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Sample records for austrian black pine

  1. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  2. Afforestation in Serbia in the period 1961-2007 with special reference to Austrian pine and Scots pine

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    Ranković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of afforestation in Serbia is high because only in this way the forest area can be increased and brought to the level which corresponds to the demands of the population. This is also indicated by the content of some documents, such as 'Professional base for the design of the National Forest Action Programme', which emphasises this problem from the very beginning. Special significance is assigned to afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, which are most frequently applied in the afforestation of the most unfavourable terrains. This study analyses the scope of afforestation over the period 1961-2007, the percentage of Austrian pine and Scots pine and the relationship of the afforested areas, and generates the forecasts of the changes in the future period. In this way, the socialeconomic significance of afforestation can be assessed from the aspect of satisfying the objectives of forest policy, and particularly of afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, as the specific tree species.

  3. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery production method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

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    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methodson quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine wereinvestigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goč, Studenica and Šargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gočko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gočko led to the highestseedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.

  4. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery provenance method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

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    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methods on quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine were investigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goc, Studenica and Sargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gocko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gocko led to the highest seedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.     

  5. Mechanisms of induced susceptibility to Diplodia tip blight in drought-stressed Austrian pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Patrick; Villari, Caterina; Capretti, Paolo; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2015-05-01

    Plants experiencing drought stress are frequently more susceptible to pathogens, likely via alterations in physiology that create favorable conditions for pathogens. Common plant responses to drought include the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the accumulation of free amino acids (AAs), particularly proline. These same phenomena also frequently occur during pathogenic attack. Therefore, drought-induced perturbations in AA and ROS metabolism could potentially contribute to the observed enhanced susceptibility. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) availability can influence AA accumulation and affect plant resistance, but its contributions to drought-induced susceptibility are largely unexplored. Here we show that drought induces accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) shoots, but that shoot infection by the blight and canker pathogen Diplodia sapinea (Fr.) Fuckel leads to large reductions in H2O2 levels in droughted plants. In in vitro assays, H2O2 was toxic to D. sapinea, and the fungus responded to this oxidative stress by increasing catalase and peroxidase activities, resulting in substantial H2O2 degradation. Proline increased in response to drought and infection when examined independently, but unlike all other AAs, proline further increased in infected shoots of droughted trees. In the same tissues, the proline precursor, glutamate, decreased significantly. Proline was found to protect D. sapinea from H2O2 damage, while also serving as a preferred N source in vitro. Fertilization increased constitutive and drought-induced levels of some AAs, but did not affect plant resistance. A new model integrating interactions of proline and H2O2 metabolism with drought and fungal infection of plants is proposed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Large-scale thinning, ponderosa pine, and mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills, USA

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    Jose F. Negron; Kurt K. Allen; Angie Ambourn; Blaine Cook; Kenneth Marchand

    2017-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB), can cause extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA. Lower tree densities have been associated with reduced MPB-caused tree mortality, but few studies have reported on large-scale thinning and most data come from small plots that...

  7. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands

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    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  8. Morphological features of Camarosporium pini – the fungus associated to health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine

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    Ivanová Helena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is escalated occurrence of the pathogenic fungus Camarosporium pini in the needle tissue of symptomatic trees P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi growing in urbanized settings and parks. C. pini induces severe infections and initiates a blight and premature loss of second-year foliage in pine trees. The fungus was identified microscopically and on base of morphological keys. The affected needles displayed a distinct bluish-grey necrotic band in the centre. On the surface of infected needles, there were formed pycnidia producing brown, oval conidia with three transversal and one or two vertical walls. Disease symptoms, some important characteristics in pure culture, and distinctive morphological features of C. pini associated to the health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine are described and compared. Cumulative effects of these stressful biotic and various abiotic factors may explain the current situation concerning the decline in the P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi in Slovakia.

  9. Ancient split of major genetic lineages of European Black Pine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naydenov, Krassimir D.; Naydenov, Michel K.; Alexandrov, Alexander; Vasilevski, Kole; Gyuleva, Veselka; Matevski, Vlado; Nikolic, Biljana; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Bogunic, Faruk; Paitaridou, Despina; Christou, Andreas; Goia, Irina; Carcaillet, Christopher; Alcantara, Adrian Escudero; Ture, Cengiz; Gulcu, Suleyman; Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Kamary, Salim; Bojovic, Srdjan; Hinkov, Georgi; Tsarev, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The European Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) has a long and complex history. Genetic distance and frequency analyses identified three differentiated genetic groups, which corresponded to three wide geographical areas: Westerns Mediterranean, Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor. These groups shared

  10. Proteins in seed and seedlings of selected Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold trees as genetic markers tolerant to drought

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    Mataruga Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A precondition necessary for creation and selection of genotypes tolerant of stress conditions is a study of physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of their adaptive reaction to stress. The study includes 40 lines of free pollination originating from 5 provenances: Sutjeska, Višegrad, Tara, Teslić and Durmitor (B&H, Serbia and Montenegro. Two populations were selected from each provenance, i.e.: 5 lines of free pollination represent the population growing on the cliffs and 3 lines of free pollination represent the population growing at the best site of Austrian pine. Specific characteristics of the studied provenances, populations, and free pollination lines were confirmed by the analyses in the salt-soluble proteins. The identical protein composition was proved in a small number of cases in the replicates of the same free pollination line, which indicates a high intra-line variability, which can be the result of the effect of father, as well as of heterozygosity of mother trees. The analyses of protein composition of seed showed considerable differences at provenance level. Inter-line, population and provenance differences, and also, the interaction between the origin and drought factor, were recorded for 9-day-old seedlings germinated in induced drought conditions and in normal conditions.

  11. Modelling the productivity of Anatolian black pine plantations in Turkey

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    Şükrü Teoman Güner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the relationships between height growth (site index of Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasina (Lamb. Holmboe and site factors of the plantation areas in Turkey. Data were collected from 118 sample plots by taking into consideration the variations of aspect, altitude, slope position, slope degree and site class. A representative tree for the productivity and soil samples were taken at each sample plot. Some chemical and physical properties of soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The relationships between site index values of the trees and site factors including parent material, soil, climate and topography were examined by using correlation, stepwise regression and regression tree analysis. Significant linear relations were found between site index of black pine and site factors being altitude, slope degree, slope position, annual rainfall, precipitation amount in the most drought month, solum depth and bedrock including granite, mica schist and dacite. Explanation variance percentage on the site index of black pine was found 54.4% by using regression tree analysis whereas explained variance become 34.7% by stepwise regression analysis.

  12. Using Black Light to Find Jack-Pine Budworm Egg Masses

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    Daniel T. Jennings

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine foliage infested with jack-pine budworm egg masses was examined under two kinds of light -- black light and a combination of natural and fluorescent light. Black light significantly increased the accuracy of count but not the efficiency of examination.

