent processing and measurement of each larva using a Scion Image 3.0b PC Software. Significantly differences (P < 0.05 were found in the size of the larvae among the experimental crosses. The sibs from inter-population crosses showed significantly (P < 0.05 higher sizes than those produced by the intra-population crosses. These higher values in the shell

  10. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  11. Forest resources of the Gila National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Gila National Forest 1994 inventory including...

  12. Forest resources of the Prescott National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Rogers

    2003-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Prescott National Forest 1996...

  13. Survival, growth and vulnerability to drought in fire refuges: implications for the persistence of a fire-sensitive conifer in northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gowda, Juan H; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Kitzberger, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Fire severity and extent are expected to increase in many regions worldwide due to climate change. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the relative importance of deterministic vs. stochastic factors producing remnant vegetation to understand their function in the persistence of fire-sensitive plants. Vegetation remnants (areas within the landscape that have not burned for a considerable amount of time) may occur stochastically or in more predictable locations (fire refuges) where physical conditions decrease fire severity. Our aim was to determine if remnant forests of the fire-sensitive conifer Austrocedrus chilensis are associated with biophysical attributes that allow persistence in a fire-prone Patagonian landscape. We conducted a multi-scale approach, determining attributes of forest remnants and their surroundings (matrices) through remote sensing and field-based biophysical and functional characteristics, and quantifying how tree survival probability relates to microsite conditions. Trees within remnants displayed abundant fire scars, were twofold older and had threefold larger growth rates than matrix trees. Remnants were associated with high rocky cover and elevated topographical positions. Tree survival increased in hilltops, eastern aspects, and with sparse vegetation. Trees within remnants experienced severe reductions in growth during droughts. Our results suggest that A. chilensis remnants are mainly the result of refuges, where environmental conditions increase fire survival, but also increase susceptibility to drought. A trade-off between fire survival and drought vulnerability may imply that under increasing drought and fire severity, locations that in the past have served as refuges may reduce their ability to allow the persistence of fire-sensitive taxa.

  14. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  15. FS National Forest Dataset (US Forest Service Proclaimed Forests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  16. Boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L. [Univ. of Umeaa, Dept. of Ecological Botany, Umeaa (Sweden); Ehnstroem, B. [Swedish Univ., of Agricultural Sciences, Swedish Threatened Species Unit, Uppsala (Sweden); Sjoeberg, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Ecology, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man`s past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs.

  17. Abiotic alterations caused by forest fragmentation affect tree regeneration: a shade and drought tolerance gradient in the remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest Alteraciones abióticas causadas por la fragmentación del bosque afectan la regeneración arbórea: un gradiente de tolerancia a la sombra y la sequía en los remanentes del Bosque Maulino Costero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO C GUERRERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration is strongly determined by light and soil moisture differences between habitáis; both variables are modified by large-scale forest fragmentation. Several studies have indicated this alteration as the mechanism involved in tropical forest community change. The effects of fragmentation may be much more severe in Mediterranean and deciduous forests, because plant species in these forests show a stress tolerance tradeoff between shade and drought. Our study was performed in the deciduous fragmented Coastal Maulino Forest: Reserva Nacional Los Queules (RNLQ and surrounding small fragments. We hypothesised that Aristotelia chilensis (shade intolerant but drought tolerant should increase its regeneration in small patches as a consequence of the change in habitat suitability (i.e. luminous and drier, while Cryptocarya alba (shade tolerant but drought intolerant should have less regeneration in small fragments. We also expected that Nothofagus glauca and N. obliqua, which have shade and drought tolerances intermedíate between A. chilensis and C. alba, should respond less to forest fragmentation. We used two estimations of plant regeneration: (i seedling and sapling densities via field observations and (ii seed germination and seedling establishment via a field-based experiment. Natural regeneration patterns of C. alba indicated a depressed regeneration within small forest fragments compared to RNLQ, although experimental germination, establishment and recruitment proportions did not vary between habitáis. In contrast, A. chilensis regeneration was favored by forest fragmentation, with increased seedling and sapling densities and germination in small forest fragments. Both N. glauca and N. obliqua were less affected by forest fragmentation in their natural and experimental regeneration. This study highlights the relevance of studying changes in abiotic factors as a consequence of human activities, and considering safe sites (defined

  18. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fredes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (by ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP assay of maqui fruits harvested at different fruit maturity stages from two wild populations located in Central Chile. Each maturity stage was determined by days from fruit set, berry size, and soluble solids. Total phenol content declined while total anthocyanin content increased from the green to light red stage. Nevertheless, both total phenol and anthocyanin content increased from the light red to dark purple stage. The highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity was found in the late maturity stage (dark purple. The results show that ripening in maqui fruit can be expected with 1100 growing degree-days (91 d after fruit set in Central Chile. At this moment of harvest, fruits with 18-19 °Brix have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (FRAP. This study constitutes the first advances in the understanding of maqui fruit ripening and corresponding antioxidant activity.El maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae es una especie nativa de Chile que produce unas bayas pequeñas que se recolectan principalmente de individuos silvestres. Los beneficios para la salud atribuidos a los frutos de maqui se deben a sus altos contenidos de polifenoles, así como a la gran variedad de antocianos y flavonoles. Uno de los principales factores que afectan el contenido de polifenoles en frutos es el estado de madurez a la cosecha. El objetivo de este estudio fue

  19. Factores que afectan la distribución circular del muérdago sin hojas Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae sobre el cacto Echinopsis chilensis Factors affecting the circular distribution of the leafless mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae on the cactus Echinopsis chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAREZZA BOTTO-MAHAN

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos el patrón de emergencia del muérdago holoparásito Tristerix aphyllus desde su cacto hospedador Echinopsis chilensis en un ecosistema semiárido de Chile. La distribución circular de las inflorescencias del parásito difirió significativamente de una distribución uniforme basada en un proceso aleatorio. Cuantificamos la distribución circular de las semillas defecadas sobre la superficie del cacto por el mímido Mimus thenca, el único ave responsable de la dispersión del muérdago. Nuestros datos no sostuvieron la idea de una deposición de semillas direccional por parte del ave. Para someter a prueba la hipótesis que la distribución circular observada es atribuible a una sobrevivencia diferencial de las semillas debido a variación térmica entre micrositios, infectamos cactos con semillas de T. aphyllus cada 30º y evaluamos la temperatura asociada a cada ángulo. Aun cuando las semillas ubicadas en ángulos con mayor exposición solar presentaron la menor formación de disco haustorial, esta variación en mortalidad no fue suficiente para dar cuenta de la polaridad angular observada. No obstante, las inflorescencias de T. aphyllus que emergieron 17 meses después de la infección experimental, revelaron estadígrafos circulares indistinguibles de aquellos observados en la situación natural. La inspección de la estructura anatómica en dos ángulos opuestos de la cactácea reveló diferencias en la constitución de la epidermis, observándose un espesor en promedio cuatro veces mayor en las muestras orientadas hacia el norte que en las orientadas hacia el sur debido a la formación de corteza altamente lignificada. Sugerimos que la formación de corteza es probablemente el factor más importante en determinar la distribución circular sesgada de T. aphyllusWe describe the pattern of emergence of the holoparasitic mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus from its cactus host Echinopsis chilensis in a semiarid Chilean ecosystem. The

  20. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-12

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species.

  1. US Forest Service National Forest System Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents a...

  2. Isolamento químico e validação analítica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência de quercitrina em Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.D. VECHIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A espécie Solidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae é conhecida como erva-lanceta ou arnica-brasileira, sendo utilizada popularmente como antimicrobiana e para o tratamento de inflamações tópicas. No entanto, estudos fitoquímicos e farmacológicos para as partes aéreas são escassos. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a determinação de flavonoides por espectrofotometria de UV/Vis, prospecção fitoquímica da fração acetato de etila visando o isolamento do constituinte químico majoritário e validação analítica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. O teor de flavonoides totais foi de 5,42%, representados como hiperosídeo. O fracionamento químico utilizando métodos cromatográficos (cromatografia líquida em coluna gel de sílica; CHCl3:EtOH; 8:2 v/v e espectroscópicos (1H RMN,13C RMN e ESI-MS revelou o isolamento de quercetina-3-O-α-L-ramnosídeo(quercitrina. A sensibilidade e a linearidade (r = 0,999 da validação analítica, utilizando a quercitrina isolada do extrato hidroalcoólico da planta, revelaram um rendimento de 5,29% do analito em relação à droga vegetal. Precisão, recuperação e robustez, além dos valores estabelecidos para os limites de detecção (LOD e de quantificação (LOQ, poderão ser utilizados como parâmetros de qualidade para extratos à base de S. chilensis.

  3. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  4. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  5. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  6. Cluster Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Donghui; Jordan, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by Random Forests (RF) in the context of classification, we propose a new clustering ensemble method---Cluster Forests (CF). Geometrically, CF randomly probes a high-dimensional data cloud to obtain "good local clusterings" and then aggregates via spectral clustering to obtain cluster assignments for the whole dataset. The search for good local clusterings is guided by a cluster quality measure $\\kappa$. CF progressively improves each local clustering in a fashion that resembles the tree growth in RF. Empirical studies on several real-world datasets under two different performance metrics show that CF compares favorably to its competitors. Theoretical analysis shows that the $\\kappa$ criterion is shown to grow each local clustering in a desirable way---it is "noise-resistant." A closed-form expression is obtained for the mis-clustering rate of spectral clustering under a perturbation model, which yields new insights into some aspects of spectral clustering.

  7. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  8. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  9. La dieta y la fauna de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae en la costa de Chile centro-sur: variaciones geográficas y ontogenéticas Diet and metazoan parasite fauna of the thornfish Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae on the coast of central-south Chile: geographical and ontogenetic variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer qué, cuánto, cuándo y dónde comen y viven los hospedadores permitiría complementar los estudios parasitarios, ya que la transmisión de los endoparásitos está estrechamente ligada a la dieta, y la de los ectoparásitos al uso del hábitat. Por esto, se describen y comparan la composición y características cuantitativas de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis con datos obtenidos de 108 ejemplares juveniles recolectados desde la zona intermareal de cuatro localidades de la costa de Chile (entre 33º y 40º S, y de 14 adultos recolectados desde el submareal somero de una quinta localidad (36º S, y se discute los resultados a la luz de los cambios ontogenéticos en el nicho de este huésped. Cerca del 70 % de los ejemplares tenía contenido alimentario, en el que se distinguieron 25 ítems presa, de los cuales sólo uno era compartido entre juveniles y adultos. La dieta de los toritos juveniles estuvo compuesta principalmente por anfípodos y la de los adultos por crustáceos decápodos. Cerca de un 40 % de los toritos albergaba un total de 624 parásitos en los que se reconocieron 16 taxa, y sólo cuatro eran compartidos entre juveniles y adultos. En los toritos juveniles muestreados en las cuatro localidades había baja y similar intensidad total, riqueza y diversidad parasitarias, y variaciones geográficas significativas en la prevalencia total, composición de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos. La falta de una relación clara entre la composición de la dieta y del parasitismo en los toritos juveniles puede deberse a que las parasitosis son necesariamente recientes, y a que pueden haber grandes diferencias en el tiempo de residencia de presas y parásitos en el tracto digestivo. En los toritos adultos hubo mayor prevalencia, intensidad y diversidad de parásitos que en los juveniles de una localidad cercana. Se requieren más estudios, en especial en la

  10. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  11. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  12. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  13. US Forest Service Healthy Forest Restoration Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...

  14. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  15. US Forest Service Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...

  16. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  17. Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis-nodulating rhizobia Sinorhizobium arboris HAMBI 2361 and S. kostiense HAMBI 2362 produce tetra- and pentameric LCOs that are N-methylated, O-6-carbamoylated and partially sulfated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Petri; Soupas, Laura; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Lindström, Kristina

    2004-04-28

    Sinorhizobium arboris and S. kostiense are rhizobia that nodulate the tropical leguminous trees Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis. The lipochito-oligosaccharidic signalling molecules (LCOs) of S. arboris HAMBI 2361 and S. kostiense HAMBI 2362 were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The major LCOs produced by the strains were shown to be pentameric, acylated with common fatty acids, N-methylated, O-6-carbamoylated and partially sulfated, as are the LCOs characterized to date for other Acacia-nodulating rhizobia. Besides the major LCOs the two strains produced (i) tetrameric LCOs, (ii) LCOs acylated with fatty acids other than those commonly found, (iii) LCOs with only an acyl substituent and (iv) noncarbamoylated LCOs. Production of LCOs (i) to (iii) are novel among Acacia-nodulating rhizobia. The roles of the different structural characteristics of LCOs in the rhizobium-A. senegal symbiosis are discussed. Specific structural features of the LCOs are proposed to be important in the selection of effective nitrogen-fixing rhizobia by A. senegal.

  18. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  19. Community structure of the macroinfauna in the sediments below an intertidal mussel bed (Mytilus chilensis (Hupe of southern Chile Estructura comunitaria de la macroinfauna en los sedimentos bajo un banco intermareal de bivalvos (Mytilus chilensis (Hupe en el sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN DUARTE

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The mytilid mussel Mytilus chilensis (Hupe can form dense beds in sedimentary areas of the inland coast of the Nord-Patagonic archipelagos of the Chilean coast (ca. 40-43° S. During the autumn of 2002, we collected replicated samples at five intertidal stations in Panitao (Golfo de Reloncaví ordered along a transect parallel to the low tide level and extended from the center of the bank (stations one and two with 100 and ca. 25 % of mussel cover, respectively to the bare sediments of the intertidal (stations 3, 4 and 5, without mussels. The macroinfauna was numerically dominated by Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Crustacea Peracarida. The total number of species collected was 14, being the most abundant the polychaete Perinereis vallata, oligochaetes from the family Tubificidae and the crustacean amphipod Corophium insidiosum. The number of species, Shannon-Wiener diversity and total abundance of the macroinfauna did not differ significantly among stations. However, the percent contribution of polychaetes was significantly higher at the sediments sampled outside the mussel bed (stations three, four and five, while the percentual contribution of oligochaetes was significantly higher at the sediments sampled in the mussel bed (stations one and two. No significant differences were found between the percentual contribution of peracarid crustaceans between stations sampled in the mussel bed versus that sampled on the bare intertidal. The graphic results of NMMDS show that the macroinfaunal assemblage of the stations located inside the mussel bed differed from that of stations located outside the bed. Results of SIMPER and ANOSIM showed that the macroinfaunal composition of stations one and two was significantly dissimilar (61-54 % to that of the stations located outside the mussel bed, which had similar composition. The graphic results of a NMMDS based upon sedimentological characteristics show that most replicates of station one and some of station

  20. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  1. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  2. Iowa's forest resources, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Pamela J. Jakes

    1980-01-01

    The second inventory of Iowa's forest resources shows big declines in commercial forest area and in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1954 and 1974. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber resources.

  3. Forest Grammar(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    Forest grammar,a new type of high-dimensional grammar,is proposed in this paper,of which both the left and the right parts of every production are concatenations of tree structures.A classification of forest grammar is studied,especially,a subclass of the forest grammar,i.e.the context-sensitive forest grammar,and one of its subclasses is defined,called the weak precedence forest grammar.

  4. Kansas forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Robert L. Atchison; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. Perry; William H. IV Reading; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of Kansas forests reports 2.1 million acres of forest land, roughly 4 percent of the total land area in the State. Softwood forests account for nearly 5 percent of the total timberland area. Oak/hickory forest types make up 56 percent of the total hardwood forest land area. Elm/ash/cottonwood accounts for more than 30 percent of the...

  5. Kansas' Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Robert L. Atchison; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant Domke; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second completed annual inventory of Kansas' forests reports 2.4 million acres of forest land, roughly 5 percent of the total land area in the State. Softwood forests account for 4.4 percent of the total timberland area. Oak/hickory forest types make up 55 percent of the total hardwood forest land area. Elm/ash/cottonwood accounts for more than 32 percent of...

  6. Forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  7. US Forest Service Forest Health Protection Insect and Disease Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — This data is a compilation of forest insect, disease and abiotic damage mapped by aerial detection surveys on forested areas in the United States. US Forest Service,...

  8. Forest resources of Mississippi’s national forests, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resource characteristics of Mississippi’s national forests, with emphasis on DeSoto National Forest, following the 2006 survey completed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Mississippi’s national forests comprise > 1 million acres of forest land, or about 7 percent of all forest...

  9. Forest resources of the Santa Fe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Lambert

    2004-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Santa Fe National Forest 1998...

