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Sample records for austrian black pine

  1. The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia

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    Karadžić Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

  2. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forests in the Višegrad area

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    Blagojević Velibor D.; Knežević Milan N.; Košanin Olivera D.; Kapović-Solomun Marijana B.; Lučić Radovan J.; Eremija Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complex...

  3. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forests in the Višegrad area

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    Blagojević Velibor D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complexity of the geological structure and relief dynamics are dominant environmental factors that condition the expressed variability of soils in the study area. Forest communities of Austrian pine are formed on the peridotites and serpentinites, eutric ranker (haplic leptosol, eutric cambisol (haplic cambisols and pseudogley (haplic planosol, dense granular and marl limestones calcomelanosol (mollic leptosol, rendzina (rendzic leptosol and calcocambisol (leptic cambisol. The productivity of these soils is highly correlated with depth and texture composition, and the impact of these factors is linked with soil type, climate and other site conditions. In the research area, soil types with low production potential such as rankers, rendzinas, limestone and dolomite calcomelanosol are dominant. Deeper variants of eutric cambisol, pseudogley and calcocambisol can be classified as soils with moderate to high production potential.

  4. Changes of soil conditions and floristic composition in Black Pine forest (Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae) and in the forest of beech and Hairy Alpenrose (Rhododendro hirsuti-Fagetum) after the wildfire

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    Urbančič, Mihej; Dakskobler, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We studied soil conditions and floristic comsposition in the forest of beech and Hairy Alpenrose (Rhododendro hirsuti-Fagetum) and in the south-Alpine Austrian black pine forest (Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae) within the area of the forest fire in Govci (which is located in the northwestern edge of the Trnovski gozd plateau, western Slovenia) and compared them with conditions in preserved beech and black pine forests five years after the wildfire. The black pine forest overgrows Lithosols and M...

  5. Application of various statistical methods to analyze genetic diversity of Austrian (Pinus nigra Arn. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. based on protein markers

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    Lučić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on protein polymorphism in seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. as the most important economic species of the genus Pinus in Serbia. Polymorphism of protein markers was determined in selected genotypes originating from seven populations (Scots pine and six populations (Austrian pine. Analysis of protein markers was performed using two statistical methods, NTSYS and correspondence analysis. Both methods give the same arrangement of the analyzed populations, whereby, because of a different view of genetic distances, they can and should be combined, enabling easier and more precise understanding of mutual relationships of the observation units.

  6. Proteins in seed and seedlings of selected Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold trees as genetic markers tolerant to drought

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    Mataruga Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A precondition necessary for creation and selection of genotypes tolerant of stress conditions is a study of physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of their adaptive reaction to stress. The study includes 40 lines of free pollination originating from 5 provenances: Sutjeska, Višegrad, Tara, Teslić and Durmitor (B&H, Serbia and Montenegro. Two populations were selected from each provenance, i.e.: 5 lines of free pollination represent the population growing on the cliffs and 3 lines of free pollination represent the population growing at the best site of Austrian pine. Specific characteristics of the studied provenances, populations, and free pollination lines were confirmed by the analyses in the salt-soluble proteins. The identical protein composition was proved in a small number of cases in the replicates of the same free pollination line, which indicates a high intra-line variability, which can be the result of the effect of father, as well as of heterozygosity of mother trees. The analyses of protein composition of seed showed considerable differences at provenance level. Inter-line, population and provenance differences, and also, the interaction between the origin and drought factor, were recorded for 9-day-old seedlings germinated in induced drought conditions and in normal conditions.

  7. Modelling the productivity of Anatolian black pine plantations in Turkey

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    Şükrü Teoman Güner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the relationships between height growth (site index of Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasina (Lamb. Holmboe and site factors of the plantation areas in Turkey. Data were collected from 118 sample plots by taking into consideration the variations of aspect, altitude, slope position, slope degree and site class. A representative tree for the productivity and soil samples were taken at each sample plot. Some chemical and physical properties of soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The relationships between site index values of the trees and site factors including parent material, soil, climate and topography were examined by using correlation, stepwise regression and regression tree analysis. Significant linear relations were found between site index of black pine and site factors being altitude, slope degree, slope position, annual rainfall, precipitation amount in the most drought month, solum depth and bedrock including granite, mica schist and dacite. Explanation variance percentage on the site index of black pine was found 54.4% by using regression tree analysis whereas explained variance become 34.7% by stepwise regression analysis.

  8. Temporal changes in nitrogen acquisition of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) associated with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

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    M. L. Lopez C.; C. Mizota; ; Y. Nobori; T. Sasaki; T. Yamanaka

    2014-01-01

    The alien woody legume, black locust (Robinia pseudoaca-cia), has invaded Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) forests located in Japan’s coastal plain and hill regions where gaps are formed in pine forests after nematode infestation. Nitrogen fixation by legumes acceler-ates N cycling in forest ecosystems. We studied temporal change in the annual tree-ring resolution N stable isotope composition (δ15N, a per mil deviation of δ15N/14N ratio, relative to atmospheric N2δ15N=0‰) at two natural locations of Japanese black pine forest with black locust that differed in the time since black locust establishment (Shohnai in north-east and Kita-Kyushu in southwest Japan). Analyzed tree-rings covered the period from 1990/1992 to 2009. N acquisition by Japanese black pine from black locust N input to the soil was evidenced by temporal shifting of N stable isotope composition on the annual pine tree rings. With pro-gressive development of the forest stand,δ15N values of earlier tree-ringsδ15N of -5‰) from black pine associated with black locust shifted to-wards values similar to those of black locustδ15N values nearly to-1‰), which suggests acquisition of N by N2 fixation (Shohnai site). In con-trast, in a forest where black locust had settled for two or three genera-tions, in a black pine stand (Kita-Kyushu site), longer periods of N en-richment in the soil were reflected in the elevated tree-ringδ15N values of newly established black pine trees. Based on tree-ringδ15N data from the Shohnai site, we determined that about 10 years after black locust establishment, soil N had already been enriched by black locust N, this, in turn, contributed to N fertilization of surrounding trees in mixed stands.

  9. Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

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    Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E

    2007-04-06

    In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

  10. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

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    Ramazan Özçelik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  11. Humus characteristics and seasonal changes of soil arthropod communities in a natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation.

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    Cakir, Meric; Makineci, Ender

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the effects of conversion of natural stands into plantations, soil invertebrate micro- and macroarthropod communities were evaluated for their abundance and richness in a sessile oak (SO; Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (AP; Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. Sites were sampled four times a year in 3-month intervals from May 2009 to February 2010. Humus characteristics such as total mass; carbon, lignin, and cellulose contents; and C/N ratio were significantly different between SO and AP. Statistically significant differences were detected on soil pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, and electrical conductivity between the two sites. The number of microarthropods was higher in AP than in the SO site. The annual mean abundance values of microarthropods in a square meter were 67,763 in AP and 50,542 in SO, and the annual mean abundance values of macroarthropods were 921 m(-2) in AP and 427 m(-2) in SO. Among the soil microarthropods, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups. Shannon's diversity index was more affected by evenness than species number despite the species diversity (H') of soil arthropods being generally higher in the SO stand. The abundance of microarthropods showed clear seasonal trends depending upon the humidity of the soil.

  12. Use of pine nuts by grizzly and black bears in the Yellowstone area

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    Kendall, Katherine C.

    1983-01-01

    The large seeds (pine nuts) of whitebark pine are commonly eaten in the spring (March-May) and fall (September-November) by grizzly and black bears in Yellowstone National Park and adjacent areas (Craighead and Craighead 1972, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and western Montana (Tisch 1961; J. Sumner and J. J. Craighead, unpubl. rep., Montant Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1973). Similar nuts from limber pine are eaten by grizzly bears on the east Rocky Mountain Front of northwestern Montana (Schallenberger and Jonkel, annual rep., Border Grizzly Project, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1980). The nuts of the European stone pine (P. cembra) are an important food for brown bears (U. arctos) throughout the taiga zone in the Soviet Union (Pavlov and Zhdanov 1972, Ustinov 1972, Yazan 1972). Both the production of whitebark pine cones (Forcella 1977, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and the quantity of nuts consumed by bears vary annually (Mealey 1975, Blancard 1978). Pine nuts are also an important food for red squirrels in whitebark forests. In fall, squirrels remove cones from trees and cache them in middens. Bears as well as other mammalian and avian seed predators compete with squirrels for whitebark nuts (Forcella 1977, Tomback 1977). Confusion about the ripening process of whitebark pine cones has resulted in errors in the literature on the availability of pine nuts as a bear food. Whitebark cones are indehiscent and do not disintegrate (Tomback 1981). Vertebrate foraging probably leaves few, if any, seed-bearing cones on trees by late fall; the cones remaining abscise sometime thereafter (Tomback 1981). Because cones do not abscise or release their seed in fall, bears may obtain pine nuts in 2 ways. Black bears may climb whitebark pine trees and break off cone-bearing brnahces to feed on cones (Tisch 1961, Mealey 1975, Forcella 1977); or both black bears and grizzly bears may raid squirrel caches to feed on pine nuts (Tisch 1961, Craighead and Craighead 1972

  13. Four new tree-ring chronologies from old black pine forests of Sandıras Mountain (Mugla, Turkey

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    Mehmet Doğan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sandıras Mountain is located in southwest of Gölgeli Mountain, which lies parallel to border of Aegean and Mediterranean Regions, in Southwestern Anatolia. This mountainous area is one of the natural distribution areas of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. and has the oldest black pine communities in Turkey. Monumental black pine stands and the large number of individual monumental trees can be observed between the 1200 and 2000 m elevations of the mountain (especially north slope of the mountain. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a dendrochronological research on old black pine trees of Sandıras Mountain. Four new tree-ring chronologies were built from upper and lower elevations of south and north slopes of the mountain. The shortest and the longest chronologies were 241 and 820 years-long (obtained from upper elevation of the north slope, respectively. In this research, we record the most sensitive black pine trees (mean sensitivity value is 0.27 of Turkey from the north slope of Sandıras Mountain.

  14. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands after selective silvicultural treatments: preliminary results

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    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Butti, Fabrizio; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil biodiversity under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera). The results displayed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. In particular, microbial diversity assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (PCR-DGGE) approaches highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning. Furthermore, little but significant differences were observed for mesofauna and nematode community as well which displayed a higher diversity level in Amiata areas compared to Pratomagno. In contrast, Coleoptera showed higher richness values in Pratomagno, where the wood degrader Nebria tibialis specie dominated, compared to Amiata. As expected, a general degraded biodiversity was observed in both areas before thinning.

  15. Gap size effects on tree regeneration in afforestations of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.

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    Mercurio R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors deal with the problem of the re-naturalization of afforestations of Black pine in the Apennines (Central Italy. Gap-cutting of two different sizes (the gap diameter/stand height ratios were respectively 0.75 and 1.0 on age classes stands (respectively 50 and 90 years old have been carried out. The results of the dynamics of the tree regeneration established in the gaps 7 years after the beginning of the experiment are given. The Black pine represents the best regenerated tree species and its presence is increasing. Some broadleaves, Pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. and Holm oak (Quercus ilex L. particularly, and Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. and Manna-ash (Fraxinus ornus L. on a subordinate way, are also present in the gaps. These results confirm that the gap-cutting system represents an effective instrument for the natural regeneration priming and a low impact environmental treatment which is particularly fit for the re-naturalization of the conifers’ monocultures. According to this experience the gaps’ optimal sizes are 150-250 m2. These gaps should be distributed appropriately in space and time.

  16. Effects of silvicultural treatment on the stability of black pine plantations.

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    Paolo Cantiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pine plantations have been established at the purpose of recovering a forest cover to marginal soils, mostly throughout the Apennines range in Italy, since the end of the eighteenth century and up to the mid 1900. Both the decay of forest cover and soil erosion were the outcome of the long-lasting overuse through the intensive forest exploitation practices, grazing of the forest floor and wildfires, occurring since many centuries ago. The primary function of pine reafforestation was therefore to re-establish a first cover with a pioneer species, preparatory to future mixed forest types based on the natural reintroduction of broadleaves originally living in the same areas, mainly deciduous oaks and beech in the upper part. These goals have been partly met over the wide reafforestation area; the key functions of pine stands are today the protection against soil erosion and the hydrological regulation of catchments. The pine stands have been assuming today also a scenic role because they have been incorporated in the landscape physiognomy. A series of thinning up to the regeneration phase had been planned by foresters since the design of these plantations, but many stands have grown unthinned and fully stocked for a long time, this condition contributing a less mechanical stability of trees. Alternative forms of regeneration in grown-up stands have been and are being tested to improve both the natural and artificial establishment of indigenous species, but thinnings remain, even if a tardy measure, the main practice enforceable to these pine forests. The results of experimental trials undertaken in the black pine forest stand located in Pratomagno casentinese (Arezzo are being reported in the paper. The study started in 1978 and the following theses were tested (A heavy thinning from below; (B moderate thinning from below; (C control. Three thinnings were carried out in 1978, 1999 and 2009 at the ages of 24, 45 and 55. The action over time of

  17. Reflection on plant cover of climate change: Decline Anatolian black pines on district between Afsin-Goksun (Kahramanmaras, Turkey

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    Celalettin Duran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine decline Anatolian black pines [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe] on Tuluce hill district between Afsin-Goksun region in Kahramanmaras province. As a result of the Ecological (climate, soil, air pollution and Biological (insect, fungus, parasite plant etc. researches; other factors the exception of drought have no priority affection on black pine deaths. As on Turkey, drought conditions have dominated on the region after the year 1994. These changes have been occurred by constantly deaths in community of black pines on the south-facing slope (between the years 2000-2009. Increasing temperature and evaporation, decreasing relative humidity and rainfall-runoff is clearly for the region. In addition, there were not air pollution and infected primer insect-fungus damage. This also strengthens the impact of drought. Identified areas of tree deaths in recent years are generally near the inner regions (the steppe areas. Climate change and drought must be an indication of pushing towards more humid areas of black pine forests which is able to approaching much more onto the steppes of inner Anatolian.

  18. Effect of heat treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of compression and opposite wood of Black pine

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    Türker Dündar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of commercial heat treatment on physical and mechanical properties of compression wood (CW and opposite wood (OW of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold was investigated. Black pine logs containing CW were cut parallel to the pith and separated into CW and OW sections. A commercial heat treatment process was applied to pine lumber at 180 and 210 ºC for 3 hours. Water absorption (WA, contact angle (CA, swelling, modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, and impact bending strength (IBS were measured. The results showed that heat treatment decreased water absorption and swelling of the CW and OW of black pine. Heat treatment at 210 °C temperature decreased the longitudinal swelling of CW by 51.4%. Higher immersion time lowered the effect of heat treatment on the WA values. The CA values of the CW and OW increased due to heat treatment. Heat treatment reduced the MOR, MOE, and IBS values. The results indicated that MOR, MOE, and CA values were highly affected in the CW; on the other hand, the IBS value was highly affected in the OW by heat treatment compared to control groups. The results indicate that heat-stabilized CW can be used more widely and effectively in the forest products industry.

  19. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

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    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  20. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

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    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  1. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

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    Christopher T Rota

    Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  2. On Austrian regional economics

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    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we tent

  3. Distribution of black carbon in ponderosa pine forest floor and soils following the High Park wildfire

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    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Biomass burning produces black carbon (BC), effectively transferring a fraction of the biomass C from an actively cycling pool to a passive C pool, which may be stored in the soil. Yet the timescales and mechanisms for incorporation of BC into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park fire (HPF), which occurred in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire severity and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane ponderosa pine forest floor (litter plus O-horizon) and soils at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depth 4 months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn severity on %C, C stocks, %N and BC. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes but that there was no difference in BPCA-C content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the forest floor at burned sites (19 g BPCA-C kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g BPCA-C m-2). At the time of sampling, unburned and burned soils had equivalent BC content, indicating none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into either the 0-5 or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B6CA : total BPCAs, an index of the degree of aromatic C condensation, suggested that BC in the 5-15 cm soil layer may have been formed at higher temperatures or experienced selective degradation relative to the forest floor and 0-5 cm soils. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely lost, either through erosion events, degradation or translocation to deeper soils. Future work examining mechanisms for BC losses from forest soils will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global

  4. Root mass, net primary production and turnover in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada.

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    Steele, Sarah J.; Gower, Stith T.; Vogel, Jason G.; Norman, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Root biomass, net primary production and turnover were studied in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in two contrasting climates. The climate of the Southern Study Area (SSA) near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan is warmer and drier in the summer and milder in the winter than the Northern Study Area (NSA) near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. Ingrowth soil cores and minirhizotrons were used to quantify fine root net primary production (NPPFR). Average daily fine root growth (m m(-2) day(-1)) was positively correlated with soil temperature at 10-cm depth (r(2) = 0.83-0.93) for all three species, with black spruce showing the strongest temperature effect. At both study areas, fine root biomass (measured from soil cores) and fine root length (measured from minirhizotrons) were less for jack pine than for the other two species. Except for the aspen stands, estimates of NPPFR from minirhizotrons were significantly greater than estimates from ingrowth cores. The core method underestimated NPPFR because it does not account for simultaneous fine root growth and mortality. Minirhizotron NPPFR estimates ranged from 59 g m(-2) year(-1) for aspen stands at SSA to 235 g m(-2) year(-1) for black spruce at NSA. The ratio of NPPFR to total detritus production (aboveground litterfall + NPPFR) was greater for evergreen forests than for deciduous forests, suggesting that carbon allocation patterns differ between boreal evergreen and deciduous forests. In all stands, NPPFR consistently exceeded annual fine root turnover and the differences were larger for stands in the NSA than for stands in the SSA, whereas the difference between study areas was only significant for black spruce. The imbalance between NPPFR and fine root turnover is sufficient to explain the net accumulation of carbon in boreal forest soils. PMID:14759831

  5. Modeling Tree Characteristics of Individual Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. Trees for Use in Remote Sensing-Based Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Balenović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim was to develop models for predicting diameter at breast height (DBH, merchantable tree volume (V, and aboveground biomass (AGB of individual black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. trees grown in Sub-Mediterranean Croatian pure even-aged forests, which will be suitable for remote sensing based forest inventories. In total, eight variables obtained from field measurement, existing database, and digital terrain model were candidates for independent variables in regression analysis. DBH, V, and AGB were modeled as linear function of each of the independent variables, and all possible linear combinations thereof. Goodness of fit of every model was then evaluated using R2 statistic. Comparison between selected models showed that the variability of all dependent variables are explained best by models which include both crown diameter and tree height as independent variables with coefficients of determination of 0.83, 0.89, 0.82 for DBH, V, and AGB, respectively. Consequently, these models may be recommended as the most suited for DBH, V and AGB estimation of black pine trees grown in pure Sub-Mediterranean forest stands using high-resolution aerial images or high-density airborne laser scanning data. This assumption should be further validated by conducting remote sensing inventory and comparing the obtained results with field measurement results.

  6. Anarchism and Austrian economics

    OpenAIRE

    Boettke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the 2011 Franz Cuhel Memorial Lecture, I argue that the study of endogenous rule formation in economic life (what I term the positive political economy of anarchism) should be studied in-depth and that the economic analysis of the Austrian school of economics provides many of the key analytical insights necessary for such study.

  7. How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)

    OpenAIRE

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Preston, Caroline M; Schmidt, Michael W I; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2003-01-01

    [1] In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor of Siberian Scots pine forests by comparing the bulk elemental composition, molecular structure (13C-MAS NMR), ...

  8. Mycorrhizae of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii): Protection of seedlings from acid mist and effect of acid mist on mycorrhiza formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, Noritoshi; Kikuchi, Junichi; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    To determine the effects of acid precipitation on Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) with and without mycorrhizae (Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker et Couch), 1-year-old seedlings were exposed to simulated acid rain mist, pH 3.0, for 10 min per day twice a week for 3 or 4 months. Simulated acid mist adversely affected the transpiration rate and lowered the extractable phosphorus content on seedlings, but seedlings with mycorrhizae were less affected by acid mist than were nonmycorrhizal seedlings. Simulated acid mist also retarded mycorrhiza formation. 41 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Austrian natural scientists in exile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text was written by E. Broda for the international symposium for exploration of the Austrian exile from 1934 to 1945 (“Internationales Symposiums zur Erforschung des österreichischen Exils von 1934 bis 1945”) in the year 1978. The article is about the specific problems of the Austrian scientific landscape, caused by the political events in the first half of the 20th century. The focus is primarily on the enormous ‘brain drain’, triggered by political repression in the period of Nazi rule (1938 - 1945), the Austro-fascism period (1934 - 1938) and the economic regression, anti-intellectual and anti-Semitic sentiment in the Country since 1918. The article emphasizes the importance of exile organizations, such as the ‘Free Austrian Movement’ or the ‘Association of Austrian Engineers, Chemists and Scientific Workers in Great Britain’ for the reconstruction of a scientific culture in Austria, after the Second World War. (rössner)

  10. Effect of Heat Treatment Upon the Compression Strength of Black Pine and Spruce – A Comparison Between Wood Originating From Mature Trees Vs. Thinnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina OLARESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of anexperimental study performed with black pine (Pinusnigra L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood, originatingfrom mature trees and thinnings cut from the sameparcel from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania.After air drying and conditioning, the defect-freetest boards were cut into standard 20x20x60mmsamples for the compression test. The compressionstrength was measured and the rupture mode incompression was analyzed.Therefore, the sampleswere first dried to oven-dry state, then heat-treated athigh temperatures (180 and 200ºC for 1, 2, 3 and 4hours. Sets of 10 samples from each wood species,wood assortment and treating regime were tested.The obtained results were comparativelyanalyzed for the two species (pine vs. spruce and forthe two wood assortments (mature wood vs, thinwood. Then they were also expressed relatively tothe mass loss, considered to be the main indiactor ofthe degradation suffered by wood during the heattreatment.A graph was drawn for each species andassortment in order to establish the optimum treatingregime, considering the correlated influence of theheat treatment conditions upon all three analyzedproperties (mass loss, dimensional stability andcompression strength.The results of the present research are to bevalorized at the manufacturing of solid wood panelsmade from heat-treated lamellas.

  11. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Gökhan; Korkut, Süleyman; Korkut, Derya Sevim

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Yenice-Zonguldak Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for varying durations. The physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties were determined. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and compression strength, and Janka-hardness were determined. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements by the stylus method were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Four main roughness parameters, mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness (Ry) obtained from the surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant difference was determined (p=0.05) between physical and technological properties, and surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Ry, Rq) for three temperatures and three durations of heat treatment. Based on the findings in this study, the results showed that density, swelling, compression strength, Janka-hardness and surface roughness values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. Camiyani Black Pine wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in strength values in areas where working, stability, and surface smoothness, such as in window frames, are important factors.

  12. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduct...

  13. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  14. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  15. Mr. Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor. Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor.

  16. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT UPON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND MASS LOSS OF BLACK PINE AND SPRUCE WOOD ORIGINATING FROM MATURE TREES VS. THINNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CAMPEAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of anexperimental study performed with black pine (Pinusnigra L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood, originatingfrom mature trees and thinnings cut from the sameparcel from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania.After air drying and conditioning, the defect-freeboards were cut into standard samples 30x20x20mm.These were first dried to oven-dry state, then heattreatedat high temperatures (180 and 200ºC for 1, 2,3 and 4 hours. Weightings before and after heattreatmentallowed establishing the mass loss. Thetotal linear and volumic swelling coefficients were alsodetermined both for the heat-treated and untreatedsamples, in order to establish the effect of the heattreatmentupon the dimensional stability. The resultswere comparatively analyzed for the two species (pineand spruce, for the two grades (mature and thinwood, in order to establish for each the optimumtreating conditions, namely the ones which allow forthe maximum improvement of the dimensionalstability, without affecting significantly the wood mass(and implicitely the mechanical strengths. The resultsof the present research are to be valorized at themanufacturing of solid wood panels made from heattreatedlamellas

  17. Long-term scenarios of the invasive black cherry in pine-oak forest: Impact of regeneration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhellemont, Margot; Baeten, Lander; Verbeeck, Hans; Hermy, Martin; Verheyen, Kris

    2011-05-01

    The spread of invasive tree species in forests can be slow because of their long life span and the lag phases that may occur during the invasion process. Models of forest succession are a useful tool to explore how these invasive species might affect long-term forest development. We used the spatially explicit individual tree model SORTIE-ND to gain insight into the long-term development of a gap-dependent invasive tree species, Prunus serotina, in a pine-oak forest on sandy soil, the forest type in which P. serotina occurs most often in its introduced range. Forest inventory data, tree ring data, and photographs of the tree crowns were collected in a forest reserve in the Netherlands, characterized by high game densities. The collected data were then combined with data from literature to parameterize the model. We ran the model for two different scenarios in order to evaluate the impact of differences in the regeneration success of the native Quercus robur and the invasive P. serotina. The outcome of the simulations shows two differing courses of forest development. The invasive P. serotina became the dominant species when the regeneration of Q. robur was hindered, e.g., because of high herbivore densities. When both Q. robur and P. serotina were able to regenerate, Q. robur became the most abundant species in the long-term. We hypothesize that the relatively short life span of P. serotina may preclude its dominance if other long-lived tree species are present and able to regenerate.

  18. Austrian Economics, Neoclassicism, and the Market Test

    OpenAIRE

    Leland B. Yeager

    1997-01-01

    Professor Sherwin Rosen correctly suggests that the Austrian and neoclassical schools can be complementary, each accepting much from the other. However his recognition of Austrian strengths needs to be amplified and his criticisms need softening. His appeal to the market test risks encouraging anti-intellectual attitudes and practices

  19. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  20. Forest age stands affect soil respiration and litterfall in a Black pine forest managed by a shelterwood system in the Central Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Candel, David; Viñegla Pérez, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure generates on soil respiration and litterfall quantity. The effect of stand age on these variables was studied in a shelterwood system Spanish Black pine chronosequence in central Iberian Peninsula composed of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100-year-old. For each stand age, six forest stands with similar characteristics of soil type and site preparation were used. Also, a forest area ranging 80-120 years old and without forest intervention was selected and used as control. We also measured organic matter, C:N ratio, soil moisture and pH in the top 10 mineral soil at each compartment. Soil respiration measurements were carried out in three time points (3, 8 and 12 days). Results showed a clear trend in soil respiration, comparing all the experimental areas. Soil respiration showed the same trend in all stands. It initially showed higher rates, reaching stability in the middle of the measurement process and finally lightly increasing the respiration rate. The older stands had significantly higher soil respiration than the younger stands. Soil organic matter values were also higher in the more mature stands. C:N ratio showed the opposite trend, showing lower values in the less mature stands. More mature stands clearly showed more quantity of litterfall than the younger ones and there was a positive correlation between soil respiration and litterfall. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differenced groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40 years old and from 39 to 1 years old, taking into account both soil respiration and litterfall quantity, also separately. Our results suggest that the control plot has a better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1 years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil respiration.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI

  2. AMOUNT OF NITROGEN AND ORGANIC CARBON IN SOIL AND NITROGEN AND ORGANIC MATTER IN FOREST FLOOR OF BLACK PINE (Pinus nigra Arn. supsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) STANDS DEVELOPED IN GOLCUK (ISPARTA)

    OpenAIRE

    Karatepe, Yasin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, total N (Nt) and organic C of soils; and total N and organic matter of forest floor were compared in black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. supsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) stands developed on four different growing sites in Golcuk, Isparta. Average of total N reserves was greatest in soils on andesite parent material (8.568 ton/ha) while it was lowest in soils on Golcuk Formation (0.614 ton/ha). Average of organic carbon reserves was greatest in soils on andesite parent material (79.0...

  3. Schumpeter and Mises as 'Austrian Economists'

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2008-01-01

    "Whether and, if so, in what sense Joseph A. Schumpeter (1883-1950) and Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) may both be classified as ‘Austrian economists’ is a controversial issue. In terms of their biographical background they were, of course, Austrian nationals, and as students of Böhm-Bawerk and von Wieser both qualify in a formal sense as third-generation members of the Austrian School. Yet, whether they so qualify in a substantive sense as well is much more questionable. Apparen...

  4. Síndrome de Austrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Estevão Midon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato, é descrito o caso de um paciente masculino, 64 anos, sem história de etilismo, que se apresentou com a Tríade de Osler, que consiste no desenvolvimento de endocardite, pneumonia e meningite, por um mesmo agente. A síndrome é denominada síndrome de Austrian, quando a infecção for por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Serão discutidas as manifestações clínicas, fisiopatológicas e a terapêutica mais adequada para esse quadro. Tendo em vista a raridade do caso e a elevada morbimortalidade, serão enfatizadas a importância do diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento adequado, visando reduzir as complicações inerentes a essa doença.

  5. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM10, PM2.5), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM10 and PM2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non-fugitive emissions

  6. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an Austrian economist believes that everyone -the consumer included- acts entrepreneurially, in his elucidation of the market process he gives the role of entrepreneur to the producer only.In Part I, "...

  7. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an A

  8. Interpopulation genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia was studied in the populations at five localities in western and south-western Serbia. Three groups of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations were differentiated based on genetic research (seed protein analysis and plant community research. The first group consists of Scots pine populations on Šargan (FMU “Šargan“ and on Tara (FMU “Kaluderske Bare”, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and Austrian pine (Pinetum sylvestris-nigrae Pavlovic 1951. The second group covers the localities Stolovi (FMU “Radocelo-Crepuljnik“ and Zlatar (FMU “Zlatar I“, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and spruce (Piceo abietis-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1960. The third group comprises the Scots pine population on Pešter (FMU “Dubocica-Bare“ which belongs to the community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of seed protein data and showed that there are three groups of Scots pine populations. The three populations coincide with plant communities. The community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963 recorded on Pešter at the locality “Dubocica- Bare“ in the area of FE “Golija“ Ivanjica, is a special Scots pine population displayed at the greatest distance from all other populations in the cluster analysis dendrogram.

  9. President Hans Ager of Austrian Federal Council Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>An Austrian goodwill delegation led by Hans . Ager, president of the Austrian Federal Coun-cil and board member of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China (AAPFCRC), paid a friendly visit to China in November, 2003 at the invitation of the CPAFFC. On the delegation were Dietmar Bachmann, president of the Industrial Federation of

  10. Austrian Philosophy. The Legacy of Franz Brentano

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Barry

    1994-01-01

    This book is a survey of the most important developments in Austrian philosophy in its classical period from the 1870s to the Anschluss in 1938. But I hope that the volume will be seen also as a contribution to philosophy in its own right as an attempt to philosophize in the spirit of those, above all Roderick Chisholm, Rudolf Haller, Kevin Mulligan and Peter Simons, who have done so much to demonstrate the continued fertility of the ideas and methods of the Austrian philosophers in our own d...