  13. Prey handling and diet of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi), with comparisons to other selected colubrid snakes

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    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Toni Trees; C. Michael Duran; Marc Ealy; John G. Himes

    2002-01-01

    Diet and prey handling behavior were determined for Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi). Louisiana pine snakes prey heavily on Baird's pocket gophers (Geomys breviceps), with which they are sympatric, and exhibit specialized behaviors that facilitate...

  14. Black stain root disease studies on ponderosa pine parameters and disturbance treatments affecting infection and mortality

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    W.J. Otrosina; J.T. Kliejunas; S. Smith; D.R. Cluck; S.S. Sung; C.D. Cook

    2007-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. Ex Laws.), caused by Leptographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside Sierra Nevada pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root...

  15. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae). Since 1997 the... rated as having high wildfire hazard. Since 1980, due to several factors including drought the Forest...

  16. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    .... The predominant tree species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus... drought the Forest has seen a dramatic increase in acreage burned by wildfires. In that period over 250...

  17. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

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    Ramazan Özçelik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  18. The dynamics of germination and morphometrics properties of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold saplings in terms of early indicators of tolerance toward the drought

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    Mataruga Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early indicators of tolerance toward drought, have been an object of research and scientific papers for many years. It starts with the hypothesis that seedlings produced from seeds that were collected from population of extremely different site conditions, on the level of open pollinated families, will have different results concerning drought tolerance. By tracking the dynamics of germination and morphological parameters of saplings, we are researching the interdependence of these parameters with the survival and growth of two-year-old seedlings in conditions where there is a lack of water. Austrian Pine seeds were collected from forty trees, distributed over five provenances on the Balkan Peninsula. Within each provenance a group is assigned to an extremely harsh and dry habitat, while also another group is assigned to prosperous (the most productive habitat. The analysis of the twenty-one-day-old seedlings (saplings is performed in the laboratory, while the tolerance test of the two-year-old seedlings is performed in the field. Seedlings that are exposed to conditions in which there is lack of water, have the coefficient of water formation evaluation 22.59 times bigger than sandy-clay soil with fraction of sand bigger than 60 percent. The results show significant and positive correlation between some parameters of saplings and the dynamics of growth (high increments of the seedlings in drought, but no correlation with the survival of the seedlings.

  19. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

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    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  20. Austrian highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Simon

    2001-01-01

    An overview of recent development in the Austrian hydroelectric industry is presented, and details of the installed capacity, the Austrian government's power market reform package, and the promotion of small-scale hydroelectric power plants are given. The operation of Verbund - Austria's largest power generator and distributor - and the restructuring of the Verbund's main Austrian Hydro Power (AHP) generating group are discussed. The export of power, the joint venture of Verbund with CIR Energia in Italy to market power to commercial and industrial users, and the controversy surrounding the Freudenau run-of-the river plant which successfully tested a matrix turbine are reported

  1. How to Distinguish Attacks by the Black Turpentine Beetle and Dioryctria Amatella on Southern Pines

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    Carl W. Fatzinger; Gary L. DeBarr

    1969-01-01

    Trunk attacks by the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Oh.), and the larvae of Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) on the southern pines results in a copious flow of pitch. This external pitch mass or pitch tube exhibits characteristics that can be used as symptoms to distinguish between attacks by these two insects.

  2. Predicting mortality of ponderosa pine regeneration after prescribed fire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

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    Mike Battaglia; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2009-01-01

    Reduction of crown fire hazard in Pinus ponderosa forests in the Black Hills, SD, often focuses on the removal of overstorey trees to reduce crown bulk density. Dense ponderosa pine regeneration establishes several years after treatment and eventually increases crown fire risk if allowed to grow. Using prescribed fire to control this regeneration is...

  3. Distribution of ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi in soil along a vegetational change from Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) to black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Takeshi; Kataoka, Ryota; Tamai, Shigenobu; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The nitrogen-fixing tree black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seems to affect ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and disease severity of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) seedlings. We examined the effect of black locust on the distribution of ECM and pathogenic fungi in soil. DNA was extracted from soil at depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm, collected from the border between a Japanese black pine- and a black locust-dominated forest, and the distribution of these fungi was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The effect of soil nutrition and pH on fungal distribution was also examined. Tomentella sp. 1 and Tomentella sp. 2 were not detected from some subplots in the Japanese black pine-dominated forest. Ectomycorrhizas formed by Tomentella spp. were dominant in black locust-dominated subplots and very little in the Japanese black pine-dominated forest. Therefore, the distribution may be influenced by the distribution of inoculum potential, although we could not detect significant relationships between the distribution of Tomentella spp. on pine seedlings and in soils. The other ECM fungi were detected in soils in subplots where the ECM fungi was not detected on pine seedlings, and there was no significant correlation between the distribution of the ECM fungi on pine seedlings and in soils. Therefore, inoculum potential seemed to not always influence the ECM community on roots. The distribution of Lactarius quieticolor and Tomentella sp. 2 in soil at a depth of 0-5 cm positively correlated with soil phosphate (soil P) and that of Tomentella sp. 2 also positively correlated with soil nitrogen (soil N). These results suggest the possibility that the distribution of inoculum potential of the ECM fungi was affected by soil N and soil P. Although the mortality of the pine seedlings was higher in the black locust-dominated area than in the Japanese black pine-dominated area, a pathogenic fungus of pine seedlings, Cylindrocladium pacificum, was

  4. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

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    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  5. Investigation of Changes in Solubility Values of Some Non Impregnated Pine Species used in Water Cooling Towers

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    Murat ÖZALP

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Austrian black pine (Pinus nigra L. and Cyprus pine (Pinus brutia L. specimens were prepared and settled to water return system on water cooling tower. For every 3 months period’s specimens were tested solubility of hot and could water, 1% NaOH, alcohol-benzene and ethyl alcohol values were determined. For the control specimens significant color change, odour and surface softening was observed. For chemical analysis, all the solubility values were changed significantly.

  6. Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  7. Dynamic growth and yield model for Black pine stands in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, J. V.; Rio, M. del; Bravo-Oviedo, A.

    2012-07-01

    In a forestry context, modelling stand development over time relies on estimates of different stand characteristics obtained from equations which usually constitute a multivariate system. In this study we have developed a stand growth model for even-aged stands of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) in Spain. The 53 plots used to fit the equations came from the permanent sample plot network established by the Forest Research Centre (INIA) in 1963 and 1964 in the main distribution regions of Black pine. The model is made up of a system of equations to predict growth and yield in volume and basal area. In the fitting phase we took into account the correlation between the measurements within the same plot and the cross-equation residual correlations. The model incorporates a control function to estimate the thinning effect and a function for predicting the reduction in tree number due to regular mortality. In addition, we use the three parameter Weibull distribution function to estimate the number of trees in each diameter class by recovering the parameters using the moment method. The developed model is useful for simulating the evolution of even-aged stands with and without thinnings and allows the estimation of number of trees by diameter classes. (Author) 44 refs.