  10. Forest Stand Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  11. Policy: Palatable forest conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Current policies to reduce emissions from forest loss could mean that rising demand for food is not met. A new approach to forest conservation that reduces emissions while meeting demand for agricultural products may be feasible, but more expensive.

  12. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  13. Forest Grammar (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    The syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence forest grammar has been introduced and the correctness and unambiguity of this algorithm have been proved. An example is given to the syntactic parsing procedure of weak precedence forest grammar.

  14. Evaluación biogeográfica de las poblaciones más meridionales del bosque mediterráneo chileno con palmas nativas (Jubaea chilensis (Mol. Baillon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Quintanilla Pérez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se basa en un trabajo de investigación desarrollado desde hace más de 20 años y que persigue consolidar un método de inventariación y valoración biogeográfica de diferentes paisajes vegetales a escala global. Hasta la fecha, se ha ido aplicando a diferentes ecosistemas ubicados dentro de la península Ibérica, Escandinavia, Balcanes, Chile, Nicaragua, Brasil. Como consecuencia de una estancia de investigación en 2008 en Chile central, se registró la puntuación más alta aplicando el método a una formación concreta, el bosque mediterráneo con Jubaea chilensis. El estudio, en esta ocasión, se centró, expuso y analizó los resultados obtenidos en dos poblaciones de esta misma formación, pero ubicadas en la región más meridional de su límite de distribución mediterránea. La metodología se basó en un inventariado sistemático de diferentes parcelas junto a una valoración apoyada en criterios naturales, territoriales, culturales, de manejo, riesgos, etc. Los resultados, en este caso, volvieron a constatar altos valores generales y, no obstante, no alcanzaron los registrados en los sectores costeros de Valparaíso y Viña del Mar. Sin embargo, criterios como los territoriales o mesológicos han seguido contando con grandes puntuaciones. La población de Candelaria muestra mejores resultados naturales, culturales y estructurales mientras que Botalcura, debido al grado de amenaza, presenta un valor final más elevado.

  15. Forests and water cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, a review on factors that control water cycle and water use in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is presented, including environmental variables and silvicultural treatments. This important issue is considered in the perspective of sustainable forest management of Mediterranean forests, with special regard to crucial environmental hazards such as forest fires and desertification risks related to climate change.

  16. Forest Microclimate Characteristics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    designated by other authorized documents. DESTROY THIS REPORT WHEN NO LONGER NEEDED. DO NOT RETURN IT TO THE ORIGINATOR . ERDC/CERL SR-14-8 iii Contents...understory density, height from forest floor 33 Raynor 1971 Wind and Temperature Structure in a Coniferous Forest and a Contiguous Field New...radiation, turbulence, wind speed 35 Spies 1994 Dynamics and Patterns of a Managed Coniferous Forest Landscape in Oregon Oregon forest interior

  17. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in p

  18. Forests of Kansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Meneguzzo; B.J. Butler

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on annual inventories conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station (NRS) of the U.S. Forest Service. The estimates presented in this update are based on field data collected in 2009-2013 with comparisons made to data collected from...

  19. Kansas' Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; M.H. Hansen; R.L. Atchison

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  20. Forests of Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Meneguzzo; S.J. Crocker

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on annual inventories conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station (NRS) of the U.S. Forest Service. The estimates presented in this update are based on field data collected in 2010-2014 with comparisons made to data collected from...

  1. Kansas' forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; P.D. Miles; R.A. Atchison

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  2. Kansas' forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; C.H. Barnett; C.M. Kurtz; R.A. Atchison

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  3. Kansas' forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; M.H. Hansen; C.H. Barnett; R.A. Atchison

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  4. Kansas' forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; D.E. Haugen; R.A. Atchison

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  5. Forests of Iowa, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt Brewer; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kathryne. Clark

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Iowa based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  6. Massachusetts' Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Charles Burnham; I. Ted Goodnight; Barbara O' Connell; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Massachusetts based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service....

  7. Connecticut's Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; I. Ted Goodnight; Helene F. Hochholzer; Barbara O' Connell; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Connecticut based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These...

  8. South Carolina's forests, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner

    1998-01-01

    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the seventh inventory of South Carolina’s forest re-sources. Data on the extent, condition, and classification of forest land and associated timber volumes, growth, removals, and mortality are described and interpreted. Whereas data on nontimber commodities associated with forests were also collected,...

  9. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material and Met...

  10. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  11. Forest resources of the Forest resources of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Rogers

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest...

  12. Forests and Forest Cover - DCNR - State Forest Lands 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The state forest boundry coverage is being updated frequently. It is derived from survey descriptions and will be, and has been in certain areas, adjusted to GPS...

  13. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of forest history is crucial for understanding the processes, structures, functions and current status of forest ecosystems. An enhanced understanding of the long history of disturbance factors affecting forest development and thereby the present state of the forest is particularly...... valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using...

  14. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non-productive...... with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...

  15. The empty forest revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now.

  16. Estimating forest conversion rates with annual forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The rate of land-use conversion from forest to nonforest or natural forest to forest plantation is of interest for forest certification purposes and also as part of the process of assessing forest sustainability. Conversion rates can be estimated from remeasured inventory plots in general, but the emphasis here is on annual inventory data. A new estimator is proposed...

  17. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  18. Illegal Forest Production and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Hermosilla, Arnoldo

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at the evidence on the magnitude and impacts of forest illegal acts, examines the vulnerabilities of the forest sector, and proposes a strategy for combating forest crime. Forest crime prominently includes illegal logging but acts against the law also affect other sector operations such as forest products transport, industrial processing, and trade. Almost universally, cri...

  19. 78 FR 18307 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register of January 31, 2013, concering a notice of meeting for the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee. The document...

  20. 78 FR 13621 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Forest Service San Bernardino National Forest; California; Omya Sentinel and Butterfield Quarry Expansion Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Bernardino National Forest (SBNF); and A Mining and Land...

  1. Forest report 2016; Waldzustandsbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  2. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  3. From National Forest Inventory to National Forest GHG Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Ben; PANDEY Devendra; Achard, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 3.3 presents two national case studies for forest inventories in tropical countries: the Indian and Mexican national forest inventories. These national forest inventories have been use to report GHG inventories to the UNFCC

  4. US Forest Service Original Proclaimed National Forests and National Grasslands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  5. CARACTERIZACIÓN CUANTITATIVA DE PRODUCTOS INTERMEDIOS Y RESIDUOS DERIVADOS DE ALIMENTOS DEL ALGARROBO (PROSOPIS FLEXUOSA Y P. CHILENSIS, FABACEAE: APROXIMACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL APLICADA A RESTOS ARQUEOBOTÁNICOS DESECADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylen Capparelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante una aproximación experimental se caracterizan los atributos macromorfológicos cuantitativos de productos intermedios y residuales derivados de Prosopis chilensis y P. flexuosa (Algarrobo blanco y Algarrobo negro respectivamente que potencialmente podrían llegar a formar parte del registro arqueobotánico. Se provee descripción morfoanatómica de la vaina y la semilla de las especies tratadas. Se elaboró harina no refinada y refinada, añapa, aloja y arrope, siguiendo técnicas tradicionalmente utilizadas en el Valle de Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina, las cuales fueron registradas por la autora en trabajos previos. Se concluye que el análisis cuantitativo de restos macrobotánicos de Prosopis, en conjunto con el cualitativo, permite la identificación de diferentes etapas de procesamiento del Algarrobo. Para ello resulta esencial la distinción entre las dos especies. La proporción de diferentes categorías de semillas y endocarpos es útil para distinguir la harina refinada de la no refinada. Esta última podría indicar la manufactura de patay, ulpo o aloja. Los residuos de la añapa y aloja se caracterizan por presentar semillas con testa plegada, enrollada o levantada, o carecer de ella, y sus cantidades se encuentran disminuidas o aumentadas con respecto a la cantidad inicial de harina utilizada dependiendo de si las semillas que se recuperan son enteras o fragmentadas. Los residuos del arrope se identifican por poseer grandes piezas de epicarpo y porque todos los endocarpos correspondientes a la cantidad de artejos utilizados inicialmente en su preparación se encuentran presentes. Dichos endocarpos se encuentran cerrados, y excepto en el caso de los residuos de arrope, se considera que la mayoría de las asociaciones arqueológicas de restos de Prosopis representa una proporción muy baja del volumen de materia que le dio origen en su contexto dinámico del pasado.

  6. Analyzing forest health data

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Smith; Barbara L. Conkling

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on the Forest Health Monitoring Program’s development and use of analytical procedures for monitoring changes in forest health and for expressing the corresponding statistical confidences. The program’s assessments of long-term status, changes, and trends in forest ecosystem health use the Santiago Declaration: “Criteria and Indicators for the...

  7. Kentucky's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2008-01-01

    Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...

  8. Pennsylvania forests 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Albright; William H. McWilliams; Richard H. Widmann; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the third cycle of annualized inventory of Pennsylvania with field data collected from 2009 through 2014. Pennsylvania has 16.9 million acres of forest land dominated by sawtimber stands of oak/hickory and maple/beech/birch forest-type groups. Volumes continue to increase as the forests age with an average of 2,244 cubic feet per acre on...

  9. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  10. The Influence of forest certification on forest product trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Forest certification is considered to be complementary to forest management policies and takes a significant effect on forest product trade. In recent decade, it has been followed with interest and approved by governments and for estry departments in the world. This paper analyzes the influence of forest cert ification on forest product trade in the world, including the interest in certif ication in exporting countries and importing countries, trade flow and business competition, and the demands for Certified Forest Products (CFPs) and also discu sses the influence of forest certification on forest product trade in China.

  11. Forest report 2014; Waldzustandsbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    This forest report of Hesse (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, and water quality of forest streams.

  12. Late-Holocene rodent middens from Rio Limay, Neuquen Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markgraf, Vera; Betancourt, J.; Rylander, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pollen analysis of late-Holocene amberat deposits from two caves near the forest-steppe ecotone in northern Patagonia documents a major shift from Austrocedrus-Nothofagus forest to steppe shrub assemblages some time after 1800 and before 1300 BP. The probable explanation of the reduction of tree taxa calls for either drier summers or intensified land use or a combination of both.

  13. Forests Hold the Key

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An interview with Mr. Allen Tak Yuen Chan,Managing Director and CEO of Sino-Forest Corp. of Canada A lien Tak Yuen Chan,Managing Director and CEO of the Sino-Forest Corp.,is an acclaimed academic and a columnist.

  14. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the Amazo

  15. Forest insurance number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton T. Munger; H.B. Shepard

    1934-01-01

    This inquiry, originally conceived as an effort to determine definitely whether the existing lack of adequate and practical forest fire insurance facilities is in truth unavoidable and, if possible, to suggest means whereby the condition might be remedied, finds no apparent reason why successful forest fire insurance should not be possible as far as the loss situation...

  16. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  17. Forest, trees and agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Foli, Samson; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah;

    2015-01-01

    Scientific community is concerned to address contemporary issues of food production and conserve tropical forests that support the livelihoods of millions of people. A review of the literature on deforestation, forest utilization, and landscape management for ecosystem services was conducted to i...

  18. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  19. La propiedad forestal

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Boza, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación ha sido dirigido a definir en forma concreta y real al régimen de la propiedad forestal, de acuerdo con la ley, su reglamento y las diferentes disposiciones dictadas por la dirección General Forestal del Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería.

  20. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholde

  1. Why 'a forest conscienceness'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Calver; H. Bigler-Cole; G. Bolton; J. Dargavel; A. Gaynor; P. Horwitz; J. Mills; G. Wardell-Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The phrase 'a forest conscienceness' was used in a major statement made by Charles Lane Poole, Western Australia's Conservator of Forests from 1916-1921, for the 1920 British Empire Forestry Conference. It is both relevant and contemporary at the beginning of the 21st century. We chose it as the conference theme to encourage engagement with both a...

  2. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  3. Modelling in forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Twery

    2004-01-01

    Forest management has traditionally been considered management of trees for timber. It really includes vegetation management and land management and people management as multiple objectives. As such, forest management is intimately linked with other topics in this volume, most especially those chapters on ecological modelling and human dimensions. The key to...

  4. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization......Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  5. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2013-01-01

    , depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities...... to the total income accounting of the poor and the non-poor were estimated. The results indicate that forest and environmental income was the second important livelihood activity to both poor and non-poor households next to crop production - contributing about 22.46 and 24.14 percent to the poor and non......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting...

  6. Forest inventory: role in accountability for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland

    2007-01-01

    Forest inventory can play several roles in accountability for sustainable forest management. A first dimension is accountability for national performance. The new field of Criteria and Indicators is an expression of this need. A more familiar role for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program is for assessment and...

  7. The forest resources of the Shawnee National Forest, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2003-01-01

    The inventory of forest resources of the Shawnee National Forest reports 273.2 thousand acres of forest land, of which 249.3 thousand acres are timberland. This bulletin presents as analysis of forest resources focusing on change in tree species composition, timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  8. The forest resources of the Hiawatha National Forest, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Schmidt; Mike Lanasa

    1995-01-01

    The inventory of the forest resources of Hiawatha National Forest reports 892.1 thousand acres of land, of which 756.7 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as of timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  9. The forest resources of the Hoosier National Forest, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    2003-01-01

    The inventory of forest resources of the Hoosier National Forest reports 186 thousand acres of forest land, of which 169.8 thousand acres are timberland. This bulletin presents an analysis of forest resources, focusing on change in tree species composition, timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  10. The forest resources of the Ottawa National Forest, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; James L. Meunier

    1997-01-01

    The inventory of the forest resources of the Ottawa National Forest reports 967.0 thousand acres of land, of which 908.6 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents an analysis of forest resources focusing on change in tree species composition, timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  11. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  12. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison;

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  13. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  14. Forests of east Texas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry J.W. Dooley

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  15. The Challenge of Forest Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Nagendra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists and practitioners have conventionally used forest plots or transects for monitoring changes in attributes of forest condition over time. However, given the difficulty in collecting such data, conservation practitioners frequently rely on the judgment of foresters and forest users for evaluating changes. These methods are rarely compared. We use a dataset of 53 forests in five countries to compare assessments of forest change from forest plots, and forester and user evaluations of changes in forest density. We find that user assessments of changes in tree density are strongly and significantly related to assessments of change derived from statistical analyses of randomly distributed forest plots. User assessments of change in density at the shrub/sapling level also relate to assessments derived from statistical evaluations of vegetation plots, but this relationship is not as strong and only weakly significant. Evaluations of change by professional foresters are much more difficult to acquire, and less reliable, as foresters are often not familiar with changes in specific local areas. Forester evaluations can instead better provide valid single-time comparisons of a forest with other areas in a similar ecological zone. Thus, in forests where local forest users are present, their evaluations can be used to provide reliable assessments of changes in tree density in the areas they access. However, assessments of spatially heterogeneous patterns of human disturbance and regeneration at the shrub/sapling level are likely to require supplemental vegetation analysis.

  16. Climate change and forest diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.N. Sturrock; Susan Frankel; A. V. Brown; Paul Hennon; J. T. Kliejunas; K. J. Lewis; J. J. Worrall; A. J. Woods

    2011-01-01

    As climate changes, the effects of forest diseases on forest ecosystems will change. We review knowledge of relationships between climate variables and several forest diseases, as well as current evidence of how climate, host and pathogen interactions are responding or might respond to climate change. Many forests can be managed to both adapt to climate change and...

  17. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with Title II of the Act. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is to review proposals for forest projects and...

  18. Saving the Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Under a trial program, some forestry workers can acquire the operating rights to the forest in which they work Jiang Yongbin, 34, an employee of the Wumahe Forestry Administration of Yichun City, Heilongjiang Province, became famous overnight when he paid 62,901 yuan to buy 9.3 hectares of state-owned forest on April 29, making him the first person to participate in the country's forest tenure reform. Authorized by the State Council. China's cabinet, the State Forestry Administration approved a

  19. Diversidad de musgos en ambientes degradados sujetos a restauración en el Parque Nacional Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina Moss diversity in degraded environments under restoring in the Lago Puelo National Park (Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E ROVERE

    2011-12-01

    that seeks to recover the attributes of an ecosystem which have been lost (species diversity, structure and function. The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and different life forms of mosses in three environments with varying levels of degradation, as well as the different substrates they grow on. Our study area lies within Lago Puelo National Reserve, in a sector undergoing restoration. Three different environments are found in this sector: (1 a remnant of mature Nothofagus dombeyi forest, (2 secondary Austrocedrus chilensis forest and (3 scrubland dominated by exotic species. Each of these environments was analyzed, and substrates with mosses, life forms and genera were registered. Our results showed a decrease in available substrates and species present as the level of disturbance increased, from the area of mature N. dombeyi forest (9 substrates; 17genera; 7 life forms, followed by the A. chilensis secondary forest (6 substrates: 8 genera: 5 life forms , to the scrubland dominated by exotic species (1 substrate; 4 genera; 3 life forms. Mosses carry out important functions in ecosystems, as they are essential to the water balance, they are pioneers in unstable soils, where they control erosion and colonize disturbed sites, they provide habitat and food for invertebrates, and also constitute suitable sites for the germination of vascular plants. Although the germination of some woody species is negatively affected by the presence of mosses, the germination of other temperate forest tree species is favored. These results can be useful in restoration, whether for the recreation of absent substrates or the transfer of substrates with mosses, in order to promote the recovery of degraded forest areas to their original levels of biodiversity.