  11. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  12. Austrian Airlines:Safety is our Business!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mighty Capacity Managed "Although Austrian Airlines is a middle-sized company, it has a mighty capacity of over 10 million customers every year. Because it has an extensive European service network." G(o)tz stressed to China's Foreign Trade.

  13. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  14. Foreign Identities in the Austrian E-Government

    OpenAIRE

    Ivkovic, Mario; Stranacher, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    With the revision of the Austrian E-Government Act [8] in the year 2008, the legal basis for a full integration of foreign persons in the Austrian e-government, has been created. Additionally, the E-Government Equivalence Decree [1] has been published in June 2010. This decree clarifies which foreign electronic identities are considered to be equivalent to Austrian identities and can be electronically registered within the Austrian identity register. Based on this legal framework a concept ha...

  15. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.; Shewchuk, D. [Cariboo Pulp and Paper, Quesnel, BC (Canada); Van Heek, R. [Aker Kvaerner, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented the results of tests conducted to determine if the addition of waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing might decrease tall oil soap solubility in pine-beetle impacted wood from British Columbia (BC). The soap recovery and tall oil production at BC mills has fallen by 30 to 40 percent in recent years due to the pulping of high proportions of grey-stage beetle-impacted wood. Full-scale mill tests were conducted over a 4-day period. The study showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids or waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing could decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase the soup skimming efficiency in mills pulping a large percentage of grey stage beetle-infested wood. The addition of fatty acids increased tall oil soap skimming efficiency from 50.2 percent in the baseline tests to 71.8 percent based on the total soap available, and from 76.7 percent in the baseline tests to 87.5 percent based on insoluble soap only. The economic analyses indicated that waste fatty acid addition could be economical when natural gas and oil prices are high. 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Aleppo pine defense against Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cronartium flaccidum and other fungal pathogens in the Mediterranean part of Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill. is the most widely disturbed conifer tree in native forest and plantations throughout the Adriatic coast of Montenegro. However, pathogenic fungi in the region are extremely diversified and constitute the principal threat to healthy tree growth: 15 pathogenic fungal species have beden identified in the Eumediterranean zone - a typical habitat of Aleppo pine, whereas 21 fungal pathogens occurred in northern Submediterranean zone - an atypical habitat for Aleppo pine in Montenegro. Greatest damages are inflicted by Sphaeropsis sapinea, a pathogenic generalist on pine, and Cronartium flaccidum, causal agent of rust disease on pine. The following relates, for the first time, the presence of hypersensitive response (HR in young needles and shoots (organs rich in nitrogen as a specific defense mechanism in Aleppo pine against Sphaeropsis sapinea, an otherwise very harmful pathogen for Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. and other pines in the Mediterranean part of Montenegro. Thus, better understanding of the ecology of S. sapinea, of C. flaccidum, as well as of associated mycobiota and mechanisms of host defense are essential for establishing measures and tools for protection of Aleppo pine ecosystems.

  17. Effects of thinning intensities in experimental plots of Black European pine in “Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park” (Tosco-Romagnolo Apennine, Italy, eight years after the felling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi L

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Different thinning intensities were compared in a 50-years-old plantation of Pinus nigra sp. located in the “Foreste Casentinesi Monte Falterona e Campigna” National Park (northern Apennine - Italy. Six experimental square plots (900 m2 were set up for comparison of two thinning intensities: heavy thinning (F: approximately 30% of basal area removed, light thinning (d: approximately 15% of basal area removed and control (Co. The comparison concerned: (1 the periodic increment of the trees in terms of volume (Ipv, average dbh (Ipd, height (Iph and the variation of height/diameter ratio (S in time; (2 forest canopy cover, indirectly expressed in term of relative irradiance (I.R.. Eight years after the felling, the results highlight that F thinning: (a increases the homogeneity of timber, as the stand volume is concentrated in dominant trees; (b favours tree diameter increment: Ipd values increase significantly according to the thinning intensity; (c reduces tree height increment (lower values of Iph were recorded in the F plots; (d promotes stand stability: lower value of S are highlighted in F plots, and no significant increase of this parameter in time has been recorded. As regards canopy cover, a significant negative correlation was recorded between stand basal area after the thinning and I.R. at ground level. After harvesting, a significant difference in terms of average I.R. between thinning intensities (F, d and Co was also recorded: nowadays, significant differences of average I.R. are observed between Co and d, whereas F shows intermediate values: the canopy gap originated from the felling has been quickly filled. Our results highlight the growth potential of Black European pine in the studied area; however, only heavy thinning shows interesting results in terms of both tree growth and stand stability.

  18. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  19. Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Zethner, Gehard; Spiegel, Heide; Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Xaver Hölzl, Franz; Preinstorfer, Claudia; Haslmayr, Hans Peter; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils. The project funded by the Klima- und Energiefonds, Austrian Climate Research Programme, 4th call Authors: Katrin Sedy, Alexandra Freudenschuss, Gerhard Zethner (Environment Agency Austria), Heide Spiegel (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety), Uwe Franko, Ralf Gründling (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research) Climate change will affect plant productivity due to weather extremes. However, adverse effects could be diminished and satisfying production levels may be maintained with proper soil conditions. To sustain and optimize the potential of agricultural land for plant productivity it will be necessary to focus on preserving and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is strongly influenced by management practice. The present management is affected by management practices that tend to speed up carbon loss. Crop rotation, soil cultivation and the management of crop residues are very important measures to influence carbon dynamics and soil fertility. For the future it will be crucial to focus on practical measures to optimize SOC and to improve soil structure. To predict SOC turnover the existing humus balance model the application of the "Carbon Candy Balance" was verified by results from Austrian long term field experiments and field data of selected farms. Thus the main aim of the project is to generate a carbon balancing tool box that can be applied in different agricultural production regions to assess humus dynamics due to agricultural management practices. The toolbox will allow the selection of specific regional input parameters for calculating the C-balance at field level. However farmers or other interested user can also apply their own field data to receive the result of C-dynamics under certain management practises within the next 100 years. At regional level the impact of predefined changes in agricultural management

  20. The Austrian Approach: Entering the World of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Patricia; Balcerack, Carl

    1979-01-01

    This photo-essay describes a Waldorf School. Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner, the Waldorf plan is dedicated to allowing the child a childlike environment. It emphasizes storytelling, creative dramatics, flexibility, improvisation, crafts, and movement. (SJL)

  1. Capital Market-Oriented Financing Prospects for Austrian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Halling; Josef Zechner

    2005-01-01

    The performance and growth of the Austrian economy largely depend on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Despite their diminutive size, SMEs offer attractive investment opportunities that are, however, financed primarily by debt for a variety of reasons. The financing concept presented in this study adopts an innovative approach to provide access to quasi-equity forms of financing to Austrian SMEs, which have successfully and responsibly generated business in recent years and which cur...

  2. Publications of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 3000 publications, written by staff members of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (OEFZS) within the period 1976-1985 are cited. The bibliography includes citations of journal articles, proceedings, books, technical reports as well as dissertations and diploma works, carried out in Seibersdorf by students of Austrian universities. It covers the subject areas of chemistry, physics, biology, radiation protection, reactor safety, isotope applications, materials technology, environmental research, mathematics and information, electronics and agriculture. 10 refs. (Author)

  3. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Jandl; Stefan Smidt; Franz Mutsch; Alfred Fürst; Harald Zechmeister; Heidi Bauer; Thomas Dirnböck

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and...

  4. The Meaning of Market : Comparing Austrian and Institutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dulbecco, Philippe; DUTRAIVE

    1997-01-01

    Our contribution aims at revealing the terms of a confrontation between Austrian and Institutional schools concerning the nature and the role of markets. Such an approach is justified by, on the one hand, the characteristics shared by both theoretical traditions, and on the other by the existence of complementarity, which founds a representation of market mechanisms in terms of process. The point is that if the economic analysis of institutions constitutes an essential link in the Austrian pr...

  5. PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlemann, Carsten; Seifert, Bernhard; Kohl, Dominik; Birschitzky, David; Gury, Lionel; Kerschbaum, Franz; Obertscheider, Christof; Ottensamer, Roland; Reissner, Alexander; Riel, Thomas; Sypniewski, Richard; Taraba, Michael; Trausmuth, Robert; Turetschek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50 C. Scharlemann* David Birschitzky* Lionel Gury*, Franz Kerschbaum~, Dominik Kohl#, Christof Obertscheider*, Roland Ottensamer~, Alexander Reissner+, Thomas Riel#, B. Seifert+, Richard Sypniewski*, Michael Taraba?, Robert Trausmuth*, Thomas Turetschek?, …. (*)University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+)FOTEC GmbH, Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+) Spaceteam, TU Wien, Austria (~) University Wien, Wien, Austria The QB50 project is an international project with the goal to send up to 50 Nanosatellites, a.k.a. CubeSat, into the Thermosphere. The scientific goal of this mission is to monitor over a period of up to nine months the prevailing conditions in this rather unknown part of Earth's atmosphere. Each of the 50 nanosatellites will be equipped with one of three possible scientific instruments: (i) a set of Langmuir probes, (ii) atomic oxygen measurement device, (iii) ion/neutral mass spectrometer. All satellites will be launched together and released in a string-of-pearls type fashion. It is predicted that the satellites will drift apart rather rapidly following the release. Therefore, the QB50 missions offers the possibility of a measurement grid in the thermosphere of unprecedented scope and accuracy. One of the satellites, named PEGASUS, is designed and build by a team of Austrian researches and students. PEGASUS will be equipped with the aforementioned Langmuir probes and will provide information about essential properties of the plasma in the thermosphere such as the electrontemperature and -density. In order to ensure the capability to collect and downlink the data over several months, PEGASUS requires about the same types of subsystems as one would find on large-scale satellites. This includes an attitude control system, an on-board computer, telecommunication devices, an electrical power systems allowing to harvest the solar power and either distribute or store it for later use, a thermal control system

  6. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Did Iceland go through an Austrian Business Cycle?

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnar Haukur Ragnarsson 1978

    2012-01-01

    The question this research tries to answer is if an artificial credit expansion caused the Icelandic economy to go into an Austrian style business cycle in the first decade of this century. To answer that question data from the Statistic of Iceland and the Central Bank of Iceland will be studied. The period that will be looked at is the years from 2001 until 2010. The framework that is used is taken from Jesús Huerta de Soto´s book “Money, Bank Credit, and Economic Cycles”, in that book d...

  7. Den uovervindelige pine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2016-01-01

    Kroniske smerter, som skyldes skader på nervebanerne, rammer hyppigt diabetikere og kræftpatienter. Nyudnævnt professor vil opklare, hvorfor pinen rammer nogle, men ikke andre med samme pine.......Kroniske smerter, som skyldes skader på nervebanerne, rammer hyppigt diabetikere og kræftpatienter. Nyudnævnt professor vil opklare, hvorfor pinen rammer nogle, men ikke andre med samme pine....

  8. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  9. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226Ra and 228Ra levels. (author)

  10. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity.

  11. Assessment of sustainability in Austrian wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Franz Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to find out whether environmental sustainability can be measured not only with regard to climate change and carbon consumption but also as to other criteria concerning material consumption, energy, soil, biodiversity and water. We investigated which measures in the vineyard and wine cellar can lead to “better” sustainability while ensuring a high quality standard. 343 activities were identified to fulfill 61 quality objectives. Of the 2,191 sustainability assessments that were determined the measurements of the individual sustainability criteria vary and are in some cases even negatively correlated. Nevertheless, it was still possible to differentiate sustainably managed wineries from others in all of the Austrian wine producing areas. In our approach, a specifically developed online tool can calculate the expression of ecological, economic and social sustainability and show the effects in a spider diagram in the form of a traffic light rating system. Moreover, an algorithm suggests adequately which quality improvements can be achieved. If part of the management system is changed the online tool will show the positive and negative sustainability effects.

  12. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  13. Pine nut allergy in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falliers, C J

    1989-03-01

    Anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions following the ingestion of pine--or pinon--nuts are documented and reviewed in perspective. Systemic allergic reactions to other relatively uncommon or "exotic" foods are also considered. Although hypersensitivity to more than one type of "nuts" is reported by some individuals, no significant cross-reactivity between any of these, or between pine pollen, pine resin, and pine nuts has been demonstrated.

  14. Effects of Afforestation with Pines on Collembola Diversity in the Limestone hills of Szárhalom (West Hungary)

    OpenAIRE

    TÓTH, Viktória; WINKLER, Dániel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the responses of collembolan communities to pine afforestation in an area formerly characterized by a mosaic of autochthonous downy oak woodland and steppe meadows. Study sites were selected in mixed stands of black pine and Scots pine and control samples were taken from downy oak stands and open steppe meadows. A total of 1884 Collembola specimens belonging to 66 species were collected. Three species, namely Protaphorura pannonica (Onychiuridae), Tomocerus mixtus (Tomoceridae...

  15. Austrian Books Online. Das Google Books-Projekt an der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Max

    2012-01-01

    Austrian Books Online. The Austrian National Library’s Google Books Project (Translation of the title). In cooperation with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical, public-domain book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised. The project "Austrian Books Online" demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provid...

  16. The Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Validity and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the Austrian business cycle theory is analyzed. Based on the work of Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (1959[1889]), Knut Wicksell (1962[1898]) and Ludwig von Mises (1953[1912]), the theory was further developed and made famous by Friedrich von Hayek in the 1930s. Arguably, Hayek was the main rival of Keynes during this decade, but after heavy criticism and the publication of the General Theory (Keynes, 1936), the Austrian business cycle theory was left with few advocates by the end of Wor...

  17. THE HUNGARIAN CRISIS: AN AUSTRIAN SCHOOL EXPLANATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Toth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian model was heralded as one of the most successful post-socialist way of integration into the globalised world economy and European economic area in the nineties. Currently, Hungary is suffering from a full-blown crisis 1996 onwards. Increasingly large number of Hungarians is losing their faith in political parties, institutions, democracy and in market economy. The government, elected in 2010 by supermajority and still enjoying a broad support despite the deepening recession, condemns the development path taken after 1989 and openly rejects the wrong model of the last 20 years. The government intends to build a new economic model following a model, which one can call a model of economic nationalism as the only way out of the crisis. The paper intends to portray, through the case of Hungary, how economy and politics is interconnected, and why political elites are choosing a credit fuelled development path. The paper intends to portray how a credit fuelled growth was induced by politics and ended up in tears. Moreover, the paper describes the consequences of pro-etatist shift in the public sentiment due to the alleged “market-failure”, which was in reality a crisis, at first place, created for political purposes by political means. This article, based on the Austrian business cycle theory, argues that the tragedy of Hungary was that it went through a government inspired spending binge in the first half of the 2000s. The deficit spending of the government was accompanied by the expansion of credit by the commercial banks, mostly denominated in Swiss francs. The combined effect of deficit spending and credit expansion was the build-up of debt and loss of cost competitiveness. The 2008 crisis ended the credit fuelled development path and has started the long and painful period of deleveraging crisis. On the other hand, the Hungarian crisis is a post-Keynesian crisis. It had broken out when the state was already heavily indebted and

  18. 48. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and posters of the 48th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Graz (Austria) in 1998. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  19. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures of the 45th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  20. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jandl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and nitrogen contents of Norway spruce needles and mosses were used to assess the nitrogen supply. The pH values of soils have increased because of decreasing proton depositions caused by reduction of emissions. The C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils is widening. Despite high nitrogen deposition rates the increase in forest stand density and productivity has increased the nitrogen demand. The Austrian Bioindicator Grid shows that forest ecosystems are still deficient in nitrogen. Soils retain nitrogen efficiently, and nitrate leaching into the groundwater is presently not a large-scale problem. The decline of soil acidity and the deposition of nitrogen together with climate change effects will further increase the productivity of the forests until a limiting factor such as water scarcity becomes effective.

  1. 47. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 47. symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Vienna (Austria) in 1997. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  2. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export should be…

  3. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  4. 49. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and poster sessions of the 49th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which has been held at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) in 1999. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  5. Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  6. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  7. Two centuries of the Austrian Civil code (1811-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Austrian civil code (Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch - ABGB, ACC succeeded in resisting the challenges of time for two centuries. A number of factors influenced it's longevity. First of all, prior to adoption of the law, a long lasting and well designed work, which has been described in greater detail in this article, was done. The Code was written gradually, with lots of recalculations, checks and public debates. In legal literature, it is often written about a unique lawmaking experiment, which Austrian authorities made by implementing the Code in one part of the state territory. The Code was written for feudal order, but according to principles of natural law. This second thing has, in addition to widely formulated and flexible legal norms, left enough space for extensive interpretation of outdated rules, and filling in the legal lacunas, whose number was increasing as the time passed. Courts often used this opportunity in a creative manner, contributing to survival of the Code. Many additions and changes were made to the Code, but there were few of those who thought that it should be changed by a new one Code. Austrians are preparing a more detailed revision of the ACC, which will allow modernization of the national law and it's synchronization with trends in current European law, but on the other hand, to preserve the two century old legal heritage. The second part of this article is dedicated to the influence of the Austrian Civil Code on the development of civil law in the former Yugoslavia and Serbia. ACC served as model for adoption of the Serbian Civil Code of 1844. It was applied as a positive law in the first half of XX century, in one part of the territory of today's Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Formally, legal rules of the Austrian Civil Code can even be applied today, according to the Law on Nullity of Legal Regulations Enacted Prior to 6th of April 1941, and During the Enemy Occupation. However, that possibility is more

  8. 57. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Conference programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This annual symposium was devoted to present advances in physics research performed in Austrian scientific organizations. It covered a variety of physical topics as well as the 'symposium on carbon nanophysics'. The contributions were speeches and poster sessions on the research fields of acoustics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasma; solid state physics; polymer physics; physics history; nuclear and particle physics; medical, bio- and environmental physics; neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics; and surfaces and thin films. Specific topics such as the application of accelerator mass spectrometry, age dating, ATLAS experiment, electron detachment, electronic structure calculation, nanostructures, international linear collider, isobar suppression, magnetic field analysis, neutron interferometry, neutron experiments, neutron sources, nTOF project results, pionic atoms, quantum simulation, quantum well, quantum dots, quantum entanglement, quark confinement, quark gluon, quantum optics, silicon detectors, string theory development, synchrotron radiation, Austria UV indexing, Austrian radon potential, UV dosimetry were addressed. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  9. Some specific Austrian insights on markets and the "new economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Richard; Festré, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    In section 1 of this contribution, we will recall the usual arguments which are put forward to analyze the New Economy (NE) as the empirical realization of the Competitive Economic Equilibrium (CEE) model. After having stressed the limits of these arguments, we will try to show that some Austrian concepts and developments better fit to explain the economic impact of Information Technologies on present markets. This purpose is characterized in section 2 of this contribution. Finally, in sectio...

  10. Austrian Economics, Evolutionary Psychology and Methodological Dualism: Subjectivism Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2004-01-01

    The methodological individualism and subjectivism of the Austrian tradition in economics is often associated with a methodological dualism, i.e. the claim that the nature of its subject matter, namely purposeful and intentional human action, requires economics to adopt a methodology that is fundamentally different from the causal explanatory approach of the natural sciences. This paper critically examines this claim and advocates an alternative, explicitly naturalistic and empiricist outlook ...

  11. Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Open Access Compliance Monitoring 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kunzmann, Martina; Reimann, Ralph; Rieck, Katharina; Reckling, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Since 2008 the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Austria's central funding organisation for basic research, requires from and supports all project leaders and project staff members to make their peer-reviewed research results freely available through the Internet. All principal investigators of FWF funded projects are obliged to submit a final report three months after the project is finished. The average duration of an FWF funded project from the beginning to the delivery of the final pro...

  12. Austrian meat: Authenticity control by stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The EU has declared that all foodstuff must be able to be traced back from 'fork to farm' to increase the safety of food and the confidence of the consumers in food quality and safety. Additionally, several incidents of 'food diseases and scandals' related with meat (e.g.: BSE, foot and mouth disease, antibiotics abuse, avian flu, etc.) have demonstrated the necessity to trace back the origin of meat, to be able to locate sources of infection/mismanagement. Besides the conventional method of the control of documentation there is the possibility of control of origin by analysing the isotopic composition of meat and herewith controlling the questioned good itself. Stable isotope ratios of the elements HCNOS are varying geographically due to different environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, geology, soil, altitude, geography, etc.) thus every region possesses an individual pattern. The isotopic pattern is imprinted on plants and animals growing in a certain region, and therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can allow the identification of agricultural goods from different regions. For the control of origin of Austrian meat about 500 beef and 500 pork samples have been collected from slaughterhouses and were analysed for the isotopic composition of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur and compared with the isotopic composition of meat samples from neighbouring countries. As Austria, despite being a small country, is very heterogeneous in its environmental conditions, thus there are significant differences in the isotopic patterns of individual Austrian provinces. The isotopic signature of meat samples from neighbouring countries can overlap with the 'Austrian isotope pattern' due to similar environmental conditions. However, a correct statistical classification has been achieved for 80% and 84% of the analysed beef and pork samples, respectively. If the declared origin of meat can be pinned down to an Austrian province, the discrimination power of

  13. THE AUSTRIAN SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND MARKET INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Peptine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Market equilibrium is an illusion. The economic reality shows us that the main characteristic of the markets is the state of instability. The complexity of the phenomenon and the strong implications engendered by the economic fluctuations in the macro system, justify the rich scientific research activity of the main schools of economic thought to explain it. The Austrian school of economic thought has one of the most realistic analyses of the factors who generate the market instability.

  14. Austrian Economics - The Ultimate Achievement of an Intellectual Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Salin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture delivered November 2008 on the occasion of the presentation of the Mises Institute’s Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize for lifetime achievement in the cause of liberty, Professor Salin discusses his discovery of Austrian economics and his involvement in “the world of individual liberty,” and draws various lessons from his intellectual journey. The coherence of Austrian economics appealed to Salin—it is not a patchwork of partial theories, but a logical process of thought founded on realistic assumptions about individual action. Salin also discusses differences between the Chicago and Austrian approaches, and his views about monetary systems.The financial crisis beginning in late 2008 is not a crisis of capitalism, but of state intervention, caused by the expansionary monetary policy of the Fed. Capitalism is the solution, not the cause. There is no need to create money. There is never any balance of payments problem. What is required is tax systems more friendly to capital accumulation, a decrease in the role of the state, the end of monetary policy and, if possible, the disappearing of central banks and the IMF.

  15. The emergence, development and demilitarization of the military border of the Austrian Monarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Kulauzov Maša

    2008-01-01

    Military border of the Austrian Monarchy was formed gradually in border areas for the purpose of defending the border from Turkish invasions. In time, as the international political circumstances have changed, the Border itself also modified its primary function. From the beginning of the 18th century soldiers of the Military Border together with the regular troops of Austrian army participate in all wars in which Austria took part. Thanks to those soldiers the military force of the Austrian ...

  16. A Contribution to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Uncertainty and Price Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Frömmel, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Common critique of the Austrian business cycle theory states that the Austrian cycle could not be initiated under the rational expectations hypothesis. This thesis therefore investigates the role of price expectations of entrepreneurs in the Austrian cycle theory. We conclude that this theory might be compatible with rational expectations only under several assumptions. The rational expectations hypothesis is, however, evaluated rather critically concluding it is quite strong and unrealistic ...

  17. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  18. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schelhas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources.

  19. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanner, R M; Connor, K F

    2001-04-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senescence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To test a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statistically significant age-related changes in tracheid diameter, or in several other parameters of xylem and phloem related to cambial function. The hypothesis of continuously declining annual shoot growth increments was tested by comparing trees of varying ages in regard to stem unit production and elongation. No statistically significant age-related differences were found. The hypothesis that aging results from an accumulation of deleterious mutations was addressed by comparing pollen viability, seed weight, seed germinability, seedling biomass accumulation, and frequency of putative mutations, in trees of varying ages. None of these parameters had a statistically significant relationship to tree age. Thus, we found no evidence of mutational aging. It appears that the great longevity attained by some Great Basin bristlecone pines is unaccompanied by deterioration of meristem function in embryos, seedlings, or mature trees, an intuitively necessary manifestation of senescence. We conclude that the concept of senescence does not apply to these trees. PMID:11295507

  20. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...

  1. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  2. Religion and suicide risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

  3. Treatment of liquid wastes at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a review of the different categories, ammounts, types and sources of liquid wastes, arising at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, the collection and distribution of these wastes are described. The treatment of these effluents in the categories Cooling Water, Faeces, Inactive Line, Active Line and Alpha Line is shown in several examples. Special attention is given on the treatment of wastes containing organic liquids. A review of the release rates shows the efficiency of the treatment system. A short view on future installations closes the paper. (author)

  4. Austrian diplomacy in a changing global and European context: Between innovation, adaptation and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after Austria joining the EU, this contribution investigates how Austrian diplomacy has been adjusting to the changing European demands and opportunities next to global and domestic pressures for adaptation. Austrian diplomatic adaptation has predominantly been reactive. EU membership a

  5. Regional Networks in Education: A Case Study of an Austrian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents the development of networks in education, using the Austrian IMST (Innovations Make Schools Top) project as illustration. The regional networks are coordinated in every Austrian federal province by groups made up of teachers, representatives of the educational authorities, and members of academia. In the framework of the…

  6. First annual report of the Austrian CML registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Wolf, Dominik; Thaler, Josef; Burgstaller, Sonja; Linkesch, Wolfgang; Petzer, Andreas; Fridrik, Michael; Lang, Alois; Agis, Hermine; Valent, Peter; Krieger, Otto; Walder, Alois; Korger, Markus; Schlögl, Ernst; Sliwa, Tamer; Wöll, Ernst; Mitterer, Manfred; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Pober, Michael; Gastl, Günther

    2010-10-01

    The Austrian chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) registry monitors individual disease courses, treatments applied, clinical outcome, and side effects of CML patients on a nationwide basis to provide data on the "real-life" situation and to complement the information and interpretation gained from the selected patient population observed in clinical trials. This report summarizes the Austrian CML registry data as of March 2009. A total of 179 patients have been registered with a median number of 1012 follow-up visits and median observation duration of 20 months. At diagnosis most patients (n = 163) were in chronic phase (early, late, and secondary), whereas only 4 were in advanced phase. A total of 137 patients were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), of which 14 received first and second generation TKIs sequentially. Other treatment modalities included chemotherapy or interferon and stem cell transplantation (SCT). Cumulative incidence rates for complete hematological responses (CHR) were 91.6% and 94.4% at 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared to cumulative incidence rates of complete cytogenetical response rates of 64% and 80% at these timepoints. A total of 5 patients progressed from chronic phase to accelerated (n = 3) and blastic phase (n = 2) while receiving imatinib standard dose. Estimated overall survival (OS) rate at 60 months was 90% and progression free survival (PFS) according to European Leukemia Net (ELN) failure definition was 58%. PMID:20936366

  7. 69 The Multicultural Education in Bucovina during the Austrian Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1775, the territory of Bucovina became part of the Habsburg monarchy and it stayed like that for 143 years. All throughout this period when the Romanians lived here next to Ukrainians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities, the Austrian government took into consideration their need for culture, which resulted in the development of a multicultural teaching system. This implied that the languages of teaching in the Bukovinian schools were: Latin, Greek, Romanian, Ukrainian and, more often than not, German. Although the weighty presence of the German language in the academic institutions limited the number of young Romanians in schools, the teaching in German enabled the access of the Bukovinian students to the great European universities from Vienna, Salzburg, Lemberg, Kraków or Prague, before the founding of the Chernivtsi University (1875. Thus, beyond the negative aspects of the separation of this territory from Romania, the Austrian occupation represented an effervescent period from a cultural viewpoint, which lent a specific identity to the teaching system in Bukovina.

  8. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided (147Pm, 204Tl and 90Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137Cs and 60Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  9. 4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

  10. Allergic Reactions to Pine Nut: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, B; Novak, N

    2015-01-01

    Pine nut is a nutrient-rich food with a beneficial impact on human health. The many bioactive constituents of pine nut interact synergistically to affect human physiology in a favorable way. However, pine nut can trigger dangerous allergic reactions. Severe anaphylactic reactions to pine nut accounted for most of the 45 cases reported in the scientific literature. Pine nut allergy seems to be characterized by low IgE cross-reactivity with other commonly consumed nuts and a high monosensitization rate. The present review provides updated information on allergic reactions to pine nut, molecular characterization of its allergens, and potential homologies with other nut allergens.

  11. Traits of Masson Pine Affecting Attack of Pine Wood Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shi; You-Qing Luo; Ji-Ying Song; Hai-Wei Wu; Lei Wang; Gary Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Masson pine characteristics were analyzed in five sample plots in Zhejiang Province, China.Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacked Masson pines in the lower diameter classes.Among the 10 tree characteristics examined, mean crown width, percentage of bole with crown, 5-year cumulative diameter growth, and resin amount showed significant variation between successfully attacked and unattacked trees.The attacked trees had a lower percentage of the bole covered with tree crown, lower crown width, lower radial growth in the last 5 years, and produced less induced resinosis than unattacked trees.Results allowed for effective ranking of the pine forest based on individual tree resistance to PWN.This Index of resistance should be considered throughout the development of an "Evaluation Criterion and Indicator System".The preceding ranking can be used to evaluate the resistance and resiliency of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN's invasion, which is similar to Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).

  12. Species determination of pine nuts in commercial samples causing pine nut syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Aase Æ.; Jessen, Flemming; Ballin, Nicolai Z.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii has been reported to cause dysgeusia, commonly known as pine mouth, or pine nut syndrome (PNS). However, the number of reports on pine nut consumptions of the different species and PNS is limited. This leaves open the possibility...

  13. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  14. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  15. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  16. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Part 1: Course of an Infectation

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Walter E; Amman, Gene D

    1980-01-01

    Much of this work is original research by the authors. However, published literature on the mountain pine beetle is reviewed with particular reference to epidemic infestations in lodgepole pine forests. The mountain pine beetle and lodgepole pine have evolved into an intensive and highly compatible relationship. Consequently, stand dynamics of lodgepole pine is a primary factor in the development of beetle epidemics. the diameter-growth relationship and the effects of environmental factors on...

  17. A fractal comparison of real and Austrian business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2010-06-01

    Rescaled range and power spectral density analysis are applied to examine a diverse set of macromonetary data for fractal character and stochastic dependence. Fractal statistics are used to evaluate two competing models of the business cycle, Austrian business cycle theory and real business cycle theory. Strong evidence is found for antipersistent stochastic dependence in transactions money (M1) and components of the monetary aggregates most directly concerned with transactions, which suggests an activist monetary policy. Savings assets exhibit persistent long memory, as do those monetary aggregates which include savings assets, such as savings money (M2), M2 minus small time deposits, and money of zero maturity (MZM). Virtually all measures of economic activity display antipersistence, and this finding is invariant to whether the measures are adjusted for inflation, including real gross domestic product, real consumption expenditures, real fixed private investment, and labor productivity. This strongly disconfirms real business cycle theory.