  8. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

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    Christopher T. Rota; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Mark A. Rumble; Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic...

  9. Effects of silvicultural treatment on the stability of black pine plantations.

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    Paolo Cantiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pine plantations have been established at the purpose of recovering a forest cover to marginal soils, mostly throughout the Apennines range in Italy, since the end of the eighteenth century and up to the mid 1900. Both the decay of forest cover and soil erosion were the outcome of the long-lasting overuse through the intensive forest exploitation practices, grazing of the forest floor and wildfires, occurring since many centuries ago. The primary function of pine reafforestation was therefore to re-establish a first cover with a pioneer species, preparatory to future mixed forest types based on the natural reintroduction of broadleaves originally living in the same areas, mainly deciduous oaks and beech in the upper part. These goals have been partly met over the wide reafforestation area; the key functions of pine stands are today the protection against soil erosion and the hydrological regulation of catchments. The pine stands have been assuming today also a scenic role because they have been incorporated in the landscape physiognomy. A series of thinning up to the regeneration phase had been planned by foresters since the design of these plantations, but many stands have grown unthinned and fully stocked for a long time, this condition contributing a less mechanical stability of trees. Alternative forms of regeneration in grown-up stands have been and are being tested to improve both the natural and artificial establishment of indigenous species, but thinnings remain, even if a tardy measure, the main practice enforceable to these pine forests. The results of experimental trials undertaken in the black pine forest stand located in Pratomagno casentinese (Arezzo are being reported in the paper. The study started in 1978 and the following theses were tested (A heavy thinning from below; (B moderate thinning from below; (C control. Three thinnings were carried out in 1978, 1999 and 2009 at the ages of 24, 45 and 55. The action over time of

  10. Influence of ecological and botanical factors on the culture of black pine (Pinus nigra and proposed future management in Šumadija region (Central Serbia

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    Šikanja Severin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available All ecological aspects have been analysed and studied: botanical factors at black pine cultures in the area of Šumadija. Cultures of black pine of age 33 and 55−60 years within five experimental fields can be found in (1 good habitats, (2 medium habitats and (3 bad habitats were analysed in order to see how the same aged cultures act in different habitats. We analysed all the plants that appear as terrestrial flora, all the plants that occur as a shrub vegetation and, finally, floor trees. We analysed all the biotic and abiotic factors. The measures for most appropriate care for the cultures of black pine. Black pine in Serbia reaches its highest elevation amplitude in Europe and covers most diverse habitats and soil, mainly because of its visibly pronounced ecological modesty. For this reason, the black pine is one of the most usable kinds of artificial afforestation in the Republic of Serbia at all devastated, treeless terrain in the oak belt, where there is a danger that through the action of erosion, soil degradation occurs. That in the management unit, Gružansko Lepeničke, Jaseničke forests, to answer all the questions, the pine, when it comes to artificially established black lines on the same or on different sites and the same and the various soils, as when it comes to tending these crops. It should be noted that of the 125,000 ha conifer cultures in the Republic of Serbia, 86 000 ha of trees were all pines, roughly 70% of all conifer cultures. Of the 86 000 ha pine, 65,200 ha was occupied by black pine, which is about 70%. In the above,Management Unit separate the five sample plots of 25 acres in size.

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Distribution of black carbon in Ponderosa pine litter and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), the heterogeneous product of burned biomass, is a critical component in the global carbon cycle, yet timescales and mechanisms for incorporation into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park Fire, which took place in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire intenstiy and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane Ponderosa pine litter, 0-5 cm soils, and 5-15 cm soils four months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn intensity on %C, C stocks, %N and black carbon (g kg-1 C, and g m-2). We developed and implemented the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes, but that there was no difference in black carbon content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the litter in burned sites (19 g kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g m-2). At the time of sampling, none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into to either the 0-5 cm or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B5CA : B6CA (less condensed to more condensed BC) indicated there was significantly more older, more processed BC at depth. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely transported off the surface through erosion events. Future work examining mechanisms for BC transport will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global carbon cycle.

  13. Wood and understory production under a range of ponderosa pine stocking levels, Black Hills, South Dakota

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    Daniel W. Uresk; Carleton B. Edminster; Kieth E. Severson

    2000-01-01

    Stemwood and understory production (kg ha-1) were estimated during 3 nonconsecutive years on 5 growing stock levels of ponderosa pine including clearcuts and unthinned stands. Stemwood production was consistently greater at mid- and higher pine stocking levels, and understory production was greater in stands with less pine; however, there were no...

  14. RAPD markers and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold intraspecies taxonomy - Evidence from the study of nine populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intraspecies researches within the black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold have a long tradition, the intraspecies taxonomy, classification and chorology are still unclear. Among the numerous reasons that have caused this situation the most important are: the absence of a study that would completely cover the whole range of this species, the impossibility of connection of results of the existing detailed studies of certain areas, and the high variability of traits which have been used so far. Since the characteristics of the molecular systematic techniques could make possible the research free of the mentioned shortages, the intention of this study was to determine the relationships among nine populations of black pine using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The obtained results were compared to the recent results of the morphological and anatomical analysis of the leaves of the same populations. The RAPD results clearly divided the Croatian populations from populations of Austria (subsp. nigra and Turkey (subsp. pallasiana, while among Croatian populations, as in previous study, the existence of several groups (subsp. illyrica, subsp. dalmatica and transitional population between them was noticed. It is assumed that the optimisations conducted in this study will finally make possible estimating the relationships on the level of the whole range of the black pine and the classification based on molecular traits that are probably less dependent on environmental influences than it has been the case with the characteristics mostly used so far.

  15. On Austrian regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we

  16. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  17. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Rota

    Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  18. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  19. Distribution of black carbon in ponderosa pine forest floor and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Biomass burning produces black carbon (BC), effectively transferring a fraction of the biomass C from an actively cycling pool to a passive C pool, which may be stored in the soil. Yet the timescales and mechanisms for incorporation of BC into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park fire (HPF), which occurred in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire severity and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane ponderosa pine forest floor (litter plus O-horizon) and soils at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depth 4 months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn severity on %C, C stocks, %N and BC. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes but that there was no difference in BPCA-C content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the forest floor at burned sites (19 g BPCA-C kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g BPCA-C m-2). At the time of sampling, unburned and burned soils had equivalent BC content, indicating none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into either the 0-5 or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B6CA : total BPCAs, an index of the degree of aromatic C condensation, suggested that BC in the 5-15 cm soil layer may have been formed at higher temperatures or experienced selective degradation relative to the forest floor and 0-5 cm soils. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely lost, either through erosion events, degradation or translocation to deeper soils. Future work examining mechanisms for BC losses from forest soils will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global

  20. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  1. Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Plaza-Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016. Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands.