  20. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Hurteau; Shuang Liang; Katherine L. Martin; Malcolm P. North; George W. Koch; Bruce A. Hungate

    2016-01-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and...

  1. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  2. 1Moist Forest R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-15

    Nov 15, 2014 ... 1Moist Forest Research Station, Forestry Research Institute of ... extension contact, cocoa income, livestock income as well as level of education. .... The zone is a tropical coastal wetland with ..... Dry-Season Farming and.

  3. Mangrove forest decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Mertz, Ole; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests in the tropics and subtropics grow in saline sediments in coastal and estuarine environments. Preservation of mangrove forests is important for many reasons, including the prevention of coastal erosion and seawater intrusion; the provision of spawning, nursery, and feeding grounds...... and severe mangrove loss with serious consequences. The mangrove forests of the Takalar District, South Sulawesi, are studied here as a case area that has suffered from degradation and declining spatial extent during recent decades. On the basis of a post-classification comparison of change detection from...... satellite imagery and a survey of households, we provide an estimate of the mangrove change in the Takalar District during 1979–2011 and the consequences of those changes. Mangrove forest areas were reduced by 66.05 % (3344 hectares) during the 33-year period of analysis, and the biggest annual negative...

  4. Boosted Random Forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MISHINA, Yohei; MURATA, Ryuei; YAMAUCHI, Yuji; YAMASHITA, Takayoshi; FUJIYOSHI, Hironobu

    2015-01-01

    .... Within machine learning, a Random Forest is a multi-class classifier with high-performance classification, achieved using bagging and feature selection, and is capable of high-speed training and classification...

  5. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  6. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  7. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place......The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  8. Culturing the forest [Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667.......Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667....

  9. National forest inventory contributions to forest biodiversity monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirici, Cherardo; McRoberts, Ronald; Winter, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems. National forest inventories (NFIs) are the main source of information on the status and trends of forests, but they have traditionally been designed to assess land coverage and the production value of forests rather than forest biodiversity....... The primary international processes dealing with biodiversity and sustainable forest management, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Forest Europe, Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators 2010 of the European Environmental Agency, and the Montréal Process, all include indicators related...... to forest biodiversity. The scope of this article is to review and present possibilities offered by NFIs to harmonize estimation of indicators useful for international forest biodiversity monitoring and reporting. We summarize key findings from Working Group 3 of Action E43 (“Harmonisation of National...

  10. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  11. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  12. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  13. Where do forests influence rainfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; van der Ent, Ruud; Fetzer, Ingo; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert; Gordon, Line

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a major role in hydrology. Not only by immediate control of soil moisture and streamflow, but also by regulating climate through evaporation (i.e., transpiration, interception, and soil evaporation). The process of evaporation travelling through the atmosphere and returning as precipitation on land is known as moisture recycling. Whether evaporation is recycled depends on wind direction and geography. Moisture recycling and forest change studies have primarily focused on either one region (e.g. the Amazon), or one biome type (e.g. tropical humid forests). We will advance this via a systematic global inter-comparison of forest change impacts on precipitation depending on both biome type and geographic location. The rainfall effects are studied for three contemporary forest changes: afforestation, deforestation, and replacement of mature forest by forest plantations. Furthermore, as there are indications in the literature that moisture recycling in some places intensifies during dry years, we will also compare the rainfall impacts of forest change between wet and dry years. We model forest change effects on evaporation using the global hydrological model STEAM and trace precipitation changes using the atmospheric moisture tracking scheme WAM-2layers. This research elucidates the role of geographical location of forest change driven modifications on rainfall as a function of the type of forest change and climatic conditions. These knowledge gains are important at a time of both rapid forest and climate change. Our conclusions nuance our understanding of how forests regulate climate and pinpoint hotspot regions for forest-rainfall coupling.

  14. Design of forest rent accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.

  15. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails With Data Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. It also depicts the availability of trails...

  16. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  17. US Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) and High Priority Restoration (HRP) project accomplishments. These are ten...

  18. Development of forest inventory methods in multifunctional forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borecki Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.

  19. Potential of the Russian forests and forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttonen, T.; Petrov, A.P. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the proceedings of the seminar `Potential of the Russian Forests and Forest Industries` held in Moscow, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was one step along the road to spread knowledge and become acquainted with forestry and forest industries in northern Europe and Russia. The seminar proceedings contain a lot of fresh information concerning forestry and forest industries in Russia. Both have undergone many changes and reforms during the last few years

  20. Review on Forest Policy Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Forest policy evolution was presented firstly in order to understand the background of forest policy development in China. The recent changes of forest policy were introduced in details, including forest policies on improving biodiversity conservation and securing national ecological safety, restoring key ecosystems, promoting sustainable forest management (SFM), clarifying forest land tenure and protecting farmer’s right on forest and forest land management, promoting healthy forestry industry development ...

  1. Non-timber forest products and forest stewardship plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky Barlow; Tanner Filyaw; Sarah W. Workman

    2015-01-01

    To many woodland owners “harvesting” typically means the removal of timber from forests. In recent years many landowners have become aware of the role non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in supplemental management strategies to produce income while preserving other forest qualities. NTFPs are a diverse group of craft, culinary, and medicinal products that have...

  2. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed method…

  3. Forest degradation and livelihood: a case study of government forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest degradation and livelihood: a case study of government forest ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2017) > ... This study examined the effect of forest degradation on livelihood returns in ... Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep.

  4. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  5. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed…

  6. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed method…

  7. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  8. Forests as carbon sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, R.M. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    When the nations of the world signed and later ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), they accepted the difficult challenge of stabilizing the composition of the atmosphere with respect to the greenhouse gases (GHGs). Success will require a reduction in both use of fossil fuels and rates of deforestation. Forests have a large enough influence on the atmosphere that one of the options for stabilizing the concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere includes the use of forests as a carbon sink through reforestation of large areas. We identify in this paper the potential and the limitations of such projects. We discuss the implications of four approaches in management of forests globally: (i) continued deforestation, (ii) halting deforestation, (iii) net reforestation including agroforestry, and (iv) substituting the use of wood fuels for fossil fuels.

  9. Forests as carbon sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, R.M. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    When the nations of the world signed and later ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), they accepted the difficult challenge of stabilizing the composition of the atmosphere with respect to the greenhouse gases (GHGs). Success will require a reduction in both use of fossil fuels and rates of deforestation. Forests have a large enough influence on the atmosphere that one of the options for stabilizing the concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere includes the use of forests as a carbon sink through reforestation of large areas. We identify in this paper the potential and the limitations of such projects. We discuss the implications of four approaches in management of forests globally: (i) continued deforestation, (ii) halting deforestation, (iii) net reforestation including agroforestry, and (iv) substituting the use of wood fuels for fossil fuels.

  10. Hydrological modelling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological p...

  11. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  12. Forest Inventory and Analysis Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research program has been in existence since mandated by Congress in 1928. FIA's primary objective is to determine the...

  13. US Forest Service Recreation Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation opportunity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the public...

  14. FRM: ADVANCED FOREST PRODUCTS MARKETING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    production and marketing of prosopis condiment in Makurdi metropolis. Key words: ... forest management emphasis in the. ISBN: 2141 – 1778 ... this, forest managers should no longer be ... and revenue through the sales of variety of products ...

  15. US Forest Service Regional Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by a Region. The area encompasses private lands, other governmental agency...

  16. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects...... it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change...... in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key...

  17. The changing Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  18. Forest, trees and agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Foli, Samson; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah;

    2015-01-01

    of millions of people who depend on forest resources extremely vulnerable. We ask; can better implementation of forest policies and landscape management contribute to curb the current level of deforestation? Agroforestry systems in particular are a promising strategy to sustainably deliver food, nutritional...... and income security, ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation across the landscape. However, for agroforestry to become a viable livelihood venture that simultaneously delivers all these benefits, a mixture of economic and institutional support from the state is needed instead of market driven...

  19. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ostertag

    Full Text Available The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha. While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species, six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1 and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C. Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological

  20. The forest biodiversity artery: towards forest management for saproxylic conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of forest conservation is the set aside of unharvested areas. However, the fragmentation and lack of connectivity of protected areas make the integration of conservation measures in productive forests essential. Strategies to integrate conservation of saproxylic biodiversity in forest management have been developed, but often considering only specific aspects or remaining preliminary otherwise. As the impact of climate change and anthropogenic stresses increases, the development and the synthesis of this approach is crucial. We reviewed the key literature on forest management for biodiversity conservation, integrating forest science perspective to provide a practical management framework. Our goal is to present a management framework that could contribute to the effective preservation of forest insect biodiversity at the landscape scale, without high economic efforts, and addressing the conflicts that still jeopardize sustainable forest management. The results of our review support the creation of micro-reserves inside productive forests, to support large reserves in landscape conservation strategies. Micro-reserves increase the resilience of forest ecosystems to anthropogenic disturbances, through the development of a heterogeneous structure, maximizing microhabitat availability. Modeling forest management and harvest on local natural disturbance would extend the benefits of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in productive forests. Variable retention harvest systems, applied at the landscape scale, are a feasible and adaptable strategy to preserve and increase biodiversity, safeguarding structural legacies such as senescent trees and deadwood inside the productive matrix. The operational shift, from the stand to the forest landscape, is fundamental to extend the benefits of conservation measures. The Forest Biodiversity Artery, composed by several micro-reserves or îlots de senescence, connected by corridors of habitat trees

  1. Southeast Alaska forests: inventory highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert. Mead

    2004-01-01

    This publication presents highlights of a recent southeast Alaska inventory and analysis conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). Southeast Alaska has about 22.9 million acres, of which two-thirds are vegetated. Almost 11 million acres are forest land and about 4 million acres have nonforest...

  2. Rhode Island's Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; I. Ted Goodnight; Barbara O' Connell; Bruce Payton; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Rhode Island based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service....

  3. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  4. Rain Forest Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  5. Agriculture, forest, and range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  6. Plentiful forest, happy people?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Nathan, Iben

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on potential impact on social sustainability in timber exporting or processing states outside the EU, this article discusses the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) scheme and its regulatory implementation modalities. Drawing on Vietnam as a case study and the priva...

  7. Forest Resource Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrocznyski, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three processing functions aid in utilizing LANDSAT data for forest resource management. Designed to work primarily with digital data obtained from measurements recorded by multispectral remote sensors mounted on aerospace platforms. communication between processing functions, simplicity of control, and commonality of data files in LARSFRIS enhance usefulness of system as tool for research and development of remote sensing systems.

  8. Invasive forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  9. Wildlife and forest communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Trani Griep; Beverly Collins

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of plant and animal communities in the South ranges from high elevation forests to coastal wetlands, barrier islands, and arid regions of west Texas. Factors contributing to the diversity of these communities include regional gradients in climate, geologic and edaphic site conditions, topographic variation, and natural disturbance processes (Boyce and...

  10. Trees, forests and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellison, David; Morris, Cindy E.; Locatelli, Bruno; Sheil, Douglas; Cohen, Jane; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gutierrez, Victoria; Noordwijk, van Meine; Creed, Irena F.; Pokorny, Jan; Gaveau, David; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Tobella, Aida Bargués; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis; Sands, David C.; Muys, Bart; Verbist, Bruno; Springgay, Elaine; Sugandi, Yulia; Sullivan, Caroline A.

    2017-01-01

    Forest-driven water and energy cycles are poorly integrated into regional, national, continental and global decision-making on climate change adaptation, mitigation, land use and water management. This constrains humanity's ability to protect our planet's climate and life-sustaining functions. The

  11. Rain Forest Dance Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)

  12. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...

  13. Rain Forest Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  14. Illinois' forest resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Earl C. Leatherberry

    1988-01-01

    The third inventory of forest resources in Illinois shows a 1.2% increase in timberland and a 40.5% gain in growing stock volume between 1962 and 1985. Text and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, biomass, and future timber supply.

  15. Forest Resources: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, J. S.; Schreuder, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Concern for long-term availability of nonrenewable resources has fostered proposals for substitution with renewable resources. Forest products could become the basis for materials substitution and production. Further feasibility studies are needed to determine the technical, economic, energy, and environmental aspects of substitution. (MR)

  16. Forest-management modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Twery; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2013-01-01

    Forests are complex and dynamic ecosystems comprising individual trees that can vary in both size and species. In comparison to other organisms, trees are relatively long lived (40-2000 years), quite plastic in terms of their morphology and ecological niche, and adapted to a wide variety of habitats, which can make predicting their behaviour exceedingly difficult....

  17. Predictive models of forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Drew; Pacala, Stephen

    2008-06-13

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have shown that forest dynamics could dramatically alter the response of the global climate system to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next century. But there is little agreement between different DGVMs, making forest dynamics one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in predicting future climate. DGVM predictions could be strengthened by integrating the ecological realities of biodiversity and height-structured competition for light, facilitated by recent advances in the mathematics of forest modeling, ecological understanding of diverse forest communities, and the availability of forest inventory data.

  18. When is a forest a forest? Forest concepts and definitions in the era of forest and landscape restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Laestadius, Lars; Bennett-Curry, Aoife; Buckingham, Kathleen; Kumar, Chetan; Moll-Rocek, Julian; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Wilson, Sarah Jane

    2016-09-01

    We present a historical overview of forest concepts and definitions, linking these changes with distinct perspectives and management objectives. Policies dealing with a broad range of forest issues are often based on definitions created for the purpose of assessing global forest stocks, which do not distinguish between natural and planted forests or reforests, and which have not proved useful in assessing national and global rates of forest regrowth and restoration. Implementing and monitoring forest and landscape restoration requires additional approaches to defining and assessing forests that reveal the qualities and trajectories of forest patches in a spatially and temporally dynamic landscape matrix. New technologies and participatory assessment of forest states and trajectories offer the potential to operationalize such definitions. Purpose-built and contextualized definitions are needed to support policies that successfully protect, sustain, and regrow forests at national and global scales. We provide a framework to illustrate how different management objectives drive the relative importance of different aspects of forest state, dynamics, and landscape context.

  19. Secondary Forest Age and Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation Using TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. F.; Kimes, D. S.; Salas, W. A.; Routhier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The age of secondary forests in the Amazon will become more critical with respect to the estimation of biomass and carbon budgets as tropical forest conversion continues. Multitemporal Thematic Mapper data were used to develop land cover histories for a 33,000 Square kM area near Ariquemes, Rondonia over a 7 year period from 1989-1995. The age of the secondary forest, a surrogate for the amount of biomass (or carbon) stored above-ground, was found to be unimportant in terms of biomass budget error rates in a forested TM scene which had undergone a 20% conversion to nonforest/agricultural cover types. In such a situation, the 80% of the scene still covered by primary forest accounted for over 98% of the scene biomass. The difference between secondary forest biomass estimates developed with and without age information were inconsequential relative to the estimate of biomass for the entire scene. However, in futuristic scenarios where all of the primary forest has been converted to agriculture and secondary forest (55% and 42% respectively), the ability to age secondary forest becomes critical. Depending on biomass accumulation rate assumptions, scene biomass budget errors on the order of -10% to +30% are likely if the age of the secondary forests are not taken into account. Single-date TM imagery cannot be used to accurately age secondary forests into single-year classes. A neural network utilizing TM band 2 and three TM spectral-texture measures (bands 3 and 5) predicted secondary forest age over a range of 0-7 years with an RMSE of 1.59 years and an R(Squared) (sub actual vs predicted) = 0.37. A proposal is made, based on a literature review, to use satellite imagery to identify general secondary forest age groups which, within group, exhibit relatively constant biomass accumulation rates.

  20. Analysis of Forest Biodiversity Changes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By reference of the evaluative data of forest biodiversity changes in China from 1973 to 1998, the variation analysis models of the pressure index of forest biodiversity, forest ecosystem diversity and forest species diversity, as well as the general index of forest biodiversity are developed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Furthermore established is the relevant model of mutation of forest diversity potential functions. This paper points out that changes of forest biodiversity...