  18. 51. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 51th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 17-21 September 2001 at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria). The topics covered deal with: energy (greenhouse effect, climatic change, environment protection, energy system transformation, innovative energy technologies), neutrons and synchrotron radiation, quantum mechanics, microscopy, accelerator-driven systems, physics aspects of radiotherapy, nano world, micro cosmos, modern physics, life in the universe, x-ray fluorescence, heavy-ion accelerator mass spectrometry, acoustics, atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics, solid-state physics, nuclear and particle physics, medical-, bio-and environmental physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  19. 1993 energy report and energy concept of the Austrian government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''1993 Energy Report'' and the ''1993 Energy Concept'' were drawn up by the Federal Minister of Economics and published by the Austrian government. Earlier reports were published in 1986 and 1990. The 1990 energy report covered the period of 1970 through 1988, the new update the years 1989 through 1991. The section on useful energy is supplemented by a coloured representation of the 1990 energy flow chart for Austria. Appendices 1 to 3 present the development of the energy economy in 1992, the publication ''Development and situation of energy research in Austria'', which was compiled in May 1993 by the Federal Minister of Science and Research, and the ''Reports on the decision of the National Council of 19 January 1993. (orig.)

  20. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  1. The Herschel space telescope and the Austrian participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The biggest space telescope ever, Herschel was successfully launched on May 14, 2009. ESA's Space Horizon 2000 cornerstone mission will perform imaging photometry and spectroscopy in the 60-670 micron range and will address astrophysical questions ranging from our planetary system, the galaxy, the local universe out to cosmological distances. The Austrian participation in one of Herschels instruments, namely PACS is lead by the Institute for Astronomy at the University Vienna and carried out in collaboration with partners at the Technical University, Vienna and Joanneum Research, Graz in the framework of an European consortium. Both the technical contributions in the field of the on-board data reduction and compression as well as the scientific projects in the fields of late stages of stellar evolution and astro-mineralogy are outlined in the contribution. First prospective space based data sets will be available in the late August 2009 timeframe well timed for the conference. (author)

  2. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  3. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.

  4. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintner, J; Smidt, E; Böhm, K; Binner, E

    2010-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment. PMID:20580543

  5. Flood Change Assessment and Attribution in Austrian alpine Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claps, Pierluigi; Allamano, Paola; Como, Anastasia; Viglione, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of flood peaks to global warming in the Austrian alpine basins. A group of 97 Austrian watersheds, with areas ranging from 14 to 6000 km2 and with average elevation ranging from 1000 to 2900 m a.s.l. have been considered. Annual maximum floods are available for the basins from 1890 to 2007 with two densities of observation. In a first period, until 1950, an average of 42 records of flood peaks are available. From 1951 to 2007 the density of observation increases to an average amount of contemporary peaks of 85. This information is very important with reference to the statistical tools used for the empirical assessment of change over time, that is linear quantile regressions. Application of this tool to the data set unveils trends in extreme events, confirmed by statistical testing, for the 0.75 and 0.95 empirical quantiles. All applications are made with specific (discharges/area) values . Similarly of what done in a previous approach, multiple quantile regressions have also been applied, confirming the presence of trends even when the possible interference of the specific discharge and morphoclimatic parameters (i.e. mean elevation and catchment area). Application of a geomorphoclimatic model by Allamano et al (2009) can allow to mimic to which extent the empirically available increase in air temperature and annual rainfall can justify the attribution of change derived by the empirical statistical tools. An comparison with data from Swiss alpine basins treated in a previous paper is finally undertaken.

  6. Reflection on plant cover of climate change: Decline Anatolian black pines on district between Afsin-Goksun (Kahramanmaras, Turkeyİklim değişikliğinin bitki örtüsüne yansımasına bir örnek: Göksun-Afşin arası (Kahramanmaraş sahadaki Karaçam kurumaları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Duran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine decline Anatolian black pines [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe] on Tuluce hill district between Afsin-Goksun region in Kahramanmaras province. As a result of the Ecological (climate, soil, air pollution and Biological (insect, fungus, parasite plant etc. researches; other factors the exception of drought have no priority affection on black pine deaths. As on Turkey, drought conditions have dominated on the region after the year 1994. These changes have been occurred by constantly deaths in community of black pines on the south-facing slope (between the years 2000-2009. Increasing temperature and evaporation, decreasing relative humidity and rainfall-runoff is clearly for the region. In addition, there were not air pollution and infected primer insect-fungus damage. This also strengthens the impact of drought.Identified areas of tree deaths in recent years are generally near the inner regions (the steppe areas. Climate change and drought must be an indication of pushing towards more humid areas of black pine forests which is able to approaching much more onto the steppes of inner Anatolian.ÖzetBu çalışmada, Kahramanmaraş ili Göksun-Afşin ilçeleri arasında kalan Tülüce tepe mevkisindeki Anadolu karaçamı [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe] kurumalarının sebepleri araştırılmıştır. Ekolojik (iklim, toprak, hava kirliliği vd. ve biyotik (böcek, mantar, parazit bitki vd. incelemeler sonunda, kuraklık dışındaki diğer unsurların kurumalar üzerinde önemli ve öncelikli bir etkisi görülmemiştir. Türkiye genelinde olduğu gibi, 1994 yılı sonrası bölgede de kurak koşullar egemen olmuştur. Bu nedenle (2000–2009 yılları arası, güney bakılı yamaçta gruplar halinde karaçam kurumaları yaşanmıştır. İncelenen iklimsel parametrelerden sıcaklık ve buharlaşmada artma, bağıl nem ve yağış-akışta azalma belirgindir. Bunun

  7. From retreating to resisting How Austrian-Turkish women deal with experiences of racism

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Hametner

    2014-01-01

    Recent European integration discourses are increasingly structured by neo-racist topoi based on orientalist markers of difference. In the Austrian debate, people of Turkish origin are particularly affected by such ascriptions. They are marked as a group not willing to integrate and culturally not fitting into Austrian society. In this discursive conglomerate, women are identified as oppressed victims, lacking education and being in need of help. Using the biographical narratives of young Aust...

  8. On nonneutral relative price effects in monetarist thought : some Austrian misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Humphrey

    1984-01-01

    The rise in the rate of inflation during the 1970s was paralleled by a rise in interest in monetarism, which offered the means for controlling inflation. Despite the increased interest, monetarism is still often misunderstood, as Thomas M. Humphrey points out in “On Nonneutral Relative Price Effects in Monetarist Thought: Some Austrian Misconceptions.” Economists of the Austrian school have portrayed monetarism as oblivious to the effects of monetary disturbances on the real economy of output...

  9. Direct investment strategies of Austrian companies in Romania.A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arjoca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Austrian companies present in Romania have learned their lessons after the subprime crisis started in year 2008 and although operating in various industrial areas and therefore being differently affected by the crisis, they have followed rather a similar strategy. Despite the unfavourable economic circumstances in Romania, all Austrian investors still recognise the country’s potential and have started consolidating their position on the market.

  10. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.……

  11. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.

  12. Assessing the Relevance of Austrian Investment Companies and Mutual Funds for Financial Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Kavan; Günther Sedlacek; Reinhardt Seliger; Eva Ubl

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the role Austrian investment companies and the mutual funds managed by them play in the context of financial stability. At the end of the third quarter 2009, the 30 Austrian investment companies (of which 5 manage real estate funds) had invested around EUR 114 billion in the market. Given the repercussions arising from interlocks between investment companies and other financial intermediaries (such as credit institutions, insurance companies, pension funds and severance fu...

  13. Anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Roncarolo, D; Dama, A; Mistrello, G

    2000-01-01

    Despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of Pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. We present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific IgE antibodies. In order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was IgE mediated, specific IgE against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and RAST. Immunoblotting and immunoblotting-inhibition were used to evaluate the allergenic components of both extracts and their cross-reactivity. Prick by prick with fresh pine nuts and RAST with pine nut and pine pollen extracts showed that the patient had high levels of specific IgE against both extracts. Immunoblotting experiments showed the presence in serum of IgE antibodies against several components in pine nuts and pollen. Immunoblotting-inhibition experiments demonstrated the presence of some cross-reacting components. These data confirm the existence of food allergy induced by pine nuts. This sensitization to pine nuts developed with no symptoms of pine pollinosis. Development of pollinosis may require a longer time of exposure to allergens. Based on the cross-reactivity between pine nut and pine pollen extracts, cosensitization to these two allergens could be possible.

  14. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  15. [Recommendations of the Austrian Society of Rheumatology/Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound for the application of ultrasound in rheumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duftner, Christina; Dejaco, Christian; Kainberger, Franz; Machold, Klaus; Mandl, Peter; Nothnagl, Thomas; DeZordo, Tobias; Husic, Rusmir; Schüller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Schirmer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    It is the current goal in rheumatology to diagnose and treat inflammatory rheumatic diseases early in order to avoid structural damage. Functional imaging methods such as musculoskeletal sonography are increasingly used to support the clinical diagnosis. To ascertain the quality of ultrasound assessments performed by rheumatologists in Austria, the Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound (ARRIMUS) proposed recommendations for a training curriculum, technical standards for ultrasound equipment, minimum requirements for documentation, indications for sonography and the use of ultrasound for interventions. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Austrian Society of Rheumatology and should aid rheumatologists to perform high quality ultrasound assessment in clinical practice.

  16. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  17. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  18. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profiles and sources in pine needles and particulate matter in Dayton, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashuk, Timothy A.; Truong, Triet M.; Mantha, Madhavi; McGowin, Audrey E.

    2012-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in pine needles (passive sampling) and on high-volume particulate matter (PM) filters (active sampling) over a period of eight to ten months at two separate sites in the Dayton, Ohio, USA metropolitan area: Moraine and Yellow Springs. Total PAH concentrations for PM ranged from 77.4 μg g-1 to 837 μg g-1 (dry wt.) at both sites with high molecular weight PAHs being the predominant form that tended to be higher in concentration during the colder months. Total PAH concentrations for pine needles varied by tree species and location. With an average concentration of 4187 ng g-1, Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) needles in Moraine ranged from 2543 ng g-1to 6111 ng g-1 (dry wt.) with the lowest and highest concentrations occurring in October and August, respectively. The amount of phenanthrene was extremely high for August, 4200 ± 112, which could have resulted from the close proximity of the tree to the parking lot at a firehouse. White pine (Pinus strobus) needles in Yellow Springs had an average concentration of 384 ng g-1and ranged from 127 ng g-1 to 589 ng g-1 (dry wt.) with September and November, respectively, having the lowest and highest PAH concentrations. The 2- and 3-ring PAHs were the predominant form in P. nigra, while the 4-ring PAHs predominated in P. strobus. Total PAH concentrations in P. nigra were an order of magnitude greater than for P. strobus. A bivariate plot of BaA/(BaA + Chry) versus Flt(Flt + Pyr) allowed the PM and pine needle data to be included in the same source analysis and indicated sources of PM at both sites were biomass and/or coal combustion. This plot also suggested PAHs in Yellow Springs P. strobus originated from petroleum combustion sources, whereas PAHs in Moraine P. nigra originated from petroleum combustion with some sources more aged or remote.

  19. Propositions for the Building of a Quantitative Austrian Modelling: An Answer to Prof. Rizzo and to Prof. Vriend

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolphe Buda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we try to promote the building of a Quantitative Austrian Modelling (QAM). QAM must be viewed as a complementary quantitative prolongation of the Austrian methods and as a complementary approach to the already existing quantitative approaches - especially we would like here to answer to the appeal of Prof. N.J.Vriend [61]. As we explain it in the first part, our approach resulted from a critical view of the econometric procedures by Austrian methods and, from a theoretical inst...

  20. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  1. Roadside bear viewing opportunities in Yellowstone National Park: characteristics, trends, and influence of whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Gunther, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Opportunities for viewing grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) from roadways in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have increased in recent years. Unlike the panhandling bears common prior to the 1970s, current viewing usually involves bears feeding on natural foods. We define roadside bear viewing opportunities that cause traffic congestion as ‘‘bear-jams.’’ We investigated characteristics of bear-jams and their frequency relative to whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) cone production, an important fall food for bears, during 1990–2004. We observed a difference in diel distribution of bear-jams between species (x2=70.609, 4 df, Proad corridors may be especially important to some individual bears during years exhibiting poor whitebark pine crops. We discuss management implications of threats to whitebark pine and increasing habituation of bears to people.

  2. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  3. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  4. The new Austrian tunnelling method in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierse, D.

    1987-12-03

    The new Austrian tunnelling method (NATM), as a composite support and lining system of bolts, steel mats and shotcrete, prevents the deconsolidation of the strata and activates the self-supporting properties of the strata envelope. By bringing in the strata for support it provides an exceptionally high support resistance, which outdoes steel supports and which is needed at increasing depths with their predictable high rock pressures and with large cross-sections in rooms where the limits of conventional steel arches are exceeded. Even thin shotcrete casing has a high support resistance. Where effects of other workings are present the NATM can be relied upon to have good stability over a long period and to be repair-friendly, as flaking off the casing can be made good by re-bolting and re-spraying. In contrast with the costly changing of entire support arches, partial surfaces can be repaired as required. The NATM is particularly cost-effective in the construction of drainage roads, which have to be lined against aggressive water, shaft porches, branch-offs, large rooms such as workshops, landings, belt drive rooms with internal cross-sections of 25 to 30 m/sup 2/ and shaft widening and traversing with irregular cross-sections. In geologically extremely difficult levels, such as those of the Laura and Zollverein 7/8 seams, the NATM has also been successfully used to construct drainage roads, branch-offs and shaft traverses. 30 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Structures and perspectives of the Austrian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical tools for projecting future energy demand can be grouped into two broad categories: Firstly, time series or cross section data based econometric models which contain information about customers' past behavior and thus enable to judge the causal effects of economic factors like incomes and prices on energy demand (passive forecasting). Secondly, structural simulation models which indicate how energy services transform to flows of useful, final and primary energy. These models enable to estimate the technical potential of improving the energy application and energy transformation systems (active scenario approach). Comparison of the two approaches with respect to projections for future energy demand yields that, typically, in the short run of econometric approach will dominate the structural simulation model. In the long run, however, this relation will be reversed. The econometric models suffer lack of technical information necessary to describe the demand for energy. The structural simulation model enables an incorporation of technical factors like efficiencies and fuel shares. An application of the structural model is a simulation run describing a scenario in order to reduce the Austrian CO2-emissions according to the recommendations of the conference of Toronto

  6. Austrian results from Matroshka poncho and organ dose determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, M.; Bergmann, R.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.

    Cosmic rays in low-earth orbits LEO primarily consist of high-energy charged particles originating from galactic cosmic radiation GCR energetic solar particle events SPE and trapped radiation belts These radiations of high linear energy transfer LET generally inflict greater biological damage than that resulting from typical terrestrial radiation hazards Particle and energy spectra are attenuated in interaction processes within shielding structures and within the human body Reliable assessment of health risks to astronaut crews is pivotal in the design of future expeditions into interplanetary space and requires knowledge of absorbed radiation doses in critical radiosensitive organs and tissues The European Space Agency ESA Matroshka experiment---conducted under the aegis of the German Aerospace Center DLR ---is aimed at simulating an astronaut s body during extravehicular activities EVA Matroshka basically consists of a human phantom torso attached to a base structure and covered with a protective carbon-fibre container acting as a spacesuit model The phantom is divided into 33 tissue-equivalent polyurethane slices of specific density for tissue and organs Natural bones are embedded Channels and cut-outs enable accommodation of active and passive radiation monitors The torso is dressed by a skin-equivalent poncho which is also designed for dosimeter integration The phantom houses in total 7 active and more than 6000 passive radiation sensors Thereof the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities ATI provided more than

  7. France and the Austrian Empire 1815-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between France and the Habsburg Empire during the long nineteenth century went through several phases bounded by the events crucial not just to the two countries' mutual relations but to all of Europe. The Congress of Vienna defined their mutual relations for the next thirty years. The Habsburgs and their omnipresent minister Metternich were fearful of revolutionary and liberal movements traditionally having their origins in France. And it was the revolutionary events of 1848 that brought about a change in the balance of power and their mutual relations. Metternich's retirement and, more importantly, the arrival of the Russian armies in Central Europe and the subsequent strengthening of Prussia, conferred a new importance to the role of the Habsburg Monarchy as a bulwark against the advancement of Russia and a vital counterweight to Prussia. With the defeat of Napoleon III and the creation of Germany with Alsace and Lorraine Franco-Austrian relations entered a new phase. The destiny of the two provinces alienated the Habsburgs from the French Republic, especially after the reorganization of Europe into two confronting blocs. The logic of alliances led to their being adversaries in the world conflict, although Napoleon III's geo-strategic analyses remained present almost to its very end, when Clemenceau's government gave support to the nationality principle thereby crucially contributing to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy.

  8. 52. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 52th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 23.-26. September 2002 at the Montan University of Leoben (Austria). The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (intermetallic materials, nanostructures as sensors, volcanic products as dating materials); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2002 (electronic structure and charge transfer in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes), Max-Auwaerter-price 2002 ( growth phenomena of thin overlayers on semiconductor surfaces), Viktor-Hess-price 2002 (analysis of rare Ke4 - decays), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2002 (experienced physics); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (plasma ion mass spectrometers, proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry, radiation damage, electron-molecule interactions, decay); solid physics (nanoopticcs, nanocrystalline magnetic materials, nanostructure, nanoelectronics); nuclear and particle physics (CP-violations, neutral kaons, quark-antiquark systems, QCD, kaonic atoms spectroscopy, hadronic decay, long-lived radionuclides); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (biological radiation damage, photons therapy, Med-AUSTRON, doses rate, endovascular brachytherapy); physics-industry-energy (ski-simulation, acoustic surface wave); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (neutron quantum interferometry, AUSTRON, synchrotron-induced x-ray analysis); polymer physics(micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray analysis); quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (solid-state lasers, doped lasers, quantum purification and teleportation, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum optics, Talbot-Lau interferometry, neutron quantum phases) and two poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  9. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of arguments about why that is. The author argues that moral education and teaching of Human Rights are important components of, but ought not be the main goal of teaching about the Holocaust. The role of Austria after World War II, and exploration of the so called victim myth, prevalent until the 1990s are important to understanding history and to how history textbooks were created. After a discussion of how the Holocaust can be taught to elementary and early secondary school aged children, some suggestions are made about approaches to teaching the Holocaust to students in these age groups.

  10. Distribution of radiocaesium in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within an Austrian spruce stand, vertical distribution of radiocaesium in soil as well as 137Cs concentration in different forest ecosystem compartments including spruce and surface water were investigated 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. The total 137Cs inventory in the forest was estimated to be 46 kBq m-2 (ref. date: 86-05-01). From the collected data annual input rates via litterfall of 0.48% per year and output rates through waterflows of only 0.02% per year were derived. The results identify the high importance of forest soils as a sink for radiocaesium. The estimated ecological residence half-times turned out to be highest in the organic soil horizons (1-3 years per cm), whereas in mineral horizons the values decrease significantly. As a consequence, soil inventory represents more than 95% of the total, whereas only approximately 3.3% of the 137Cs inventory is stored in the living biomass of spruce trees and a further 0.5% in the phytomass of understorey vegetation

  11. Assessment of radiocaesium behaviour in an Austrian forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring program has been carried out since 1988 in Weinsberger Wald, an Austrian forest stand severely affected by the Chernobyl plume. Analyses of forest soils, understorey vegetation and mushrooms showed that 137Cs values decreased significantly between 1988 and 1993. In ferns, mosses and bilberry sprouts the concentrations did decrease to about 35% of the concentrations measured in 1988, however, seven years after the deposition event, the 137Cs contamination of edible forest products and game browse is still considerable. Derived ecological half-times are the longest in mushrooms (5.8 years), followed by values between 3.1-3.7 years in mosses, ferns and dwarf shrubs. Ecological half-times of 2.1 years were determined in grasses and the shortest values (1.9 years) were found in herbs (Oxalis acetosella). Annual measurements of 137Cs content in soil samples from different layers showed that the 137Cs values decreased in the litter layer, whereas they increased in mineral strata between 1988 and 1993. (author)

  12. Climate Modeling at the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulla, C.; Anders, I.; Auer, I.

    2009-05-01

    In later 2007 the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG) established a group that shall deal with climate change modeling. Two of the group's main goals are to provide climate change scenarios for the assessment of the impact on ecosystems and to reconstruct past climate states along with their change. The former aim is to derive estimates of might happen to our ecosystems under different emission-pathways, whilst the latter goal is to better understand what has caused characteristical changes, which are to be found in proxies. Both aims can be achieved by empirical or dynamical downscaling models, which are ultimately based on the reliability of the driving GCMs results. It is well known that empirical and dynamical downscaling models do have advantages and disadvantages, which are different. As such it appears reasonable to use the approach which is better adapted to the considered question. It may be meaningful to apply empirical downscaling if long periods of time (such as substantial parts of the Holocene) are in the center of attention, whereas dynamical downscaling may be better suited to address questions that are related to decades. Up to now we were more involved with empirical downscaling that helped us to work together with scientists assessing the impact on ecosystems, as for instance, fish in a river (Matulla et al. 2007), forests (Lexer et al. 2002) or phenological phases (Scheifinger et al. 2007). After catching a glimpse of those results, we will turn to dynamical modeling. Here we would like to present findings from case studies, which are related to the more recent past. Our next target is the modelling of possible future climate conditions within the Greater Alpine Region (GAR, see e.g. Auer et al. 2007) as well as some characteristical periods throughout the Holocene as for instance the 8.2k event. This event is to be found in a variety of proxies within and also outside GAR. Auer I., Boehm R., Jurkovic A., Lipa W., Orlik A., Potzmann R., Schoener W

  13. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  14. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  15. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  16. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  17. No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Julian Emanuel Volkmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority The article discusses the question why the German-speakers in Northern Italy’s South Tyrol province are only very rarely referred to as an Austrian minority, in spite of the fact that they were split off from Austria, and not Germany, in the aftermath of World War I. An analysis of the naming of German-speaking South Tyroleans in German, Austrian, Italian and English-speaking news media, which demonstrates a preference for terms such as “German-speaking minority” or “German minority” over “Austrian minority and equivalents, is followed by a discussion of three hypotheses to account for the situation. The author shows how the question of how to name the German-speaking South Tyroleans is closely intertwined with the issue of Austrian national identity and its re-orientation away from Germany in the aftermath of the Second World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the minority is not usually referred to as Austrian both due to the fact that it is difficult to include them in the young (civic Austrian nation in a logically consistent manner, and due to the German-speaking South Tyroleans’ own inconsistent self-identification as Austrians.   Nie ma Austriaków w Tyrolu Południowym? Dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna wspólnota we włoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy (Alto Adige zwykle nie jest nazywana mniejszością austriacką Artykuł podejmuje kwestię, dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna ludność północnowłoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy rzadko bywa nazywana mniejszością austriacką, pomimo tego że w efekcie I wojny światowej odłączona została ona od Austrii, a nie od Niemiec. Analiza nazewnictwa odnoszonego do niemieckojęzycznej ludności Tyrolu Południowego, które występuje w informacyjnych środkach przekazu: niemiecko-, austriacko-, włosko- i angloj

  18. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared to southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.

  19. On the way to an Austrian radon action plan; Auf dem Weg zum oesterreichischen Radonaktionsplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, V.; Ringer, W.; Wurm, G. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit (AGES), Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon; Haider, W. [Bundesministerium fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft (BMLFUW), Wien (Austria). Abt. Strahlenschutz

    2013-07-01

    According to the draft of the new European Basic Safety Standards (EU-BSS) all member states are obliged to develop a national radon action plan, to control the long term risks from radon exposure in dwellings, public buildings and workplaces. The National Radon Centre, embedded in the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), was assigned by the Ministry for Environment (BMLFUW) to develop this Austrian action plan and the strategy behind. This conference contribution discusses where we still have a need for actions and how the new BSS will influence the Austrian radon legislation (reference levels, responsibilities, standards, building law). Currently running and planned projects regarding the radon action plan like developing a national radon data base, definition of radon prone areas by improving the radon map and strategies to increase public radon awareness and involve the building sector are presented. (orig.)

  20. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  1. Phytotoxic evaluation of whole pine tree substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased availability and increased cost of quality substrates are issues facing many horticulture crop producers. Peat moss and pine bark are the most widely used substrate components, yet producers have become more aware of acceptable alternative components. Processed whole pine trees have been i...

  2. Pine nuts: the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbörner, M

    2001-05-01

    The mycobiota of pine nuts was investigated. In total, 1832 fungi belonging to 31 species and 15 genera (Ascomycota, 2; Zygomycota, 3; mitosporic fungi, 10) could be isolated. Cladosporium spp. dominated the mycobiota with 685 isolations followed by Phoma macrostoma with 351 isolations. Overall, 16 potentially mycotoxigenic species were present on pine nuts.

  3. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die. PMID:27066053

  4. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  5. Effect of damaged pine needles on growth and development of pine caterpillar larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lili; LI Zhenyu; LI Hailin; HAN Ruidong; ZHAO Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Chinese pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis)larvae were fed with pine needles of different degrees of damage to evaluate the effects of pine needles on the growth and development of larvae.The results showed that the nutritional index of the larvae declines after feeding on the damaged pine needlings.The lowest amount of food ingested and voided feces,the lowest nutritional index,slowest development,lightest pupae and most mortality were found in those pine caterpillar larvae fed with pine needles which were 50% damaged.The damaged pine needles significantly affected the population dynamics of Chinese pine caterpillars.The nutritional indices of larvae fed with 25% and 75% damaged pine needles were similar.The nutritional index of the dark morphs was higher than that of the tinted morphs,however,their mortality was lower than that of the tinted morphs.This phenomenon was reversed at the later stage of development when the larvae were fed on 50% damaged pine needles.

  6. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  7. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  8. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  9. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem D., E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Baysal, Ergun, E-mail: bergun@mu.edu.tr [Mugla University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Kotekli, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Peker, Huseyin, E-mail: peker100@hotmail.com [Artvin Coruh University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 06100 Artvin (Turkey)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  10. Anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, M Dolores; Lombardero, Manuel; San Ireneo, Mercedes Martinez; Muñoz, M Carmen

    2003-08-01

    Pine nuts are the seeds of Pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.

  11. PCDD/F and PCB levels in Austrian cow's milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanner, G.; Moche, W. [Umweltbundesamt Wien (Austria)

    2004-09-15

    In 2003 the Federal Environment Agency carried out a first Austrian wide milk monitoring study with the objective to get an overview of average PCDD/F levels in cow's milk, additionally dioxinlike PCBs, according to WHO, and indicator PCBs, as listed by national regulations, were analysed.

  12. Minority Schools in the South Tyrol and in the Austrian Burgenland: A Comparison of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings from an empirical study comparing the status of the German minority in the Italian South Tyrol and the Croatian minority in the Austrian Burgenland. The article analyzes observations of actual language use in schools and compares school authorities, curricula, and employment opportunities of the two minorities. (SED)

  13. Monitoring Language Skills in Austrian Primary (Elementary) Schools: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangl, Renate

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of how language skills in young learners have been assessed in two primary school contexts, carried out in a total of seven Austrian primary schools. The schools took part in an initiative where the integration of a foreign language was introduced when children entered primary school at the age of six. (Author/VWL)

  14. Progress Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  15. 1983 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society, University of Linz, 28 - 30 September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of lectures and poster presentations given at the 1983 convention of the Austrian Physical Society, with (German) abstracts only. The four topical sessions were: 1) electrodynamics and optics 2) solid state physics 3) nuclear and particle physics 4) physics of high polymers Only part of the presentations pertain to the subject scope of INIS. (G.Q.)

  16. Quality of Austrian and Dutch Falls-Prevention Information: A Comparative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoberer, Daniela; Mijnarends, Donja M.; Fliedner, Monica; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of written patient information material available in Austrian and Dutch hospitals and nursing homes pertaining to falls prevention. Design: Comparative descriptive study design Setting: Hospitals and nursing homes in Austria and the Netherlands. Method: Written patient…

  17. Pragmatics of Content-Based Instruction: Teacher and Student Directives in Finnish and Austrian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Nikula, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Using a pragmatic framework, this paper examines how directives are performed by teachers and students in Finnish and Austrian CLIL classrooms, that is settings where a foreign language (in this case English) is used as the medium of instruction in non-language subjects such as history or chemistry. We explore how interpersonal aspects of…

  18. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  19. Progress Report 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1984. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  20. Experience in the operation and maintenance of the Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor ia in operation since March 1962. The reactor instrumentation, core design and irradiation facilities and operation are described. Besides steady state power and pulse operation, square wave operation has been installed 1968, allowing power squares up to 750 kW. A Survey of reactor operation and experiments is given

  1. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  2. Overt and Disguised Discrimination against Women in Collective Agreements: Findings of an Austrian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Maria

    1980-01-01

    An Austrian survey of discriminatory practices in the texts of all collective agreements in force in March 1978 (except those covering public employees) identified six main forms of potential discrimination. Examples found among white-collar workers in the private sector and among textile, clothing, and leather workers are cited. (CT)

  3. Systemic allergic reaction to pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-02-01

    This case report describes a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts, confirmed by an open, oral provocation test. Skin prick testing with the aqueous allergen revealed an immediate positive prick test, and histamine release from basophil leukocytes to the aqueous allergen was demonstrated. Radioallergosorbent test demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to pine nuts. In a review of medical literature, we found no reports of either oral provocation tests confirming a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts or demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  4. [Pine mouth syndrome: a global problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redal-Baigorri, Ana Belén

    2011-12-01

    Pinemouth syndrome is characterised by the development of metallogeusia two days after the ingestion of Chinese pine nuts. The symptoms disappear 7-14 days later. The distribution of Chinese pine nuts not suitable for human consumption, is caused by an increasing demand due to price differences. The reason for the taste disturbances is unknown, some suggest turpentine-based products in its composition, and others have studied the fatty acid content of pine nuts and the properties of pinolenic acid. So far the presence of pesticides or mycotoxins is been ruled out, but the puzzle remains unsolved.

  5. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón Francisco R; Ordás Ricardo; Soto Álvaro; Cervera M Teresa; Collada Carmen; Perdiguero Pedro; Guevara M Ángeles; Flores-Monterroso Arantxa; Bautista Rocío; Díaz-Moreno Sara M; Villalobos David P; Guerrero-Fernández Darío; Canales Javier; Fernández-Pozo Noé; Avila Concepción

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), since it...

  6. Austrian Daily Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, A.; Lipa, W.; Adler, S.; Albenberger, J.; Lechner, W.; Swietli, R.; Vossberg, I.; Zehetner, S.