  2. Clonal Variations in Flower Production at the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.subsp. pallasiana Seed Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ERTEKİN, Korhan TUNÇTANER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for three years (2002-2004 in a black pine seed orchard established with 30 clonesoriginating from the forest of Yenice-Bakraz in Bartın, 1990. During the research, the variations between theclones in the seed orchard were determined based on the number of male and female flowers. According to theresults, the average values of flower production in three years at seed orchard showed considerable variations. Itwas determined that the number of the male and female flowers were 817,2 and 99,3 respectively. 62% ofaverage number of male flowers and 49% of female flowers were produced by 10 clones in 3 years. It was alsodetermined that the amount of the flowers for the clones showed significant differences within the years.

  3. Effects of different soil preparation techniques on the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Çalışkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of different soil preparation treatments on regeneration of black pine success were examined and some suggestions were given according to the results. Twelve sample plots were randomly set in the research area. The size of each sample plot was 4 m². Sample plots were seeded equally with a total number of 2304 (48 seeds per m2 seeds in April 2012. The number of surviving seedlings was recorded every month from May to November in 2012. Surviving seedlings were recorded again in November 2013 and growths of thirty seedlings which are selected randomly from the all sample plots were examined. It was found that soil treatment with machine was more successful in regeneration at semi-arid regions like Cerkes-Turkey. Plowing equipment as mechanical soil cultivation has more economically advantageous in first years. However, the success and quality of seedlings were better in soil preparation with ripper equipment compared to plowing.

  4. Semi-Arid Plantation by Anatolian Black Pine and Its Effects on Soil Erosion and Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Hacisalihoglu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Anatolian Black pine [(Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe] plantation on hydro-physical soil properties and soil loss were investigated. This study was carried out on the afforestation field of Anatolian Black Pine in the Gölbaşı district of Ankara province, which is included in the arid and semi-arid regions. Totally 48 soil sample in two soil depth level (0-20cm, 20-50cm were collected from forest (36 soil sample and barren (control area (12 soil sample. Hydro-physically important soil properties were analysed [Sand (%, Silt (%, Clay (%, Organic Matter (%, pH, Field Capacity (%, Wilting Point (%, Saturation (%, Available Water Holding Capacity (cm/cm Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity (cm/hr, Bulk Density (gr/cm3]. And soil loss in a unit area by using ABAG (Allgemeine Boden Abtrags Gleichung model was estimated. Soil properties and soil loss amount relations among the land use group were determined. Topsoil (0-20cm and subsoil (20-50cm properties except subsoil organic matter were significantly affected by land use group. Finally, Significant changes were found for annual soil loss amounts in a unit area. Avarage annual soil loss in planted area was found approximately 5.5 times less than barren area at 0-50 cm soil depth. Vegetation factor (C which is one of the most important components of the soil loss equation, has been significantly affected by afforestation in a short period of 40 years and thus it was a variable to reduce to soil loss.

  5. Studies on black stain root disease in ponderosa pine. pp. 236-240. M. Garbelotto & P. Gonthier (Editors). Proceedings 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Otrosina; J. T. Kliejunas; S. S. Sung; S. Smith; D. R. Cluck

    2008-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine, caused by Lepfographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root contacts and grafts but new infections are likely vectored by root...

  6. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  7. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  8. Ten-year results of a ponderosa pine progeny test in the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd; Sue E. McElderry

    1986-01-01

    Ten-year survival and growth of seedlings from 77 parent trees from throughout the Black Hills were compared, using a cluster-analysis technique. Five clusters were identified that account for most of the variability in survival and growth of the open-pollinated families. One cluster, containing 6 families, exhibited exceptional survival and growth. Another, containing...

  9. Combining wood anatomy and stable isotope variations in a 600-year multi-parameter climate reconstruction from Corsican black pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Sonja; Hetzer, Timo; Bräuning, Achim; Joachimski, Michael M.; Leuschner, Hanns-Hubert; Kuhlemann, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    We present a new multi-parameter dataset from Corsican black pine growing on the island of Corsica in the Western Mediterranean basin covering the period AD 1410-2008. Wood parameters measured include tree-ring width, latewood width, earlywood width, cell lumen area, cell width, cell wall thickness, modelled wood density, as well as stable carbon and oxygen isotopes. We evaluated the relationships between different parameters and determined the value of the dataset for climate reconstructions. Correlation analyses revealed that carbon isotope ratios are influenced by cell parameters determining cell size, whereas oxygen isotope ratios are influenced by cell parameters determining the amount of transportable water in the xylem. A summer (June to August) precipitation reconstruction dating back to AD 1185 was established based on tree-ring width. No long-term trends or pronounced periods with extreme high/low precipitation are recorded in our reconstruction, indicating relatively stable moisture conditions over the entire time period. By comparing the precipitation reconstruction with a summer temperature reconstruction derived from the carbon isotope chronologies, we identified summers with extreme climate conditions, i.e. warm-dry, warm-wet, cold-dry and cold-wet. Extreme climate conditions during summer months were found to influence cell parameter characteristics. Cold-wet summers promote the production of broad latewood composed of wide and thin-walled tracheids, while warm-wet summers promote the production of latewood with small thick-walled cells. The presented dataset emphasizes the potential of multi-parameter wood analysis from one tree species over long time scales.

  10. Austrian emission under international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SO 2 , NO x , volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), NH 3 and CO from the European Union, European Union candidate countries and Austria is presented. Data covers the years 1999-2001 and the emissions values per habitant are provided as well as a comparison against the Kyoto goals. In the middle of the European mean values are the austrian emissions values, austrian SO 2 emissions are the smallest, however CH 4 , CO and NMVOC emissions are over the European mean values. 8 figs., 6 tabs. (nevyjel)

  11. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  12. Austrian natural scientists in exile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1978-01-01

    This text was written by E. Broda for the international symposium for exploration of the Austrian exile from 1934 to 1945 (“Internationales Symposiums zur Erforschung des österreichischen Exils von 1934 bis 1945”) in the year 1978. The article is about the specific problems of the Austrian scientific landscape, caused by the political events in the first half of the 20th century. The focus is primarily on the enormous ‘brain drain’, triggered by political repression in the period of Nazi rule (1938 - 1945), the Austro-fascism period (1934 - 1938) and the economic regression, anti-intellectual and anti-Semitic sentiment in the Country since 1918. The article emphasizes the importance of exile organizations, such as the ‘Free Austrian Movement’ or the ‘Association of Austrian Engineers, Chemists and Scientific Workers in Great Britain’ for the reconstruction of a scientific culture in Austria, after the Second World War. (rössner) [de

  13. Mr. Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor. Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor.

  14. The reception of Austrian economics in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Magliulo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the Austrian School enjoys high reputation in Italy: books by Mises, Hayek and other Austrian economists are constantly republished and reviewed with great interest, both inside and outside academic circles. The situation was very different decades ago, when just a few Italian economists devoted attention to the Austrian School. This work studies the reception of Austrian Economics in Italy, from the beginning to our days, so as to bring out, by way of comparison, relevant features of Italian economic culture. We will try to offer just an overview of the entire story, in an attempt to provide useful elements for a deeper analysis of further topics and periods.