  1. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-09

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

  2. CTFS-ForestGEO: A worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K.J.; Davies, S.J.; Bennett, A.C.; Gonzalez-Akre, E.B.; Muller-Landau, H.C.; Wright, S.J.; Abu Salim, K.; Almeyda Zambrano, A.M.; Jansen, P.A.; Ouden, den J.

    2015-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics rese

  3. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today,...

  4. Laser Scanning in Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Håkan Olsson; Juha Hyyppä; Markus Holopainen

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System), IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based fore...

  5. Transporte forestal con cables

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya L. Héctor J.

    2012-01-01

    La explotación forestal es un problema fundamentalmente de transporte. El apeo y la preparación de las trozas, aunque a veces presentan algunas dificultades, son operaciones fáciles de resolver comparadas con la operación de transporte la cual absorbe del 60% al 70% o más del costo total del aprovechamiento del bosque. El 30% o 40% restante es absorbido por las faenas previas de apeo y troceo.

  6. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today, deforestation is occurring in tropical countries that are expecting to gain agricultural area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between urbanization and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forest crimes, which are a major obstacle for sustainable forestry. Although forests cover about 27 % of Turkey’s territory, the forests are losing viability; the status of wood raw material per unit area and the total area of the country in the ratio of productive forests are becoming critical in Turkey. Turkey’s rugged terrain and factors such as human interventions, fires, deforestation for agriculture, illegal cuttings, or improper grazing reduce existing forests or cause deterioration of their structure. In the past, deforestation, as a result of human interventions in Turkey, was done by forest villagers who live in rural areas. The forest crimes depend on various socio-economic reasons and have many adverse effects on the sustainability of forest and forest existence. In developed countries, illegal interventions such as opening, grazing, cutting, occupation, use, settlement, or hunting crimes have been largely eliminated because of the absence of cadastral problems, the existence of more responsive people to protect the environment and forests and a rural population, which has a higher standard of living. In the last 20 years, there has been both a dramatic decrease in the population living in rural areas and a

  7. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  8. Analysis on Impact Factors for Forest Management Income of Forest Farmers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the investigation in Anji County of Zhejiang Province and Ba'nan District of Chongqing, this paper analyzed the characteristics of forest management behaviors of forest farmers in China and the impact factors for forest management income, and then came up with some policy recommendations to increase the forest management income of forest farmers. It argued that the factors to impact on forest management income of forest farmers in China include the choice of forest products type, the elements in fo...

  9. Gainesville's urban forest structure and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    The urban forest provides a community numerous benefits. The urban forest is composed of a mix of native and non-native species introduced by people managing this forest and by residents. Because they usually contain non-native species, many urban forests often have greater species diversity than forests in the surrounding natural...

  10. Geospatial technology applications in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Panda; E. Masson; S. Sen; H.W. Kim; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Two separate disciplines, hydrology and forestry, together constitute forest hydrology. It is obvious that forestry and forest hydrology disciplines are spatial entities. Forestry is the science that seeks to understand the nature of forests throygh their life cycle and interactions with the surrounding environment. Forest hydrology includes forest soil water, streams...

  11. The conservation of diversity in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig

    1988-01-01

    Deforestation, pollution, and climatic change threaten forest diversity all over the world. And because forests are the habitats for diverse organisms, the threat is extended to all the flora and fauna associated with forests, not only forest trees. In a worst case scenario, if the tropical forest in Latin America was reduced to the areas now set aside in parks and...

  12. A Student Guide to Tropical Forest Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Louise Mastrantonio; John K. Francis

    1997-01-01

    Tropical forests, which circle the globe, are surprisingly diverse, ranging from rain forests to savannas. Tropical forests are disappearing at an alarming rate as they are converted to farmland and other uses. Modern forest management practices can help stem the tide by providing income and valuable products while maintaining forest cover. Puerto Rico has already gone...

  13. 77 FR 260 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (FRCC) is filling eight vacant positions. Candidates who wish to be considered for membership on the Forest Resource...

  14. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator; by phone at...

  15. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet via teleconference every month on... conference call will be posted to the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site, http://www.fs.fed.us...

  16. 78 FR 57128 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Meeting will meet in Rosslyn, Virginia. The... inspect comments received on the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site at http://www.fs.fed.us...

  17. 76 FR 79151 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Washington, DC on January 20, 2012... closed to the public. The Forest Resource Committee is authorized under the Food, Conservation, and...

  18. 78 FR 6806 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Arlington, Va. The committee is... copying. The public may inspect comments received on the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site...

  19. On the likelihood of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2016-08-01

    How complex a network is crucially impacts its function and performance. In many modern applications, the networks involved have a growth property and sparse structures, which pose challenges to physicists and applied mathematicians. In this paper, we introduce the forest likelihood as a plausible measure to gauge how difficult it is to construct a forest in a non-preferential attachment way. Based on the notions of admittable labeling and path construction, we propose algorithms for computing the forest likelihood of a given forest. Concrete examples as well as the distributions of forest likelihoods for all forests with some fixed numbers of nodes are presented. Moreover, we illustrate the ideas on real-life networks, including a benzenoid tree, a mathematical family tree, and a peer-to-peer network.

  20. Forest specialist and generalist small mammals in forest edges and hedges

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinkert, Hella; Ludwig, Martin; Batáry, Péter; Holzschuh, Andrea; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Tscharntke, Teja; Fischer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    GermanyAgricultural intensification often leads to fragmentation of natural habitats, such as forests, and thereby negatively affects forest specialist species. However, human introduced habitats, such as hedges, may counteract negative effects of forest fragmentation and increase dispersal, particularly of forest specialists. We studied effects of habitat type (forest edge versus hedge) and hedge isolation from forests (connected versus isolated hedge) in agricultural landscapes ...

  1. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  2. Future directions in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Williams; Devendra Amatya; L. Bren; C. deJong; J.E. Nettles

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology is a separate and unique branch of hydrology due to the special conditions caused by trees, and the understorey beneath them, comprising a forest. Understanding the forest, with trees that can grow over 100 m tall, may have crowns up to 20-30 m in diameter with roots 5-10 m deep and spread as widely as the crowns, and have lifespans from 50 to 5000...

  3. Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Schlesinger; D.T. Funk; P.L. Roth; C.C. Myers

    1991-01-01

    The area now known as Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest was acquired by Joseph Cox in 1816 from the public domain. In 1944, a portion of that property, including the area referred to as Cox Woods, was established as a National Forest Research Natural Area. This beech-maple forest, located in the Knobs area of southern Indiana, is considered to be one of the few...

  4. Aboveground litterfall in Eurasian forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUChun-jiang; Hannullvesniemi; BjomBerg; WemerKutsch; YANGYu-sheng; MAXiang-qing; CarlJ.Westman

    2003-01-01

    With a data set of Eurasian forest litter fall based on 471 stands,annual litterfall was estimated to be 6.53Pg dm·a-1 (1Pg=1015g;dm,dry matter)in Eurasian forests,of which more than half occurred in tropical and subtropical forests,and a third in the boreal area.With litterfall,around 2.94Pg C per year is transferred from the forest vegetation to the soil on this continent.

  5. Forest Management Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the refuge management objectives, forest description, forest...

  6. US Forest Service Special Interest Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts National Forest System land parcels that have management or use limits placed on them by the Forest Service. Examples include:...

  7. Mississippi Sandhill Crane NWR Forest Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mississippi Sandhill Crane NWR Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  8. Forest Management Plan : Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Necedah NWR Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management objectives,...

  9. Forest Management Plan : Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  10. Forest Management Plan Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  11. Forest liming increases forest floor carbon and nitrogen stocks in a mixed hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, April M; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Goodale, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    In acid-impacted forests, decreased soil pH and calcium (Ca) availability have the potential to influence biotic and abiotic controls on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. We investigated the effects of liming on above- and belowground C and N pools and fluxes 19 years after lime addition to the Woods Lake Watershed, Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Soil pH and exchangeable Ca remained elevated in the forest floor and upper mineral soil of limed areas. Forest floor C and N stocks were significantly larger in limed plots (68 vs. 31 Mg C/ha, and 3.0 vs. 1.5 Mg N/ha), resulting from a larger mass of Oa material. Liming reduced soil basal respiration rates by 17% and 43% in the Oe and Oa horizons, respectively. Net N mineralization was significantly lower in the limed soils for both forest floor horizons. Additional measurements of forest floor depth outside of our study plots, but within the treatment and control subcatchments also showed a deeper forest floor in limed areas; however, the mean depth of limed forest floor was 5 cm shallower than that observed in our study plots. Using a differential equation model of forest floor C dynamics, we found that liming effects on C fluxes measured within our study plots could explain the small observed increase in the Oe C stock but were not large enough to explain the increase in the Oa. Our catchment-wide assessment of forest floor depth, however, indicates that our plot analysis may be an overestimate of ecosystem-scale C and N stocks. Our results suggest that the mechanisms identified in our study, primarily liming-induced reduction in decomposition rates, may account for much of the observed increase in forest floor C. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding of the effects of liming in hardwood forests, and the long-term impacts of acid deposition on forest C and N uptake and retention.

  12. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  13. Forensic forest ecology : unraveling the stand history of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are occasionally hit by intense disturbances like hurricanes or droughts that kill many trees. We found evidence for such intense disturbances in a tree-ring study on tropical forests in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. To reconstruct past disturbances we applied ‘forensic

  14. The fractal forest: fractal geometry and applications in forest science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy D. Lorimer; Robert G. Haight; Rolfe A. Leary

    1994-01-01

    Fractal geometry is a tool for describing and analyzing irregularity. Because most of what we measure in the forest is discontinuous, jagged, and fragmented, fractal geometry has potential for improving the precision of measurement and description. This study reviews the literature on fractal geometry and its applications to forest measurements.

  15. Innovative GIS technology for forest monitoring: ForestLink

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Innovative GIS technology for forest monitoring: ForestLink ... activities. To support them in doing so, British NGO The Rainforest Foundation UK and the ... smartphone or digital tablet connected to a satellite communication network. ... an isolated or a regular occurrence, its author, possible causes and observed impacts, etc.

  16. Forest Management Expenses of Mississippi's Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn G. Arano; Tamara L. Cushing; Ian A. Munn

    2002-01-01

    Detailed information about the forest management expenditures incurred by nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) landowners over time provides a wealth of information about costs associated with forestland ownership, management practices implemented hv NIPF landowners, and changes in management intensity over time. A survey of Mississippi's nonindustrial private...

  17. Forensic forest ecology : unraveling the stand history of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are occasionally hit by intense disturbances like hurricanes or droughts that kill many trees. We found evidence for such intense disturbances in a tree-ring study on tropical forests in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. To reconstruct past disturbances we applied ‘forensic fore

  18. Study on Forest Fire Occurrence in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China is not rich in natural forest sources. Owing to natural and historical factors, forest fires have long been frequenting China. Forest fire prevention is the most important of all. Forest fire prevention and controlling have long been held as a very important factor in our ecological plans. Taking china 's special geographical location, topography, climate and the distribution of forest sources into consideration, we have every reason to believe that forest fires in China have their own special env...

  19. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  20. Methane Emissions from Upland Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, Patrick; Pitz, Scott; Wang, Zhi-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Global budgets ascribe 4-10% of atmospheric methane sinks to upland soils and assume that soils are the sole surface for methane exchange between upland forests and the atmosphere. The dogma that upland forests are uniformly atmospheric methane sinks was challenged a decade ago by the discovery of abiotic methane production from plant tissue. Subsequently a variety of relatively cryptic microbial and non-microbial methane sources have been proposed that have the potential to emit methane in upland forests. Despite the accumulating evidence of potential methane sources, there are few data demonstrating actual emissions of methane from a plant surface in an upland forest. We report direct observations of methane emissions from upland tree stems in two temperate forests. Stem methane emissions were observed from several tree species that dominate a forest located on the mid-Atlantic coast of North America (Maryland, USA). Stem emissions occurred throughout the growing season while soils adjacent to the trees simultaneously consumed methane. Scaling fluxes by stem surface area suggested the forest was a net methane source during a wet period in June, and that stem emissions offset 5% of the soil methane sink on an annual basis. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycles in stem methane emission rates, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for gas transport. Similar observations were made in an upland forest in Beijing, China. However, in this case the evidence suggested the methane was not produced in soils, but in the heartwood by microbial or non-microbial processes. These data challenge the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane, and suggest that upland forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Tree emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration.

  1. Organization of private forest sector in Timok forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Milijic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, private forest owners (PFOs in Serbia cooperate in form of private forest owners associations (PFOAs. Currently, there are 20 PFOAs, of which 15 are in Timok region. Initiatives of PFOs from Timok forest area, animated the owners from other parts of the country and led to foundation of Serbian Federation of Forest Owners' Associations. Twelve of PFOAs from Timok forest area are the founders of Serbian private forest owners' umbrella organization. Restructuring of Public Enterprise (PE "Srbijasume", which started in 2001, led to development of private small and medium forest enterprises, engaged as contractors of PE for harvesting, timber transport and construction of forest roads. The objectives of this paper are to elaborate if there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region and to analyze organization of private forest owners in Timok forest area. In order to reach these objectives, results of PRIFORT project were used. This project focused on four countries of Western Balkans region: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia. The aim of this project was to explore precondition for formation of PFOs in this region. Quantitative survey (n = 350 of randomly selected PFOs was conducted in nine municipalities in Serbia, of which two were in Timok region (n = 100. The results show that there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region in number of PFOs, size of private property and in additional incentives. These results also indicate that economic interest is a motive for establishment of PFOAs and that state support is very important for their development. Since a number of PFOs are entrepreneurs, it can be assumed that, further development of theirs organizations could lead to development of SMEs clusters. 

  2. Organization of private forest sector in Timok forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Milijic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, private forest owners (PFOs in Serbia cooperate in formof private forest owners associations (PFOAs. Currently, there are 20 PFOAs, of which 15 are in Timok region. Initiatives of PFOs from Timok forest area, animated the owners from other parts of the country and led to foundation of Serbian Federation of Forest Owners' Associations. Twelve of PFOAs from Timok forest area are the founders of Serbian private forest owners' umbrella organization.Restructuring of Public Enterprise (PE "Srbijasume", which started in 2001, led to development of private small and medium forest enterprises, engaged as contractors of PE for harvesting, timber transport and constructionof forest roads. The objectives of this paper are to elaborate if there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region and to analyze organization of private forest owners in Timok forest area. In order to reach these objectives, results of PRIFORT project were used. This project focused on four countries of Western Balkans region: Bosnia and Herzegovina,Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia. The aim of this project was to explore precondition for formation of PFOs in this region. Quantitative survey (n = 350 of randomly selected PFOs was conducted in nine municipalities in Serbia, of which two were in Timok region (n = 100. The results show that there are differencesbetween PFOs in Serbia and Timok region in number of PFOs, sizeof private property and in additional incentives. These results also indicate that economic interest is a motive for establishment of PFOAs and that state support is very important for their development. Since a number of PFOs are entrepreneurs, it can be assumed that, further development of theirs organizations could lead to development of SMEs clusters.

  3. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest [ds370

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents polygons of aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The Klamath National Forest Region 5 Vegetation aspen...

  4. Accomplishments of Forest Disaster Reduction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    State Forest Administration

    2001-01-01

    @@ Forest disasters mainly refer to insect pest, rodent damage, forest fire and frost damage. Snow damage, windstorm, drought, flooding, landslide, mud-rock flow, environmental pollution and so on all cause damages to forest resources. The greatest damage is caused by forest disease,insect pests, rodents and fire. With the large-scale exploiture and serious denudation of primitive secondary forests, the appearance of artificial pure forests on a massive scale and the deterioration of the national forest eco-environment, forest damages caused by diseases, insect pests and rats have been on the increase, with the afflicted area doubling every ten years on the average for the period 1949~1989.

  5. 76 FR 14647 - Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting, Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) meeting...

  6. 76 FR 19952 - Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting, Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In accordance.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee (RAC...

  7. 78 FR 37781 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator, 202...

  8. Forest products—Non-timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.F. Ros-Tonen

    2011-01-01

    The commercial exploitation of non-timber forest products—such as fibers, nuts, spices, medicinal plants, rubber, and rattan—was proposed in the 1990s as a strategy to reconcile conservation and development in tropical forests. Its economic benefits generally have been limited, however, due to sever

  9. Forest report 2015; Waldzustandsbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring, weather and climate, spring drought, insects and fungi, infiltrated substances, trends in soil solution of forest ecosystems, soil chemistry and root penetration in deeper layers of soil, climate change and sustainable land management in Northern German Plain.