    2010-09-01

    Checked climate datasets are a "conditio sine qua non" for all projects that are relevant for environment and climate. In the framework of climate change studies and analysis it is essential to work with quality controlled and trustful data. Furthermore these datasets are used as input for various simulation models. In regard to investigations of extreme events, like strong precipitation periods, drought periods and similar ones we need climate data in high temporal resolution (at least in daily resolution). Because of the historical background - during Second World War the majority of our climate sheets were sent to Berlin, where the historical sheets were destroyed by a bomb attack and so important information got lost - only several climate sheets, mostly duplicates, before 1939 are available and stored in our climate data archive. In 1970 the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna started a first attempt to digitize climate data by means of punch cards. With the introduction of a routinely climate data quality control in 1984 we can speak of high-class-checked daily data (finally checked data, quality flag 6). Our group is working on the processing of digitization and quality control of the historical data for the period 1872 to 1983 for 18 years. Since 2007 it was possible to intensify the work (processes) in the framework of an internal project, namely Austrian Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control. The aim of this initiative was - and still is - to supply daily data in an outstanding good and uniform quality. So this project is a kind of pre-project for all scientific projects which are working with daily data. In addition to routine quality checks (that are running since 1984) using the commercial Bull Software we are testing our data with additional open source software, namely ProClim.db. By the use of this spatial and statistical test procedure, the elements air temperature and precipitation - for several sites in Carinthia - could

  7. "Pine mouth" syndrome: cacogeusia following ingestion of pine nuts (genus: pinus). An emerging problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of cacogeusia, specifically metallogeusia (a perceived metallic or bitter taste) following pine nut ingestion. A 36-year-old male presented with cacogeusia one day following ingestion of 10-15 roasted pine nuts (genus: Pinus). Symptoms became worst on post-exposure day 2 and progressively improved without treatment over 5 days. There were no other symptoms and physical examination was unrevealing. All symptoms resolved without sequalae. We contemporaneously report a rise in pine nut-associated cacogeusia reported online during the first quarter of 2009, and a significant rise in online searches related to pine nut-associated cacogeusia (or what the online public has termed "pine mouth") during this time. Most online contributors note a similar cacogeusia 1-3 days following pine nut ingestion lasting for up to 2 weeks. All cases seem self-limited. Patients occasionally describe abdominal cramping and nausea after eating the nuts. Raw, cooked, and processed nuts (in pesto, for example) are implicated. While there appears to be an association between pine nut ingestion and cacogeusia, little is known about this condition, nor can any specific mechanism of specific cause be identified. It is not known if a specific species of pine nut can be implicated. "Pine mouth" appears to be an emerging problem.

  8. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression

    OpenAIRE

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M. A.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids f...

  9. Quantification of acetone emission from pine plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Acetone emission from pine plants (pinus sylvestris) is measured by continuously stirred tank reactor. Under a constant light intensity, acetone emission rates increase exponentially with leaf temperature. When leaf temperature is kept constant, acetone emission increases with light intensity. And acetone emission in darkness is also detected. Acetone emitted from pine is quickly labeled by 13C when the plants are exposed to air with 630 mg/m3 13CO2. However, no more than 20% of acetone is 13C labeled. Acetone emission from pine may be due to both leaf temperature- controlled process and light intensity-controlled process. Based on these understandings, an algorithm is used to describe the short term acetone emission rates from pine.

  10. Longleaf Pine Survival, Growth, and Recruitment Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This experiment was to determine mean survivorship, growth rate, and recruitment rate of longleaf pine seedlings planted on different soil types on the refuge. Open...

  11. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  12. Determination of volatile compounds of pine honeys

    OpenAIRE

    SİLİCİ, Sibel

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds of 13 Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) honey samples were characterized by solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 42 volatile compounds were identified, but volatile compounds such as nonana1, benzene, 4-hexen-3-ol, alpha-pinene, and 2-heptanone were recognized to be specific floral origin markers of the pine honey. The SPME extraction method was proposed as an alternative way to carry o...

  13. Why Credit Deflation Is More Likely than Mass Inflation: An Austrian Overview of the Inflation Versus Deflation Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Boyapati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an Austrian overview of the inflation versus deflation debate which has captured the attention of the economics profession in the years following the US housing bust. Much of the Austrian analysis of this debate has focused on the massive expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and attendant creation of new reserves. Several Austrian economists have predicted that the creation of new reserves will cause a massive increase in inflation. The money multiplier theory, on which these predictions are based, is criticized and an overview of the Austrian business cycle theory is provided to explain why banks are reluctant to issue new credit. Finally, an analysis of the politics of deflation is provided and a class theory is presented to explain why a policy of controlled credit deflation is more likely than a policy that would result in mass inflation or hyperinflation.

  14. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  15. Insect biodiversity reduction of pine woods in southern Greece caused by the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrakis, P. V.; Spanos, K.; Feest, A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica Gennadius, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Margarodidae) on the insect biodiversity of pinewoods in Attica, Greece. The comparison of biodiversities was done by estimating the biodiversity by the Ewens-Caswells V statistic in a set of nine sites each containing two linetransects. Transects pairs went through free and infested pine woods from the pine scale and each one had several tenth hectare plots on both sides. The ecosystem temperature (= disorder) of the sites was computed and found high, together with the idiosyncratic temperatures (= susceptibility to extinction) of the 158 species in order to detect local extinctions. The indicator values of insect species were computed on the basis of the relative cover of each plant species. The main findings of this study are (1) the reduction of insect species biodiversity because of the introduction of the pine scale, (2) the moderate increase of disorder in pine scale infested sites,(3) many insect species can characterize site groups but none of them can distinguish infested from pine scale free sites. The introduction of pine scale in pine woods disturbs their insect fauna before its influence to the floristic composition and the associated vegetation structure appears. The causes behind this reduction of biodiversity and the anthropogenic influences are discussed. (Author) 64 refs.

  16. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  17. Effects of Afforestation with Pines on Collembola Diversity in the Limestone hills of Szárhalom (West Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÓTH, Viktória

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the responses of collembolan communities to pine afforestation in an area formerly characterized by a mosaic of autochthonous downy oak woodland and steppe meadows. Study sites were selected in mixed stands of black pine and Scots pine and control samples were taken from downy oak stands and open steppe meadows. A total of 1884 Collembola specimens belonging to 66 species were collected. Three species, namely Protaphorura pannonica (Onychiuridae, Tomocerus mixtus (Tomoceridae and Isotoma caerulea (Isotomidae proved to be new to the Hungarian fauna. There are typical Collembola communities which are specific to different habitat types where species of a given composition can only or predominantly be found in that habitat, as well as some basic common species which occur in every habitat. The highest species richness (41 was found in steppe meadows, considerably lower (34 in downy oak forests, reaching the lowest value (25 in pine plantations. Although several forest species present in the oak woodland were completely missing from the pine forests, there was no significant difference between the Collembola diversities of the two forest habitats. The difference became more prominent in collembolan abundance which resulted in less than half of individuals/m2 in pine plantations compared to the soils of downy oak forests, most likely due to the changed soil conditions, especially of humus characteristics, caused by the pine needle litter. Jaccard similarity measure indicated approximately equal similarity (0.24–0.28 for paired comparison, suggesting that a relatively constant 'basic Collembola community' determined by the soil type typical for the area is present; while dissimilarity in communities between sites are partly provided by spatial heterogeneity of open and forest habitats and by the difference of the vegetation type.

  18. Culture standards and their impact on teamwork: An empirical analysis of Austrian, German, Hungarian and Spanish culture differences

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Amanda; Meierewert, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the impact of different cultural standards on the processes and performances of Austrian, Spanish, German and Hungarian task groups. We therefore analyzed 201 qualitative interviews with Austrians, Spaniards, Germans and Hungarians, which were conducted from 1996 to 2001. This paper uses the cultural standard framework as its theoretical background as well as the concepts of team development. The emphasis of our research is on those culture standards that have been ident...

  19. Soil CO2 Efflux in a Mixed Pine-Oak Forest in Valsaín (Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Inclán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-surface CO2 efflux and its spatial and temporal variation were investigated in a southern Mediterranean, mixed pine-oak forest ecosystem on the northern slopes of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Spain from February 2006 to July 2006. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux, soil temperatures, and moisture were conducted in nine 1963-m2 sampling plots distributed in a gradient around the ecotone between Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pyrenaica Lam. forest stands. Total soil organic matter, Walkey-Black C, particulate organic matter, organic matter fraction below 53 μm, total soil nitrogen content, total soil organic carbon content, and pH were also measured under three representative mature oak, pine, and mixed pine-oak forest stands. Soil respiration showed a typical seasonal pattern with minimums in winter and summer, and maximums in spring, more pronounced in oak and oak-pine stands. Soil respiration values were highest in pine stands during winter and in oak stands during spring and summer.

  20. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity for the firm, and can be observed in the open market as well. Agency theory rejects the notion of the firm as a hierarchy, and it is based on completeness of knowledge and contract. Theory of entrepreneurship and monetary calculation of Austrian School enables us to integrate contractual theory into the theoretical setting characterized by uncertainty, information asymmetry and positive transaction costs.

  1. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. Out-of-pocket expenditures for pharmaceuticals: Lessons from the Austrian household budget survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanwald, Alice; Theurl, Engelbert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paying pharmaceuticals out-of-pocket is an important source of financing pharmaceutical consumption. Only limited empirical knowledge is available on the determinants of these expenditures. OBJECTIVES: In this paper we analyze which characteristics of private households influence out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure (OOPPE) in Austria. DESIGN & METHODS: We use cross-sectional information on OOPPE and on household characteristics provided by the Austrian household budget survey...

  3. Drugs from nature targeting inflammation (DNTI): a successful Austrian interdisciplinary network project

    OpenAIRE

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H; Bernhard, David; Rollinger, Judith M.; Breuss, Johannes M.; Schuster, Daniela; Bauer, Rudolf; Kopp, Brigitte; Franz, Chlodwig; Bochkov, Valery; Marko D Mihovilovic; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inflammation is part of numerous pathological conditions, which are lacking satisfying treatment and effective concepts of prevention. A national research network project, DNTI, involving scientists from six Austrian universities as well as several external partners aimed to identify and characterize natural products capable of combating inflammatory processes specifically in the cardiovascular system. The combined use of computational techniques with traditional knowledge, high-tech...

  4. Integrating English as a Foreign Language in Austrian primary schools: contextual and participant perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Millonig, Diana Jean

    2015-01-01

    Government guidelines in Austria specify that first and second year primary school pupils (age 6-8 years old) should receive their first teaching of a foreign language integrated into the syllabus subjects. The present study, embedded in the theoretical framework of social constructivist learning and socio-cultural language learning theories, investigated the actual classroom practices of Austrian primary school teachers during the integration of English into the lessons. The main research...

  5. Decision Criteria in Ethical Dilemma Situations: Empirical Examples from Austrian Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Litschka, Michael; Suske, Michaela; Brandtweiner, Roman

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of an empirical research project analysing the decision behaviour of Austrian managers in ethical dilemma situations. While neoclassical economic theory would suggest a pure economic rational basis for management decisions, the empirical study conducted by the authors put other concepts to a test, thereby analysing their importance for managerial decision making: specific notions of fairness, reciprocal altruism, and commitment. After reviewing some of ...

  6. Is Bitcoin money? An analysis from the Austrian school of economic thought

    OpenAIRE

    Ísak Andri Ólafsson 1989

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore whether digital crypto-currencies such as Bitcoin can be considered money from the perspective of the Austrian school of economics. It begins by describing the functions and design of the Bitcoin system in detail. Other innovations that either build on or improve Bitcoin will be explained as well. The functions of money are then defined from the origins of money, providing a categorical approach toward a comparison between Bitcoin and incumbent money. The risks and...

  7. Welcome address: Alois Posch on behalf of the Austrian presidency for the European Union (A)

    OpenAIRE

    Posch, Dipl.-Ing. Alois

    2006-01-01

    In Austria, organic farming has been playing an important role in the national agricultural policy. Thus, Austria has advocated to foster the development of organic farming also at the level of the EU. It is the aim of the Austrian Presidency to support the European Commission in its actions. Like other EU countries, Austria is trying to make use of the Action programme for organic farming in the best possible way for the further development of organic farming. The rural development p...

  8. Academic Anti-Semitism and the Austrian School: Vienna, 1918–1945

    OpenAIRE

    Hansjoerg Klausinger

    2013-01-01

    The theme of academic anti-Semitism has been much discussed recently in histories of the interwar period of the University of Vienna, in particular its Faculty of Law and Policy Sciences. This paper complements these studies by focusing in this regard on the economics chairs at this faculty and, more generally, on the fate of the younger generation of the Austrian school of economics. After some introductory remarks the paper concentrates on three case studies: the neglect of Mises in a...

  9. Financial and Economic Education Products and Services of Austrian Institutions and Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Schlögl

    2007-01-01

    Austrian institutions and enterprises offer a broad range of economic and financial literacy products and services, including online products, brochures, folders, economic simulation games, TV and radio programs, presentations, seminars, company visits and guided tours. On closer inspection, however, it turns out that some areas and target groups remain largely neglected: Education products and services for students attending primary and compulsory school are still scarce, while comprehensive...

  10. Sustainability Management with the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard in SMEs: Findings from an Austrian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Falle; Romana Rauter; Sabrina Engert; Rupert J. Baumgartner

    2016-01-01

    Given the economic importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and their need for strategic sustainability management, this paper examines the concept of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) with respect to SMEs. This case study describes the development of an SBSC in a middle-sized Austrian brewery. The existing methods used in SBSC creation were adapted to suit the company’s specific needs. The findings show that when developing an SBSC it is important to take specific SME c...

  11. Revealed comparative advantage index: an analysis of export trade in the Austrian district of Burgerland

    OpenAIRE

    Granabetter, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The Austrian District of Burgenland is located in the eastern part of the country. In the last decade, the region has benefited from different subsidy programs from the European Union. The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the export competitiveness of Burgenland in relation to the foreign trade of Austria as a whole from 2010 to 2014, which is the period showing the highest increase in exports since the Iron Curtain fell. The Revealed Comparative Advantage index (RCA) was used ...

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-01

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  13. Towards a Dynamic Resource-Based View Insights from Austrian Capital and Entrepreneurship Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J. Foss; Ishikawa, Ibuki

    2006-01-01

    The dominant view in the strategic management field is the resource-based view ("RBV"). It has often been observed that the RBV is lacking in the dynamic dimension. For example, processes of building competitive advantages by means of combining existing complementary resources in novel ways are not inquired into. We argue that the RBV may profitably draw on Austrian (Misesian) and Knightian insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory, particularly in its Lachmannian manifestation, in orde...

  14. Negotiating Partnership: How Serbian Hauzmajstor Established a Business Relationship with Austrian Rustler

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-01-01

    This study is an account of how Serbian Hauzmajstor negotiated and entered into partnership with the Austrian Rustler. The introduction is devoted to the development of Hauzmajstor, a small real estate maintenance firm, founded by a Serbian repatriate in 2004. Beginning with its start up as the first daughter firm of Komon sens, a consulting and project development firm, the study follows its adaptation to the local business environment, concentrating on its organizational and business cultur...

  15. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity f...

  16. the term structure of interest rates: a first look at the austrian case

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Albert

    1985-01-01

    abstract: first, the basic idea of the expectations theory on the term structure of interest rates is sketched. a brief review of empirical evidence on the expectations theory is presented. the paper then derives and estimates a term structure equation for austrian interest rates. the empirical results for this equation seem not to be at variance with the basic idea of the expectations theory, i. e., representing the long term interest rates as a weighted average of expected short rates. a li...

  17. Bioactive Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity of Austrian Wine and Grape Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Navarro, Roser

    2008-01-01

    Wine has already been investigated for its potential nutritional quality, such as high amount of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds, well-known as natural antioxidants, are reported due their radical scavenging capacity. In the present work, the bioactive ingredients of nine Austrian wines (four red wines: Zweigelt, Blaufränkisch, Syrah and Cuvée; two white wines: Pinot Blanc and Chardonnay; one rosé Blaufränkisch; and two grape juice: red and white) have been quantified an...

  18. Effects of Renal Denervation Documented in the Austrian National Multicentre Renal Denervation Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Thomas; Steinwender, Clemens; Weber, Thomas; Suppan, Markus; Brussee, Helmut; Koppelstätter, Christian; Kerschbaum, Julia; Watschinger, Bruno; Hohenstein-Scheibenecker, Katharina; Reindl-Schwaighofer, Roman; Sturmberger, Thomas; Kindslehner, Claudia; Weiss, Thomas Werner; Rohla, Miklos; Gruener, Peter; Maister, Petra; Auer, Johann; Dechant, Cornelia; Sykora, Josef; Krismer, Christoph; Glaser, Stefan; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) is a new procedure for treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. In order to monitor all procedures undergone in Austria, the Austrian Society of Hypertension established the investigator-initiated Austrian Transcatheter Renal Denervation (TREND) Registry. From April 2011 to September 2014, 407 procedures in 14 Austrian centres were recorded. At baseline, office and mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were 171/94 and 151/89 mmHg, respectively, and patients were taking a median of 4 antihypertensive medications. Mean 24-h ABP changes after 2–6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months were -11/-6, -8/-4, -8/-5 and -10/-6 mmHg (p<0.05 at all measurements), respectively. The periprocedural complication rate was 2.5%. Incidence of long-term complications during follow-up (median 1 year) was 0.5%. Office BP and ABP responses showed only a weak correlation (Pearson coefficient 0.303). Based on the data from the TREND registry, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in addition to office BP should be used for patient selection as well as for monitoring response to RDN. Furthermore, criteria for optimal patient selection are suggested. PMID:27529426

  19. Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien [Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Der süd- und südostasiatische Raum befindet sich im Aufholprozess. Der anhaltende Wachstumstrend geht einher mit der steigenden Nachfrage aus den Industriestaaten sowie dem Binnenmarkt und führt auch zu erhöhtem Bedarf an Infrastruktur. Auch die österreichische Wirtschaft profitiert vom Asien-Boom. Dies zeigt das stete Wachstum österreichischer Warenexporte in die Region, der Anstieg heimischer Direktinvestitionen sowie die wachsende Präsenz österreichischer Firmen. Ziel der österreichischen WirtschaftsvertreterInnen ist es, die Tigerstaaten Südostasiens mehr aus dem Schatten der aufstrebenden Wirtschaftssupermacht China zu holen und die österreichische Wirtschaftsverflechtung mit diesen Ländern zu intensivieren.The South and South East Asian Area has been catching up with the developed world. The sustained economic growth trend goes hand in hand with a higher demand from industrialized nations and a stronger internal demand, pushing for better infrastructure. The Austrian economy is also benefiting from booming Asia, underscored by the steady increase of Austrian exports to this region, the rise of foreign direct investment and companies doing business in these countries. The Austrian business community would like to see the South East Asian tiger states more out of the shadow of the new super power China. The overall objective is to intensify the economic integration with South and South East Asia.

  20. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  1. Soil CO2 efflux in a mixed pine-oak forest in Valsaín (central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclán, Rosa; De la Torre, Daniel; Benito, Marta; Rubio, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Soil-surface CO2 efflux and its spatial and temporal variation were investigated in a southern Mediterranean, mixed pine-oak forest ecosystem on the northern slopes of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Spain from February 2006 to July 2006. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux, soil temperatures, and moisture were conducted in nine 1963-m2 sampling plots distributed in a gradient around the ecotone between Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pyrenaica Lam. forest stands. Total soil organic matter, Walkey-Black C, particulate organic matter, organic matter fraction below 53 microm, total soil nitrogen content, total soil organic carbon content, and pH were also measured under three representative mature oak, pine, and mixed pine-oak forest stands. Soil respiration showed a typical seasonal pattern with minimums in winter and summer, and maximums in spring, more pronounced in oak and oak-pine stands. Soil respiration values were highest in pine stands during winter and in oak stands during spring and summer. Soil respiration was highly correlated with soil temperatures in oak and pine-oak stands when soil moisture was above a drought threshold of 15%. Below this threshold value, soil moisture was a good predictor of soil respiration in pine stands. Greater soil organic matter, particulate organic matter, Walkey-Black C, total organic C, and total N content in pine compared to oak sites potentially contributed to the greater total soil CO2 efflux in these stands during the winter. Furthermore, opposing trends in the organic matter fraction below 53 microm and soil respiration between plots suggest that in oak stands, the C forms are less affected by possible changes in use. The effects of soil properties on soil respiration were masked by differences in soil temperature and moisture during the rest of the year. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation even within small geographic areas is essential to assess C budgets at ecosystem level accurately. Thus, this study bears

  2. Avian Assemblages Differ between Old-Growth and Mature White Pine Forests of Ontario, Canada: A Role for Supercanopy Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anthony Kirk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We predicted that bird diversity and abundance of some bird species would be higher in old-growth stands than in mature pine stands because of the greater structural diversity in old growth. We also predicted that patch size of stands should be influential. To test these predictions, we modeled counts of 79 bird species from 52 stands in 5 regions in the province of Ontario, Canada in relation to habitat at the local and landscape extents. Neither total species richness nor abundance differed between stand types. No significant difference was found in bird assemblages between stand types using ordination analysis. However, more Neotropical migrants were found in old-growth stands than in mature stands, while the reverse was true for short-distance migrants. Twenty-five species had higher counts in old-growth stands--three significantly so: Brown Creeper Certhia americana, Northern Parula Setophaga americana, and Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea. Supercanopy pine (> 60 cm dbh was a significant (P < 0.05 positive predictor for Black-throated Green Warbler Setophaga virens, Northern Parula, and total species richness, while medium/large pine (> 40 cm/dbh was a significant positive predictor for Brown Creeper, Pine Warbler Setophaga pinus, and total species richness. The density of supercanopy and medium/large pine explained a small but significant amount of variation in bird assemblages (1%, after considering age, other tree variables (9%, and landscape metrics. Patch size was significant for Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus and total abundance. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC thresholds, Brown Creeper required a minimum of 62 stems/ha of medium/large pine. Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus and Black-throated Green Warbler required a minimum of 14 and 23 stems/ha of supercanopy pine, respectively. Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga fusca required a minimum stand age of 66 years. Current targets in shelterwood seed

  3. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Handy, Sara M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-03-14

    Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.

  4. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  5. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  6. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible.

  7. Host Preference by Monochamus alternatus (Hope) during Maturation Feeding on Pine Species and Masson Pine Provenances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Host preferences pine of the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternates (Hope), during maturation feeding on 8 conifer trees and 40 masson pine provenances, were investigated using 3 types of laboratory bioassay of consistent feeding preference, feeding area and visitation frequency. M. alternatus adults have the highest frequency of feeding and prefer to feed on the branches of P. massoniana and P. densiflora and had significant host selectivity on 8 conifer trees in the area of Nanjing. The adult feeding vi...

  8. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  9. The ACOnet (Austrian Academic Computer Network) is data carrier for teleradiological consultations; Das ACOnet (Austrian Academic Computer Network) als Datentraeger fuer teleradiologische Konsultationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomuzzi, S.M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Springer, P.; Dessl, A.; Waldenberger, P.; Buchberger, W.; Bodner, G.; Bale, R.; Jaschke, W. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria); Stoeger, A. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer MRI; Schreder, J.G. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Gell, G. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik

    1998-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of image transfer for teleradiologic consultations using the Austrian Academic Computer Network (ACOnet). The ACOnet corresponds between the main univerisities to a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) with a transfer rate of 4 Mbps. Its use is free of charge for university institutions. Materials and methods: 1740 test image data sets and 620 image data sets for teleradiological consultations were exchanged without annotations between the Departments of Diagnostic Radiology of the universities of Innsbruck and Graz, using the ACOnet. Results: Data transmission was reliable and fast with an average transfer capacity of 170.2 kBytes/s (94-341 kBytes/s). There were no major problems with image transfer during the test phase. Conclusion: Due to its high transfer capacity, the ACOnet is considered a reasonable alternative to the ISDN service. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Radiologische Bilddatensaetze sollten fuer telemedizinische Konsultationen mittels des Austrian Academic Computer Network (ACOnet) zwischen den Universitaetskliniken Innsbruck und Graz ausgetauscht werden. Das ACOnet, dessen Benutzung fuer Universitaeten frei ist, entspricht zwischen den Landesuniversitaeten einem MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) mit einer Uebertragungsrate von 4 Mbps. Material und Methode: Die Uebertragung von 1740 Testbilddatensaetzen und 12 radiologischen Konsultationen (620 Bilddatensaetze), ohne Annotationen, zwischen den radiologischen Abteilungen der Universitaetskliniken Innsbruck und Graz zum Zwecke teleradiologischer Konsultationen mittels ACOnet. Ergebnisse: Die Uebertragungen ergaben eine hohe durchschnittliche Uebertragungskapazitaet von 170,2 kBytes/s (94-341 kBytes/s). Das ACOnet erwies sich waehrend der gesamten Testphase als zuverlaessig und praktikabel fuer die Uebertragung teleradiologischer Bilddatensaetze. Schlussfolgerungen: Durch die hohe Uebertragungskapazitaet stellt das ACOnet eine erfolgversprechende Alternative zum ISDN-Service dar

  10. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  11. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  12. SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AT PINE RIDGE RESERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pine Ridge Reservation, located in rural South Dakota is plagued with deteriorating infrastructure, poverty, lack of local employment, and high utility bills. Many of the residents, the Oglala Lakota Nation, live in mobile homes or substandard housing and spend nearly 25% of...

  13. Effect of climate factors on wood veneers exposed to outdoor conditions in black sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Köse, Gaye; Temiz, Ali; Akbaş, Selçuk; Özkan, Emre

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 2×100×200 mm wood veneers obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), European black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) and beech (Fagus orientalis L.) wood were exposed to outdoor climate conditions at three different cities (Trabzon, Artvin, and Kastamonu) of Black Sea region in Turkey for totally 4 months from May to August, 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of climate factors on the changes occurred on different types of wood veneers that were subjected to ...

  14. The knowledge balance of the inter- and transdisciplinary Austrian Landscape Research programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Begusch-Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Austrian Landscape Research, a programme of the Austrian Ministry of Science, has created scientific foundations for the sustainable development of Austrian landscapes and regions (plus bordering regions. Landscapes and regions were to be explored from different angles; implementing the research findings was to be part of the research work. The programme was designed to make room for science open to society, for unconventional ideas, methods, and courses of action. Programmatic targets and research principles supported this intent. The results of the programme met with national and international approval. The ALR knowledge balance is an attempt at presenting and assessing the achievements of this comprehensive contract research programme.Le programme du Ministère autrichien des Sciences, intitulé « Recherche sur le paysage autrichien », visait à construire les fondements scientifiques d’un développement durable des paysages et des régions de l’Autriche et des territoires limitrophes. Les paysages et les régions ont été étudiés selon différentes approches disciplinaires et la mise en pratique des résultats de cette étude était partie prenante du programme de recherche. La vocation de ce programme était de faire la place à une science ouverte sur la société, à des idées, méthodes et pratiques non conventionnelles. Les objectifs du programme et les principes de recherche vont dans le sens de ces exigences. Les résultats du programme ont été reconnus sur le plan national et international. Le bilan des connaissances du programme de recherche sur le paysage autrichien (KLF a pour but de présenter et d’évaluer les performances de ce vaste programme de recherche.

  15. Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station--overview and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T; Hajek, M; Summerer, L; Vana, N; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V

    2004-01-01

    The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the goal of which was the determination of the depth distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent in a water filled Phantom. The first results from dose measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS) will also be discussed. The spherical Phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems and had 4 channels where dosimeters can be exposed in different depths. The exposure period covered the timeframe from May 1997 to February 1999. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were exposed inside the Phantom, either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. For the evaluation of the linear energy transfer (LET), the high temperature ratio (HTR) method was applied. Based on this method a mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent is calculated according to the Q(LET infinity) relationship proposed in ICRP 26. An increased contribution of neutrons could be detected inside the Phantom. However the total dose equivalent did not increase over the depth of the Phantom. As the first Austrian measurements on the ISS dosimeter packages were exposed for 248 days, starting in February 2001 at six different locations onboard the ISS. The Austrian dosimeter sets for this first exposure on the ISS contained five different kinds of passive thermoluminescent dosimeters. First results showed a position dependent absorbed dose rate at the ISS.

  16. Progress report 1980/81 of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the numerous institutes and divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences presented in this report the Commission for Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Research (application of radioimmunoassay) and the Institute for X-ray Microstructure Research (investigation of biological substances by X-ray and neutron small angle scattering) are partly within the scope of INIS. Fully in scope are short project discriptions of the Institute for Radium Research and Nulear Physics: the Commission for the SIN-project and the Institute for High Energy Physics, completed by publication lists. (G.Q.)

  17. Austrian's syndrome: The first described case of pneumococcal meningitis pneumonia and endocarditis in an injecting drug user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadsworth, Mike B J; Wooton, Dan; Chenzbraun, Adrian; Beeching, Nick J

    2007-12-01

    We describe the first reported case of Austrian's syndrome in an injecting drug user (IDU). The triad of endocarditis, meningitis and pneumonia caused by invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is most commonly associated with excess alcohol. Injecting drug use is a recognised risk factor for IPD, whose prevalence and resistance continue to rise. We propose that injecting drug use is associated with Austrian's syndrome and that it should at least be considered in 'at risk' groups presenting with IPD. Furthermore, IDU presenting with IPD, meningitis and pneumonia should be considered for echocardiography.

  18. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  19. The relevance and legibility of radio/TV weather reports to the Austrian public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A. G.; Holzer, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    The communicative quality of media weather reports, especially warnings, can be evaluated by user research. It is an interdisciplinary field, still uncoordinated after 35 years. The authors suggest to shift from a cognitive learning model to news processing, qualitative discourse and usability models as the media audience is in an edutainment situation where it acts highly selective. A series of field surveys 2008-2011 tested the relevance and legibility of Austrian radio and television weather reports on fair weather and in warning situations. 247 laypeople heard/saw original, mostly up-to-date radio/TV weather reports and recalled personally relevant data. Also, a questionnaire on weather knowledge was answered by 237 Austrians. Several research hypotheses were tested. The main results were (a) a relatively high level of meteorological knowledge of the general population, with interest and participation of German-speaking migrants, (b) a pluralistic media usage with TV, radio and internet as the leading media, (c) higher interest and attention (also for local weather) after warnings, but a risk of more false recalls after long warnings, (d) more recall problems with radio messages and a wish that the weather elements should always appear in the same order to faciliate processing for the audience. In their narrow time windows, radio/TV weather reports should concentrate on main features (synoptic situation, tomorrow's temperature and precipitation, possible warnings), keep a verbal “speed limit” and restrict show elements to serve the active, selective, multioptional, multicultural audience.