  15. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  16. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  17. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  18. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Trenker, C.; Hoeflinger, W.

    2001-09-01

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM 10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM 10 and PM 2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI

  20. The consumer in Austrian economics and the Austrian perspective on consumer policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an

  1. Evaluating the role of cutting treatments, fire and soil seed banks in an experimental framework in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody L. Wienk; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Guy R. McPherson

    2004-01-01

    Pinus ponderosa Laws. (ponderosa pine) forests have changed considerably during the past century, partly because recurrent fires have been absent for a century or more. A number of studies have explored the influence of timber harvest or burning on understory production in ponderosa pine forests, but study designs incorporating cutting and prescribed...

  2. Black carbon content in a ponderosa pine forest of eastern Oregon with varying seasons and intervals of prescribed burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosziuk, L.; Hatten, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil carbon represents a significant component of the global carbon cycle. While fire-based disturbance of forest ecosystems acts as a carbon source, the increased temperatures can initiate molecular changes to forest biomass that convert fast cycling organic carbon into more stable forms such as black carbon (BC), a product of incomplete combustion that contains highly-condensed aromatic structures and very low hydrogen and oxygen content. Such forms of carbon can remain in the soil for hundred to thousands of years, effectively creating a long-term carbon sink. The goal of this project is to understand how specific characteristics of prescribed burns, specifically the season of burn and the interval between burns, affect the formation, structure, and retention of these slowly degrading forms of carbon in the soil. Both O-horizon (forest floor) and mineral soil (0-15 cm cores) samples were collected from a season and interval of burn study in Malheur National Forest. The study area is divided into six replicate units, each of which is sub-divided into four treatment areas and a control. Beginning in 1997, each treatment area was subjected to: i) spring burns at five-year intervals, ii) fall burns at five-year intervals, iii) spring burns at 15-year intervals, or iv) fall burns at 15-year intervals. The bulk density, pH, and C/N content of each soil were measured to assess the effect of the burn treatments on the soil. Additionally, the amount and molecular structure of BC in each sample was quantified using the distribution of specific molecular markers (benzene polycarboxylic acids or BPCAs) that are present in the soil following acid digestion.

  3. The Austrian school in Bulgaria: A history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Nenovsky

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to highlight the acceptance, dissemination, interpretation, criticism and make some attempts at contributing to Austrian economics made in Bulgaria during the last 120 years. We consider some of the main characteristics of the Austrian school, such as subjectivism and marginalism, as basic components of the economic thought in Bulgaria and as incentives for the development of some original theoretical contributions. Even during the first few years of Communist regime (1944–1989, with its Marxist monopoly over intellectual life, the Austrian school had some impact on the economic thought in the country. Subsequent to the collapse of Communism, there was a sort of a Renaissance and rediscovery of this school. Another contribution of our study is that it illustrates the adaptability and spontaneous evolution of ideas in a different and sometimes hostile environment.

  4. “What is so Austrian about Austrian Economics?”

    OpenAIRE

    David Colander

    2009-01-01

    Modern mainstream economics is a plurocracy in which there is no orthodoxy of ideas, only an orthodoxy of method. Given the training it provides its students, mainstream economic’s natural domain is science. With the mainstream’s acceptance of complexity views of the economy, Austrian economist’s views can now get a hearing within the mainstream. Thus, within the science of economics, there is no need for a separate Austrian economics. However, there is a need for Austrian economics in politi...

  5. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  6. Effects of different thinning systems on the economic value of ecosystem services: A case-study in a black pine peri-urban forest in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Forest Management (SFM should be able to produce an optimal level of bundle of Ecosystem Services (ES, thus ensuring more resilient forest ecosystems also creating benefits for local population and human well-being. Yet, choosing between alternative forest management practices is not straightforward as it necessarily involves ES trade-offs. Forest management decisions have to reconcile the socio-economic and ecological contributions of forest ecosystems by fostering a synergistic relation between multiple ES while lowering ES trade-offs. The aim of the study is to analyze different forest management practices (selective and traditional thinning in black pine peri-urban forest in Central Italy, by investigating their contribution in terms of provisioning (wood production, cultural (recreational benefits, regulating (climate change mitigation ES. For each management option was performed: (1 the biophysical assessment of selected ES by using primary data and calculating indicators for wood production with special regard to biomass for energy use (living trees and deadwood volume harvested, recreational benefits (tourists’ preferences for each forest management practice, climate change mitigation (carbon sequestration in above-ground and below-ground biomass, and (2 the economic valuation of wood production, recreational benefits and climate change mitigation ES using direct and indirect methods (environmental evaluation techniques. The results show that the effects of the selective thinning on ES is higher that the effects of the traditional thinning. The economic value of the three ES provided by traditional and selective thinning are respectively: bioenergy production 154.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 223.3 € ha-1 yr-1; recreational benefits 193.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 231.9 € ha-1 yr-1; carbon sequestration 29.0 € ha-1 yr-1and 36.2 € ha-1 yr-1. The integrated (biophysical and economic assessment of ES in addition to the trade

  7. Guido von Pirquet: Austrian pioneer of astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, F.

    1977-01-01

    The works of Guido von Pirquet, Austrian pioneer of rocketry, were assessed. Major emphasis was given to Pirquet's calculation of the route to Venus which in fact was followed by the first Russian rocket to Venus. Of interest also is Pirquet's valuable construction of a space station and his analysis of interstellar space flight.