  10. Strategies for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable forestry is widely discussed and almost universally desired, but tangible standards, goals, targets, or thresholds to evaluate sustainability are often defined vaguely. Identifying such standards is complicated by the diversity of forests, the diversity of objectives among forest decisionmakers (both public and private), the diversity of values among people...

  11. Forest report 2016; Waldzustandsbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring (defoliation results of all tree species), weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, infiltrated substances, substrate group clay-free sand, and heavy metal pollution of forests.

  12. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  13. Chapter 13: Water and Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeme Lockaby; Chelsea Nagy; James M. Vose; Chelcy R. Ford; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Pete Caldwell; Erika Cohen; Jennifer Moore Meyers

    2011-01-01

    Forest conversion to agriculture or urban use consistently causes increased discharge, peak flow, and velocity of streams. Subregional differences in hydrologic responses to urbanization are substantial. Sediment, water chemistry indices, pathogens, and other substances often become more concentrated after forest conversion. If the conversion is to an urban use, the...

  14. Trees of Our National Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented is a description of the creation of the National Forests system, how trees grow, managing the National Forests, types of management systems, and managing for multiple use, including wildlife, water, recreation and other uses. Included are: (1) photographs; (2) line drawings of typical leaves, cones, flowers, and seeds; and (3)…

  15. Soil strength and forest operations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed.

  16. Forest recultivation; Forstliche Rekultivierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knocke, D.

    2001-07-01

    This study describes temporal trends in forest ecosystem development on typical mine soils of the Eastern German lignite mining areas, synthesising recent advances in reclamation research. In the initial stage of ecosystem development low nutrient availability and in case of acid sulphurous mine soils low pH and high salinization are growth-limiting. However, within 20 to 40 years most forest ecosystems show quite similar growth, water turnover and nutrient cycling characteristics as upgrowing stands on unmined locations of the same age, despite different soil properties. Little decomposition and mineralization as well as accumulation of soil organic matter are key factors in ecosystem development and it is likely that self-sustainable ecosystems have been established. On the other hand substrate-specific processes such as pyrite and silicate weathering and leaching of reaction products have a long-term effect on ecosystem development, for example on soil element fluxes, microbiological parameters and soil mesofauna. Therefore assessing the long-term development of the ecosystems further research on substrate specific processes (e.g. nutrient mineralization, salt leaching, decomposition of lignite) as well as integrating ecosystem modelling is necessary. (orig.)

  17. SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA’S FOREST LAW (POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Wahyuni

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia Forest Law No. 41 Year 1999 in article 46 states: “Forest protection and nature conservation aim at keeping the forest, forest area and its environment, so that protection, conservation functions and productions, is achieved in an optimal and sustainable”. With all issues that happen in Indonesia, so that Indonesia need to protect their forest and one of the way to do it is Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). SFM is the management of forest according to the principles of sustainabl...

  18. Cost-Benefit Analysis on Forest Certification for Forest Management and Forestry Industry Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on the summarization of forest certification development to analyze and describe how forest certification promotes and pushes the setup of forest resources management model, forest management level and collective forest tenure reform. In terms of breaking green trade barrier, upgrading international competitiveness of forest products, facilitating forestry enterprise growth, etc, it elaborated the role of forest certification in promoting forestry industry development. The authors also ma...

  19. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first legislative concerns for the protection and exploitation of forests are occurring since the eighteenth century. Forest of the country has always been a priority for environmental policy. The institutional framework for forestry organization in Romania is represented mainly by the Ministry of Environment and National Administration of Forests – Romsilva. First Romanian Forest Code was adopted on 19 June 1881. In present, the main law governing the forest is given by Law No. 46 of March 19, 2008 (Forest Code. Forests are resources of interest economic, social, recreational, ecological and biological. Biodiversity conservation of forest ecosystems involves the sustainable management by applying intensive treatments that promote natural regeneration of species of fundamental natural forest type and forest conservation and quasi virgin. The main way to conserve forest ecosystems is represented by the establishment of protected areas of national interest.

  20. Effects of Deforestation and Forest Degradation on Forest Carbon Stocks in Collaborative Forests, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some key drivers that favor deforestation and forest degradation. Consequently, levels of carbon stock are affected in different parts of same forest types. But the problem lies in exploring the extent of the effects on level of carbon stocking. This paper highlights the variations in levels of carbon stocks in three different collaborative forests of same forest type i.e. tropical sal (Shorea robusta forest in Mahottari district of the central Terai in Nepal. Three collaborative forests namely Gadhanta-Bardibas Collaborative Forest (CFM, Tuteshwarnath CFM and Banke- Maraha CFM were selected for research site. Interview and workshops were organized with the key informants that include staffs, members and representatives of CFMs to collect the socio-economic data and stratified random sampling was applied to collect the bio-physical data to calculate the carbon stocks. Analysis was carried out using statistical tools. It was found five major drivers namely grazing, fire, logging, growth of invasive species and encroachment. It was found highest carbon 269.36 ton per ha in Gadhanta- Bardibash CFM. The findings showed that the levels of carbon stocks in the three studied CFMs are different depending on how the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation influence over them.

  1. Evaluating differences in forest fragmentation and restoration between western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xinyu; Lv, Yingying; Li, Mingshi

    2017-03-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem structure and functions are considered some of the research issues in landscape ecology. In this study, advancing Forman's theory, we considered five spatially explicit processes associated with fragmentation, including perforation, dissection, subdivision, shrinkage, and attrition, and two processes associated with restoration, i.e., increment and expansion processes. Following this theory, a forest fragmentation and restoration process model that can detect the spatially explicit processes and ecological consequences of forest landscape change was developed and tested in the current analysis. Using the National Land Cover Databases (2001, 2006 and 2011), the forest fragmentation and restoration process model was applied to US western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests to quantify and classify forest patch losses into one of the four fragmentation processes (the dissection process was merged into the subdivision process) and to classify the newly gained forest patches based on the two restoration processes. At the same time, the spatio-temporal differences in fragmentation and restoration patterns and trends between natural forests and plantations were further compared. Then, through overlaying the forest fragmentation/restoration processes maps with targeting year land cover data and land ownership vectors, the results from forest fragmentation and the contributors to forest restoration in federal and nonfederal lands were identified. Results showed that, in natural forests, the forest change patches concentrated around the urban/forest, cultivated/forest, and shrubland/forest interfaces, while the patterns of plantation change patches were scattered sparsely and irregularly. The shrinkage process was the most common type in forest fragmentation, and the average size was the smallest. Expansion, the most common restoration process, was observed in both natural forests and plantations and often occurred around the

  2. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Martin, Roberta E; Anderson, Christopher; Higgins, Mark; Chadwick, K Dana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus). The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area) for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag"), which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1) when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  3. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mascaro

    Full Text Available Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag", which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1 when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  4. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  5. South-central Alaska forests: inventory highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert. Mead

    2005-01-01

    This publication presents highlights of a recent south-central Alaska inventory conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). South-central Alaska has about 18.5 million acres, of which one-fifth (4 million acres) is forested. Species diversity is greatest in closed and open Sitka spruce forests, spruce...

  6. Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Pawson; A. Brin; E.G. Brockerhoff; D. Lamb; T.W. Payn; A. Paquette; J.A. Parrotta

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 4 % of the world’s forests are plantations, established to provide a variety of ecosystem services, principally timber and other wood products. In addition to such services, plantation forests provide direct and indirect benefits to biodiversity via the provision of forest habitat for a wide range of species, and by reducing negative impacts on natural forests...

  7. Changing Forest Values and Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    1994-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that we are currently in a period of rapid and significant change in forest values. Some have charged that managing forests in ways that are responsive to diverse and changing forest values is the main challenge faced by public forest managers. To tackle this challenge, we need to address the following questions: (1) What is the nature of...

  8. Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty

    2002-01-01

    Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US Forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 1012 g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes...

  9. Forest statistics for Arkansas counties - 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. London

    1997-01-01

    Periodic surveys of forest resources are authorized by the Forest Service and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978. These surveys are a continuing, nationwide undertaking by the Regional Experiment Stations of the USDA Forest Service. In the Southern United States, these surveys are conducted by the two Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work...

  10. Forest statistics for Arkansas' delta counties - 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Rosson; Andrew J. Hartsell; Jack D. London

    1997-01-01

    Periodic surveys of forest resources are authorized by the Forest Service and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978. These surveys are a continuing, nationwide undertaking by the Regional Experiment Stations of the USDA Forest Service. In the Southern United States, these surveys are conducted by the two Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work...

  11. Forest statistics for Arkansas' Ozark counties - 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Rosson; Jack D. London

    1997-01-01

    Periodic surveys of forest resources are authorized by the Forest Service and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978. These surveys are a continuing, nationwide undertaking by the Regional Experiment Stations of the USDA Forest Service. In the Southern United States, these surveys are conducted by the two Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work...

  12. Forest statistics for Arkansas' Ouachita counties - 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Rosson; Jack D. London

    1997-01-01

    Periodic surveys of forest resources are authorized by the Forest Service and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978. These surveys are a continuing, nationwide undertaking by the Regional Experiment Stations of the USDA Forest Service. In the Southern United States, these surveys are conducted by the two Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work...

  13. An analysis of Ohio's forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Donald F. Dennis

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the current status and trends of the forest resources of Ohio. Topics include forest area, timber volume, biomass, timber products, and growth and removals. Forest area, volume, and growth and removals are projected through 2009. Discusses water, soil, minerals, fish, wildlife, and recreation as they relate to forest resources. Also...

  14. Forest Service Resource Inventories: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    1992-01-01

    Forest and related resource inventories are conducted by the US. Forest Service to provide the quantitative base necessary for making sound management, conservation, and stewardship decisions affecting these valuable resources. Inventory information has guided the management of 191 million acres (77.3 million ha) of publicly-owned National Forest land. Forest...

  15. Forest resources of the United States, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas S. Powell; Joanne L. Faulkner; David R. Darr; Zhiliang Zhu; Douglas W. MacCleery

    1993-01-01

    The 1987 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment forest resources statistics are updated to 1992, to provide current information on the Nation's forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output. Resource data are analyzed, and trends since 1987 are noted. A forest type map produced from...

  16. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Re-establishment of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture re-established the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (Committee...

  17. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  18. 25 CFR 163.32 - Forest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest development. 163.32 Section 163.32 Indians BUREAU... Management and Operations § 163.32 Forest development. Forest development pertains to forest land management... development funds will be used to re-establish, maintain, and/or improve growth of commercial timber...

  19. Non-timber forest products: alternative multiple-uses for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Mary Predny

    2003-01-01

    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  20. 77 FR 13625 - Notice of Inventory Completion: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest... Agriculture, Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, has completed an inventory of human remains and... contact the Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian...

  1. Remote Sensing of Forest Health Indicators for Assessing Change in Forest Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Oak decline poses a substantial threat to forest health in the Ozark Highlands of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, where coupled with diseases and insect infestations, it has damaged large tracts of forest lands. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) crown health indicators (e.g. crown dieback, etc.), collected by the U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and...

  2. Forest Productivity, Leaf Area, and Terrain in Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Bolstad; James M. Vose; Steven G. McNulty

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural characteristic of forest ecosystems which has been shown to be strongly related to forest mass and energy cycles and forest productivity. LAI is more easily measured than forest productivity, and so a strong relationship between LAI and productivity would be a valuable tool in forest management. While a linear...

  3. 75 FR 16719 - Information Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking comments...

  4. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7527] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger District, Coconino County, AZ AGENCY: Forest.... Forest Service (FS) will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposed action to conduct...

  5. Forest report 2015; Waldzustandsbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This forest condition report of Hessen (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, weather and climate, the impact of spring drought on soil water balance and growth, drought stress risk of beech in Hessen, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, trends in the soil solution of forest ecosystems, soil chemistry and rooting in deeper soil layers. [German] Dieser Waldzustandsbericht von Hessen (Deutschland) enthaelt folgende Themen: Waldzustandserhebung fuer alle Baumarten, Witterung und Klima, Auswirkungen der Fruehjahrstrockenheit auf Bodenwasserhaushalt und Wachstum, Trockenstressrisiko der Buche in Hessen, Insekten und Pilze, Forstliches Umweltmonitoring, Stoffeintraege, Trends in der Bodenloesung von Waldoekosystemen, Bodenchemie und Durchwurzelung in tieferen Bodenschichten.

  6. Simulating the Lyman Alpha Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Machacek, M E; Anninos, P; Meiksin, A; Norman, M L; Machacek, Marie E.; Bryan, Greg L.; Anninos, Peter; Meiksin, Avery; Norman, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the importance of the Lyman alpha forest as a probe of structure formation in the universe. We first discuss the statistics used to describe the Lyman alpha forest and the numerical techniques used to produce simulated spectra of the forest from a given cosmological model. We then discuss the physical picture of the absorbing structures that emerges from these numerical simulations. Finally, we comment on how two of the statistics, the slope of the column density distribution and the b parameter distribution, may be used to constrain competing cosmologies.

  7. Consistency of Random Survival Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwaran, Hemant; Kogalur, Udaya B

    2010-07-01

    We prove uniform consistency of Random Survival Forests (RSF), a newly introduced forest ensemble learner for analysis of right-censored survival data. Consistency is proven under general splitting rules, bootstrapping, and random selection of variables-that is, under true implementation of the methodology. Under this setting we show that the forest ensemble survival function converges uniformly to the true population survival function. To prove this result we make one key assumption regarding the feature space: we assume that all variables are factors. Doing so ensures that the feature space has finite cardinality and enables us to exploit counting process theory and the uniform consistency of the Kaplan-Meier survival function.

  8. US Forest Service Geopolitical Units adjusted within Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting geopolitical data for the entire area of the United States and territories. This includes States, Counties or Boroughs,...

  9. Forest certification--an instrument to promote sustainable forest management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rametsteiner, Ewald; Simula, Markku

    2003-01-01

    Forest certification was introduced in the early 1990s to address concerns of deforestation and forest degradation and to promote the maintenance of biological diversity, especially in the tropics. Initially pushed by environmental groups, it quickly evolved as a potential instrument to promote sustainable forest management (SFM). To date about 124 million ha or 3.2% of the world's forests have been certified by the different certification schemes created over the last decade. Forest certification shares the aim of promoting SFM with another tool, namely criteria and indicators (C&I) for SFM. C&I sets are mainly developed for the national level to describe and monitor status and trends in forests and forest management. They also provide an essential reference basis for forest certification standards, which set performance targets to be applied on a defined area. Progress in developing these two different tools has been significant. After 10 years of implementation, it is evident that the original intention to save tropical biodiversity through certification has largely failed to date. Most of certified areas are in the temperate and boreal zone, with Europe as the most important region. Only around ten per cent is located in tropical countries. The standards used for issuing certificates upon compliance are diverse, both between certification schemes and within one and the same scheme when applied in different regions. However, they are at least equal to legal requirements and often include elements that set actually higher standards. While the quality of actual audits of the standards is of varying quality, there are indications that independent audits are an incentive for improving forest management. As a voluntary market-based tool, forest certification is depending on the ability to cover the costs incurred and thus on often-elusive green consumer sentiment. Regardless of many difficulties, forest certification has been very successful in raising awareness and

  10. Complexity of Forest Management: Exploring Perceptions of Dutch Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilske O. de Bruin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Challenges of contemporary forest management are frequently referred to as complex. This article empirically studies complexity in forest management decision-making. In contrast to what is often assumed in the literature, this article starts by assuming that complexity does not just consist of an external descriptive element, but also depends on how decision-makers perceive the system at hand. This “perceived complexity” determines decision-making. We used a straightforward interpretation of perceived complexity using two criteria: the number of factors considered and the uncertainty perceived about these factors. The results show that Dutch forest managers generally consider forest management decision-making to be complicated (many factors to consider rather than complex (many uncertain factors to consider. Differences in sources of complexity confirm the individual character of perceived complexity. The factors perceived to be most relevant for decision-making (the forest itself, the organization’s objective, the cost of management, public opinion, national policies and laws, and new scientific insights and ideas are generally seen as rather certain, although “complexity reduction” may play a role that can adversely affect the quality of decision-making. Additional use of more open-ended, forward-looking methods, such as qualitative foresight tools, might enable addressing uncertainty and complexity, and thereby enhance decision-making in forest management to prepare for increasing complexity in the future.

  11. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Maria O.; Michael Keller; Douglas Morton; Bruce Cook; Michael Lefsky; Mark Ducey; Scott Saleska; Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Juliana Schietti

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered...