  20. Renal infarction as a presentation of Austrian syndrome: thromboembolic phenomenon of pneumococcal endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankongpaisarnrung, Charoen; Soontrapa, Suthipong; Nantsupawat, Teerapat; Desai, Vipul; Nugent, Kenneth

    2012-09-01

    A 52-year-old unvaccinated and splenectomized man presented with fever, altered sensorium, bilateral flank pain and chest discomfort accompanied with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response. An abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, which revealed a right renal infarct and splenosis. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed, which demonstrated an echodense structure on the mitral valve with mitral regurgitation and a vegetation on the aortic valve with aortic regurgitation. Subsequently, he was found to have pneumococcal infective endocarditis, pneumococcal pneumonia and bacterial meningitis, namely Austrian syndrome. He underwent an early aortic valve and mitral valve repair but still had a poor clinical outcome. Renal infarction has a mortality of approximately 13.2%, which is strongly influenced by the underlying diseases and infectious complications. Medical and surgical treatment initiated in a timely manner is often inadequate. The authors report the first case of Austrian syndrome presenting with renal infarction as a clue to an embolic event associated with infective endocarditis in this study.

  1. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  2. THE AUSTRIAN VACCINATION PARADOX: TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINATION VERSUS INFLUENZA VACCINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula; Kunze, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a paradoxical situation in Austria. The vaccination rate against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the general population is 82%, which is the highest worldwide, whereas the vaccination rate against influenza is about 8% and is among the lowest worldwide. A high awareness of TBE among the Austrian population achieved by an annual social marketing programme and the wide use of effective and well-tolerated vaccines have led to a successful containment of that disease. The vaccination coverage increased from 6% in 1980 to 82% in 2013 and exceeds 90% in some high-risk areas. This has led to a steady decline in the number of TBE cases from several hundred cases to 50 to 100 cases per year. The situation in regard to influenza vaccination is the opposite. Although Austria has issued one of the most extensive recommendations for influenza vaccination worldwide, the vaccination rate of the general population is extremely low. The possible reasons for the failure in the implementation of recommendations are ignorance, lack of social marketing and the predominance of a distinct discordance within the health system in general, and the Austrian medical fraternity in particular. PMID:26615654

  3. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  4. The Austrian health reform 2013 is promising but requires continuous political ambition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M

    2014-10-01

    The Austrian health system is much more complex and fragmented than in other OECD countries. In 2013 legislation was adopted to enhance efficiency through better balancing care provision across providers by promoting new primary care models and better coordination of care. Reform objectives should be achieved by cooperative and unified decision making across key stakeholders and by adherence to a budget cap that prescribes fiscal containment on the order of 3.4 billion Euros until 2016. This is priced into the envisaged savings of the current consolidation program. Efforts have been made to bridge the accountability divide by establishing agreements and administrative layers to govern the health system by objectives. Yet, more could have been achieved. For example, cross-stakeholder pooling of funds for better contracting governance and effective purchasing across care settings could have been introduced. This would have required addressing over capacity and fragmentation within social security. At the same time, legal provisions for cooperative governance between Sickness Funds and the governments on the regional level should have been stipulated. The Austrian 2013 reform is interesting to other countries as it aims to ensure better-balanced care at a sustainable path by employing a public management approach to governance relations across key payers of care.

  5. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. PMID:26546596

  6. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  7. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Kendall, K.C.; Reinhart, D.P.; Tomback, D.F.; Arno, S.F.; Keane, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)—necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  8. Thermal Diffusion in Masson Pine Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xian-jun; Zhang Bi-guang; Li Wen-jun

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of the temperature gradient on moisture movement during the highly intensive microwave-vacuum drying, thermal diffusion of Masson pine wood was studied. Internal distribution of temperature and moisture in Masson pine samples sealed by epoxy resin and aluminum foil was measured, the magnitude of thermal diffusion was calculated and the influencing factors of thermal diffusion were discussed. Results showed that with the transfer of moisture toward the low temperature in wood, opposite temperature and moisture gradient occurred. The initial moisture content (MC), temperature and time are important factors affecting this process; the thermal diffusion is in proportion to wood temperature, its initial moisture and time. The temperature and distance from hot surface is strongly linearly correlated, and the relationship between MCs at different locations and distance from the hot end surface changes from logarithmically form to exponentially form with the increase in experimental time.

  9. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  10. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977].

  11. Modeling Mortality of Loblolly Pine Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of mortality is an important component of forest growth and yield prediction systems, yet mortality remains one of the least understood components of the system. Whole-stand and individual-tree mortality models were developed for loblolly pine plantations throughout its geographic range in the United States. The model for predicting stand mortality were developed using stand characteristics and biophysical variables. The models were constructed using two modeling approache...

  12. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  13. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-04-30

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  14. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Holly K. Ober; Lucas W. DeGroote

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantatio...

  15. Austrian visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, and Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the visitors' book.Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, was welcomed by Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, on her visit to CERN on 19 May 2003. The theme of the visit was Technology Transfer and spin-offs from CERN for medical applications. Maria Rauch-Kallat toured also the installations of ATLAS.

  16. 87. Austrian ratification of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the notification of the Austrian ratification of the Convention, resulting in the entry into force of the Convention for Austria on 22 December 1989. The ratification included a declaration concerning Article 10 paragraph 5(b). The text of the Convention is reproduced in English, French and German. (NEA)

  17. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  18. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  19. Assessment of climate change impact on SOM balance with the Austrian Carbon Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Sedy, Katrin; Zethner, Gerhard; Formayer, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) balance depends on climate and climate change due to the impact on SOM turnover conditions as well as on cropping and crop yields. The Austrian Carbon calculator (ACC) is a tool for the comparison of future land use scenarios with the current agriculture in order to identify opportunities to sustain the SOM balance. The ACC can be used in a regional mode as well as in local mode for the assessment of single farm fields. The assessment is based on the concept of Biologic Active Time (BAT). BAT is calculated based on soil data from the Austrian eBod map and climate data for past and future on a 1 km grid. The ACC was implemented for the regions Mühlviertel and Marchfeld. Crop yields are calculated based on statistics from the Austrian agricultural sub regions "Kleinproduktionsgebiet" for the most common crops. The regional scenarios consist of the abundance of crops, the part of nitrogen added as mineral fertilizer and the part of irrigation. The local soil management is calculated based on crop rotations with yields, organic amendments, irrigation and the tillage system (ploughed or not ploughed). The SOM balance is assessed with the reproduction index (REP_IX) that is calculated as the quotient from carbon reproduction (Carbon flux into SOM) and the BAT value. This way REP_IX includes the impact from management as well as from climate. If the future management will not change REP_IX the SOM balance will be the same as well. This methodology helps to adapt the management to future conditions to sustain the current SOM conditions without an absolute assessment if the current SOM state is optimal or not. The regional results of ACC will be made available as thematic maps on the project web site. For local applications farmer can use the tool to analyze their special site conditions and management plans to assess the management options under climate change conditions. The described concept can be improved if reliable information about the

  20. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  1. Projected Numbers of Ischemic Strokes Recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry from 2012 to 2075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinka, Eugen; Seyfang, Leonard; Mutzenbach, Sebastian; Stadler, Katharina; Pikija, Slaven; Killer, Monika; Broussalis, Erasmia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study analyzed the number of patients with ischemic strokes recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry with the aim of projecting this number from 2012 to 2075 and to highlight that the Austrian health system will face a dramatic increase in older patients within the next few decades. Methods Current demographic information was obtained from EUROSTAT, and information on age- and sex-stratified 1-year incidence rates of ischemic stroke were obtained from the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry. Sensitivity analysis was performed by analyzing the projections based on predicted ageing, main, and growth population scenarios, and with stratification by age and gender. Results The total number of ischemic strokes recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry was 8,690 in 2012 and is expected to increase to 15,826, 15,626, or 18,134 in 2075 according to the ageing, main, and growth scenarios, respectively. The corresponding numbers of patients are projected to increase or decrease within different age strata as follows (100%=number of registered ischemic strokes in 2012): 0–40 years, 100%/99% (males/females); 40–50 years, 83%/83%; 50–60 years, 98%/97%; 60–70 years, 126%/119%; 70–80 years, 159%/139%; 80–90 years, 307%/199%; and 90+ years, 894%/413%. Conclusions The ageing population in Austria will result in the number of patients increasing considerably from 2012 to 2075, to 182%, 180%, or 208% (relative to 100% in 2012) according to the ageing, main, and growth scenarios, respectively; the corresponding value among those aged 80+ years is 315%, 290%, or 347%. These figures demonstrated the importance of improving primary preventive measures. The results of this study should provide a basis for discussions among health-care professionals and economists to face the future large financial burden of ischemic stroke on the Austrian health system.

  2. Requirements for Electronic Delivery Systems in eGovernment - An Austrian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Arne

    Electronic mailing systems are the dominant communication systems in private and business matters. Public administrations deliver documents to citizens and businesses - subpoenas, legal verdicts, notifications, administrative penalties etc. However, official activities are more strongly linked to legal regulations than in civil law. Delivery of crucial and strictly personal documents raises the demand for qualified identification and non-repudiation services as featured by registered mail in the paper world. Legal requirements for electronic delivery carried-out by public administrations (eDelivery) cannot be fulfilled by standard certified mailing systems. Although the requirements for eDelivery systems may differ due to national legal regulations, this paper discusses common requirements and challenges on an abstract level. Moreover, we show how these requirements have been addressed by introducing the Austrian eDelivery system for eGovernment applications.

  3. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  4. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  5. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; Jörchel, Amrei C; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-05-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram's first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  6. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fattori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8% Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5 completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  7. The archives of the glacier survey of the Austrian Alpine Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrea; Bendler, Gebhard

    2016-04-01

    The archive of the Austrian Alpine Club holds masses of material on glaciers and their former extent. The material includes descriptions and sketches of the summits conquered by early mountaineers, mapping campaigns and data from early scientific expeditions as well as data on glacier length change. To date a large proportion of the glaciological information in the material has not been catalogued or analysed. As cold ice, containing relevant climate information, might still exist at the highest peaks of Austria, a pilot project was started to collect some of the data of two test sites in Tyrol, in Silvretta and Ötztal Alps, to reveal former summit shapes and glacier tongue positions. Additional information on the number and position of crevasses as well as firn extent is often evident from the material. Challenging tasks not yet tackled are compiling a catalogue of the material and defining an analysis scheme.

  8. The radiation protection units of the Austrian fire brigades; Die Strahlenschutz-Einheiten der oesterreichischen Feuerwehren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspek, W. [Oesterreichischer Bundesfeuerwehr, Wien (Austria); Schoenhacker, S. [WIRK.ZONE, Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Since the 1960s, Austrian fire brigades have been involved in radiation protection. With the preparations for the NPP Zwentendorf and the building of the research reactor in Seibersdorf, the first radiation protection units of the fire brigade were founded. 45 years later: The NPP Zwentendorf never saw its start-up, the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity is prohibited by a constitutional law, and the research reactor is being decommissioned. What's left are the radiation protection units of the fire brigades. The contribution gives an overview of similarities and differences of the radiation protection units in the nine federal states of Austria, with a special focus on equipment, training and organisation. Nation-wide guidelines and regulations for the tactics of first responders at radiological emergencies are presented and a couple of incidents will be analysed. (orig.)

  9. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  10. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  11. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  12. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  13. The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W

    2014-07-01

    Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan--like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed.

  14. The Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling in a peripheral region of Upper Styria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gstach Isabell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.

  15. Cultivation-independent analysis of microbial communities on Austrian raw milk hard cheese rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schornsteiner, Elisa; Mann, Evelyne; Bereuter, Othmar; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-06-16

    "Vorarlberger Bergkäse" (VB) is an Austrian artisanal hard cheese produced from raw cow's milk. The composition of its rind microbiota and the changes in the microbial communities during ripening have not previously been investigated. This study used 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of seven pooled cheese rind samples taken in seven different ripening cellars of three Austrian dairy facilities. A total of 408 clones for 16S and 322 clones for 18S rRNA gene libraries were used for taxonomic classification, revealing 39 bacterial and seven fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial OTUs belonged to four different phyla. Most OTUs were affiliated to genera often found in cheese, including high numbers of coryneforms. The most abundant OTU from 16S rRNA gene libraries showed highest similarity to Halomonas. Young cheese rinds were dominated by Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria, particularly by Halomonas and Brevibacterium aurantiacum, while Staphyloccocus equorum was most abundant in old cheeses. The most abundant 18S rRNA OTU had highest similarity to the filamentous fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed putative co-occurrences between a number of OTUs. It was possible to discriminate the different cheese rind microbiota at the community-level by facility affiliation and ripening time. This work provides insights into the microbial composition of VB cheese rinds and might allow the processing- and ripening conditions to be improved to enhance the quality of the product. PMID:24794620

  16. Risk factors for lameness in cubicle housed Austrian Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, Sabine; Dolezal, Marlies; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Knierim, Ute; Winckler, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    Austrian dairy farming is characterised by predominant use of Simmental cows on small-scale farms. Our aim was to identify lameness risk factors related to housing and management in cubicle housed Austrian dairy cows. Furthermore, we used animal-based parameters (ABP) as integrated measures of cubicle quality and feeding management. The first author visited 30 farms in eastern Austria with 24-54 cows (mean=35) in the milking herd during winter housing period, and collected data on housing, management, behaviour, and lameness via direct observations and an interview (part of Welfare Quality project). Mean lameness prevalence was 31% (range 6-70%). Data were analysed using logistic regression with generalised estimating equations (GEE). The final model was based on 832 cows and included six risk variables, five ABP, and the significant confounders 'county' and 'lactation number'. Odds for lameness increased with decreasing lying comfort, except for cubicle width. The following lying-related factors were significant in the final model (odds ratios (OR) in brackets): mats/mattresses as opposed to deep bedded cubicle base (1.61), length of lying area (OR 186-191 vs. loafing area (0.57). Regarding metabolic parameters, cows with a body condition score >3.5 had at least 0.39 lower odds of being lame, while cows with suboptimal milk protein content (3.8%) had 1.37 times higher odds. Odds for lameness clearly increased with age (OR lactation > or =4 vs. 1=3.38). In sum, lying comfort and nutrition are key areas for lameness prevention on modern dairy farms in Austria with herd sizes above 30 cows. PMID:19409629

  17. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  18. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... block your throat or esophagus and may cause choking. Do not take this product if you have ... take enough water. Otherwise, black psyllium might cause choking. Take at least 150 mL water for each ...

  19. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  20. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heartburn, dizziness, ringing in the ears, convulsions, and confusion. Also, people who drink black tea or other ... glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide ( ...

  1. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  2. Rooting Rose Cuttings in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for alternatives to pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) has led to extensive research on wood-based substrates, such as processed whole pine trees (WPT), for nursery and greenhouse crop production. Limited information is available on how WPT may perform as a rooting substrate for cutti...

  3. Cacogeusia following pine nut ingestion: a six patient case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Rachael L; Scully, Crispian; Gandhi, Shan; Raber-Durlacher, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients complaining of a bad taste (cacogeusia) specifically metallogeusia, following the ingestion of pine nuts.(1) The taste arose always within 48h of ingestion, and in all but one patient spontaneously resolved within 14 days. Pine nuts also have a potential for triggering anaphylaxis.(2).

  4. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  5. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  6. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  7. NMR analysis of oils from pine nuts ( Pinus sibirica) and seeds of common pine ( Pinus silvestris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Gaidukevich, O. A.; Klyuev, A. Yu.; Kulakova, A. N.; Petlitskaya, N. M.; Rykove, S. V.

    2007-07-01

    We studied the fatty-acid composition of oils from pine nuts and seeds of common pine using PMR and 13C NMR and gas chromatography. We found that the main components of the glycerides are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, pinolenic, and cis-9-eicosenoic acids. The oils contain about 2% sn-1,2-diacylglycerides in addition to triglycerides.

  8. 75 FR 23666 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Forest Service Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI AGENCY... Pines Wind Farm Project on National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Huron-Manistee National... process for the White Pines Wind Farm Project. DATES: The Notice of Intent to prepare the White Pines...

  9. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  10. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  11. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Austrian President Heinz Fischer Send Messages of Congratulations on 2006 China Year in Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Editor’s note: In January 2004, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Austrian foreign minister at the time, announced that China Year would be held in Austria in 2006 to mark the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Austria and China and to promote understanding of China and bilateral cooperation. The two sides decided after consultation that the activities for the China Year would be jointly organized by the Austria-China Friendship Association and the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries. The governments of the two countries attach great importance to the holding of the China Year. Chinese President Hu Jintao, Austrian President Heinz Fischer and Federal Chancellor Wolfgang Schussel and other state leaders

  12. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-20

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  13. Education Standards and Competence-oriented Curricula - The Austrian Technical Colleges Take a New Approach to Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pachatz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Austria, Technical Colleges are those educational institutions that train and educate the skilled technical staff required by the Austrian labour market and the universities. These colleges have contributed a lot to Austria’s economic success and every year about 8,000 young engineers leave the technical schools to form a powerful work and study force. Therefore, it is particularly important that the education they receive meets the requirements of prospective employers and that innovative developments are anticipated. As a consequence, the Austrian Technical Colleges have developed curricula that rely on learning outcomes and competence-based results. This new orientation towards skills, knowledge and competences shall be achieved through learning objectives that precisely describe the education chosen. How these standards have been designed, matched with the curricula, and implemented at the Colleges will be described in this paper.

  14. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities. PMID:24448634

  15. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  16. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  17. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  18. Old Monarchy in the New Cyberspace: Empirical Examination of Information Security Awareness among Austrian and Hungarian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Sasvari, Peter; Nemeslaki, Andras; Rauch, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Information security awareness is part of organizational culture, a way of thinking and be-havior which ensures that the employees of the organizations are committed to acknowledging the legitimacy of security measures, they abide by them and they also make them known to others and enforce their application. After collecting empirical data from 280 Austrian and 470 Hungarian employees of different companies we concluded that the level of information security awareness of managers and employee...

  19. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz Bernd; Beichert Matthias; Marcus Ulrich; Grubert Thomas; Gingelmaier Andrea; Haberl Annette; Schmied Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Abstract German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic), Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice), Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin), Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich), Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt), Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner...

  20. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  1. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin) Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Haluza; Stana Simic; Jan Höltge; Renate Cervinka; Hanns Moshammer

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN le...

  2. Putting 600,000 Books Online: the Large-Scale Digitisation Partnership between the Austrian National Library and Google

    OpenAIRE

    Max Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    In a public-private partnership with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised and made available free of charge. The project demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling our heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provided that such partnerships are not exclusive and free access is ensured. The article outl...

  3. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine. PMID:23955061

  4. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S.; Cooke, Barry J.; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utilit...

  5. Culture independent analysis of microbiota in the gut of pine weevils

    OpenAIRE

    Ölander, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, the pine weevil causes damages for several hundreds of millions kronor annually. The discouraged use of insecticides has resulted in that other methods to prevent pine weevil feeding needs to be found. Antifeedants found in the pine weevil own feces is one such alternative. The source of the most active antifeedants in the feces is probably from bacterial or fungal lignin degrading symbionts in the pine weevil gut. The aim of the project was to analyze the pine weevil gut microbiot...

  6. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  7. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  8. Rise, use and treatment of works in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  9. Analysis of ERT data of geoelectrical permafrost monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick (Austrian Central Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Stefan; Schöner, Wolfgang; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Kim, Jung-Ho; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Heinrich, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In the Alps infrastructure facilities such as roads, routes or buildings are affected by the changes of permafrost, which often cause enormous reparation costs. Investigation on degradation of Alpine Permafrost in the last decade has increased, however, the understanding of the permafrost changes inducing its atmospheric forcing processes is still insufficient. Within the project ATMOperm the application of the geoelectrical method to estimate thawing layer thickness for mountain permafrost is investigated near the highest meteorological observatory of Austria on the Hoher Sonnblick. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize the transformation of ERT data to thermal changes in the subsurface. Based on an innovative time lapse inversion routine for ERT data (Kim J.-H. et al 2013) a newly developed data analysis software tool developed by Kim Jung-Ho (KIGAM) in cooperation with the Geophysics group of the Geological Survey of Austria allows the statistical analysis of the entire sample set of each and every data point measured by the geoelectrical monitoring instrument. This gives on the one hand of course an enhanced opportunity to separate between „good" and „bad" data points in order to assess the quality of measurements. On the other hand, the results of the statistical analysis define the impact of every single data point on the inversion routine. The interpretation of the inversion results will be supplemented by temperature logs from selected boreholes along the ERT profile as well as climatic parameters. KIM J.-H., SUPPER R., TSOURLOS P. and YI M.-J.: Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations. - Geophysical Journal International, 195(3), 1640-1656, 2013. Doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt324. (No OA) Acknowledgments: The geoelectrical monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick has been installed and is operated in the frame of the project ATMOperm (Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme

  10. Modeling glacier beds in the Austrian Alps: How many lakes will form in future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dominik; Geilhausen, Martin; Linsbauer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Glacial retreat exposes landscapes with relief characteristics greatly differing from the former ice covered surfaces. If glacial retreat exposes natural basins capable of forming proglacial lakes, then the downstream hydrologic and geomorphic systems in such catchments will be significantly altered due to discharge modifications, sediment trapping, decoupling effects and long term sediment storage (e.g. Geilhausen et al. 2013). Further implications are related to hydropower management, tourism and natural hazards. Consequently, sound knowledge of present day glacier beds ("proglacial zones of tomorrow") and in particular the total number, locations and characteristics of overdeepenings are of importance. For Austria, however, this important information about significant future changes of high alpine regions is yet missing. An interdisciplinary research project is currently in preparation to close this gap. This paper presents results of a pilot study. We used a novel GIS-based approach (GlabTop, cf. Linsbauer et al. 2012) to compute approximate glacier beds in the Austrian Alps. GlabTop ('Glacier bed Topography') is based on an empirical relation between average basal shear stress and elevation range of individual glaciers and makes use of digital elevation models (DEM), glacier outlines and branch lines (i.e. a set of lines covering all important glacier branches). DEMs and glacier outlines were derived from the Austrian glacier inventory (1998) and branch lines were manually digitized. The inventory includes 911 glaciers of which 876 (96%) were considered and 35 were excluded due to size restrictions ( 0.01 km²) with the potential of forming proglacial lakes when glacier retreat reveals the bed. The total area and volume of all overdeepenings is approx. 10 km² and 236 Mio m³ respectively and 33 lakes will be larger than 1 km³. A total glacier volume of 16 ± 5 km³ with an average ice thickness of 36 ± 11 m was calculated for 1998. Comparisons with

  11. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP

  12. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137Cs and 90Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137CS and 90Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137Cs and I.5% of the 90Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137Cs and 4.5% of the 90Sr. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137Cs and 90Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137Cs and 90Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  13. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  14. A New Flavonoid in Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-yan; SHI Xiao-feng; WANG Dong-dong; MA Qu-huan; ZHANG Jun-min; LI Chong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of flavonoids in pine needles of Cedrus deodara.Methods Flavonoids were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate extract of pine needles by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20.Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.Results Five flavonoids were isolated and purified.Their structures were identified as cedrusone A(1),myricetin(2),2R,3R-dihydromyricetin(3),quercctin(4),and 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin(5).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound.Compounds 2-5 are isolated from pine needles of this genus for the first time.

  15. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  16. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  17. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society together with the Swiss and Austrian Societies for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual meeting 2011 which took place at the EPFL in Lausanne on June 15-17, was organized jointly with the Austrian Physical Society OePG, and both national societies of Astronomy and Astrophysics (SSAA and OeGAA), as a successful follow-up of the Innsbruck meeting in 2009. With 10 parallel sessions, more than 470 submitted abstracts and nearly 650 participants, one can claim that our goal to make our meeting more attractive to the physics community was achieved. The commercial exhibition with the presence of 22 companies was the largest ever organized by our society. The 10 plenary talks of the three morning sessions covered a broad spectrum of modern physics from condensed matter physics (Bose Einstein condensation of photons, Quantum cascade lasers, 2D electron gas between insulators, stretchable electronics, superconductivity) to large scale physics (LHC at CERN, the ITER project at Cadarache) without forgetting Earth and planetary science (high velocity impacts in the solar system) and simulation of the universe by computational astrophysics. The presence of our Austrian colleagues had also an impact on the parallel sessions. For example a session 'Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin films' was organized as a complement to the Condensed Matter one. To our great pleasure a session on 'Theory and Simulations', composed of the three suptopics 'Large Scale Computing', 'Theoretical Physics Today' and 'Computational Astrophysics' was part of the program. Another novelty was the session on Geophysics which covered topics like geophysical fluid dynamics, Earth and planetary magnetism or even the safety assessment of deep geological nuclear waste depositories. On the first evening, a public lecture given in the Polydome by M. Marthaler and colleagues on the topic 'Le Cervin est-il africain? Une histoire de la derive des oceans et continents' unravelled the mystery of the origin of our most famous Swiss mountain, the Matterhorn. For the second time a successful series of

  18. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in pine needles from Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlikowska, A.; Falandysz, J.; Bochentin, I. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Gdansk (Poland); Hanari, N.; Wyrzykowska, B.; Yamashita, N. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are a group of 75 compounds, which have been commercially produced and used in a wide range of industrial applications for the sake of their specific chemical properties. They are recognized as good electrical insulators and also as water and flame resistant materials. Technical PCNs formulations were mainly used as capacitor dielectrics, engine oil additives, electroplating stop-off compounds, in wire insulations and as paper, wood and fabric preservatives. Moreover, they have been formed during production of PCBs formulations. Although recently most countries have stopped synthesis of PCNs, they still are widely distributed in the environment. Nowadays the principal sources of these compounds are municipal solid wastes incineration, metallurgical and chloro-alkali processes. In last years PCNs concentrations in the environment have posed the cynosure of big group of scientists in the whole world. The relatively high concentrations are regarded as an environmental problem. Because they are persistent, toxic and lipophilic they might be bioaccumulated in living organisms and generate the danger for animals and humans. It is essentially to monitor their levels in air, regional transport, as well as estimate specific sources. It is possible by using as a biomonitors pine tree needles. These trees are considered as the very suitable passive indicators for monitoring of PCNs concentrations in the troposphere. This is because the surface wax layer of the needles poses an ability to absorb these lipophilic compounds from the surrounding air. In the current study pine needles were employed as biomonitors of PCNs concentrations in the ambient air of Poland. This country with its past history of production and use of different applications including these compounds, as well as with its location in the centre of Europe, presents the interesting region to these researches.

  19. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  20. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  1. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. The radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (EmporeTM Radium Disks) and 210Po was determined by α-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by α-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from 228Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from 226Ra

  2. Success Factors for an E-Government Strategy: Austrian Experiences, Indonesian Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Behrens

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this paper are success factors for the implementation of an E-Government strategy. While concepts for a sophisticated strategy process in Public Sector are delivered on a regular basis, the gap between ambitious planning and its implementation seems to get wider. Authors seek to define what makes a “good strategy” in order to enhance management capacity. Meanwhile some scholars from Political Science see limitation of Governments on announcements which are not followed up by sufficient action rather as systematic problems, challenging concept and rules of liberal western democracy, or owed to growing complexity of Governance under the conditions of globalization. In context of the introduction of New Public Management and its perception of citizens as customers and on the basis of new available technical options in Information Society, a key Governance reform project in European and other Countries over the last fifteen years has been the introduction of E-Government. European market leader in this field is Austria. The author reviews concept and implementation experiences of the Austrian E-Government strategy, analyzes key success factors and opens a discussion, under which conditions a successful implementation of E-Government can take place in Indonesia.

  3. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  4. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  5. Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA – comparison between Austrian and German Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ganner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: With the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD the treatment of people with disabilities is changing from a protective perspective to a rights - based approach. The Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA is an important instrument, which helps with the implementation of the CRPD into national law. As an instrument of self - determined substituted decision - making it is recognised as the best practice model to safeguard the autonomy of people suffering the deprivations of age and other disabilities. This article touches briefly on general supported and substituted decision - making instruments and then goes on to examine the differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages b e- tween Austrian and German laws concerning EPoAs. DEUTSCH: Mit der Umsetzung der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention findet ein Paradigmenwechsel und Umdenken im Umgang mit Personen mit Behinderungen statt. Der Primat der Fürsorge weicht einem liberalen, auf Menschenrechten basierenden Ansatz. In diesem Kontext ist die Vorsorgevollmacht ein effektives Mittel, das die Implementation der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention in nationales Recht vorantreibt und die Selbstbestimmung und Eigenständigkeit altersbedingt eingeschränkter Menschen und von Menschen mit Behinderungen gewährleistet. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich einleitend mit allgemeinen Rechtsinstrumenten der (unterstützten Entscheidungsfindung bei nicht selbst entscheidungsfähigen Personen und analysiert in weiterer Folge Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede sowie Vor- und Nachteile der Vorsorgevollmacht nach österreichischem und deutschem Recht.

  6. Influences of updated land-use datasets on WRF simulations for two Austrian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, Irene; Arnold Arias, Dèlia; Seibert, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out with the weather research and forecasting model to study the influence of different land-use datasets for two Austrian regions, the high-alpine Inn Valley area and the hilly Vienna Basin area. The three land-use datasets used were USGS, MODIS and a reclassified European dataset based on the CORINE CLC06 data. Simulations covered an episode in July 2007 applying a resolution of 0.8 km. Results were compared with surface observation data, radiosoundings, and satellite data. It was found that land-use both in the original CLC06 and the version where it had been reclassified to USGS classes for use in WRF was significantly more realistic than the built-in land-use datasets (USGS and MODIS). Synoptic processes during the episode considered were reproduced well by all simulations, where CLC06 and MODIS improved the model performance in both regions in terms of the surface temperatures and other meteorological parameters.

  7. The Austrian Botanic Gardens Work Group, an Example of Active Networking to Promote Small Botanic Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roland K. EBERWEIN

    2011-01-01

    The continuously increasing demands on botanic gardens during the last few decades have led to a huge in increase administration and an urgent need for additional specialized personnel, especially botanists, teachers, database specialists and administrative staff. Instead of meeting these requirements, many botanic gardens are faceing a severe decrease in funding and personnel. Larger gardens provide the opportunity to distribute several tasks to different employees, whereas small gardens are short staffed and often nn by a single curator who has to fulfill all functions. In order to meet actual demands more easily, the Austrian botanic gardens are linked nationally via an active workgroup.This network not only allows the distribution of information but also facilitates the sharing of duties. A listserver speeds up the communication and correspondence within the workgroup, collection priorities and projects (e. g., GSPC) are coordinated, seedbanking becomes decentralized, printedmatters are shared and distributed, etc. Small gardens with only few employees can participate in projects by taking on small-ideally using with their special resources-in order not to fall behind. In addition, there is also an urgent need for international networking by means of plant and seed exchange (Index Semihum), BGCI membership, discussion groups, personal contacts and projects. Mission statements,special marketing strategies for public relations, integrating projects of other workgroup members and adapted public awareness programs are important to focus attention to small gardens and to help them keep alive.