  8. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Pollak, Arnold; Gleiss, Andreas; Waldhoer, Thomas; Hayde, Michael

    2015-01-15

    We aimed to determine the incidence of primary gestational infections with Toxoplasma gondii and congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria, a country with a nationwide prenatal serological screening program since 1974. We analyzed retrospective data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register of pregnant women with Toxoplasma infection and their offspring with births between 1992 and 2008, identified by the prenatal mandatory screening program. Treatment was administered to women from diagnosis of a Toxoplasma infection until delivery. Infected infants were treated up to 1 year of life routinely. Clinical manifestations in infected infants were monitored at least for 1 year and documented in the register. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register included 2147 pregnant women with suspected Toxoplasma infection. Annually, 8.5 per 10 000 women acquired Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy, and 1.0 per 10 000 infants had congenital toxoplasmosis (13% mean transmission rate). Our data showed that women treated according to the Austrian scheme had a 6-fold decrease in the maternofetal transmission rate compared to women without treatment. Results from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register show the efficiency of the prenatal screening program. Our results are of clinical relevance for infants, healthcare systems, and policy makers to consider preventive Toxoplasma screening as a potential tool to reduce the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Aeroradiometric conducted by the Austrian police

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timal, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Austrian Police has specially trained and equipped radiation protection personnel which are intervention personnel for radiological emergencies, following the law of the Intervention Regulation, BGBl. II Nr. 145/2007. The training which consists of three consecutive courses follows the Intervention Regulation and the Austrian Standard S5207. It is held at the certified Security Academy of the Federal Ministry of the Interior in Traiskirchen near Vienna. As a follow-up training, there are special courses held for the conduction of aeroradiometric measures (radiation measurements by helicopters). All over Austria, the Police have ten aeroradiometric sets at their disposal which can be brought into action within almost no time. The contribution informs about the technics involved, the installation of the system in the helicopter and about the training for the aeroradiometric specialists. Furthermore, practical knowledge from flights conducted at trainings and exercises will be included. (orig.)

  10. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  11. Species hybridization in the genus Pinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    Results of a breeding program in which a large number of pine species were tested indicate that a number of species and hybrids may be useful in the northeastern United States. Austrian black pine x Japanese black pine and hybrids containing Japanese red pine all had good growth rates. While none of the soft pines grew faster than eastern white pine, a number of...

  12. Product Liability: A Neo-Austrian Based Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    The paper is an exercise in a neo-Austrian based economic analysis of product liability. After a short historical introduction, we take two of the basic premises of Austrian economic thought and see which system of product liability results. If costs are subjective and entrepreneurship is the

  13. Pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni and Pituophis mellanoleucus lodingi) hibernacula

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.C. Rudolph; R.R. Schaefer; S.J. Burgdorf; M. Duran; R.N. Conner

    2007-01-01

    Snakes are often highly selective in the choice of sites for hibernation, and suitable sites can potentially be a limiting resource. Hibernating Louisiana Pine Snakes (Pituopllis ruthveni; N = 7) in eastern Texas and Black Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi; N = 5) in Mississippi were excavated to characterize their...

  14. Do Pine Trees in Aspen Stands Increase Bird Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Rumble, Mark A; Mills, Todd R; Dystra, Brian L; Flake, Lester D

    2001-01-01

    In the Black Hills of South Dakota, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is being replaced by conifers through fire suppression and successional processes. Al- though the Black Hills National forest is removing conifers (primarily ponderosa pine [Pinus ponderosa])toincreasetheaspencommunitiesinsomemixedstands,ForestPlan guidelines allow four conifers per hectare to remain to increase diversity in the remaining aspen stand. We compared bird species richness in pure ponderosa pine, mixed stands ...

  15. Report on the Austrian Mining Conference 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, R

    1982-02-01

    The conference took place in Leoben from 19 to 22 May, 1981, under the auspices of the Montanuniversitaet Leoben and the Bergmaennischer Verband of Austria. A total of 14 talks were held, which are summarized in brief. Main topics of the talks concerned prospects of the international coal industry, concepts of Austria' energy supply, coal exploration in Austria, uranium reserves of Austria, development of international coal trade, brown coal deposits of Hungary, aspects of overburden removal in surface mines and of roadway drivage in underground mines, prediction of rock behavior in deep mines, hydraulic salt mining, and protection of an iron ore preparation plant in India by the Austrian VOEST-ALPINE AG. (In German)

  16. The Austrian Approach: Entering the World of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Patricia; Balcerack, Carl

    1979-01-01

    This photo-essay describes a Waldorf School. Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner, the Waldorf plan is dedicated to allowing the child a childlike environment. It emphasizes storytelling, creative dramatics, flexibility, improvisation, crafts, and movement. (SJL)

  17. Publications of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranz, F.; Nevyjel, A.

    1989-02-01

    About 3000 publications, written by staff members of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (OEFZS) within the period 1976-1985 are cited. The bibliography includes citations of journal articles, proceedings, books, technical reports as well as dissertations and diploma works, carried out in Seibersdorf by students of Austrian universities. It covers the subject areas of chemistry, physics, biology, radiation protection, reactor safety, isotope applications, materials technology, environmental research, mathematics and information, electronics and agriculture. 10 refs. (Author)

  18. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.; Shewchuk, D. [Cariboo Pulp and Paper, Quesnel, BC (Canada); Van Heek, R. [Aker Kvaerner, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented the results of tests conducted to determine if the addition of waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing might decrease tall oil soap solubility in pine-beetle impacted wood from British Columbia (BC). The soap recovery and tall oil production at BC mills has fallen by 30 to 40 percent in recent years due to the pulping of high proportions of grey-stage beetle-impacted wood. Full-scale mill tests were conducted over a 4-day period. The study showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids or waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing could decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase the soup skimming efficiency in mills pulping a large percentage of grey stage beetle-infested wood. The addition of fatty acids increased tall oil soap skimming efficiency from 50.2 percent in the baseline tests to 71.8 percent based on the total soap available, and from 76.7 percent in the baseline tests to 87.5 percent based on insoluble soap only. The economic analyses indicated that waste fatty acid addition could be economical when natural gas and oil prices are high. 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Microhabitats of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    Merriam’s Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) are associated with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the western United States, but are not native to the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Black Hills population was established by transplanting birds from New Mexico and Colorado between 1948 and...

  20. Greetings from Austrian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Brandl, A.

    2015-01-01

    Austrian Radiation Protection Association (OVS) share with others a long-standing tradition of common endeavours and close collaboration. We have been and are able to influence the European radiation protection environment and IRPA initiatives and policies. We are intrigued by the breadth and comprehensive nature of the symposium programme, covering the most important sub-fields in our profession, and spanning topics from radiation dosimetry to radiobiology, from instrumentation and measurement to radioecology, and from radiation protection for workers and in medicine to our professional responsibilities towards the general public. These topics are timeless and current, providing testimony to the fact that the science of radiation protection is not exhausted. Novel applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, including new modalities in the fields of medical therapy and diagnosis, a resurgence of nuclear energy generation in some parts of the globe, combined with increased efforts for decontamination and decommissioning of existing sites and facilities, they are all attest to the continued need for further research and our professional input and discussion. The national radiation protection associations will have a role to play in both, the advocacy of increased efforts to educate and train our future professionals and the retention of those professionals in our field.

  1. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele Wallner; Tania Jabbar

    2010-01-01

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210 Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228 Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels. (author)

  2. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity.