  12. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Liang, Shuang; Martin, Katherine L; North, Malcolm P; Koch, George W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-03-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and any potential carbon benefits from treatment may depend on the occurrence of wildfire. We sought to determine how forest treatments alter the effects of stochastic wildfire events on the forest carbon balance. We modeled three treatments (control, thin-only, and thin and burn) with and without the occurrence of wildfire. We evaluated how two different probabilities of wildfire occurrence, 1% and 2% per year, might alter the carbon balance of treatments. In the absence of wildfire, we found that thinning and burning treatments initially reduced total ecosystem carbon (TEC) and increased net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB). In the presence of wildfire, the thin and burn treatment TEC surpassed that of the control in year 40 at 2%/yr wildfire probability, and in year 51 at 1%/yr wildfire probability. NECB in the presence of wildfire showed a similar response to the no-wildfire scenarios: both thin-only and thin and burn treatments increased the C sink. Treatments increased TEC by reducing both mean wildfire severity and its variability. While the carbon balance of treatments may differ in more productive forest types, the carbon balance benefits from restoring forest structure and fire in southwestern ponderosa pine forests are clear.

  13. Forest clearing and regional landsliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.R.; Schmidt, K.M.; Greenberg, H.M.; Dietrich, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of forest clearing on landsliding is central to longstanding concern over the effects of timber harvesting on slope stability. Here we document a strong topographic control on shallow landsliding by combining unique ground-based landslide surveys in an intensively monitored study area with digital terrain modeling using high-resolution laser altimetry and a coarser resolution regional study of 3224 landslides. As predicted by our digital terrain-based model, landslides occur disproportionately in steep, convergent topography. In terrain predicted to be at low risk of slope failure, a random model performs equally well to our mechanism-based model. Our monitoring shows that storms with 24 hr rainfall recurrence intervals of less than 4 yr triggered landslides in the decade after forest clearing and that conventional monitoring programs can substantially underestimate the effects of forest clearing. Our regional analysis further substantiates that forest clearing dramatically accelerates shallow landsliding in steep terrain typical of the Pacific Northwest.

  14. Proceedings Forest & Field Fuels Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of the symposium is to examine two specific renewable resources, forest and field fuels, to pinpoint areas where funding of RD&D would be effective in expanding their marketability and use as substitutes for imported oil.

  15. US Forest Service Timber Harvests

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts the area planned and accomplished acres treated as a part of the timber harvest program of work, funded through the budget...

  16. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  17. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  18. ROE Carbon Storage - Forest Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This polygon dataset depicts the density of forest biomass in counties across the United States, in terms of metric tons of carbon per square mile of land area....

  19. US Forest Service Land Utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture for conservation and utilization under Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm...

  20. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...... there is a generally accepted agreement that collective management (community forestry) will yield success in forest conservation. However, the claim is seldom rigorously examined. We suggest to have a review of the literature and to propose a first step to a test of the claim in order to reach a first generalization...... as to the success of community forestry in forest conservation. The review of the literature is the first step towards such an examination, enabling us to make some initial generalizations for further research. In the present paper, a statistical test is performed and the claim is found wanting. The reviewed papers...

  1. Carbon sinks in temperate forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, P.H.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Aubinet, M.; Karjalainen, T.; Vine, E.L.; Kinsman, J.; Heath, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to being scientifically exciting, commercially important, and environmentally essential, temperate forests have also become a key diplomatic item in international climate negotiations as potential sinks for carbon. This review presents the methods used to estimate carbon sequestration, i

  2. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations for...

  3. Dictionary of forest structural terminology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report lists and defines attributes (both functional and structural) that have been used in other structural classifications of forest vegetation. Field techniques are summarized. The recommended use of each attribute and technique is presented...

  4. Operationalizing measurement of forest degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of forest degradation in monitoring and reporting as well as in historic baselines is among the most challenging tasks in national REDD+ strategies. However, a recently introduced option is to base monitoring systems on subnational conditions such as prevalent degradation activities....... In Tanzania, charcoal production is considered a major cause of forest degradation, but is challenging to quantify due to sub-canopy biomass loss, remote production sites and illegal trade. We studied two charcoal production sites in dry Miombo woodland representing open woodland conditions near human...... settlements and remote forest with nearly closed canopies. Supervised classification and adaptive thresholding were applied on a pansharpened QuickBird (QB) image to detect kiln burn marks (KBMs). Supervised classification showed reasonable detection accuracy in the remote forest site only, while adaptive...

  5. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  6. US Forest Service Stewardship Contracting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the locations of activities within the Stewardship Contracting Project Boundary. Activities are implemented through stewardship...

  7. Zoning of the Russian Federation territory based on forest management and forest use intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Маrtynyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Over extended periods issues of forest management intensification are important in all aspects of Russian forest sector development. Sufficient research has been done in silviculture, forest planning and forest economics to address forest management intensification targets. Systems of our national territory forest management and forest economics zoning due to specifics of timber processing and forest area infrastructure have been developed. Despite sufficient available experience in sustainable forest management so far intensification issues were addressed due to development of new woodlands without proper consideration of forest regeneration and sustainable forest management operations. It resulted in forest resource depletion and unfavorable substitution of coniferous forests with less valuable softwood ones in considerable territories (especially accessible for transport. The situation is complicated since degree of forest ecosystem changes is higher in territories with high potential productivity. Ongoing changes combined with the present effective forest management system resulted in a situation where development of new woodlands is impossible without heavy investments in road construction; meanwhile road construction is unfeasible due to distances to timber processing facilities. In the meantime, changes in forest legislation, availability of forest lease holding, and promising post-logging forest regeneration technologies generate new opportunities to increase timber volumes due to application of other procedures practically excluding development of virgin woodlands. With regard to above, the Russian territory was zoned on a basis of key factors that define forest management and forest use intensification based on forest ecosystem potential productivity and area transport accessibility. Based on available data with GIS analysis approach (taking into consideration value of various factors the Russian Federation forest resources have been

  8. Monitoring forest/non-forest land use conversion rates with annual inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; Paul C. Van Deusen

    2012-01-01

    The transitioning of land from forest to other uses is of increasing interest as urban areas expand and the world’s population continues to grow. Also of interest, but less recognized, is the transitioning of land from other uses into forest. In this paper, we show how rates of conversion from forest to non-forest and non-forest to forest can be estimated in the US...

  9. The relative contributions of forest growth and areal expansion to forest biomass carbon sinks in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests play a leading role in regional and global terrestrial carbon (C cycles. Changes in C sequestration within forests can be attributed to areal expansion (increase in forest area and forest growth (increase in biomass density. Detailed assessment of the relative contributions of areal expansion and forest growth to C sinks is crucial to reveal the mechanisms that control forest C sinks and is helpful for developing sustainable forest management policies in the face of climate change. Using the Forest Identity concept and forest inventory data, this study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in the relative contributions of forest areal expansion and increased biomass growth to China's forest C sinks from 1977 to 2008. Over the last 30 years, the areal expansion of forests was a larger contributor to C sinks than forest growth for all forests and planted forests in China (74.6 vs. 25.4 % for all forests, and 62.4 vs. 37.8 % for plantations. However, for natural forests, forest growth made a larger contribution than areal expansion (60.4 vs. 39.6 %. The relative contribution of forest growth of planted forests showed an increasing trend from an initial 25.3 to 61.0 % in the later period of 1998 to 2003, but for natural forests, the relative contributions were variable without clear trends owing to the drastic changes in forest area and biomass density over the last 30 years. Our findings suggest that afforestation can continue to increase the C sink of China's forests in the future subject to persistently-increasing forest growth after establishment of plantation.

  10. Approach Analyses to Promote Sustainable Forest Management with Forest Certification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paper was based on the current development status of forest certification to analyze the basic characteristics of forest certification from the development point of view in terms of origin, development, main drivers and impacts, and then conducted the approach analysis to promote sustainable forest management with forest certification in China. The result showed that China shall establish her own forest certification scheme, with the focus on the improvement of forest sustainable management concept thro...

  11. Water yield following forest-grass-forest transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katherine J.; Caldwell, Peter V.; Brantley, Steven T.; Miniat, Chelcy F.; Vose, James M.; Swank, Wayne T.

    2017-02-01

    Many currently forested areas in the southern Appalachians were harvested in the early 1900s and cleared for agriculture or pasture, but have since been abandoned and reverted to forest (old-field succession). Land-use and land-cover changes such as these may have altered the timing and quantity of water yield (Q). We examined 80 years of streamflow and vegetation data in an experimental watershed that underwent forest-grass-forest conversion (i.e., old-field succession treatment). We hypothesized that changes in forest species composition and water use would largely explain long-term changes in Q. Aboveground biomass was comparable among watersheds before the treatment (208.3 Mg ha-1), and again after 45 years of forest regeneration (217.9 Mg ha-1). However, management practices in the treatment watershed altered resulting species composition compared to the reference watershed. Evapotranspiration (ET) and Q in the treatment watershed recovered to pretreatment levels after 9 years of abandonment, then Q became less (averaging 5.4 % less) and ET more (averaging 4.5 % more) than expected after the 10th year up to the present day. We demonstrate that the decline in Q and corresponding increase in ET could be explained by the shift in major forest species from predominantly Quercus and Carya before treatment to predominantly Liriodendron and Acer through old-field succession. The annual change in Q can be attributed to changes in seasonal Q. The greatest management effect on monthly Q occurred during the wettest (i.e., above median Q) growing-season months, when Q was significantly lower than expected. In the dormant season, monthly Q was higher than expected during the wettest months.

  12. Forests and Forest Cover - DCNR - State Forest Wild and Natural Areas 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The wild and natural areas layer was derived from the state forest boundary coverage which is being updated frequently. It is derived from survey descriptions and...

  13. The impact of forest continuity on the flora in Danish deciduous forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Bente Jessen

    forest continuity, land use history, species diversity, species distribution, flora, seed dispersal, colonization......forest continuity, land use history, species diversity, species distribution, flora, seed dispersal, colonization...

  14. Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Langat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%, construction material (18%, and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were significantly different among wealth classes. Poor households were more dependent on forests resources. However, in absolute terms, the rich households derived higher forest income. These results provide valuable information on the role of forest resources to livelihoods and could be applied in developing forest conservation policies for enhanced ecosystem services and livelihoods.

  15. Forest Resources and Environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANShaohui; ZENGXiangwei; ZHANGQun

    2004-01-01

    With a vast territory, China is rich in forest resources and diversified environments. The changes in forest resources have a direct bearing on environmental quality. The paper gives a detailed account of the dynamic change in forest resources in China, including the overall process of forest evolution, the status quo and features of the existing forest resources and the development and use of major forest resources. In addition, it analyses the current situation of China' s environment and explores the main contn'buting factors based on the overall environmental situation. In order to achieve sustainable management of forest resources and improve the environment in China, the Chinese government attaches great importance to the protection and development of forest resources as well as environmental development and improvement. The paper gives an overview of the thinking for sustainable forest resource and environmental development in the future and current focus of efforts.

  16. Forest management techniques for carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Takao [Forestry and Forest Products Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the global ecosystem concerning carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere, the forest ecosystem plays an important role. In effect, the ratio of forest biomass to total terrestrial biomass is about 90%, and the ratio of carbon stored in the forest biomass to that in the atmosphere is two thirds. When soils and detritus of forests are added, there is more C stored in forests than in the atmosphere, about 1.3 times or more. Thus, forests can be regarded as the great holder of C on earth. If the area of forest land on the earth is constantly maintained and forests are in the climax stage, the uptake of C and the release of C by and from the forests will balance. In this case, forests are neither sinks nor sources of CO{sub 2} although they store a large amount of C. However, when forests are deforested, they become a source of C; through human activities, forests have become a source of C. According to a report by the IPCC, 1.6{+-}1.2 PgC is annually added to the atmosphere by deforestation. According to the FAO (1992), the area of land deforested annually in the tropics from 1981 to 1990 was 16.9 x 10{sup 6} ha. This value is nearly half the area of Japanese land. The most important thing for the CO{sub 2} environment concerning forests is therefore how to reduce deforestation and to successfully implement a forestation or reforestation.

  17. Forest Islands and Castaway Communities: REDD+ and Forest Restoration in Prey Lang Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Work

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate Change policies are playing an ever-increasing role in global development strategies and their implementation gives rise to often-unforeseen social conflicts and environmental degradations. A landscape approach to analyzing forest-based Climate Change Mitigation policies (CCM and land grabs in the Prey Lang Forest landscape, Cambodia revealed two Korea-Cambodia partnership projects designed to increase forest cover that are juxtaposed in this paper. Case study data revealed a REDD+ project with little negative impact or social conflict in the project area and an Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R project that created both social and ecological conflicts. The study concludes that forest-based CCM policies can reduce conflict through efforts at minimal transformation of local livelihoods, maximal attention to the tenure rights, responsibilities, and authority of citizens, and by improving, not degrading, the project landscapes. The paper presents the circumstances under which these guidelines are sidestepped by the A/R project, and importantly reveals that dramatic forest and livelihood transformation had already affected the community and environment in the REDD+ project site. There are deep contradictions at the heart of climate change policies toward which attention must be given, lest we leave our future generations with nothing but forest islands and castaway communities.

  18. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  19. [Forest degradation/decline: research and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Li, Feng-Qin

    2007-07-01

    As one of the most critical environmental problems in the 21st century, forest degradation has been facing worldwide. There are many definitions about forest degradation, but its common features are the permanent loss of forests, stand structure destructed, forest quality decreased, and forest functions lowered. Forest decline or tree decline in fact is one of the causes of forest degradation, which includes the general reduction of trees in vigor, low level growth of trees in productivity, death of trees, and even, decline of soil fertility. Many researches indicated that deforestation is the permanent loss of forests in area, which is shifted to other land uses. Deforestation is the product of the interactions between environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political forces at work in any given country/region, and thus, more and more attention is focused on the negative socioeconomic and environmental effects after forest degradation, especially on the reduction of forest area induced by deforestation. The effects of any decisions or policies in national and international levels on forest degradation induced by deforestation have been paid attention as well. How to make efforts and strengthen the worldwide cooperation to combat the forest degradation induced by deforestation must be challenged to find appropriate solutions. There are many researches on forest decline, because of its complexity and uncertainties. The major causes of forest decline include: 1) pollution from both industry and agriculture, 2) stress factors, e.g., desiccation, 3) changes in stand dynamics, 4) decline disease of forest or diseases of complex etiology, 5) degradation of productivity and/or soil fertility in pure plantation forests. Forest degradation in China is similar to that all over the world, but with the characteristics in forest components, i.e., 1) secondary forests are the major forest resources, 2) China has the most plantation forests in the world, some of which have

  20. Assessment of forest geospatial patterns over the three giant forest areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-shi; ZHU Zhi-liang; LU Heng; XU Da; LIU An-xing; PENG Shi-kui

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial patterns of forest fragmentation over the three traditional giant forested areas of China (Northeastern, southwestern and Southern China) were analyzed comparatively and reported based on a 250-m resolution land cover dataset. Specifically, the spatial patterns of forest fragmentation were characterized by combining geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models. The driving forces resulting in the differences of the forest spatial patterns were also investigated. Results suggested that forests in southwest China had the highest severity of forest fragmentation, followed by south region and northeast region. The driving forces of forest fragmentation in China were primarily the giant population and improper exploitation of forests. In conclusion, the generated information in the study provided valuable insights and implications as to the fragmentation patterns and the conservation of biodiversity or genes, and the use of the chosen geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models was quite useful for depicting forest fragmentation patterns.

  1. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity. PMID:27435389

  2. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  3. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Turton, Stephen M; Pert, Petina L; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F

    2016-07-20

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m(2) of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  4. missForest: Nonparametric missing value imputation using random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekhoven, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    missForest imputes missing values particularly in the case of mixed-type data. It uses a random forest trained on the observed values of a data matrix to predict the missing values. It can be used to impute continuous and/or categorical data including complex interactions and non-linear relations. It yields an out-of-bag (OOB) imputation error estimate without the need of a test set or elaborate cross-validation and can be run in parallel to save computation time. missForest has been used to, among other things, impute variable star colors in an All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) dataset of variable stars with no NOMAD match.