  8. Teleconsultation 2001 - working group report of the Austrian Roentgen Society (OeRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the working group ''Teleconsultation'' of the Austrian Roentgen Society (OeRG) has performed a first survey about the status of teleradiological applications in Austria. Now, in 2001, a second survey was performed in order to adapt the OeRG's approach in this field to the most actual needs. Most of the 38 teleradiological projects in Austria already working or shortly before inauguration are aiming at an improvement of the medical service in favour of our patients (expert consultation, image transfer to doctors requesting radiological examinations, clinical case discussion). However, a small but not unimportant fraction of teleradiology projects in Austria (11%) is performed for replacement of radiologists on duty, therefore for reasons mainly directed to minimising costs for the hospital administration. Other purposes of teleradiology projects, like quality assurance and medical education have even lost their small importance the 1997 survey already has shown. This paper discusses the professional implications from the results of the 2001 survey and the legal framework for the application of telecommunication in diagnostic radiology. The most important goal of all professional activities in radiology is the well-being of our patients, based on the immediacy of the medical profession in accordance with the ''physician law''. (orig.)

  9. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933. PMID:27388257

  10. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  11. Sustainability Management with the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard in SMEs: Findings from an Austrian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Falle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the economic importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs and their need for strategic sustainability management, this paper examines the concept of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC with respect to SMEs. This case study describes the development of an SBSC in a middle-sized Austrian brewery. The existing methods used in SBSC creation were adapted to suit the company’s specific needs. The findings show that when developing an SBSC it is important to take specific SME characteristics into account and apply methods that allow for adaptation to the prevailing conditions, such as strategic management, organizational structure and resources. In the case study special attention was paid to strategy analysis and thereby the creation of a solid basis for the SBSC. Furthermore, the results show SBSC development is not a process of distinct consecutive steps, as it is often suggested in the literature, but rather that it is a complex process marked by iterative steps. Moreover, the paper highlights the supporting factors and challenges experienced. Whereas top management support, the presence of a project team and high employee involvement were identified as key supporting factors, a lack of specific resources and blurry strategy formulation exert negative influence on the development process. The results presented here should help other SMEs in their development of an SBSC. The paper stimulates scientific discourse on sustainability and strategic management by highlighting the relevant supporting factors and challenges.

  12. [Burnout symptoms in Austrian student nurses in their third year of training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Clemens

    2009-08-01

    Burnout is considered a major negative outcome of work related distress in social and health care services, especially in nursing. In the present study 179 student nurses in their third year of training and 47 registered nurses, all working in the Austrian province of Salzburg, were examined with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Compared on a regional and national level, burnout scores of student nurses were equal to those of registered nurses and workers in social and nursing professions. The specific stressors of education and training lead to strain comparable to years of professional experience and exposure to stressors. The relatively high level of satisfaction with life in student nurses may be due to specific resources and ways of compensation, that require further examination. Differences between urban and rural districts (with lower burnout scores and higher satisfaction with life sores in rural districts) were strong in student nurses. Compared with international nurse and health care samples, burnout is relatively low in the examined groups. Registered nurses and student nurses in rural districts show the lowest scores of all in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, respectively.

  13. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  14. Haunted Encounters: Exile and Holocaust Literature in German and Austrian Post-war Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Lang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In an essay titled ‘The Exiled Tongue’ (2002, Nobel Prize winner Imre Kertész develops a genealogy of Holocaust and émigré writing, in which the German language plays an important, albeit contradictory, role. While the German language signified intellectual independence and freedom of self-definition (against one’s roots for Kertész before the Holocaust, he notes (based on his engagement with fellow writer Jean Améry that writing in German created severe difficulties in the post-war era. Using the examples of Hilde Spiel and Friedrich Torberg, this article explores this notion and asks how the loss of language experienced by Holocaust survivors impacted on these two Austrian-Jewish writers. The article argues that, while the works of Spiel and Torberg are haunted by the Shoah, the two writers do not write in the post-Auschwitz language that Kertész delineates in his essays, but are instead shaped by the exile experience of both writers. At the same time though, Kertész’ concept seems to be haunted by exile, as his reception of Jean Améry’s works, which form the basis of his linguistic genealogies, shows an inability to integrate the experience of exile.

  15. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Gabriele [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: gabriele.wallner@univie.ac.at; Wagner, Rosmarie [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Katzlberger, Christian [Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, CC Radiation Protection and Radiochemistry, Spargelfeldstrasse 191, A-1226 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-15

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U. The radium isotopes as well as {sup 210}Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore{sup TM} Radium Disks) and {sup 210}Po was determined by {alpha}-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by {alpha}-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF{sub 3}. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from {sup 228}Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from {sup 226}Ra.

  16. Runs of Homozygosity Reveal Genome-wide Autozygosity in the Austrian Fleckvieh Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ferencakovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Runs of homozygosity (ROH are recognized as potential inbreeding measure in studies on humans. Inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH (FROH measure proportion of the genome arranged in long homozygous segments and highly correlate with those derived from pedigree (Fped. From that we assumed that ROH represent an alternative to pedigree inbreeding levels in studies on animals too, because pedigree can be incorrect, incomplete and can not fully explain what happened in meiosis. To confirm our premise we used pedigree and genotype data from 500 Austrian dual purpose Simmental bulls to determine correlation between FROH and Fped. ROH were obtainedusing Fortran 90 soft ware created by the authors. Proportions of genome in ROH were calculated for lengths of ROH of >1, >2, >4, >8 and >16 Mb. Pedigree data were analyzed and inbreeding coefficients for complete pedigree (FpedT and five generations (Fped5 were calculated using ENDOG soft ware. We found low FpedT and Fped5 (means of 1.5% and 0.9% while FROH for segments >1Mb suggested much higher values (9.0% indicating old inbreeding that can not be traced using pedigree. The highest correlations were found between FROH calculated from ROH of length >4Mb and FpedT (0.68 that is consistent with studies on humans. We conclude that inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH are useful for measuring levels of inbreeding in cattle, because ROH are not subject to mistakes as pedigrees and calculations made from those.

  17. The Boneyard Episode One: Young Pine and God's Country

    OpenAIRE

    Urdrian Jr, William Allen

    2015-01-01

    The Boneyard Episode One: Young Pine is supernatural crime drama that deals with connection between twins. God's Country is a suspense drama about an undercover agent that must infiltrate a growing militia hell bent sussing from the United States.

  18. Preparation and Properties of HBS Lignin from Masson Pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xian-su; CHEN Wei-jian; CHEN Yun-ping; CHEN Yue-xian; LI Mian-jun; FANG Hua-shu

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish a new method for making cellulose and lignin from Masson pine, a high boiling solvent (HBS) pulping process with an aqueous solvent of 1,4-butanediol was investigated. Masson pine chips were pulped with a 70%-90% aqueous solution of 1,4-butanediol containing a small amount of a catalyst at 200-220 ℃ for 60-180 min. HBS Masson pine cellulose is suitable for making paper. Water-insoluble HBS lignin was separated from the liquor reaction mixture by water precipitation. The recovered high boiling solvent (RHBS) is able to be recycled as a pulping solvent, indicating that the HBS method is a pulping process of Masson pine which is energy saving, resources saving and pollution free. HBS lignin has a better chemical reactivity and a lower ash content than lignin sulfonate.

  19. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  20. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  1. PineSAP—sequence alignment and SNP identification pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L Wegrzyn; Lee, Jennifer M.; Liechty, John; Neale, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The Pine Alignment and SNP Identification Pipeline (PineSAP) provides a high-throughput solution to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prediction using multiple sequence alignments from re-sequencing data. This pipeline integrates a hybrid of customized scripting, existing utilities and machine learning in order to increase the speed and accuracy of SNP calls. The implementation of this pipeline results in significantly improved multiple sequence alignments and SNP identifications ...

  2. Interference interactions in experimental pine-hardwood stands

    OpenAIRE

    Fredericksen, Todd Simon

    1991-01-01

    Competition for resources and other interference from non-crop vegetation often limits the productivity of pine and pine-hardwood forest stands in the southern United States. However, forest researchers have yet to fully quantify the effect of this interference on forest tree yield and there is an incomplete understanding of the biological mechanisms of interference. To better quantify the effects of interference interactions and elucidate their mechanisms, a field replacement series experime...

  3. Flows of Chemical Substances in Latvian Pine Forests Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Tērauda, Evija

    2008-01-01

    FLOWS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN LATVIAN PINE FORESTS ECOSYSTEMS Annotation As a basis of the study, data from integrated monitoring stations of Latvia have been used. The objective of the study is to study turnover of substances in ecosystems of pine forests in the boreo-nemoral zone. The results of the study showed that the mean concentration of studied elements (except Pb) increased in the order: bulk precipitation

  4. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, C. D.; Savage, M.; Falk, D. A.; Suckling, K. F.; Swetnam, T.W.; Schulke, T.; Stacey, P. B.; Morgan, P.; Hoffman, M; Klingel, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emer...

  5. Importance of residual trees to birds in regenerating pine plantations

    OpenAIRE

    JC Jones; Demarais S; Hanberry P; Hanberry BB

    2012-01-01

    Pine plantation establishment methods can alter vegetation composition and structure, thus affecting habitat important characteristics for declining early successional bird species. We evaluated eight vegetation characteristics, which varied due to a range of pine plantation establishment methods, to identify vegetation most closely associated with spring bird abundance in the Lower Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi, USA. Presence of residual trees and snags was positively related to rela...

  6. Restoring Ecosystem Health in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Covington, W. Wallace; Fule, Peter Z; Moore, Margaret M.; Hart, Stephen C.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Mast, Joy N; Sackett, Stephen S; Wagner, Michael R

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has established that presettlement ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the southwestern USA were much more open. After Euro-American settlement, heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, logging and climatic events favored dense pine regeneration. Studies were established within the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, near Flagstaff, Arizona, to determine: how the structure (by biomass component) and nutrient storage changed over the last century of fire exclusion in a...

  7. Allergy to pine nuts in a bird fancier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, A; Vermeulen, A; Dieges, P H; van Toorenenbergen, A W

    1996-10-01

    A patient is described with the bird-egg syndrome who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating some of her parrot's food (pine nuts: Pinus pinea). Specific IgE against this nut and another pine nut (P. cembra) was demonstrated by RAST. Cross-reactivity between these botanically related seeds was shown by RAST inhibition. Besides avian antigens, bird food antigens should be taken into consideration when symptoms of allergy occur on exposure to birds.

  8. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  9. Fire, red squirrels, whitebark pine, and Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podruzny, Shannon; Reinhart, D.P.; Mattson, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) habitats are important to Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) as refugia and sources of food. Ecological relationships between whitebark pine, red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and grizzly bear use of pine seeds on Mt. Washburn in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were examined during 1984-86. Following large-scale fires in 1988, we repeated the study in 1995-97 to examine the effects of fire on availability of whitebark pine seed in red squirrel middens and on bear use of middens. Half of the total length of the original line transects burned. We found no red squirrel middens in burned areas. Post-fire linear-abundance (no./km) of active squirrel middens that were pooled from burned and unburned areas decreased 27% compared to pre-fire abundance, but increased in unburned portions of some habitat types. Mean size of active middens decreased 54% post-fire. Use of pine seeds by bears (linear abundance of excavated middens) in pooled burned and unburned habitats decreased by 64%, likely due to the combined effects of reduced midden availability and smaller midden size. We discourage any further large-scale losses of seed producing trees from management-prescribed fires or timber harvesting until the effects of fire on ecological relationships in the whitebark pine zone are better understood.

  10. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with 40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined

  11. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  12. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  13. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  14. Influence of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels, Foliar Fuel Moisture Content, and Litter and Volatile Terpenes in Whitebark Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Toone, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has caused extensive tree mortality in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) forests. Previous studies conducted in various conifer forests have shown that fine surface fuels are significantly altered during a bark beetle outbreak. Bark beetle activity in conifer stands has also been shown to alter foliar fuel moisture content and chemistry over the course of the bark beetle rotation.The objective of this study was to evaluate changes ...

  15. Rapid Increases in Forest Understory Diversity and Productivity following a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Outbreak in Pine Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pec, Gregory J.; Justine Karst; Sywenky, Alexandra N.; Cigan, Paul W.; Nadir Erbilgin; Simard, Suzanne W.; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks ar...

  16. Mars Analog Mission: Glacier Simulation AMADEE-15 by Austrian Space Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Losiak, Anna; Soucek, Alexander; Plank, Clemens; Zanardini, Laura; Sejkora, Nina; Sams, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Austrian Space Forum: The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF, Österreichisches Weltraum Forum) is a non-profit, citizen-science organization of aerospace specialists and enthusiasts. One of its specialisations is Mars analog research. Analog studies and analog instrument validation supported all planetary surface missions so far [1] and are considered as an effective tool to prepare for future missions to Mars [2,3,4,5,6,7]. Since 2006, OeWF has conducted 11 Mars analog field campaigns in diverse locations that represented: 1) average current Mars conditions (the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah in 2006 [8] and the Northern Sahara near Erfoud, Morocco in 2013 [9]); 2) the early and wet Mars (analog site of Rio Tinto Spain in 2011 [10]); and 3) subsurface exploration (Dachstein Ice Caves in 2012). During these campaigns, 68 experiments and major engineering tests were performed, whichwere mostly focused on astrobiology, robotics, human factors, geoscience and spacesuit operations. Major assets of OeWF include two advanced spacesuit simulators Aouda [11], an increasingly evolving Mission Support Center, a dedicated Remote Science Support team [12], and a growing set of Standard Operating Procedures defining major workflows within a mission team. The spacesuit simulators were operated by a total of 18 analog astronauts, who were selected and trained during a >6 month program. Total EVA time is nearly 600 hours, leading to a significant experience in analog field simulations. AMADEE-15: The mission took place between August 2nd and 14th 2015 at the Kaunertal Glacier in Tyrol, Austria. This glacier was selected as a study site because of its accessibility and high number of micro-landscapes analogous to those expected on Mars in locations where abundant water ice is present. As such it is considered a first-tier Mars analog [13]. The Base station was located at N 46.86320, E 10.71401 at 2800 masl, the highest reached location was on elevation of 2887 m. Eleven

  17. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing varia...

  18. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  19. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shang; Kun Li; Wantong He; Chunbo Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) is widely applied in design and construction of under-ground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs) associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones). With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of en-gineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Compre-hensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those pre-dicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  20. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  1. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  2. The evolutionary history of the rediscovered Austrian population of the giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata Latreille 1829 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Philip Oeyen

    Full Text Available The thermophilous giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata is a voracious terrestrial predator, which uses its modified first leg pair and potent venom to capture prey. The highly variable species is the most common of the genus in Europe, occurring from Portugal in the west to Iran in the east. The northernmost occurrences are in Hungary and Romania, where it abides in small isolated fringe populations. We report the rediscovery of an isolated Austrian population of Scolopendra cingulata with the first explicit specimen records for more than 80 years and provide insights into the evolutionary history of the northernmost populations utilizing fragments of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, comprising 1,155 base pairs. We test the previously proposed hypothesis of a speciation by distance scenario, which argued for a simple range expansion of the species from the southeast, via Romania, Hungary and finally to Austria, based on a comprehensive taxon sampling from seven countries, including the first European mainland samples. We argue that more complex patterns must have shaped the current distribution of S. cingulata and that the Austrian population should be viewed as an important biogeographical relict in a possible microrefugium. The unique haplotype of the Austrian population could constitute an important part of the species genetic diversity and we hope that this discovery will initiate protective measures not only for S. cingulata, but also for its habitat, since microrefugia are likely to host further rare thermophilous species. Furthermore, we take advantage of the unprecedented sampling to provide the first basic insights into the suitability of the COI fragment as a species identifying barcode within the centipede genus Scolopendra.

  3. DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF PINE FOREST RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manunya Phanphanich

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The thin layer drying of pine forest residues consisting of bark, needles, leaves, and chips was experimentally conducted at air temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80oC. Physical and chemical properties of fractionated forest residues were determined to evaluate its fuel properties. The experimental data obtained from thin layer drying study were fitted with Lewis, Page, and Henderson and Pabis equations to evaluate the drying behavior of the forest residues. Among the three drying models, the Henderson and Pabis model fitted well with the experimental drying data at the tested temperatures (40, 50, 60, 70, 80oC, achieving R2 values of 0.992, 0.994, 0.997, 0.989, and 0.983, respectively. The drying constant k for the forest residues was increased with increase in drying air temperature and was correlated in the form of a second order regression equation. The thin layer drying data developed from this study will be useful for designing low temperature dryers for forest residues.

  4. Estimating slash pine biomass using radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Reich, Robin M.; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    L-band HV multiple-incidence-angle aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were analyzed in relation to average stand biomass, basal area, and tree height for 55 slash pine plantations located in northern Florida. This information was used to develop a system of equations to predict average stand biomass as a function of L-band (24.5-cm) radar backscatter. The system of equations developed in this study using three-stage least-squares and combinatorial screening accounted for 97 percent of the variability observed in average stand biomass per hectare. When applied to an independent data set, the biomass equations had an average bias of less than 1 percent with a standard error of approximately 3 percent. These results indicate that future Shuttle Imaging Radar Systems (e.g., SIR-C, which will have cross-polarized radar sensors) should be able to obtain better estimates of forest biomass than were obtained with previous satellite radar missions, which utilized only HH-polarized SAR data.

  5. Analysis on enzymatic browning in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, K.H.; Park, H.J.; Choi, S.S.; Cho, S.H. [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Y.T. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Tyrosinases are related to the enzymatic browning of plants and attract the major scientific interest for the prevention of it. Three tyrosinase isozymes (P{sub 1}, P{sub 2} and P{sub 3}) from pine needles were purified to homogeneity and characterized the factors that affect their activities. The L-ascorbic acid and {beta}-mercaptoethanol notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of the three isozymes. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a competitive inhibitor of isozymes with the K{sub i} values of P{sub 1}(0.30 mM), P{sub 2}(0.015 mM) and P{sub 3}(0.019 mM), respectively. Their enzyme activities were however, increased by the addition of most metal ions. The optimum pH for the three isozymes was 9.0{approx}9.5 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 55 to 60{sup o} C using L-DOPA as substrate. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Regional geology of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline comprises about 14km of chronostratigraphic mainly pelitic and psammitic Lower Proterozoic sediments with interlayered tuff units, resting on granitic late Archaean complexes exposed as three small domes. Sedimentation took place in one basin, and most stratigraphic units are represented throughout the basin. The sediments were regionally deformed and metamorphosed at 1800Ma. Tightly folded greenschist facies strata in the centre grade into isoclinally deformed amphibolite facies metamorphics in the west and northeast. Pre and post-orogenic continental tholeiites, and post-orogenic granite diapirs intrude the Lower Proterozoic metasediments, and the granites are surrounded by hornfels zones up to 10km wide in the greenschist facies terrane. Cover rocks of Carpentarian (Middle Proterozoic) and younger ages rest on all these rocks unconformably and conceal the original basin margins. The Lower Proterozoic metasediments are mainly pelites (about 75 percent) which are commonly carbonaceous, lesser psammites and carbonates (about 10 percent each), and minor rudites (about 5 percent). Volcanic rocks make up about 10 percent of the total sequence. The environment of deposition ranges from shallow-marine to supratidal and fluviatile for most of the sequence, and to flysch in the topmost part. Poor exposure and deep weathering over much of the area hampers correlation of rock units; the correlation preferred by the authors is presented, and possible alternatives are discussed. Regional geological observations pertinent to uranium ore genesis are described. (author)

  7. Radiocesium in a Danish pine forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, M.

    1994-01-01

    During the autumn of 1991, a Scots pine forest, Tisvilde Hegn, was investigated with respect to the distribution of radiocesium on compartments in the forest ecosystem. The sandy acidic soil is poor, with a approximately 5-cm thick layer of organic soil, and clay content is very low, between 0...... of the different components of the forest ecosystem to accumulate radiocesium. OR is defined as the ratio between the content of Cs-137 kg-1 (dry wt.) and the deposition per meter square. In vascular plants, mosses and lichens, OR varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m2/kg. In fungi, it varied between 0.05 and 4.5 m2/kg......, though generally it was between 0.2 and 1 m2/kg. OR (Cs-137 kg-1/dry wt. of meat x Cs-137 m-2) levels in three roe deer samples varied between 0.016 and 0.21 kg-1/dry wt. With an annual harvest of around 70 000 animals, this might be the most important pathway of this radionuclide to man from semi...

  8. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  9. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  10. Putting 600,000 Books Online: the Large-Scale Digitisation Partnership between the Austrian National Library and Google

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a public-private partnership with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised and made available free of charge. The project demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling our heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provided that such partnerships are not exclusive and free access is ensured. The article outlines the preparatory phase and work flows established in the project.

  11. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  12. A Research on the Processing of Pine Needle, Pine Pollen and Pine Nut Nougat%三松充气牛轧糖的工艺研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宁; 王立江

    2015-01-01

    以松针、松花粉、松子为主要原料,按不同配比添加原料中,通过单因素和正交试验,制作的牛轧糖原料添加的最佳配比是:即白糖与糖浆1∶2制成糖液,糖液添加量为70.6%,黄油添加量为11.7%,蛋白添加量为4.1%,松针粉添加量为11.7%,生产的牛轧糖风味、口感和营养价值比较高。%In the present research, pine needle, pine pollen, pine nuare used as the primary materials, and the optimum formula for the nougat was confirmed by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the amount of sugar solution was 70.6%, which was made of the sugar and syrup———the ratio of the two elements was 1∶2;the amount of butter was 11.7%;the amount of albumen was 4.1%;the amount of pine neelde powder was 11.7%.

  13. A trial investigating the symptoms related to pine nut syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, N Z

    2012-09-01

    During the last few years, thousands of cases of pine nut-related dysgeusia have been reported. The symptoms involved are predominantly related to taste disturbances such as a constant bitter or metallic taste. The taste disturbance has been reported to occur 1-2 days after ingestion of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii. This paper describes a small trial where six volunteers consumed six to eight pine nuts suspected to cause dysgeusia. Incubation periods, symptoms and their duration were recorded. The trial showed that all subjects had developed symptoms of pine nut-related dysgeusia. Four out of six subjects experienced the classical bitter and metallic taste 1-2 days after ingestion. Two subjects experienced minor symptoms such as dryness and a sensation of enlarged tonsils. After the disappearance of symptoms, laboratory tests determined the pine nuts to originate from the species of P. armandii. A follow-up conversation with the subjects after 1 year showed no recurrent symptoms.

  14. Joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, Swiss physical society, Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics in Innsbruck. Bulletin SPG / SSP Vol 26, 2009; OEPG Tagungsband Nr. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This was the first joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, the Swiss physical society and the Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics with the participation of the Swiss society for astrophysics and astronomy. Its objective was to improve the scientific communication and cooperation of researchers of both countries in all fields of physics and astronomy. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status from topics such as atomic clusters interactions to nuclear physics and physics of nanostructures. The topical sessions were dedicated to: atomic- and molecular physics and quantum optics; applied physics (medical physics, thin films, molecular physics and materials); nuclear and particle physics (nuclear physics, colliders (LHCb, Belle, CMS I, CMS II and HERA, ATLAS I and II, PANDA), low and medium energy (UCN, OPERA), astrophysics and particle physics; plasma physics; solid state physics (x-rays and neutrons, spins, magnetism, nano and photonics); surfaces, boundary layers and thin films; history of physics and physics in the school. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  15. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  16. A 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in response to oxidative stress in the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Li; Qingwen Zhang; Xuguo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease that has devastated pine forests in Asia. Parasitic nematodes are known to have evolved antioxidant stress responses that defend against host plant defenses. In this study, the infestation of whitebark pine, Pinus bungean, with B. xylophilus led to a significant increase in plant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid levels. Correspondingly, the expression of an antioxidative enzyme, 2-Cysteine ...

  17. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, William D.; Hugh Finn; Jackson Parker; Ken Dods

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025...

  18. The discharge of certain amounts of industrial microplastic from a production plant into the River Danube is permitted by the Austrian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Aaron; Ramler, David

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have quantified the amount of plastic litter in aquatic ecosystems and tried to assess its impacts and threats. This reflects a rising awareness of plastic as an environmental problem. As a next logical step, identifying and regulating the sources must be in the focus of scientific efforts. We report on a spillage of industrial microplastic (IMP) from a production plant situated at an Austrian Danube tributary. This is the first identified point source of IMP litter in freshwater systems. However, due to generous thresholds established by the Austrian government substantial amounts of IMP are legally introduced into running waters. PMID:25734504

  19. Mountain pine beetle-caused mortality over eight years in two pine hosts in mixed conifer stands of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Jacobi, William R.; Negrón, José F.

    2014-01-01

    Eruptive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) populations have caused widespread mortality of pines throughout western North America since the late 1990s. Early work by A.D. Hopkins suggested that when alternate host species are available, MPB will prefer to breed in the host to which it has become adapted. In Colorado, epidemic MPB populations that originated in lodgepole pine expanded into mixed-conifer stands containing ponderosa pine, a related host. We evaluated the susceptibility of both hosts to successful MPB colonization in a survey of 19 sites in pine-dominated mixed-conifer stands spanning 140 km of the Front Range, CO, USA. In each of three 0.2-ha plots at each site, we (1) assessed trees in the annual flights of 2008–2011 to compare MPB-caused mortality between lodgepole and ponderosa pine; (2) recorded previous MPB-caused tree mortality from 2004–2007 to establish baseline mortality levels; and (3) measured characteristics of the stands (e.g. tree basal area) and sites (e.g. elevation, aspect) that might be correlated with MPB colonization. Uninfested average live basal area of lodgepole and ponderosa pine was 74% of total basal area before 2004. We found that for both species, annual percent basal area of attacked trees was greatest in one year (2009), and was lower in all other years (2004–2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011). Both pine species had similar average total mortality of 38–39% by 2011. Significant predictors of ponderosa pine mortality in a given year were basal area of uninfested ponderosa pine and the previous year’s mortality levels in both ponderosa and lodgepole pine. Lodgepole pine mortality was predicted by uninfested basal areas of both lodgepole and ponderosa pine, and the previous year’s lodgepole pine mortality. These results indicate host selection by MPB from lodgepole pine natal hosts into ponderosa pine the following year, but not the reverse. In both species, diameters of attacked trees within each year

  20. 75 FR 29686 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: N.A. Sutton, Regulations and Rulings Division, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau... Environs, and Families,'' refers to the Pine Mountain junction and the Pine Mountain toll road in... winemaking in the Pine Mountain region goes back to the 19th century, according to the petition. The...

  1. 76 FR 66629 - Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... date: November 28, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elisabeth C. Kann, Regulations and Rulings..., and Families,'' refers to the Pine Mountain junction and the Pine Mountain toll road in discussing the.... boundary line. The history of grape-growing and winemaking in the Pine Mountain region goes back to...

  2. Modeling of SAR returns from a red pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. H.; Kilic, O.; Chauhan, N. S.; Ranson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Bright P-band radar returns from red pine forests have been observed on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in Bangor, Maine. A plot of red pine trees was selected for the characterization and modeling to understand the cause of the high P-band returns. The red pine stand under study consisted of mature trees. Diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements were made to determine stand density as a function of tree diameter. Soil moisture and bulk density measurements were taken along with ground rough surface profiles. Detailed biomass measurements of the needles, shoots, branches, and trunks were also taken. These site statistics have been used in a distorted Born approximation model of the forest. Computations indicate that the direct-reflected or the double-bounce contributions from the ground are responsible for the high observed P-band returns for HH polarization.

  3. Results of a first look into the Austrian animal phenological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifinger, H.; Koch, E. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Winkler, H. [Konrad Lorenz Inst. for Ethology, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-04-01

    The year to year variability and trends of animal phenological phases (honey bee, cockchafer, 3 butterfly species, swallow and cuckoo) of the Austrian phenological observational network were related to each other and to mean monthly temperatures over the time period 1951-1998. Insect phases were well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.4 to 0.6) and with temperature (r{sup 2} = 0.25 to 0.55), whereas both bird phases were only well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.57), but showed low common variance values with temperature and with other animal phases. The slope of the temperature-pheno regression, also termed as temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase, was high in the case of the insect phases (-3 to -5 days/ C), but low in the cases of both bird phases (about -1 days/ C). All animal phenological time series showed a trend towards later occurrence dates. The trends of the bird phases were even significant (p<0.1). There was a marked discrepancy between the trends of all animal phenological and temperature time series, especially between the insects and temperature: the mean temperature time series of February, March and April with the highest common variance with the insect phases showed a strongly increasing trend (0.027 C/year), whereas the first appearance dates of the insects tended to occur later (0.06 to 0.15 days/year). Both bird phases correlated weakly with the mean April temperature (r{sup 2} about 0.1). The temperature trend of April was 0.0003 C/year, whereas the trend of the bird phases was 0.2 days/year for the cuckoo and 0.25 days/year for the swallow. From these observations we conclude that a strong temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase based on the year to year variability (in days/ C) does not necessarily result in corresponding trends of temperature and phenological phase. A strong trend of non-atmospheric factors such as population density influencing the animal phases is suspected. Factors other than local

  4. Modelling tunnel jet emissions with LASAT: evaluation study with two Austrian data sets (Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermuhlentunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Hirtl

    2011-02-01

    model parameters derived for the Ehrentalerbergtunnel are also applied to this site. It is shown that LASAT is able to simulate the position of the plume and that the modelled and the measured concentration values do not deviate more than 30 %. This study reveals that LASAT can be applied to tunnel portal emissions. The model simulations for both the Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermühlentunnel meet the requirements specified in the Austrian design guideline RVS 9.263 “Ventilation Systems - Pollutant burden at portals”.