  3. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  4. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  5. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  6. Attitudes of Austrian Psychotherapists Towards Process and Outcome Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tim; Schmutzhart, Lisa; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert

    2018-03-08

    While monitoring systems in psychotherapy have become more common, little is known about the attitudes that mental health practitioners have towards these systems. In an online survey among 111 Austrian psychotherapists and trainees, attitudes towards therapy monitoring were measured. A well-validated questionnaire measuring attitudes towards outcome monitoring, the Outcome Measurement Questionnaire, was used. Clinicians' theoretical orientations as well as previous knowledge and experience with monitoring systems were associated with positive attitudes towards monitoring. Possible factors that may have led to these findings, like the views of different theoretical orientations or obstacles in Austrian public health care, are discussed.

  7. Accredited training on radiation protection for the Austrian police

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timal, G.

    2009-01-01

    In Austria, radiological emergencies are handled following the Intervention Regulation, in force since 2007. This regulation also defines duration and content for the training of radiation protection personnel, taking advantage of the standard OeNORM S 5207 published in 2005. Radiation protection personnel of the Austrian police are trained at the Federal Security Academy in Traiskirchen near Vienna. The Federal Security Academy is a training centre certified by the Austrian Standards Institute. The poster describes the modular organisation of the training and its duration and content as well as the further trainings available to the radiation protection personnel of the Police. (orig.)

  8. An Austrian framework for PET quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, R.; Dobrozemsky, G.; Minear, G.; Bergmann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The European patient protection directive (97/43 EURATOM) requires regular routine quality control (QC) of PET imaging devices. Since no standards were available covering this area and in order to comply with the directive a joint working party of the Austrian societies of nuclear medicine and of medical physics have developed a set of procedures suitable for both dedicated PET scanners and gamma cameras operating in coincidence mode (GCPET). The routine procedures proposed include both manufacturer recommended procedures and tests for specific parameters and calibration procedures. Wherever possible, procedures adapted or derived from NEMA standards publication NU 2-2001 were used to permit direct comparison with specified parameters of image quality. For dedicated PET scanners the most important procedures are the checking of detector sensitivities and the attenuation calibration scan. With full ring scanners the attenuation calibration scan is a blank scan, with partial ring devices a special attenuation calibration phantom has to be used. Test protocols are specific to manufacturer and scanner type. They are usually performed automatically overnight. In addition, some instruments require special calibrations, e.g. gain adjustments or coincidence timing calibration. GCPET procedures include the frequent assessment in coincidence mode of detector uniformity, energy resolution and system sensitivity. Common to both dedicated PET and GCPET are the regular quarterly assessment of tomographic spatial resolution and the calibration of the system for quantitative measurements. As a total performance test for both systems assessment of image quality following NU 2-2001 was included, to be carried out after major system changes or repairs. The suite of QC procedures was tested on several dedicated PET and GCPET systems including all major manufacturers' systems. Due to missing hardware or software not all tests could be performed on all systems. Some of the

  9. Avian Plasmodium in Eastern Austrian mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Ellen; Uebleis, Sarah Susanne; Butter, Julia; Nawratil, Michaela; Cuk, Claudia; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Zechmeister, Thomas; Rubel, Franz; Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-29

    Insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. Despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites. In this study, nested PCR was used to determine Plasmodium spp. occurrence in pools of whole individuals, as well as the diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in 2013-2015. A total of 45,749 mosquitoes in 2628 pools were collected, of which 169 pools (6.43%) comprising 9 mosquito species were positive for avian Plasmodium, with the majority of positives in mosquitoes of Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium. Six different avian Plasmodium lineages were found, the most common were Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05, Plasmodium sp. Linn1 and Plasmodium relictum SGS1. In 2014, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were genetically identified and Culex pipiens f. pipiens presented with the highest number of avian Plasmodium positives (n = 37; 16.74%). Despite this, the minimum infection rate (MIR) was highest in Culex torrentium (5.36%) and Culex pipiens f. pipiens/f. molestus hybrids (5.26%). During 2014 and 2015, seasonal and annual changes in Plasmodium lineage distribution were also observed. In both years P. vaughani SYAT05 dominated at the beginning of the sampling period to be replaced later in the year by P. relictum SGS1 (2014) and Plasmodium sp. Linn1 (2015). This is the first large-scale study of avian Plasmodium parasites in Austrian mosquitoes. These results are of special interest, because molecular identification of the taxa of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium enabled the determination of Plasmodium prevalence in the different mosquito taxa and hybrids of this complex. Since pools of whole insects were used, it is not possible to assert any vector competence in any of the examined mosquitoes, but the results

  10. THE HUNGARIAN CRISIS: AN AUSTRIAN SCHOOL EXPLANATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Toth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian model was heralded as one of the most successful post-socialist way of integration into the globalised world economy and European economic area in the nineties. Currently, Hungary is suffering from a full-blown crisis 1996 onwards. Increasingly large number of Hungarians is losing their faith in political parties, institutions, democracy and in market economy. The government, elected in 2010 by supermajority and still enjoying a broad support despite the deepening recession, condemns the development path taken after 1989 and openly rejects the wrong model of the last 20 years. The government intends to build a new economic model following a model, which one can call a model of economic nationalism as the only way out of the crisis. The paper intends to portray, through the case of Hungary, how economy and politics is interconnected, and why political elites are choosing a credit fuelled development path. The paper intends to portray how a credit fuelled growth was induced by politics and ended up in tears. Moreover, the paper describes the consequences of pro-etatist shift in the public sentiment due to the alleged “market-failure”, which was in reality a crisis, at first place, created for political purposes by political means. This article, based on the Austrian business cycle theory, argues that the tragedy of Hungary was that it went through a government inspired spending binge in the first half of the 2000s. The deficit spending of the government was accompanied by the expansion of credit by the commercial banks, mostly denominated in Swiss francs. The combined effect of deficit spending and credit expansion was the build-up of debt and loss of cost competitiveness. The 2008 crisis ended the credit fuelled development path and has started the long and painful period of deleveraging crisis. On the other hand, the Hungarian crisis is a post-Keynesian crisis. It had broken out when the state was already heavily indebted and

  11. 47. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 47. symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Vienna (Austria) in 1997. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  12. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains lectures of the 45 th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  13. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  14. 49. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatt, R.; Maerk, T.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and poster sessions of the 49th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which has been held at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) in 1999. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  15. 40. annual convention 1990 of the Austrian physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Titles and abstracts of the 1990 Convention of the Austrian Physical Society, 17-21 September 1990 at Salzburg, Austria, are given. The topical sections are: 1. Atomic, Molecular- and Plasma Physics; 2. Solid State Physics; 3. Polymer Physics; 4. Nuclear- and Particle Physics; 5. Medical Physics and Biophysics. There are alltogether 193 contributions, 61 thereof of INIS interest

  16. Annual convention 1986 of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    There are 152 contributions, 58 thereof of INIS interest. The subject matters are indicated by the grouping of contributions into topical sessions on 1) nuclear and particle physics 2) physics of high polymers 3) atomic and plasma physics. There is additionally a session for teachers contimation training and one page informations on the Austrian Physical Society. (G.Q.)