  5. 75 FR 69619 - Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28601] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee [[Page 69620

  6. Modeling Forest Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Piedmont Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2014-12-01

    When the interacting stressors of climate change and land cover/land use change (LCLUC) overwhelm ecosystem resilience to environmental and climatic variability, forest ecosystems are at increased risk of regime shifts and hyperdynamism in process rates. To meet the growing range of novel biotic and environmental stressors on human-impacted ecosystems, the maintenance of taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy in metacommunities has been proposed as a risk spreading measure ensuring that species critical to landscape ecosystem functioning are available for recruitment as local systems respond to novel conditions. This research is the first in a multi-part study to establish a dynamic, predictive model of the spatio-temporal dynamics of vascular plant diversity in North Carolina Piedmont mixed forests using remotely sensed data inputs. While remote sensing technologies are optimally suited to monitor LCLUC over large areas, direct approaches to the remote measurement of plant diversity remain a challenge. This study tests the efficacy of predicting indices of vascular plant diversity using remotely derived measures of forest structural heterogeneity from aerial LiDAR and high spatial resolution broadband optical imagery in addition to derived topo-environmental variables. Diversity distribution modelling of this sort is predicated upon the idea that environmental filtering of dispersing species help define fine-scale (permeable) environmental envelopes within which biotic structural and compositional factors drive competitive interactions that, in addition to background stochasticity, determine fine-scale alpha diversity. Results reveal that over a range of Piedmont forest communities, increasing structural complexity is positively correlated with measures of plant diversity, though the nature of this relationship varies by environmental conditions and community type. The diversity distribution model is parameterized and cross-validated using three high

  7. Implementing Forest Landscape Restorationin Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Pistorius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Driven by various initiatives and international policy processes, the concept of Forest Landscape Restoration, is globally receiving renewed attention. It is seen internationally and in national contexts as a means for improving resilience of land and communities in the face of increasing environmental degradation through different forest activities. Ethiopia has made a strong voluntary commitment in the context of the Bonn Challenge—it seeks to implement Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR on 15 million ha. In the context of rural Ethiopia, forest establishment and restoration provide a promising approach to reverse the widespread land degradation, which is exacerbated by climate change and food insecurity. This paper presents an empirical case study of FLR opportunities in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia’s largest spans of degraded and barren lands. Following the Restoration Opportunity Assessment Methodology, the study categorizes the main types of landscapes requiring restoration, identifies and prioritizes respective FLR options, and details the costs and benefits associated with each of the five most significant opportunities: medium to large‐scale afforestation and reforestation activities on deforested or degraded marginal land not suitable for agriculture, the introduction of participatory forest management, sustainable woodland management combined with value chain investments, restoration of afro‐alpine and sub‐afro‐alpine areas and the establishment of woodlots.

  8. Landscape perspective on energy forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaerbaeck, Erik; Becht, Peter [SLU, Dept. of Landscape Planning, Alnarp (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    In 1982-1983, a 70 ha energy forest project was established in an arable landscape in southern Sweden. Many aspects of the energy forest system were investigated. This paper reports mainly on the aesthetic impacts of the project at a landscape level. One effect is an increasing variation in the views and the aesthetic values of the arable land. The Salix crops introduce new colours into the arable landscape. The green colour of the Salix fields lasts longer in the autumn. Also, from year to year a spatial variation appears. The increasing wildlife shelter seems to make the fauna richer. Viewed as an energy crop only, the commercial competitiveness of energy forests is often low. However, if the benefits of energy crops as elements of the landscape are added, the socio-economic value could be substantial. Such landscape benefits include increasing biodiversity in the arable landscape, wind-shelter against soil erosion and snow, shelter for wildlife, the reduction of nitrogen leaching, views of the landscape and aesthetic considerations, and recovery of the organic soil component of arable land. An interesting question is whether or not energy forests grown on arable land are profitable from a socio-economic point of view when considering a more holistic evaluation of all the largely beneficial impacts of energy forests. (Author)

  9. Appendix: Assessment of watershed vulnerability to climate change - Pilot National Forest reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Furniss; Ken B. Roby; Dan Cenderelli; John Chatel; Caty F. Clifton; Alan Clingenpeel; Polly E. Hays; Dale Higgins; Ken Hodges; Carol Howe; Laura Jungst; Joan Louie; Christine Mai; Ralph Martinez; Kerry Overton; Brian P. Staab; Rory Steinke; Mark. Weinhold

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of watershed vulnerability to climate change. Pilot National Forest reports: Gallatin National Forest, Helena National Forest, Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests, White River National Forest, Coconino National Forest, Sawtooth National Forest, Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Umatilla National Forest, Umatilla National Forest, Ouachita...

  10. Uniting forest and livelihood outcomes? Analyzing external actor interventions in sustainable livelihoods in a community forest management context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Clare; Claus, Rachel; Driessen, Peter; Dos Santos, Maria Joao Ferreira; George, Mary Ann; Van Laerhoven, Frank

    2017-01-01

    External actor interventions in community forest management (CFM) attempt to support communities with developing forest institutions and/ or improving their livelihoods portfolio. Common pool resource (CPR) scholars argue that forest institutions are required to prevent overharvesting of the forest

  11. Fighting over forest: interactive governance of conflicts over forest and tree resources in Ghana’s high forest zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on eight case studies, this book analyses conflicts over forests and trees in Ghana’s high forest zone and ways of dealing with them. It thereby addresses the full range of forest and tree-based livelihoods. Combining interactive governance theory with political ecology and conflict theories,

  12. UHF Radiowave Propagation through Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Probability Density Function 2-10 (Even-aged Stands) 2-4 Trunk Diameter Probability Density Function 2-11 (Uneven-aged Stands) 2-5 Stocking Guide for...Black walnut 6.1 12.6 18.8 Scarlet oak 5.0 11.0 17.9 Red oak 4.6 10.1 16.8 White ash 4.7 10.0 16.1 Black oak 4.8 10.1 15.9 Sugar maple 3.9 8.4 13.5 Beech...homogeneous forests. A potentially useful aid in characterizing forests for radiowave propagation prediction may be the forester’s " stocking guide

  13. Carbon Budget of Russian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Shvidenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB of Russian forests for 2007–2009 is presented based on consistent application of applied systems analysis and modern information technologies. Use of landscape-ecosystem approach resulted in the NECB at 546±120 Tg C year–1, or 66±15 g C m–2 year–1. There is a substantial difference between the NECB of European and Asian parts, as well as the clear zonal gradients within these geographical regions. While the total carbon sink is high, large forest areas, particularly on permafrost, serve as a carbon source. The ratio between net primary production and soil heterotrophic respiration, together with natural and human-induced disturbances are major drivers of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the NECB of forest ecosystems. Using the Bayesian approach, mutual constraints of results that are obtained by independent methods enable to decrease uncertainties of the final result.

  14. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  15. African savanna-forest boundary dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuni Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long......-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4......, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change...

  16. Forest Management Plan : Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Seney National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the management objectives, forest descriptions and silviculture of various...

  17. US Forest Service National Wilderness Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting parcels of Forest Service land congressionally designated as wilderness such as National Wilderness Areas. This map service...

  18. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  19. Hakalau Forest - Control of English Holly 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hakalau Forest NWR (Hakalau) was established to conserve endangered forest birds and their habitats. Since establishment of the refuge there has been significant...

  20. Hakalau Forest - Control of English Holly 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hakalau Forest NWR (Hakalau) was established to conserve endangered forest birds and their habitats. Since establishment of the refuge there has been significant...

  1. US Forest Service Special Status Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting land areas that have distinct management/use authorities or agreements for Forest Service action. Includes: Cost Share Agreement...

  2. US Forest Service Land Status and Encumbrance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service designed to portray US Forest Service Land Status Record System data. The map service is for querying and displaying Land Status Record System...

  3. US Forest Service Wilderness Areas: Legal Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting status of parcels for Forest Service land congressionally designated as wilderness such as National Wilderness Areas. This map...

  4. US Forest Service Recreation Area Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation area activity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the public...

  5. Rush for cash crops and forest protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt; Mertz, Ole

    2016-01-01

    forest cover and prepares for REDD+ (reducing deforestation and forest degradation). This paper explores how the recent boom in cash crops is impacting land use and livelihoods of local communities, as well as affecting forest conservation in Hua Meuang District of Huaphan Province in northeastern Laos...... and have achieved an increase in both income and household assets. Maize has replaced upland rice cultivation as well as primary and secondary forests. Although the government policies aim to spare land for forest conservation by intensifying agriculture, the result is rapid agricultural expansion...... and no spared forest. Moreover, the traditional land-sharing landscapes with forest, fallows, and fields are being transformed, creating landscapes that are increasingly dominated by agriculture. This may still be in line with economic development policies, but it is at odds with forest conservation policies...

  6. US Forest Service Integrated Resource Restoration (IRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting activities funded through the Integrated Resource Restoration (IRR) NFRR Budget Line Item and reported through the U.S. Forest...

  7. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  8. Protecting Your Forest from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven McNulty

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is already impacting our forests and the situation is ongoing. As a landowner, there are management tools that you can use to help reduce the likelihood that climate change will cause serious harm to your forest.

  9. Forest health monitoring: 2006 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national technical reportpresents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective usingdata from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the

  10. SUSTAINING CARBON SINK POTENTIALS IN TROPICAL FOREST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Key words: Carbon sequestration, tropical forest, deforestation, conservation. INTRODUCTION ... to complex organic molecules which are then used by the whole plant. ..... Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems.

  11. Minnesota DNR Forest Stand Inventory Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer is a digital inventory of individual forest stands. The data is collected by DNR Foresters in each DNR Forestry Administrative Area, and is updated on a...

  12. Managing national forests of the eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the economic and ecological potential of non-timber forest products. In the United States, much of this increased interest stems from drastic changes in forest practices and policies in the Pacific Northwest region, a region that produces many non-timber forest products. The forests of the eastern United States...

  13. The mangement of national forests of eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2000-01-01

    Many products are harvested fiom the forests of the United States in addition to timber. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are plants, parts of plants, or fungi that are harvested from within and on the edges of natural, disturbed or managed forests. Often, NTFPs are harvested from public forests for the socio-economic benefit they provide to rural collectors....

  14. Record of Decision Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Revised Forest Plan, Targhee National Forest

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1997-01-01

    The Targhee National Forest covers approximately 1.8 million acres (this includes the portion of the Caribou National Forest which is administered by the Targhee). The majority of the forest lies in eastern Idaho and the remainder in western Wyoming. Situated next to Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, the forest lies almost entirely within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

  15. 76 FR 18713 - Malheur National Forest; Oregon; Malheur National Forest Site-Specific Invasive Plants Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Forest Service Malheur National Forest; Oregon; Malheur National Forest Site- Specific Invasive Plants... invasive plant inventory and proposed action have been updated since then resulting in this correction. The... contain invasive plants within the Malheur National Forest. The Proposed Action is to treat invasive...

  16. Carbon Legacy of Forest Degradation Foregone: can Europe's Forests Contribute to Deep Decarbonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, P.; Nabuurs, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Contemporary European forests, comprising 161 Mha, play a large role in mitigation of the EU carbon emissions. These intensively managed forests, roughly compensate 10% of EU emissions in forest carbon, in synchrony with the harvest for lumber, fibre and bioenergy, . But this has not always been the case; European forests are recovering since roughly 1850 from thousands of years of human induced degradation. The impact of more recent management is profound and has stimulated a worldwide unique and unprecedented recovery of this forest biome, partly in terms of area, but mainly in forest density that is, biomass per hectare increases. Based on what we know of the recent historic development, can these forests further contribute to deep decarbonization and how? We outline historic development of European forests since roughly 0 AD. We sketch evidence on degradation and deforestation, and on the impact of forest management on restoring the forest growth thus feeding on biomass recovery. We estimate the historical trajectory of the recovery from forest degradation. We discuss the future pathways of European forest resources, and the prospects for the European-model recovery to occur in degraded forests of the other continents. Based on this evidence from the past, we outline what Climate Smart Forestry could mean in the European circumstances aiming to further strengthen this role of European forests. Big scientific challenges remain to understand and project the future development of these forests under climate change and natural disturbances closely entangled with forest management and new demands of industry in the bio-economy.

  17. Carbonizing forest governance: analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijge, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonizing forest governance: Analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance Marjanneke J. Vijge Despite the fifty years of global action to combat deforestation and forest degradation, the world is still losing its forests at great scale. A

  18. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Mazur; C.P.J. Mitchell; C.S. Eckley; S.L. Eggert; R.K. Kolka; S.D. Sebestyen; E.B. Swain

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil-air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown.We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg...

  19. U.S. forest products module : a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew D. Kramp; Kenneth E. Skog; Henry N. Spelter; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) is a partial market equilibrium model of the U.S. forest sector that operates within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) to provide long-range timber market projections in relation to global economic scenarios. USFPM was designed specifically for the 2010 RPA forest assessment, but it is being used also in other applications...

  20. Conversion of natural forest to managed forest plantations decreases tree resistance to prolonged droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; John S. King; Eric Ward; A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Andrew Radecki; Dave M. Bell; Guofang Miao; Michael Gavazzi; Daniel M. Johnson; Steve G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Asko. Noormets

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the southern US, past forest management practices have replaced large areas of native forests with loblolly pine plantations and have resulted in changes in forest response to extreme weather conditions. However, uncertainty remains about the response of planted versus natural species to drought across the geographical range of these forests. Taking...

  1. Estimation of forest resources from a country wide laser scanning survey and national forest inventory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Schumacher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    for deciduous forest and negatively biased for coniferous forest. Species type specific (coniferous, deciduous, or mixed forest) models reduced root mean squared error by 3–12% and removed the bias. In application, model predictions will be improved by stratification into deciduous and coniferous forest using e...

  2. Tropical forest transitions: structural changes in forest area, composition and landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on tropical forest dynamics focus on the processes of deforestation and forest degradation and its associated ecological impacts; comparatively little attention is given to the emergence of forest transitions. This review gives an overview of forest transitions in the tropics as

  3. 77 FR 5838 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest Service...

  4. Temporal mapping of deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal: Applications to forest conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panta, M.; Kim, K.; Joshi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation are associated and progressive processes resulting in the conversion of forest area into a mosaic of mature forest fragments, pasture, and degraded habitat. Monitoring of forest landscape spatial structures has been recommended to detect degenerative trends in

  5. 77 FR 11569 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated ] with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest Service...

  6. The forest resources of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Phillip C. Freeman; Mark A. Theisen

    1998-01-01

    The inventory of the forest resources of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest reports 1.5 million acres of land, of which 1.4 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area as well as of timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  7. The forest resources of the Huron-Manistee National Forest, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Haugen; Rosalie Ingram; Forrest Ruppert

    1996-01-01

    The inventory of the forest resources of the Huron-Manistee National Forests reports 964.9 thousand acres of land, of which 951.1 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  8. Carbonizing forest governance: analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijge, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonizing forest governance: Analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance Marjanneke J. Vijge Despite the fifty years of global action to combat deforestation and forest degradation, the world is still losing its forests at great scale. A

  9. National forests on the edge: development pressures on America's National Forest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. White; Susan M. Stein; Ralph J. Alig

    2007-01-01

    Nationwide, the national forest system covers 192 million acres and contains 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands. These national forest system lands provide a variety of social, cultural, and economic benefits to society. An increasing number of housing units are now located along and near the boundaries of national forests, resulting from desires to reside...

  10. Impacts of forest and land management on biodiversity and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Kurz; Toby Gardner; Joice Ferreira; Manuel Guariguata; Lian Pin Koh; Stephanie Mansourian; John A. Parrotta; Nokea Sasaki; Christine B. Schmitt; Jos Barlow; Markku Kanninen; Kimiko Okabe; Yude Pan; Ian D. Thompson; Nathalie. van Vliet

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the management of forest and non-forest land can contribute significantly to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Such changes can include both forest management actions - such as improving the protection and restoration of existing forests, introducing ecologically responsible logging practices and regenerating forest on degraded...

  11. National assessment of the evolution of forest fragmentation in Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael Moreno-Sanchez; Francisco Moreno-Sanchez; Juan Manuel Torres-Rojo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents assessments of the fragmentation of the temperate and tropical forests in Mexico at the national level for two dates 1993 and 2002. The study was based on land use and vegetation cover data sets scale 1:250,000. Two broad forest types (Temperate Forests and Tropical Forests) and five more specific forest types (Broadleaf Forests, and Coniferous Forests; Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests, Tropic al Sub-evergreen Forests, and Tropical Evergreen Forests) were defined to conduct the analyses. FragStats 3.3 was used to estimate nine metrics of the spatial pattern of the forests for each forest type and date considered. The results indicate that the land cover transitions that have occurred between 1993 and 2002 have resulted in more isolated forest patches with simpler shapes in both the Temperate and Tropical Forests.The remaining Tropical Forest patches have become smaller and more numerous. In contrast, the remaining Temperate Forest patches are fewer and on average larger. Of the more specific forest types defined in this study, the Broadleaf Forests have the highest indicators of fragmentation.However these forests are usually embedded or adjacent to Coniferous Forests. Of more concern for conservation purposes are the high values of fragmentation metrics found for the Tropical Evergreen Forests and Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests, because these forest types are usually surrounded by non-forest land covers or anthropogenic land uses.