  5. Wood pellet production costs under Austrian and in comparison to Swedish framework conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thek, Gerold [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Obernberger, Ingwald [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Graz Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Graz (Austria)

    2004-12-01

    pellet production costs to be considerably lower due to larger plant capacities, the combination of pellet production and biomass CHP or biomass district heating plants and the implementation of technologies which allow an efficient heat recovery from the dryers. Moreover, another difference between the Austrian and the Swedish framework conditions is the price of electricity, which is much lower in Sweden. (Author)

  6. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  7. Identification of relevant micropollutants in Austrian municipal wastewater and their behaviour during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, M; Windhofer, G; Weilgony, P; Gans, O; Denner, M; Chovanec, A; Zessner, M

    2012-06-01

    The European Union has defined environmental quality standards (EQSs) for surface waters for priority substances and several other pollutants. Furthermore national EQSs for several chemicals are valid in Austria. The study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In a first screening of 15 WWTPs relevant substances were identified, which subsequently were monitored in 9 WWTPs over 1 year (every 2 months). Out of 77 substances or groups of substances (including more than 90 substances) 13 were identified as potentially relevant in respect to water pollution and subjected to the monitoring, whereas most other compounds were detected in concentrations far below the respective EQS for surface waters and therefore not further considered. The preselected 13 compounds for monitoring were cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), diuron, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(ethyl-hydroxyl)phthalate (DEHP), tributyltin compounds (TBT), nonylphenoles (NP), adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and the complexing agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). In the effluents of WWTPs the concentrations of the priority substances Cd, NP, TBT and diuron frequently exceeded the respective EQS, whereas the concentrations for DEHP and Ni were below the respective EQS. The effluent concentrations for AOX, EDTA, NTA, Cu, Se and Zn frequently are in the range or above the Austrian EQS for surface waters. Besides diuron and EDTA all compounds are removed at least partially during wastewater treatment and for most substances the removal via the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. For the 13 compounds which were monitored in WWTP effluents population equivalent specific discharges were calculated. Since for many compounds no or only few information is available, these population equivalent specific discharges can be used to assess emissions from

  8. Use of the TRIGA Reactor by the Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities uses the TRIGA Mark II Reactor mainly for neutron activation analysis. Transport of samples to and from the irradiation positions in the reactor is performed by fast pneumatic transfer systems (transfer time 20 msec and 300 msec) and slow conventional transport facilities. Gamma-spectrometric instrumentation equipped with loss free counting systems is used to handle the high count rates up to 500 000 counts/sec. During the last years neutron activation analysis was applied to investigate environmental samples (soil, dust, incineration ash), geological samples (rocks, sediments, fossils, volcanic gases), biological materials (lichens, mushrooms and other plant materials, human diet, biological reference materials), raw materials (phosphate, coal) and archaeological materials (ancient glass). Lichen analysis was used for environmental monitoring. The content of some of the trace elements can be correlated with industrial activities, like manganese content with steel industry, the occurrence of vanadium and nickel with oil firing plants and stainless steel industry, selenium is found in lichen near coal firing plants. The amount of chlorine and sodium indicates the application of salt for road treatment during winter time, aluminum, scandium and hafnium content depends on the amount of dust in the environment. A further environmental application of neutron activation analysis is the determination of trace elements in volcanic gases. The halogens, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and mercury were determined and their daily output was calculated. The distribution of trace elements in fossils of known age gives us a geochemical key to condition and development of the paleo-environment. For this purpose we determined rare earth elements in 250 million years old microfossils (conodonts). Neutron activation analysis served also for some non scientific but nevertheless useful purposes: Organic

  9. Derivation of GNSS derived station velocities for a surface deformation model in the Austrian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Maras, Jadre; Brückl, Ewald

    2016-04-01

    This contribution deals with the first comprehensive analysis of GNSS derived surface velocities computed within an observation network of about 100 stations covering the whole Austrian territory and parts of the neighbouring countries. Coordinate time series are available now, spanning a period of 5 years (2010.0-2015.0) for one focus area in East Austria and one and a half year (2013.5-2015.0) for the remaining part of the tracking network. In principle the data series are stemming from two different GNSS campaigns. The former was set up to investigate intra plate tectonic movements within the framework of the project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics), the latter was designed to support a number of various requests, e.g. derivation of GNSS derived water vapour fields, but also to expand the foresaid tectonic studies. In addition the activities within the ALPAACT project supplement the educational initiative SHOOLS & QUAKES, where scholars contribute to seismological research. For the whole period of the processed coordinate time series daily solutions have been computed by means of the Bernese software. The processed coordinate time series are tied to the global reference frame ITRF2000 as well as to the frame ITRF2008. Due to the transition of the reference from ITRF2000 to ITRF2008 within the processing period, but also due to updates of the Bernese software from version 5.0 to 5.2 the time series were initially not fully consistent and have to be re-aligned to a common frame. So the goal of this investigation is to derive a nationwide consistent horizontal motion field on base of GNSS reference station data within the ITRF2008 frame, but also with respect to the Eurasian plate. In this presentation we focus on the set-up of the coordinate time series and on the problem of frame alignment. Special attention is also paid to the separation into linear and periodic motion signals, originating from tectonic or non

  10. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  11. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Connectedness to nature (CN influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p < 0.001 compared to males. Older age and outdoor sport were significant gender-independent predictor variables influencing perceived CN level. Additionally, level of education was relevant in male CN, whereas non-smoking and higher knowledge were predictive of female CN. This survey provides so far unreported empirical data on the relationship between nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  12. Modeling seed dispersal of black cherry, an invasive forest tree: how microsatellites may help?

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jonard, Mathieu; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    We used empirical models and three dispersal functions (Weibull, lognormal and 2Dt) to model seed distributions derived from the black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) understorey of a pine-dominated stand. Two different approaches were used to disentangle the overlapping seed shadows: the traditional inverse modeling approach and the genetic approach that uses microsatellite markers to assign a dispersed seed to its maternal parent. The distinction was made between the seeds passively disperse...

  13. Studies on Solid Wood. IV. Comparison of Nordic Pine Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The methods developed previously for measuring stiffness, creep, and axial compression of solid wood have been used for a comparative study of three specimens of pine (Pinus silvestris), collected at different latitudes in Scandinavia (North Sweden, South Finland and Denmark). Axial samples taken...... were obtained. In spite of the distinct differences in morphology, the pine specimens were generally quite similar. The specimens were also studied by other wood scientists, but a combined evaluation with the present results is not really possible without a deeper understanding of the wood...

  14. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  15. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  16. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  17. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  18. Results 3 decades after the plantation trials with palebark pine in the mountain of the coastal chain in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In Italy the palebark pine (Pinus leucodermis Antoine forms natural populations present in Calabria and Lucania at the borderline between the two regions on calcareous soils and litho-soils. The surface range is about 5700 hectares, distributed in four natural groups of vegetation, two Apennine areas (Alpi, Spina -Zàccana, Pollino and two coastal areas (Palanuda-Pellegrino, Montéa. In the mountain areas the species becomes exclusive and shows resistance to climate harshness at high elevation, ability to colonise ecologically difficult sites, aptitude and specific reliability to artificial spreading. The experimental plan, carried out without any repetition because technically unfeasible in the area, estimated three input variables: plastic bag-grown S2F2 and bare-rooted seedlings S2T2, inter-distance on the terrace (0.5m, 1m, 1.5m, elevation a.s.l. (1400m, 1550m, 1700m. 4 yrs old seedlings, one half plastic bag-grown and one half bare-rooted, were transplanted in autumn in each site on 24 terraces (4x3x2 handmade in summer. Each sampled area was made up of four adjacent terraces for an overall length of 184 m. Transplanting operations were completed in December and an enclosure was set up to protect the plantation from grazing. As a whole, the experimental areas was shaped as a rectangle. Additional terraces, carried out in the lower part, were planted with bare-rooted Austrian pine and Silver fir seedlings at an inter-distance of 1m and provided the direct comparison with the same thesis of palebark pine. Maintenance practices were undertaken in June and in July of the first and second year to eliminate weeds and shrubs along the terraces. The mensurational surveys were carried out in 1982-1983-1987-1994-2007-2009. The quite complete mortality of Austrian pine and Silver fir transplants in 1983-84 made impossible any further

  19. Virulence of, and interactions among mountain pine beetle associated blue-stain fungi on two pine species and their hybrids in Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, A V; M.N. Thormann; Langor, D W

    2007-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (MPB) is the most serious pest of lodgepole pine in western Canada, and it is predicted to spread into boreal jack pine within the next few years. Colonization of host trees by MPB-associated blue-stain fungi appears to be required for successful beetle reproduction. Three species of blue-stain fungi, Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffery and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer, and Wingfield (≡ Ophiostoma clavigerum (Robinson-Jeffery and Davidson) Harrington), Ophiostoma montium ...

  20. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  1. The Experience of Introducing the Species of Pine (Pinus in the Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruchkov S.N.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When growing pine plantations in the desert in recent years using a variety of introduced species of pine (Crimea, yellow, Banks which are insufficiently studied in these conditions and require studies of their adaptive capacity. The article is the result of research conducted by the authors in 2004-2015. The collection, analysis of experimental materials, and field experiments were carried out. The article summarizes the authors’ long-term research on the introduction of different types of pines. They generalized the data on growth, conditions, reproductive capacity of pine species (Pinus in natural and artificial plantations for protective afforestation in arid conditions of the Lower Volga region. The experience in breeding pine in the desert proves the prospects of using natural selection to create sustainable biogeocenosis with a wide genetic diversity. A comparative study of pines introduced under the desert conditions is a perspective Crimean pines and yellow, not inferior to the growth of Scotch pine. According to the research, the article reveals the benefits of the Crimean and yellow pines of Scots pine on a number of factors: drought tolerance, resistance to diseases and pests. Consequently, these pine trees are to be used for afforestation in the harsh conditions of the desert.

  2. Root growth potential and weed control effects on the first year growth of pitch x loblolly pine (Pinus ridiga x P. taeda L.) and loblolly pine

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Andrew D.

    1989-01-01

    The study was initiated to determine the effects of RGP and three levels on weed control: no weed control (control), herbaceous weed control (Oust), and woody and herbaceous weed control (Oust-Garlon) on three pine seedlots: pitch x loblolly pine hybrid (pxL-F2), Virginia Department of Forestry loblolly pine (VDF-Iob), and westvaco loblolly pine (WCO-Iob). Lateral roots had the greatest response to the Oust treatment compared to all other seedling parts. All seedlot and treatment interacti...

  3. Skin Reactions to Pine Processionary Caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Bonamonte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, is a phyto- and xylophagous lepidopteran, responsible for the delay in the growth or the death of various types of pines. Besides nature damage, pine caterpillar causes dermatological reactions in humans by contact with its irritating larvae hairs. Although the dermatitis occurs among outdoor professionals, it is primarily extraprofessional. Contamination generally occurs in pinewoods, rarely in cities. Means of contamination comprise direct contact with the nest or the processional caterpillar and indirect contact with air dispersed hairs. The dermatitis is generally observed in late spring and particularly from April to June, among campers and tourers. The eruption has its onset 1–12 hours after contact with the hairs and presents with intense and continuous itching. Morphologically, it is strophulus-like and consists of papulous, excoriated, and pinkish lesions on an oedematous base. Diagnosis is usually straightforward. The pathogenetic mechanism of the affection is mechanical, pharmacological, and allergic in nature. Besides skin, T. pityocampa Schiff can involve the eyes and rarely the airways. Despite the considerable damages to humans and nature, pine caterpillar infestation is an underestimated problem; medical literature lists few studies, and often relevant information is referred to local media and popular wisdom.

  4. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianze Wang

    Full Text Available The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO4(2-, NO3(- and Cl(-; however, CO3(2- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions.

  5. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianze; Liu, Zhongmou; Liu, Jiancong; Huo, Mingxin; Huo, Hongliang; Yang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI) failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH) showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO42-, NO3- and Cl-); however, CO32- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC) assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. PMID:26630014

  6. Stem Cutting Propagation in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-based substrates have been identified as substitutes for pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) in container production of ornamental crops. Ideally, these substrates would be used for the propagation and production of such crops. An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of processe...

  7. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence t

  8. Soil water regime under homogeneous eucalyptus and pine forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of precipitation and monthly soil water content during two consecutive years, in 6-year old plantations of eucalypt and pine, and also in an open plot containing natural herbaceous vegetation, were used to compare the soil water regime of these vegetation covers. Precipitation was measured in the open plot with a recording and a non-recording rain gage. Soil water was assessed by the neutron scattering technique to a depth of 1,80 meters. Results indicate that there was, in general, water available in the soil over the entire period of study in all three vegetation conditions. The annual range of soil water in eucalypt, pine, and in natural herbaceous vegetation was essentially similar. The analysis of the average soil water regime showed that the soil under herbaceous vegetation was, generally, more umid than the soil under eucalypt and pine during the period of soil water recharge (September through February); during the period of soil water depletion, the opposite was true. Collectively, the results permit the conclusion that there were no adverse effects on the soil water regime which could be ascribed to reflorestation with eucalypt or pine, as compared with that observed for the natural herbaceous vegetation

  9. Hypersensitivity reaction to pine nuts (pinon nuts--pignolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, A J

    1987-09-01

    This report describes two patients with allergic reactions due to the ingestion of pine nuts. Skin testing to the aqueous allergen revealed immediate positive prick test reactions suggesting an IgE-mediated response. No reported cases have been found previously in a review of the medical literature.

  10. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  11. IT adoption of clinical information systems in Austrian and German hospitals: results of a comparative survey with a focus on nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaubmayr Christine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IT adoption is a process that is influenced by different external and internal factors. This study aimed 1. to identify similarities and differences in the prevalence of medical and nursing IT systems in Austrian and German hospitals, and 2. to match these findings with characteristics of the two countries, in particular their healthcare system, and with features of the hospitals. Methods In 2007, all acute care hospitals in both countries received questionnaires with identical questions. 12.4% in Germany and 34.6% in Austria responded. Results The surveys revealed a consistent higher usage of nearly all clinical IT systems, especially nursing systems, but also PACS and electronic archiving systems, in Austrian than in German hospitals. These findings correspond with a significantly wider use of standardised nursing terminologies and a higher number of PC workstations on the wards (average 2.1 PCs in Germany, 3.2 PCs in Austria. Despite these differences, Austrian and German hospitals both reported a similar IT budget of 2.6% in Austria and 2.0% in Germany (median. Conclusions Despite the many similarities of the Austrian and German healthcare system there are distinct differences which may have led to a wider use of IT systems in Austrian hospitals. In nursing, the specific legal requirement to document nursing diagnoses in Austria may have stimulated the use of standardised terminologies for nursing diagnoses and the implementation of electronic nursing documentation systems. Other factors which correspond with the wider use of clinical IT systems in Austria are: good infrastructure of medical-technical devices, rigorous organisational changes which had led to leaner processes and to a lower length of stay, and finally a more IT friendly climate. As country size is the most pronounced difference between Germany and Austria it could be that smaller countries, such as Austria, are more ready to translate innovation into

  12. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  13. Above-ground biomass functions for Scots pine in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miksys, Virgilijus; Varnagiryte-Kabasinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Liepu 1, Girionys, LT-53101 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Stupak, Inge [Forest and Landscape Denmark, Hoersholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Kukkola, Mikko [The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, Vantaa Unit, PL 18, 01301 Vantaa (Finland); Wojcik, Josef [Forest Research Institute, Sekocin-Las, 05-090 Raszyn (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    This study presents biomass functions applicable to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on Arenosols in Lithuania, and exemplifies the potential biomass removal from Scots pine stands during thinnings. Scots pine is the most common tree species on Arenosols in Lithuania. Stands of ages 10, 20, 40, 50 and 65 years were chosen for the biomass study. We sampled 5 Scots pine trees per plot (in total 25 trees) that were stratified according to the basal area. The sampling was performed in April 2003, before the vegetative period. The following components of each tree were sampled for the above-ground biomass measurements: (1) 5 stem discs, (2) 1 branch with needles from each whorl and (3) 1 dead branch per tree. Observed biomasses of above-ground components were examined using a non-linear regression model, using stem diameter (D), tree height (H) and D{sup 2}H as independent variables. For stemwood biomass, the best approximation was D{sup 2}H. However, D{sup 2}H was not the best parameter for crown biomass because it does not allow evaluation of the opposite effects of diameter and height on crown biomass. The calculations at stand level showed that crown biomass changed insignificantly with the increase in stand age. However, the total stand biomass increased with age due to the growth of the stem. The removal of all logging residues from the Scots pine stand over a 100-year rotation could increase extraction of forest fuel by 15-20% compared with conventional harvesting. (author)

  14. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  15. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) to natural and artificial hibernation sites in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalorti, Robert T; Burger, Joanna; Burkett, David W; Schneider, David W; McCort, Matthew P; Golden, David M

    2014-01-01

    Environmental managers require information on whether human-made hibernacula are used by rare snakes before constructing large numbers of them as mitigation measures. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) was examined in a 6-year study in the New Jersey Pine Barrens to determine whether they used natural and artificial hibernacula equally. Pine snakes used both artificial (human-made) and natural (snake-adapted) hibernacula. Most natural hibernacula were in abandoned burrows of large mammals. Occupancy rates were similar between natural and artificial hibernacula. Only 6 of 27 radio-tracked snakes did not shift hibernacula between years, whereas 78% shifted sites at least once, and fidelity from one year to the next was 42%. For snakes that switched hibernacula (n = 21), one switched among artificial hibernacula, 14 (65%) switched among natural hibernacula, and 6 (29%) switched from artificial to natural hibernacula. Data indicate that most pine snakes switch among hibernacula, mainly selecting natural hibernacula, suggesting that artificial dens are used, but protecting natural hibernacula should be a higher conservation priority.

  16. Pine mouth (pine nut) syndrome: description of the toxidrome, preliminary case definition, and best evidence regarding an apparent etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2012-11-01

    Pine mouth syndrome (PMS), otherwise known as pine nut syndrome, is a relatively new condition. At least several thousand cases have now been described in the literature. The author describes the PMS toxidrome, offers a preliminary case definition, and discusses current best evidence regarding the etiology and risk factors related to the development of PMS.A clinically compatible case of PMS must include taste disturbance, usually characterized as bitter or metallic, following the ingestion of affected pine nuts by 1 to 3 days. Affected nuts would appear to include all, or some portion, of nuts harvested from species Pinus armandii (Chinese white pine), but could include nuts from other species. The specific toxin that is apparently present in affected nuts has not yet been isolated, and the mechanism of toxicity and factors determining PMS susceptibility need to be further detailed. There are no proven therapies for PMS. The only treatment is to cease ingesting implicated nuts and to wait for symptoms to abate.

  17. Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Younkins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of human flourishing and happiness based on the nature of man and the world. Such a paradigm will help people to understand the world and to survive and flourish in it. It is hoped that the paradigm will grow and evolve as scholars engage, question, critique, interpret, and extend its ideas. Our goal is to have a paradigm that accords with reality and there is always more to learn from reality.

  18. LC-MS/MS analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey: methodology and residue findings in Austrian honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gina; Czerwenka, Christoph

    2011-12-14

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of residues of eight neonicotinoid insecticides and two metabolites in honey using LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Two approaches of sample preparation were investigated, with the final method involving acetonitrile extraction and subsequent cleanup by dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS type). Validation was based on quintuplicate analysis at three fortification levels and showed satisfactory recoveries (60-114%) and high precision (RSDs between 2.7 and 12.8%). Low limits of detection and quantification could be achieved for all analytes ranging from 0.6 to 5 μg/kg and from 2 to 10 μg/kg, respectively. Investigations of Austrian honey samples revealed the presence of acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam residues in honey; however, no sample exceeded the maximum residue limits. On average, flower honey samples contained neonicotinoid residues in higher quantities compared to forest honey samples.

  19. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  20. Hygiene of Raw Milk from Austrian Spotted, Holstein and Romanian Spotted Breeds, in Three Farms from Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ștețca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis strictly medical, objective and impartial demonstrate that none of the foods considered to be basic, it is an ideal food, and milk can have some adverse effects on consumers, if the product is subject to changes caused by the improper welfare and health of the animals, but not least the processing technology. This study aimed the analyzing of raw cow milk related to the quality indicators on hygiene. There were considered the samples collected from three farms of the Central part of Romania, each of 24 samples of raw milk. The cows breed were farm A - Austrian spotted, farm B - Holstein and farm C - Romanian spotted. The parameters investigated here were total bacteria count and somatic cell count. The range of the non-conforming milk samples was 1:5.

  1. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    , with exclusive use of wood derived from reforestation of Pinus elliottii 45 years of age, Experiment Station Itapetininga / IF-SMA, where through a partnership with the company "Scales and Trunks Trivelato", and how strategic methodology, this facility will be built as zootechnical technological standard and quality control adopted by the company, which is pioneer in this segment. The raw material studied showed characteristics suitable for structural use (ABNT, good workability, and there is no need to adjust or replace other metal components (screws, nails, gears, hinges, mechanical set of scales, etc.. For its construction who received conventional lacquer finish. Besides adding aesthetic value, the use of pine wood has reduced by 25% the weight of the final product, which consumed 1.4 m3 for its production, a decrease of 40% for the purchase of raw material wood. Of great practical impact on the preservation of natural resources, supported by various public policies, with the primary target audience ranchers familiar with the low investment capacity in traditional husbandry facilities, social and technological innovation that will enable farmers to better adherence to official programs of good practices and animal welfare, increasing levels of public health.

  2. Attrition in the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey: Is there a bias by fertility-relevant aspects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Buber-Ennser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In longitudinal research the loss of sample members between waves is a possible source of bias. It is therefore crucial to analyse attrition. Objective: This paper analyses attrition in a longitudinal study on family and fertility, by distinguishing between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Methods: Based on the first two waves of the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey, the two components of attrition are studied separately by using bivariate as well as multivariate methods. Moreover, overall dropout - the combination of both components - isanalysed. Apart from various socio-economic characteristics and data collection information, the study focuses on fertility-relevant variables such as fecundity, fertility intentions, sexual orientation, and traditional attitudes. Results: Fecundity, fertility intentions, and homosexual relationships are associated with higher attrition due to non-cooperation in bivariate analyses, but have no explanatory power inthe multivariate model. Pregnancy and traditional attitudes towards marriage are associated with significantly lower attrition due to non-cooperation in the multivariate context. Overall dropout is significantly lower only among persons with traditionalattitudes towards marriage, although small in size and statistical significance. Moreover, various individual and regional characteristics are significantly associated with dropout, with differences between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Conclusions: Detailed insights into attrition are not only important when using longitudinal data and interpreting results, but also for the design of future data collections. The Austrian GGS panel has a relatively low dropout (22Š and is affected by a small bias towards familyoriented persons as well as less-educated respondents and persons with migrationbackgrounds, but the data can be used without concern about selectivity.

  3. Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research in Practice: Lessons from Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research in the Austrian Eisenwurzen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gingrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER is an inter- and transdisciplinary research field addressing socio-ecological change over time at various spatial and temporal scales. In the Austrian Eisenwurzen region, an LTSER platform was founded in 2004. It has fostered and documented research projects aiming at advancing LTSER scientifically and at providing regional stakeholders with relevant information for sustainable regional development. Since its establishment, a broad range of research activities has been pursued in the region, integrating information from long-term ecological monitoring sites with approaches from social sciences and the humanities, and in cooperation with regional stakeholders. Based on the experiences gained in the Eisenwurzen LTSER platform, this article presents current activities in the heterogeneous field of LTSER, identifying specific (inter-disciplinary contributions of three research strands of LTSER: long-term ecological research, socio-ecological basic research, and transdisciplinary research. Given the broad array of diverse contributions to LTSER, we argue that the platform has become a relevant “boundary organization,” linking research to its regional non-academic context, and ensuring interdisciplinary exchange among the variety of disciplines. We consider the diversity of LTSER approaches an important resource for future research. Major success criteria of LTSER face specific challenges: (1 existing loose, yet stable networks need to be maintained and extended; (2 continuous generation of and access to relevant data needs to be secured and more data need to be included; and (3 consecutive research projects that have allowed for capacity building in the past may be threatened in the future if national Austrian research funders cease to provide resources.

  4. Determination of eye lens doses and identification of risk groups among radiation exposed workers. An Austrian pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On European level, in 2014 the dose limit for the lens of the eye of radiation exposed workers has been reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year (2013/59/Euratom). Data about eye lens exposition measured under realistic operational conditions of Austrian radiation exposed workers is sparse and there is no information to verify, if all professional groups identified to be at risk for elevated eye doses will remain below the new annual dose limit. Therefore, financed by the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, AUVA, a pilot study has been initiated to answer this question. Based on published information professional groups of radiation exposed workers and operational tasks with an enhanced risk of elevated eye lens doses have been identified. By dosimetric measurements with volunteers (forehead dose meters and parallel measurements with whole-body TL-dose meters above and under the lead apron) realistic lens doses will be estimated during selected radiation exposed tasks. Comparison of yielded doses will show whether a TLD outside the apron could serve as an alternative to forehead dose meters dedicated to measure eye lens doses. Measurements with leaded protective eyewear based on IEC61331 yield results for lead equivalent in good agreement with manufacturers' information. Results for eye lens doses determined by use of a RANDO head phantom and a standardized phantom simulating a body in a typical exposition situation for interventional radiologists show that wearing of leaded goggles allows for a 90% dose reduction. Under such conditions the eye lens dose is dominated by backscatter and stray radiation from the operator's head and patient body. This has to be considered for the evaluation of protective effectiveness for leaded eye wear.

  5. Short term effects of prescribed fire on soil microbial biomass of black pine forests

    OpenAIRE

    Akbaş, Musa; Sağlam, Bülent; Tüfekçioğlu, Aydın; Dinç, Musa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we were examined of changes microbial carbon (MBC) and microbial Nitrogen (MBN) after one month controlled fire. The study area consist of sloping and flat areas, high and low intensity of burnt areas and control areas (unburned) including (flat low intensity: FLI, flat high intensity: FHI, smooth low intensity: SLI, smooth high intensity: SHI and 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth soil). In terms of microbial carbon on the upper soil in the flat high intensity and upper and lower soil i...

  6. Body and diet composition of sympatric black and grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has experienced changes in the distribution and availability of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) food resources in recent decades. The decline of ungulates, fish, and whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis) has prompted questions regarding their ability to adapt. We examined body composition and diet of grizzly bears using bioelectrical impedance and stable isotopes to determine if 1) we can detect a change in diet quality associated with the decline in either ungulates or whitebark pine, and 2) the combined decline in ungulates, fish, and pine seeds resulted in a change in grizzly bear carrying capacity in the GYE. We contrasted body fat and mass in grizzly bears with a potential competitor, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), to address these questions. Grizzly bears assimilated more meat into their diet and were in better body condition than black bears throughout the study period, indicating the decline in ungulate resources did not affect grizzly bears more than black bears. We also found no difference in autumn fat levels in grizzly bears in years of good or poor pine seed production, and stable isotope analyses revealed this was primarily a function of switching to meat resources during poor seed-producing years. This dietary plasticity was consistent over the course of our study. We did not detect an overall downward trend in either body mass or the fraction of meat assimilated into the diet by grizzly bears over the past decade, but we did detect a downward trend in percent body fat in adult female grizzly bears after 2006. Whether this decline is an artifact of small sample size or due to the population reaching the ecological carrying capacity of the Yellowstone ecosystem warrants further investigation.

  7. [Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641

  8. Density dependence, whitebark pine, and vital rates of grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D; Ebinger, Michael R.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M; White, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing changes in population trajectory is important for effective wildlife management, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Annual population growth of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA has slowed from 4.2–7.6% during 1983–2001 to 0.3–2.2% during 2002–2011. Substantial changes in availability of a key food source and bear population density have occurred. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), the seeds of which are a valuable but variable fall food for grizzly bears, has experienced substantial mortality primarily due to a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak that started in the early 2000s. Positive growth rates of grizzly bears have resulted in populations reaching high densities in some areas and have contributed to continued range expansion. We tested research hypotheses to examine if changes in vital rates detected during the past decade were more associated with whitebark pine decline or, alternatively, increasing grizzly bear density. We focused our assessment on known-fate data to estimate survival of cubs-of-the-year (cubs), yearlings, and independent bears (≥2 yrs), and reproductive transition of females from having no offspring to having cubs. We used spatially and temporally explicit indices for grizzly bear density and whitebark pine mortality as individual covariates. Models indicated moderate support for an increase in survival of independent male bears over 1983–2012, whereas independent female survival did not change. Cub survival, yearling survival, and reproductive transition from no offspring to cubs all changed during the 30-year study period, with lower rates evident during the last 10–15 years. Cub survival and reproductive transition were negatively associated with an index of grizzly bear density, indicating greater declines where bear densities were higher. Our analyses did not support a similar relationship for the

  9. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Robert W.

    1993-02-01

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. Sampling was done with Tenax TA and analysis and detection by GC and ion trap detection. The compounds Δ3-carene and α-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while Δ3-carene was predominant at the northern site. The relative composition of the emission of both species underwent changes in early spring and fall. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20°C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 ± 0.4 μg (gdw (grams dry weight) h)-1, and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 ± 0.7 μg(gdw h)-1. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are

  10. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  11. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  12. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  13. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  14. Influence of Climatic Type of Year on Beech and Scots Pine Eustress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubenova, Mariyana; Chikalanov, Alexandre; van Bodegom, Peter; Kattge, Jens; Popova, Silvia; Zlateva, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The present study deals with the relationships of climate types and the periods with low radial stem growth of black pine and beech locations in Europe. The identification of climatic types (CT) and eustress caused CT, their relative participation in the period of 1901-2009 by locations, the manifestation of main adverse type, led periodically to reduction of tree ring width, as well as the comparison of obtained types by precipitations and the SPI classes were the subjects of investigation. The analyses demonstrated that despite the local differences, the stress impact of dry and wet years, especially if they are accompanied by the cold or hot regimes, is well expressed. The successive changes of climate types at least two years before the eustress year are also relevant. The application of climatic types to study the relationship with trees eustress is more applicable when there are no large deviations in temperatures or precipitations by years and locations. The demonstrated holistic analyses are applicable for the forest areas monitoring and management. Key words Pinus sylvestris L., Fagus sylvatica L., climatic type, SPI, eustress, SPPAM application, SPI

  15. 4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

  16. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  17. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  18. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  19. Suggestions on management measures of pine forest ecosystems invaded by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO You-qing; XIA Nai-bin; WU Hai-wei; SONG Ji-ying

    2008-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle is an important invasive alien species in forests of China and has become one of the most destructive forest diseases. In order to improve the resistance and resilience of pine forest ecosystems against B. xylophilus invasion and make the pine forest ecosystem more timely responsive to PWN invasion,we made some recommendations based on five years of intensive observations. We advocate a set of management measures with the theme "Prevention is priority, but integrated with curative techniques and ecological resilience" on the pine forest ecosystem invaded by B. xylophilus; details of accurate measures are proposed. The aim is to discover the underlying problems of present pine forest ecosystems and to take, correspondingly, administrative measures and strategies, which will encourage the pine forest ecosystem to develop in a benign way.

  20. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and strength of sub-ice-shelf-cavity circulations. We present repeated measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, collected by CTD, ADCP and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The turbulence quantities measured by the AUV outside the ice shelf are in good agreement with ship-based measurements. The highest rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation is found near the grounding line, while its temporal fluctuation over seabed ridge within the cavity corresponds to the tidal fluctuation predicted in the Pine Island Bay to the west. The highest thermal variance dissipation rate is found when the AUV was 0.5 m away from the ice, and the thermal variance dissipation generally increases with decreasing distance between the AUV and ice.

  1. Mathematical analysis of dynamic spread of Pine Wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, D D; Bacic, J

    2013-01-01

    Since its detection in Portugal in 1999, the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer), a causal agent of Pine Wilt Disease, represents a threat to European forestry. Significant amount of money has been spent on its monitoring and eradication. This paper presents mathematical analysis of spread of pine wilt disease using a set of partial differential equations with space (longitude and latitude) and time as parameters of estimated spread of disease. This methodology can be used to evaluate risk of various assumed entry points of disease and make defense plans in advance. In case of an already existing outbreak, it can be used to draw optimal line of defense and plan removal of trees. Optimization constraints are economic loss of removal of susceptible trees as well as budgetary constraints of workforce cost.