  12. Survival paths through the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    in appropriate prevention programs it is important to assess the individual risk with high accuracy. Generally, genetic information plays an important role for many diseases and will help to improve the accuracy of existing risk prediction models. However, conventional regression models have several limitations....... In survival analysis with competing risks I present an extension of random forest using time-dependent pseudo-values to build event risk prediction models. This approach is evaluated with data from Copenhagen stroke study. Further, I will explain how to use the R-package "pec" to evaluate random forests using...

  13. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

  14. Satellite Data Aid Monitoring of Nation's Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service’s Asheville, North Carolina-based Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Prineville, Oregon-based Western Wildlands Environmental Threat Assessment Center partnered with Stennis Space Center and other agencies to create an early warning system to identify, characterize, and track disturbances from potential forest threats. The result was ForWarn, which is now being used by federal and state forest and natural resource managers.

  15. Indirect effects of prey swamping: differential seed predation during a bamboo masting event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzberger, Thomas; Chaneton, Enrique J; Caccia, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Resource pulses often involve extraordinary increases in prey availability that "swamp" consumers and reverberate through indirect interactions affecting other community members. We developed a model that predicts predator-mediated indirect effects induced by an epidemic prey on co-occurring prey types differing in relative profitability/preference and validated our model by examining current-season and delayed effects of a bamboo mass seeding event on seed survival of canopy tree species in mixed Patagonian forests. The model shows that predator foraging behavior, prey profitability, and the scale of prey swamping influence the character and strength of short-term indirect effects on various alternative prey. When in large prey-swamped patches, nonselective predators decrease predation on all prey types. Selective predators, instead, only benefit prey of similar quality to the swamping species, while very low or high preference prey remain unaffected. Negative indirect effects (apparent competition) may override such positive effects (apparent mutualism), especially for highly preferred prey, when prey-swamped patches are small enough to allow predator aggregation and/or predators show a reproductive numerical response to elevated food supply. Seed predation patterns during bamboo (Chusquea culeou) masting were consistent with predicted short-term indirect effects mediated by a selective predator foraging in large prey-swamped patches. Bamboo seeds and similarly-sized Austrocedrus chilensis (ciprés) and Nothofagus obliqua (roble) seeds suffered lower predation in bamboo flowered than nonflowered patches. Predation rates on the small-seeded Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue) and the large-seeded Nothofagus alpina (rauli) were independent of bamboo flowering. Indirect positive effects were transient; three months after bamboo seeding, granivores preyed heavily upon all seed types, irrespective of patch flowering condition. Moreover, one year after bamboo seeding

  16. Efectos de la variación temporal y los métodos de captura en la eficiencia de un muestreo de coleópteros en la Reserva Natural Loma del Medio, El Bolsón, Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula SACKMANN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available n este trabajo se analiza la eficiencia de un muestreo sistemático para una comunidad de coleópteros de bosque subantártico. En particular se evalúa: 1- la conveniencia de repartir el esfuerzo de muestreo a lo largo del tiempo (dentro de una misma temporada de actividad de insectos y entre años, y 2- la eficiencia del uso de dos tipos de trampas diferentes. Se seleccionaron 10 sitios en un bosque de Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupresaceae y Nothofagus dombeyii (Fagaceae en la Reserva Forestal Loma del Medio, El Bolsón, Río Negro. En cada sitio se colocaron nueve trampas de caída que abarcaban una superficie de 100 m 2 y una trampa Malaise. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos anuales (enero, febrero, marzo y abril durante tres años (2002-2004, y de una semana de duración cada uno. La abundancia de especies fue mayor en enero-febrero que en marzo-abril, la riqueza fue similar y la composición de la comunidad fue marcadamente distinta entre dichos períodos para los tres años. Por otro lado, la riqueza de especies fue similar al considerar uno, dos o tres años de muestreo, y en general la composición de la comunidad no varió entre años para períodos comparables. Sin embargo, la acumulación de especies raras sólo se estabilizó luego de tres años de muestreo. Aunque las trampas Malaise fueron más eficientes (número de especies observadas / individuos capturados que las trampas de caída, los métodos de captura fueron altamente complementarios (25% de especies en común. Para caracterizar esta comunidad en particular, se recomienda distribuir el esfuerzo de muestreo a lo largo de una misma temporada de actividad y aplicar diferentes métodos de muestreos. Con un año de muestreo, bajo las condiciones propuestas anteriormente, se podrá caracterizar la comunidad de forma general, pero hacen falta al menos tres años de muestreo para alcanzar un alto grado de integridad. Se incluye un apéndice con la lista de especies capturadas (N = 175

  17. Forest Health Management and Detection of Invasive Forest Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaelyn Finley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review paper are to provide an overview of issues related to forest health and forest entomology, explain existing methods for forest insect pest detection, and provide background information on a case study of emerald ash borer. Early detection of potentially invasive insect species is a key aspect of preventing these species from causing damage. Invasion management efforts are typically more feasible and efficient if they are applied as early as possible. Two proposed approaches for detection are highlighted and include dendroentomology and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR. Dendroentomology utilizes tree ring principles to identify the years of outbreak and the dynamics of past insect herbivory on trees. NIR has been successfully used for assessing various forest health concerns (primarily hyperspectral imaging and decay in trees. Emerald ash borer (EAB (Agrilus planipennis, is a non-native beetle responsible for widespread mortality of several North American ash species (Fraxinus sp.. Current non-destructive methods for early detection of EAB in specific trees are limited, which restricts the effectiveness of management efforts. Ongoing research efforts are focused on developing methods for early detection of emerald ash borer.

  18. Productivity of forest birds at Hakalau Forest NWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben; Cummins, George C; Kendall, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Hawai‘i has some of the most endangered avian species in the world, which face numerous threats from habitat loss, disease, climate change, and introduced species. This report details the results of a two-year productivity study of all forest bird species at Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai‘i Island. We found and monitored nests from seven native species and three common non-native species of forest birds at three sites across the refuge. In addition to gathering important baseline information on productivity of forest birds, we examined differences in productivity between years, sites, and as a function of nest height. The weather differed greatly between the two years, with much more rain occurring in 2014. The daily survival rate (DSR) of nests was found to have an inverse relationship with the amount of rainfall, and accordingly was much lower in 2014 compared to 2013. Nest success was lower at a regenerating forest site compared with mature rainforest, indicating negative environmental factors affecting nest success may be exacerbated in reforested areas which have lower canopies. Nest success was also impacted by nest height, with a positive relationship in the drier 2013, and a negative relationship in 2014 for the canopy nesting honeycreepers. The large difference in weather and DSR between years illustrates the need for long term demographic studies that can capture the vital rates of this community of birds.

  19. Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw JD

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest Inventory and Analysis, previously known as Forest Survey, is one of the oldest research and development programs in the USDA Forest Service. Statistically-based inventory efforts that started in Scandinavian countries in the 1920s raised interest in developing a similar program in the U.S. The U.S. Congress established the research branch of the U.S. Forest Service in 1928, shortly after Dr. Yrjo Ilvessalo, leader of the first Finnish national forest inventory, met with President Calvin Coolidge. Congress charged the Forest Service to find "facts as may be necessary in the determination of ways and means to balance the timber budget of the United States". As a result, Forest Survey maintained a timber focus for much its history. As society's interest in forests changed over time, so did information needs. Conflicts over resource allocation and use could not be resolved without up-to-date knowledge of forest status and trends. In response to society's needs, the Forest Inventory and Analysis program has evolved from Forest Survey to address diverse topics such as forest health, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, air pollution, and invasive plants, while continuing its mandate to monitor the Nation's timber supply. The Forest Inventory and Analysis program collects data on all land ownerships on an annual basis. The data are used to develop reports on a regular basis; reports and raw data are available to the public at no cost. The data are also used by scientists in a growing number of applications. A short history of the Forest Survey is presented with several examples of current research based on Forest Inventory and Analysis data.

  20. Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest Inventory and Analysis, previously known as Forest Survey, is one of the oldest research and development programs in the USDA Forest Service. Statistically-based inventory efforts that started in Scandinavian countries in the 1920s raised interest in developing a similar program in the U.S. The U.S. Congress established the research branch of the U.S. Forest Service in 1928, shortly after Dr. Yrjö Ilvessalo, leader of the first Finnish national forest inventory, met with President Calvin Coolidge. Congress charged the Forest Service to find "facts as may be necessary in the determination of ways and means to balance the timber budget of the United States". As a result, Forest Survey maintained a timber focus for much its history. As society's interest in forests changed over time, so did information needs. Conflicts over resource allocation and use could not be resolved without up-to-date knowledge of forest status and trends. In response to society's needs, the Forest Inventory and Analysis program has evolved from Forest Survey to address diverse topics such as forest health, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, air pollution, and invasive plants, while continuing its mandate to monitor the Nation's timber supply. The Forest Inventory and Analysis program collects data on all land ownerships on an annual basis. The data are used to develop reports on a regular basis; reports and raw data are available to the public at no cost. The data are also used by scientists in a growing number of applications. A short history of the Forest Survey is presented with several examples of current research based on Forest Inventory and Analysis data.

  1. Non-timber forest products in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Kamelamela; James B. Friday; Tamara Ticktin; Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forests provide a wide array of non-timber forest products for both traditional and modern uses. Flowers, vines, and ferns are collected for creating garlands or lei for hula dances and parades. Lei made from materials gathered in the forest are made for personal use and sold, especially during graduation times. Bamboo is harvested for structures and for...

  2. Contingent Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes; Michelle Haefele

    2003-01-01

    In recent decades, concerns have arisen about the proper valuation of the world's forests. While some of these concerns have to do with market distortions for timber products or inadequate data on non-timber forest products, an additional challenge is to uncover the economic worth of non- market services provided by forest ecosystems (Kramer et al. 1997). This has...

  3. Ecotourism Development in Recreational Forest Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. A.H. Bhuiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study explored the issues and strategies of ecotourism development in recreational forest areas of Malaysia. There are a number of forest recreational areas and reserves. The recreation forests are designated and managed under the forestry department. These recreational areas of scenic beauty comprise about 0.05% of the total forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotourism should be set in natural areas with special biological, ecological, or cultural interest. Objective: The aim of this study was to illustrate the potentiality to develop ecotourism in the recreational forests of ECER, especially in Sekayu recreational forest area. Approach: The data for analysis is obtained from the secondary sources. Results: The study showed that there are opportunities and potentialities in the recreational forests of ECER for ecotourism development. These are suitable location, availabilities of recreational forests, attractive natural beauty, pollution free environment, limited natural disaster and infrastructure development. There is some strategiesecological integrity, tourism urbanization, forest tourism development, government role and tour operator initiatives can be followed for ecotourism development in the recreational forests of this region. Conclusion: Appropriate policy, initiative and tourism development activities can be ensured ecotourism development in the recreational forests of Malaysia as well as ECER. In Sekayu, community participation must be increased for the sustainable ecotourism development in the forest.

  4. Texas, 2010 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley

    2012-01-01

    This science update summarizes the findings of the statewide annual inventory conducted by the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program in cooperation with the Texas Forest Service of the forest resource attributes in Texas. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units – southeast (unit 1), northeast (unit 2), north central (unit 3...

  5. Texas, 2008 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Bentley

    2011-01-01

    This science update summarizes the findings of the first statewide annual inventory conducted by the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program in cooperation with the Texas Forest Service of the forest resource attributes in Texas. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—southeast (unit 1), the northeast (unit 2), the north...

  6. An alternative view of continuous forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch

    2008-01-01

    A generalized three-dimensional concept of continuous forest inventories applicable to all common forest sample designs is presented and discussed. The concept recognizes the forest through time as a three-dimensional population, two dimensions in land area and the third in time. The sample is selected from a finite three-dimensional partitioning of the population. The...

  7. Some problems of forest management of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Patarkalashvili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the most important resource of our planet. The usefulness of forests is spread from commercial exploitation of them for timber and other products to maintenance of wildlife, ecological balance, prevention of soil erosion, etc. In achieving these goals the essential factor is the proper forest management. Forest management is a system of actions for supplying different products and services for society. In developed countries forest management tends to be elaborated and planned in order to achieve the objectives that are considered desirable for environment and economy. Forests are the most biologically diverse land ecosystems that can supply different products and services. The working of this system is influenced by the natural environment, climate, topography, soil, etc., and also by human action. Forests have been and are managed to obtain the traditional forest products: fire wood, fiber for paper, building timber etc. with little thinking for other products and services. Nevertheless, as a result from the development of ecology science and environmental awareness, management of forests for multiple use is becoming more common. Public concern regarding forest management have shifted from the extraction of timber for earning money for the economy, to the preservation of additional forest resources, including wildlife, soil and water conservation, recreation etc. Forests are the repositories of aesthetic, ethical cultural and religious values.

  8. European Mixed Forests: Definition and research perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Pretzsch, H.; Ammer, C.; Andenmatten, E.; Barbati, A.; Barreiro, S.; Brang, P.; Bravo, F.; Coll, L.; Corona, P.; Ouden, den J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) briefly review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material an

  9. Recovery of central Appalachian forested watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; James N. Kochendenfer [sic

    2014-01-01

    The Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) was established to conduct research in forest and watershed management in the central Appalachians. The 1868-ha FEF, located south of Parsons, West Virginia, is administered by the Northern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service and provides a valuable point of comparison with the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory (CHL), located in...

  10. Approximation algorithms for nonbinary agreement forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, L.J.J. van; Kelk, S.M.; Lekic, N.; Stougie, L.

    2012-01-01

    Given two rooted phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa X, the Maximum Agreement Forest problem (MAF) asks to find a forest that is, in a certain sense, common to both trees and has a minimum number of components. The Maximum Acyclic Agreement Forest problem (MAAF) has the additional restriction

  11. Evolving Random Forest for Preference Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for pairwise preference learning through a combination of an evolutionary method and random forest. Grammatical evolution is used to describe the structure of the trees in the Random Forest (RF) and to handle the process of evolution. Evolved random forests...

  12. WAsP in the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Landberg, Lars; Jensen, Niels Otto

    2005-01-01

    This article compares mean wind estimates from a WAsP analysis for three forest sites and one site near a forest with measurements taken at the sites. By standard WAsP settings for forest, the mean wind speed at the sites was overestimated. Agreement between the estimates and the measurements...

  13. Political theory in forest policy science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de W.; Arts, B.J.M.; Krott, M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of theory in forest policy studies has given a new face to forest policy science, as it matured from an applied academic field to a specialized sub-discipline. In addition to doing science to support policy, forest policy academics engage in research to expand policy sciences. The link to th

  14. Forest health monitoring: 2003 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling; William D. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national reports present results from forest health data analyses focusing on a national perspective. The Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests are used as a reporting framework. This report has five main sections. The first contains introductory material....

  15. Forest health monitoring: 2001 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Conkling; John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national report uses FHM data, as well as data from a variety of other programs, to provide an overview of forest health based on the criteria and indicators of sustainable forestry framework of the Santiago Declaration. It presents information about the status of and trends in various forest health indicators...

  16. Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; John A. Parrotta; Christopher Quine; Jeffrey Sayer

    2008-01-01

    Losses of natural and semi-natural forests, mostly to agriculture, are a significant concern for biodiversity. Against this trend, the area of intensively managed plantation forests increases, and there is much debate about the implications for biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive review of the function of plantation forests as habitat compared with other land...

  17. 29 CFR 780.159 - Forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest products. 780.159 Section 780.159 Labor Regulations... Other Unlisted Practices Which May Be within Section 3(f) § 780.159 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber derived therefrom are not agricultural or horticultural commodities, for...

  18. 29 CFR 780.115 - Forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest products. 780.115 Section 780.115 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.115 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the...

  19. Conservation of Louisiana's coastal wetland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim L. Chambers; Richard F. Keim; William H. Conner; John W. Jr. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Emile S. Gardiner; Melinda s. Hughes; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale efforts to protect and restore coastal wetlands and the concurrent renewal of forest harvesting in cypress-tupelo swamps have brought new attention to Louisiana's coastal wetland forests in recent years. Our understanding of these coastal wetland forests has been limited by inadequate data and the lack of a comprehensive review of existing information...

  20. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...