  2. COLOUR CHARACTESISTICS OF PINE WOOD AFFECTED BY TERMAL COMPRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Atik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989291The goal of this study was to determine the effects of thermal modification and hot-pressing on the colour characteristics of pine wood as bio-resource. The experimental wood boards with dimensions of 250 mm in width by 500 mm in length by 18 mm in thickness were thermally compressed at a temperature of 120˚C or 150˚C, press pressure of 5 or 7 MPa for 60 min in a hot press. Results obtained in this study showed that the colour characteristics of the pine wood boards were affected by press pressure and temperature. The resin leakages significantly increased the chromacity (a* - 25.99 and b* - 43.18 of the treated wood samples. Thermally compressing caused browning of wood colour, which rate increases with pressure at high temperature conditions.

  3. Soil temperature triggers the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiabing; Guan, Dexin; Yuan, Fenhui; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, the onset of spring photosynthesis may have an important influence on the annual carbon balance. However, triggers for the onset of photosynthesis have yet to be clearly identified, especially for temperate evergreen conifers. The effects of climatic factors on recovery of photosynthetic capacity in a Korean pine forest were investigated in the field. No photosynthesis was detectable when the soil temperature was below 0 °C even if the air temperature was far beyond 15 °C. The onset of photosynthesis and sap flow was coincident with the time of soil thawing. The rates of recovery of photosynthetic capacity highly fluctuated with air temperature after onset of photosynthesis, and intermittent frost events remarkably inhibited the photosynthetic capacity of the needles. The results suggest that earlier soil thawing is more important than air temperature increases in triggering the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine in temperate zones under global warming scenarios.

  4. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    The stocks of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and aluminium (Al) in different compartments of the aboveground tree biomass were estimated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lithuania. Simulated removals of metals due to the forest biomass extraction in a model Scots pine stands...... during a 100-year-long rotation period were compared with metals pools in sandy soil and the fluxes through atmospheric deposition. Applying whole tree harvesting, total removal comprised about 20kgha-1 of each Al and Mn, and 5 times lower amount of each Zn and Fe. The metals were mainly removed....... The content of metals in forest biomass fuel ash was relatively small to compare with their total removals. The findings of this study have an important implications for future practice, i.e. the recommended maximum forest biomass fuel ash dose for the compensating fertilising could be increased with respect...

  5. The Austrian Biosphere Reserves. A (connoisseur’s) world beyond the cookery book. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 5 No. 2 5 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Diry, Christian; Köck, Günter (Hrsg.); Umhack, Martha

    2013-01-01

    In many instances the Austrian UNESCO Biosphere Reserves as model regions of sustainable development are outshone by other conservation categories, such as national parks or world heritage sites, and are largely unknown to the wider population. This shadowy existence is ill deserved. The modern concept of biosphere reserves (BRs) is more important today than it ever was if we want to maintain valuable cultural landscapes for later generations. The Austrian MAB National Committee therefore mad...

  6. Modeling Phloem Temperatures Relative to Mountain Pine Beetle Phenology

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Matthew Jared

    2011-01-01

    We explore a variety of methods to estimate phloem temperatures from ambient air temperatures suitable for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. A model's ability to induce the same phenology generated from observed phloem temperatures measures its effectiveness rather than a simple reconstruction of phloem temperatures. From a model's phenology results we are able to ascertain whether the model produces a similar amount of developmental energy exhibited by observed phloem temper...

  7. Pine invasions in treeless environments: dispersal overruns microsite heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Escudero, Adrián; García, Rafael A; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Langdon, Bárbara; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Esquivel, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding biological invasions patterns and mechanisms is highly needed for forecasting and managing these processes and their negative impacts. At small scales, ecological processes driving plant invasions are expected to produce a spatially explicit pattern driven by propagule pressure and local ground heterogeneity. Our aim was to determine the interplay between the intensity of seed rain, using distance to a mature plantation as a proxy, and microsite heterogeneity in the spreading of Pinus contorta in the treeless Patagonian steppe. Three one-hectare plots were located under different degrees of P. contorta invasion (Coyhaique Alto, 45° 30'S and 71° 42'W). We fitted three types of inhomogeneous Poisson models to each pine plot in an attempt for describing the observed pattern as accurately as possible: the "dispersal" models, "local ground heterogeneity" models, and "combined" models, using both types of covariates. To include the temporal axis in the invasion process, we analyzed both the pattern of young and old recruits and also of all recruits together. As hypothesized, the spatial patterns of recruited pines showed coarse scale heterogeneity. Early pine invasion spatial patterns in our Patagonian steppe site is not different from expectations of inhomogeneous Poisson processes taking into consideration a linear and negative dependency of pine recruit intensity on the distance to afforestations. Models including ground-cover predictors were able to describe the point pattern process only in a couple of cases but never better than dispersal models. This finding concurs with the idea that early invasions depend more on seed pressure than on the biotic and abiotic relationships seed and seedlings establish at the microsite scale. Our results show that without a timely and active management, P. contorta will invade the Patagonian steppe independently of the local ground-cover conditions.

  8. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring

  9. Exome capture from the spruce and pine giga-genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suren, H; Hodgins, K A; Yeaman, S; Nurkowski, K A; Smets, P; Rieseberg, L H; Aitken, S N; Holliday, J A

    2016-09-01

    Sequence capture is a flexible tool for generating reduced representation libraries, particularly in species with massive genomes. We used an exome capture approach to sequence the gene space of two of the dominant species in Canadian boreal and montane forests - interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmanii) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Transcriptome data generated with RNA-seq were coupled with draft genome sequences to design baits corresponding to 26 824 genes from pine and 28 649 genes from spruce. A total of 579 samples for spruce and 631 samples for pine were included, as well as two pine congeners and six spruce congeners. More than 50% of targeted regions were sequenced at >10× depth in each species, while ~12% captured near-target regions within 500 bp of a bait position were sequenced to a depth >10×. Much of our read data arose from off-target regions, which was likely due to the fragmented and incomplete nature of the draft genome assemblies. Capture in general was successful for the related species, suggesting that baits designed for a single species are likely to successfully capture sequences from congeners. From these data, we called approximately 10 million SNPs and INDELs in each species from coding regions, introns, untranslated and flanking regions, as well as from the intergenic space. Our study demonstrates the utility of sequence capture for resequencing in complex conifer genomes, suggests guidelines for improving capture efficiency and provides a rich resource of genetic variants for studies of selection and local adaptation in these species. PMID:27428061

  10. Photosynthesis of ground vegetation in boreal Scots pine forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kulmala, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Research on carbon uptake in boreal forests has mainly focused on mature trees, even though ground vegetation species are effective assimilators and can substantially contribute to the CO2 uptake of forests. Here, I examine the photosynthesis of the most common species of ground vegetation in a series of differently aged Scots pine stands, and at two clear-cut sites with substantial differences in fertility. In general, the biomass of evergreen species was highest at poor sites and below cano...

  11. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  12. Litter decomposition in burned corsican pine stands in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Küçük, Mehmet; Sağlam, Bülent; Dinç, Musa; Duman, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of forest fire on litter decomposition in Corsican pine (P. nigra) stands. The study is located in Vezirkopru Forest area in Samsun, Turkey. We made measurements of litter decomposition in 80 to 100 years old stands subjected to prescribed burning. Measurements were made between November, 2013 and October, 2014. 20x20 cm litter bags were placed on soil surface and collected in July and October. Sampling time had significant effect on litter...

  13. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence the successional pathways after fire. Fuel load and fuel moisture determine the intensity of forest fire and thus the degree of humus consumption. In a controlled laboratory' experiment humus consum...

  14. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; J. D. Huchton; M. A. Mullen; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 {micro}Sv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.

  15. The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Debkov; A. M. Danchenko

    2014-01-01

    A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of n...

  16. Modeling Blister Rust Incidence in Whitebark Pine at Northern Rocky Mountain Alpine Treelines: A Geospatial Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Emily Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The status of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a foundation and keystone species and a pioneer establisher at alpine treeline, is threatened by the invasive and exotic fungal pathogen (Cronartium ribicola) that causes white pine blister rust in five-needled pines. Originally thought to be limited to moderate environments, the disease is now found extensively throughout colder and dryer regions east of the Continental Divide, including alpine treeline. My research objective was to determine ...

  17. Distribution of Pine Woolly Adelgids Infestation on Pinus merkusii Plantation in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Oemijati Rachmatsyah; Ulfah Juniarti Siregar; Noor Farikhah Haneda; Dodi Nandika; Purnama Hidayat

    2012-01-01

    Pine woolly adelgid is a recently found exotic pest attacking seedling up to grown plants of Pinus merkusii plantations forest. Since its discovery, there were not much information about it.  The objectives of this research were to study pine woolly adelgids distribution, symptoms and indicators, and its scale of infestations on Pinus merkusii plantation in Java, to determine the presence of any specific P. merkusii sites invaded by pine woolly adelgids, considering the pests were native...

  18. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Influencing Nutrient Availability and Plant Growth in a Pine Tree Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brian Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Pine tree substrate (PTS) produced from freshly harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees has potential for replacing or reducing the use of aged pine bark (PB) and peat moss as container substrates for horticulture crop production. The objective of this work was to determine the factors influencing nutrient availability in PTS compared to PB or peat substrates. Chapter two reports data on the response of japanese holly and azalea to fertilizer rate when grown in PTS and PB. This stud...

  19. Study Situation of Properties and Modification of Masson pine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Masson pine(Pinus massoniana) is one of the main pine species in China.It is the most extensively distributed,it is the largest in number,and its use is extensive.This paper deals with the study situation of the property variation of the tree and the effect of external conditions on its properties in China,including pine wood modification(degreasing,mould prevention and improvement of dimensional stability).

  20. Assessment of post-beetle impacts on natural regeneration of Lodgepole Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Keith N; Arocena, Joselito; Green, Scott; Kennedy, Nabla; Massicotte, Hugues; Scholefield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The ecological disturbance from wildfire (2004) on ~ 10,000 hectares of forests near the Kenny Dam presented a unique opportunity to study the natural and artificial regeneration in burned mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested stands in north-central British Columbia. Mountain pine beetle (MPB) has been documented as a natural disturbance agent that may precede wildfire in lodgepole pine forests (Pinus contorta var. latifolia). The objectives of this study were to i)...

  1. Can we use shelterwoods in Mediterranean pine forests to promote oak seedling development?

    OpenAIRE

    Prévosto, Bernard; Monnier, Yogan; Ripert, Christian; Fernandez, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The use of shelterwoods to favour the development of natural or underplanted seedlings is common in temperate forests but rare in the pine forests of the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to assess the use of shelterwoods in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) woodlands in southern France to promote the survival and growth of two co-occurring oak species: the deciduous Quercus pubescens and the evergreen Quercus ilex. Twelve Aleppo pine stands were selected and differentially thinned to create a lig...

  2. Hardwood seedling establishment below Aleppo pine depends on thinning intensity in two Mediterranean sites

    OpenAIRE

    Gavinet, J.; Vilagrosa, A.; Chirino, E.; Granados, M.E.; Vallejo, V.R.; Prévosto, B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Developing silvicultural methods to help Mediterranean forests adapt to climate change is of high importance. Introducing resprouting hardwood species below pine stands is expected to promote diversity and resilience of these stands, particularly to forest fires. Aims: To examine how the intensity of pine thinning influences understory micro environment and the establishment of various hardwood seedlings in two Mediterranean sites. Methods: Aleppo pine stands were thinned dow...

  3. Critical Assessment of Risk Classification Systems for the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Bentz, B J; Amman, G D; J. A. Logan

    1993-01-01

    Hazard/risk systems developed for mountain pine beetle management traditionally have attempted to describe the potential for timber loss in pine stands due to outbreak phase populations. A variety of stand and site characteristics, as well as climatic conditions, have been used. In this study, four hazard/risk systems were evaluated using data from 105 stands in northern Montana. None of the systems evaluated were found to predict adequately mountain pine beetle induced mortality which occurr...

  4. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria on pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ecomycorrhizal fungi (Hebelon crustuliniforme(Bull.: Fr. Quél. 5392 and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers. Coker et Couch 5335 and bacteria (Bacillus polymyxa and Azospirillum brasilense. associated with mycorrhizas on the growth of pine seedligs was investigated. In addition the influence of bacteria on fungal biomass production and the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi and fungi pathogenic to root of pine seedlings were determined. In general, the shoot/root ratio was higher in plants inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and bacteria than in the control seedlings (grown only under sterile conditions. In non-sterile substrate the root/shoot ratio of the mycorrhizal seedlings was lower as compared to the control. Similar phenomenon was noted in plants inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinetorius. The bacteria used as well as the time of introduction of these organisms into the cultures of mycorrhiza fungi affected the production of fungal biomass. Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Pisolithus tinctorius inhibited the growth of Rizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi pathogenic to pine seedlings.

  5. NATURAL DURABILITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT IN DRIED SCOTS PINE HEARTWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Sehlstedt-Persson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The durability of Scots pine heartwood has previously been shown to be affected by the industrial drying process of sawn lumber. The durability of heartwood from boards dried at temperatures between 20°C-110°C was studied by measuring the mass loss in a decay test with a brown rot fungus (Coniophora puteana, and the concentration of total phenolics was measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC assay. The relation between mass loss and phenolics in dried heartwood showed a weaker negative correlation at lower levels of phenolics as compared to the strong relationship found in a study on heartwood from standing Scots pine trees. Mass loss in dried heartwood showed a weak negative correlation to density. Heating of extractives-rich green sawdust under moist conditions resulted in a reduction of phenolics with temperature up to 180 oC and with increasing time. The concentration of phenolics in heated, green sawdust was higher in extractives-rich pine heartwood than in heartwood with a normal extractives content.

  6. Regeneration of transgenic loblolly pine expressing genes for salt tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors limiting the distribution and productivity of crops and forest trees. The detrimental effects of salt on plants are a consequence of both a water deficit resulting in osmotic stress and the effects of excess sodium ions on critical biochemical process. A novel approach to improve salt tolerance has been established by using the technology of plant genetic transformation and using loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) as a model plant. Mature zygotic embryos of loblolly pine were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 harbouring the plasmid pBIGM which carrying the mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (Mt1D) and glucitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GutD). Organogenic transgenic calli and transgenic regenerated plantlets were produced on selection medium containing 15mg/L kanamycin and confirmed by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. Salt tolerance assays demonstrated that the salt tolerance of transgenic calli and regenerated plantlets were increased. These results suggested that an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into loblolly pine has been developed and this could be useful for the future studies on engineering breeding of conifers.

  7. Comparison of Methods for Protein Extraction from Pine Needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from pine needles for proteomic analysis has long been a challenge for scientists. We compared three different protein extraction methods including sucrose, Tris-HCl and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone (TCA method) to determine their efficiency in separating pine needle proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional PAGE (2D-PAGE). Proteins were then separated by SDS-PAGE. Among three methods the method using sucrose extraction buffer showed the highest efficiency and highest quality in separating proteins. In addition, clearer and more stable strips were detected by SDS-PAGE using sucrose extraction buffer. When the proteins extracted using sucrose extraction buffer were separated by 2D-PAGE, more than 300 protein spots, with isoelectric points (PI) ranging from 4.0 to 7.0 and molecular weights (MW) from 6.5 to 97.4 kD, were observed. This confirmed that the method with sucrose extraction buffer was an efficient and reliable method for extracting proteins from pine needles.

  8. Response Mechanisms of Pine Caterpillar Enzymatic System to Pine Induced Resistance%油松毛虫体内酶系对油松诱导抗性的响应机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雄帅; 周国娜; 高宝嘉

    2014-01-01

    To explore counter-defense response mechanism of pine caterpillar ( Dendrolinus punctatus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu) to the induced insect-resistance of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis),the Chinese pine was fed by different amount pine caterpillars to obtain induced insect-resistance in Pingquan of Hebei Province,and main detoxifying enzymes, protective enzymes and digestive enzymes of pine caterpillars fed on the Chinese pine leaf were determined. The results showed that most of enzymes in the pine caterpillars changed obviously after feeding various induced resistant pine leaves. Carboxylesterase,glutathione-transferase,superoxide dismutase,peroxidase and protease activity of the lavae increased significantly with the increasing feeding stimulation. Acetylcholinesterase,lipase and amylase activity of the lavae had some change but no obviously linear variation,and acetylcholinesterase activity had no change. The results indicated that carboxyl esterase,glutathione-s-transferees,superoxide dismutase,peroxidase and protease were important enzymes with that pine caterpillar responded to the pine defense. Within a certain range,the adaptive enzymes activity in the pine caterpillar increased as the increasing of the action strength and time of the pine induced defensive products to pine caterpillar.

  9. The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Debkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of new Siberian stone pine forests near settlements is proposed.

  10. Impact of alien pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities-evidence from two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan José; Davison, John; Esler, Karen J; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of alien plants can influence biodiversity and ecosystems. However, its consequences for soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We addressed the impact of alien ectomycorrhizal (EcM) pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in two regions with contrasting biogeographic histories: in South Africa, where no native EcM plant species are present; and in Argentina, where EcM trees occur naturally. The effect of alien pines on AM fungal communities differed between these regions. In South Africa, plantations of alien EcM pines exhibited lower AM fungal richness and significantly altered community composition, compared with native fynbos. In Argentina, the richness and composition of local AM fungal communities were similar in plantations of alien EcM pines and native forest. However, the presence of alien pines resulted in slight changes to the phylogenetic structure of root AM fungal communities in both regions. In pine clearcut areas in South Africa, the richness and composition of AM fungal communities were intermediate between the native fynbos and the alien pine plantation, which is consistent with natural regeneration of former AM fungal communities following pine removal. We conclude that the response of local AM fungal communities to alien EcM pines differs between biogeographic regions with different histories of species coexistence. PMID:27056916

  11. Stuffed Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Arbona, A; Carot, J; Mas, L; Massó, J; Stela, J

    1998-01-01

    Initial data corresponding to spacetimes containing black holes are considered in the time symmetric case. The solutions are obtained by matching across the apparent horizon different, conformally flat, spatial metrics. The exterior metric is the vacuum solution obtained by the well known conformal imaging method. The interior metric for every black hole is regular everywhere and corresponds to a positive energy density. The resulting matched solutions cover then the whole initial (Cauchy) hypersurface, without any singularity, and can be useful for numerical applications. The simpler cases of one black hole (Schwarzschild data) or two identical black holes (Misner data) are explicitly solved. A procedure for extending this construction to the multiple black hole case is also given, and it is shown to work for all time symmetric vacuum solutions obtained by the conformal imaging method. The numerical evolution of one such 'stuffed' black hole is compared with that of a pure vacuum or 'plain' black hole in the...

  12. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed.

  13. Modeling of Nitrogen Dynamics in an Austrian Alpine Forest Ecosystem on Calcareous Soils: A Scenario-Based Risk Assessment under Changing Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl Herman; Stefan Smidt; Klaus Butterbach-Bahl; Michael Englisch; Ernst Gebetsroither; Robert Jandl; Klaus Katzensteiner; Manfred Lexer; Friederike Strebl; Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern

    2007-01-01

    We modeled the behavior of an Austrian alpine forest ecosystem on calcareous soils under changing climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition scenarios. The change of nitrate leaching, emission rates of nitrogen compounds, and forest productivity were calculated using four process-oriented models for the periods 1998–2002 and 2048–2052. Each model reflects with high detail a segment of the ecosystem: PnET-N-DNDC (photosynthesis-evapotranspiration-nitrification-denitrification-decomposition; s...

  14. The impact of risk and protective factors on mental health and well-being-Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents from war-affected countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Buchegger-Traxler; Ulrike Sirsch

    2012-01-01

    Background: young persons are most strongly affected by displacement through political/military actions. This is also a European problem as well as an issue for the European Union. Applying the social-ecological model by Bronfenbrenner we concentrated on micro- and mesosystems of Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents of war-affected countries.

    Methods: a questionnaire was administered to adolescents in...

  15. Impact of depression and anxiety on burden and management of episodic and chronic headaches – a cross-sectional multicentre study in eight Austrian headache centres

    OpenAIRE

    Zebenholzer, Karin; Lechner, Anita; Broessner, Gregor; Lampl, Christian; Luthringshausen, Gernot; Wuschitz, Albert; Obmann, Sonja-Maria; Berek, Klaus; Wöber, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent and especially chronic headaches are associated with psychiatric comorbidities such as depression and anxiety. Only few studies examined the impact of depression and anxiety on episodic (EH) and chronic headache (CH), and data for Austria are missing at all. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of depression and anxiety on burden and management of EH and CH in patients from eight Austrian headache centres. Methods We included 392 patients (84.1...

  16. Prevalence, management and burden of episodic and chronic headaches—a cross-sectional multicentre study in eight Austrian headache centres

    OpenAIRE

    Zebenholzer, Karin; Andree, Colette; Lechner, Anita; Broessner, Gregor; Lampl, Christian; Luthringshausen, Gernot; Wuschitz, Albert; Obmann, Sonja-Maria; Berek, Klaus; Wöber, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Episodic and chronic headaches (EH, CH) are highly prevalent disorders. Severely affected patients are usually referred to headache centres. In Austria, at least one headache centre is available in seven of nine states, but detailed multicentre data are missing. Therefore we studied prevalence rates, use of medication and health care services, impact of headaches, and comorbid depression and anxiety. Methods We included consecutive patients from eight Austrian outpatient headache c...

  17. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown. PMID:25859663

  18. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  19. Changes in equipment and image quality. Impact of one year Austrian breast cancer early detection programme; Aenderungen in der Geraetelandschaft und Bildqualitaet. Auswirkungen nach einem Jahr Oesterreichischem Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menhart, S.; Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The nationwide Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Programme (''BKFP'') started in January 2014. The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety Ltd. was entrusted with running the reference center for technical quality control (''RefZQS'') on April 1, 2014. The quality of the radiologists' equipment is evaluated against the standards described in the EUREF-Oeprotocol, which is based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (EPQC V4, 2006) and has been optimized for Austrian requirements. In its first year of operation the RefZQS has controlled the entire equipment (mammography, periphery and ultrasound system) of all participating radiologists. A significant number of systems had to be adjusted to meet the EUREF-Oecriteria. Some of the systems could not be adjusted accordingly, and had to be replaced. In the wake of the start of the screening programme, several sites switched from CR to more modern DR systems, yielding a significant benefit by reduction of radiation burden. The most important data after one year of RefZQS, especially according to adjustments and replacements, are presented.

  20. The effectiveness of the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs are costly and impose additional work load on general practitioners (GPs. Data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. We therefore conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 on HbA1c and quality of care for adult patients in primary care. Methods All GPs of Salzburg-province were invited to participate. After cluster-randomisation by district, all patients with diabetes type 2 were recruited consecutively from 7-11/2007. The DMP, consisting mainly of physician and patient education, standardised documentation and agreement on therapeutic goals, was implemented in the intervention group while the control group received usual care. We aimed to show superiority of the intervention regarding metabolic control and process quality. The primary outcome measure was a change in HbA1c after one year. Secondary outcomes were days in the hospital, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index (BMI, enrolment in patient education and regular guideline-adherent examination. Blinding was not possible. Results 92 physicians recruited 1489 patients (649 intervention, 840 control. After 401 ± 47 days, 590 intervention-patients and 754 controls had complete data. In the intention to treat analysis (ITT of all 1489 patients, HbA1c decreased 0.41% in the intervention group and 0.28% in controls. The difference of -0.13% (95% CI -0.24; -0.02 was significant at p = 0.026. Significance was lost in mixed models adjusted for baseline value and cluster-effects (adjusted mean difference -0.03 (95% CI -0.15; 0.09, p = 0.607. Of the secondary outcome measures, BMI and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls in ITT after adjustments (-0.53 kg/m²; 95% CI -1.03;-0.02; p = 0.014 and -0.10 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.21; -0.003; p = 0.043. Additionally, more patients received patient education (49.5% vs. 20

  1. Black painted pottery, Kildehuse II, Odense County, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trąbska, Joanna; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Runge, Mads Thagård

    2011-08-01

    This work aimed at characterization of a black layer covering a Bronze Age (period VI) pot surface. To solve research problems plane polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning microscopy with X-ray microanalyser (SEM/EDS), Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies were applied. Observation of the black layer under the PLM suggests that we deal with an opaque, isotropic layer, purposely put on leather-hard, burnished surface of a pot. No traces of organic substances that might have modified a pot surface before painting were detected. The black layer coats the pot with a continuous 0.2-0.4 μm thick layer. The black layer must have been applied while warm or hot. It is recognized that the black layer is a true painting layer. Spectroscopic analyses (Raman and FTIR) point that birch tar or a birch-pine tar had been applied. Carbon black should be definitely excluded. The analyzed organic substance is structurally ordered in various degrees, due to varying temperature influence. Some Raman spectra reveal, in second-order region of the spectrum (>2000 cm -1), the graphite presence. Scarce points reveal the presence of inorganic admixtures: clay minerals, feldspars and quartz. The next question is: Is it an organic paint or a carbon-based, "mixed" paint? Inorganic admixtures are only casual. Relatively high concentration of alumina is expected to have appeared due to aluminum mobility in acidic environment and this was provided by organic tar/pitch substances. Phosphorus (usually with calcium) mostly concentrates together with clay minerals. Thus, hypothesis on bone powder or ash addition to tar/pitch should be excluded. Some elements may originate not only from inorganic substances but also from wood ashes.

  2. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A; Long, James N

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine's absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities. PMID:27575596

  3. Effects of planted European beech on the understory in Scots pine forests of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marozas V

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the planting of non-native species impacts native vegetation is of most importance for forest management, as introduced species may alter environmental conditions with respect to soil composition, light intensity, and species composition. Here, we compared the stand structure, understory vegetation and site properties of a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as the second tree layer. We recorded saplings and species and their abundance in the understory vegetation, the thicknesses of organic (O and humus (A soil layers, soil pH and light indexes in nine Scots pine stands with a second tree layer of beech and in nine control pine stands with a second tree layer of spruce. An ordination method was used to analyze all the data together and ANOVA to determine whether there were differences between stands. We found that species diversity in pine stands with planted beech as the second layer was lower than in pine stands with spruce as the second layer. In pine stands with beech as the second tree layer, shrub, herb and moss cover was significantly lower, and the soil humus layer and organic soil layer were thicker and thinner, respectively. Stand parameters such as mean volume and mean annual increment of the second tree layer were significantly higher in pine stands with planted beech as the second tree layer than in pine stand with spruce as the second tree layer. The mean volume and the mean annual increment of the first tree layer dominated by Scots pine did not differ significantly between stands with planted beech and those with natural spruce. Scots pine stands with a beech second layer had negative effects on understory species richness and abundance. This effect was most likely due to the lower light transmittance and poor physical properties of the forest-floor litter in the Scots pine stands with planted beech.

  4. The views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations. There are different ways of arguing: In an anthropocentric point of view nature is seen as a resource for man; human life needs protection an cultivation of nature. The non-anthropocentric point of view is more popular. Nature is not only seen as a resource for human needs and interests. It follows its own aims and purposes, seems to be a valuable being and has to be protected for itself. The study presents the two parent organizations 'Umweltdachverband - OeGNU' and 'Oeko-Buero' and their 45 members. The associations mainly argue from an anthropocentric point of view for the protection of nature and environment. Their motives are the care for human health and quality of life, the ensuring of resources, the leisure-time in nature and patriotism. The anthropocentric arguments perfectly fit into the other articles of these organizations: many of them are dealing with economical, scientifical, recreational and pedagogical affairs. And often they represent interests of agriculture, forestry ore trade. Non-anthropocentric statements are of minor importance and seem to be a way to present the seriousness of their demand for protection of nature and environment. (author)

  5. Enhanced analysis of the community structure of a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A molecular analysis of the community structure of the radioactive subsurface thermal spring 'Franz-Josef Quelle' (FJQ) in the Austrian Central Alps was performed. Besides the high microbial diversity, ammonia oxidizing Crenarchaeota and several bacterial species, which were involved in the nitrogen cycle, were also detected. Additionally several sequences were obtained that were related to sequences from locations, which were e.g. contaminated with radioactivity, suggesting the probable presence of organisms that can interact with the Ra, Rn or U in the spring. Furthermore, biofilms were recognized, which had some similarities to the ones described by Holmes and coworkers in the Nullarbor caves. Holmes suggested that a large part (about 12 %) of the microorganisms inhabiting these mats were related to a Nitrospira sp. Besides the mats, which were present in the spring FJQ, sequences of Nitrospira and related species were found. Nitrifiers are known to build biofilms under suboptimal growth conditions, e.g. the water temperature in the spring is 45oC, but the optimum growth temperature of nitrifiers lies between 25 to 30oC. Preliminary DGGE fingerprinting results of the spring showed the dominance of Nitrospira related organisms in biofilms and on glass slides which were placed into the spring for several days. Therefore an extended examination of these natural and artificial biofilms is in progress by addition of DGGE analysis and culturing approaches. (author)

  6. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  7. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. PMID:26347181

  8. 137Cs-migration in soils and its transfer to roe deer in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth distribution of 137Cs in an Austrian spruce forest stand was investigated in soil profiles sampled in thin layers (2 cm) and in pooled soil samples over an area of 200 ha. The 137Cs concentrations both from Chernobyl and global fallout decrease exponentially with depth. Forty-six percent of Chernobyl-derived caesium and 26% from global fallout are still to be found in the litter layer; 137Cs content in samples on organic matter as well as cation exchange capacity. Using a compartment model, average residence half-times of 5.3, 9.9, 1.78 and 0.8 years were calculated for the layers litter, 0-5 (Ah1), 5-10 (Ah2) and 10-20 cm (A/B) of mineral soil, respectively. Using the model predictions of soil contamination as a basis and considering that roe deer forage plants' rooting depths, the development of 137Cs contamination of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (1987-1993) was well described by applying an aggregated transfer factor

  9. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  10. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  11. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  12. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Diana F Tomback; Lynn M. Resler; Keane, Robert E.; Elizabeth R. Pansing; Andrew J. Andrade; Aaron C. Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus) in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz con...

  13. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of..., growing trees, the source of gum spirits of turpentine....

  14. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  15. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  16. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  17. Black Branes as Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2012-01-01

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  18. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  19. Pine as fast food: foraging ecology of an endangered cockatoo in a forestry landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Stock

    Full Text Available Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025 seeds ha(-1 over a large area (c. 15,000 ha. Carnaby's Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented.

  20. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, William D.; Finn, Hugh; Parker, Jackson; Dods, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby’s Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158 025 seeds ha−1) over a large area (c. 15 000 ha). Carnaby’s Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented. PMID:23593413