  17. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jandl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and nitrogen contents of Norway spruce needles and mosses were used to assess the nitrogen supply. The pH values of soils have increased because of decreasing proton depositions caused by reduction of emissions. The C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils is widening. Despite high nitrogen deposition rates the increase in forest stand density and productivity has increased the nitrogen demand. The Austrian Bioindicator Grid shows that forest ecosystems are still deficient in nitrogen. Soils retain nitrogen efficiently, and nitrate leaching into the groundwater is presently not a large-scale problem. The decline of soil acidity and the deposition of nitrogen together with climate change effects will further increase the productivity of the forests until a limiting factor such as water scarcity becomes effective.

  18. 48. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netzer, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and posters of the 48 th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Graz (Austria) in 1998. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  19. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittnik, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in…

  20. Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  1. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  2. Hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury of Austrian residents vs. of visitors to Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Walter; Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The goal was to compare epidemiology of hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Austrian residents vs. visitors to Austria. Data on all hospital admissions due to TBI (ICD-10 codes S06.0-S06.9; years 2009-2011) was provided by the Austrian Statistical Office. Data on Austrian population and on tourism (visitor numbers, nights spent) was retrieved from www.statistik.at . Age, sex, mechanism of injury, season and mortality was analysed for Austrian residents vs. visitors. Visitors contributed 3.9% to the total population and 9.2% of all TBI cases. Incidence of hospital admissions was 292/100,000/year in Austrian residents and was 727/100,000/year in visitors. Male:female ratio was 1.39:1 in Austrian residents and 1.55:1 in visitors. Austrian cases were older than visitors' cases (mean age 41 vs. 28 years). Austrian cases were distributed evenly over the seasons, while 75% of the visitors' cases happened during winter and spring. The most frequently observed causes of TBI in Austrian residents were private accidents, while sports caused almost half of the visitors' cases. Hospital mortality was lower in visitors than in Austrian residents (0.8 vs. 2.1%). Sports-related TBI of visitors causes a significant workload for Austrian hospitals. Better prevention is warranted.

  3. Gazing behavior reactions of Vietnamese and Austrian consumers to Austrian wafers and their relations to wanting, expected and tasted liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Minh Hang; Tu, Viet Phu; Duerrschmid, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Predictability of consumers' food choice based on their gazing behavior using eye-tracking has been shown and discussed in recent research. By applying this observational technique and conventional methods on a specific food product, this study aims at investigating consumers' reactions associated with gazing behavior, wanting, building up expectations, and the experience of tasting. The tested food products were wafers from Austria with hazelnut, whole wheat, lemon and vanilla flavors, which are very well known in Austria and not known in Vietnam. 114 Vietnamese and 128 Austrian participants took part in three sections: The results indicate that: i) the gazing behavior parameters are highly correlated in a positive way with the wanting-to-try choice; ii) wanting to try is in compliance with the expected liking for the Austrian consumer panel only, which is very familiar with the products; iii) the expected and tasted liking of the products are highly country and product dependent. The expected liking is strongly correlated with the tasted liking for the Austrian panel only. Differences between the reactions of the Vietnamese and Austrian consumers are discussed in detail. The results, which reflect the complex process from gazing for "wanting to try" to the expected and tasted liking, are discussed in the context of the cognitive theory and food choice habits of the consumers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. [Pain care in Austrian health care centers: Questionnaire study on the current status of Austrian pain clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, I-S; Bornemann-Cimenti, H; Messerer, B; Vittinghoff, M; Sandner-Kiesling, A

    2015-12-01

    Pain clinics provide interdisciplinary therapy to treat chronic pain patients and to increase the return-to-work rate. In recent years and due to increased economic pressure in health care, a change in the management of pain in Austrian health care centers has been observed. For the analysis of the current situation, two surveys addressing all Austrian pain clinics were performed. In total, 133 heads of Austrian Anesthesia Departments were interviewed online and personally. The data from the first interview were confirmed by an additional telephone survey that was performed by one anesthetist per Austrian state (n = 9). Currently, 44 Austrian pain clinics are active. During the last 5 years, 9 pain clinics closed. Adding the current active pain clinics together, they represent a total of 17.5 full-time-operated clinics. The most common reasons for closing the pain clinics were lack of personnel (47%), lack of time resources (26%), lack of space resources (11%), and financial difficulties (11%). A reduction of >50% of operating hours during the last 3 years was reported by 9 hospitals. The reasons for not running a pain clinic were lack of personnel (36%), lack of time (25%) and department too small (16%). Estimates between actual and required clinics indicate that 49.5 full-time-operating pain clinics are lacking in Austria, resulting in 74% of the Austrian chronic pain patients not receiving interdisciplinary pain management. Our survey confirmed the closure of 9 pain clinics during the last 5 years due to lack of personnel and time. Pain clinics appear to provide the simplest economic saving potential. This development is a major concern. Although running a pain clinic seems to be expensive at the first sight, it reduces pain, sick leave, complications, and potential legal issues against health care centers, while simultaneously increasing the hospital's competitiveness. Our results show that 74% of Austrian chronic pain patients do not have access to an

  5. Individual-based assessment of population structure and admixture in Austrian, Croatian and German draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, T; Curik, I; Baumung, R; Aberle, K; Distl, O; Sölkner, J

    2007-02-01

    All over Europe, the number of draught horses has decreased drastically during the last 50 years. As a prerequisite for efficient management decisions, we analysed the conservation status in Austrian (Noriker Carinthia - NC, Noriker Salzburg - NS), Croatian (Croatian Coldblood - C, Posavina horse - P) and German (Altmaerkisch Coldblood - A, Black Forest horse - BF, Mecklenburg Coldblood - M, Rhenish German Draught horse - R, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood - ST, Schleswig Draught horse - Sch, South German Coldblood - SG) draught horses (434) using multilocus genotypic information from 30 (effectively 27) microsatellite loci. Populations located in areas with less intensive agricultural production (C, NC, NS, P and SG) had greater diversity within the population and estimated effective population size than A, BF, Sch, M, R and ST populations. The PCA plots revealed that populations form five separate groups. The 'Noriker' group (NC, NS and SG) and the 'Rhenish' group (A, M, R and ST) were the most distinctive (pairwise F(ST) values ranged from 0.078 to 0.094). The 'Croatian' group (C and P) was in the centre, while the BF and Sch populations formed two out-groups. A posterior Bayesian analysis detected further differentiation, mainly caused by political and geographical factors. Thus, it was possible to separate the South German Coldblood from the Austrian Noriker population where no subpopulation structure was detected. The admixture analysis revealed imprecise classification between C and P populations. A small but notable separation of R from A, M and ST populations was detected, while Sch and BF populations remained as out-groups. The information obtained should aid in making efficient conservation decisions.

  6. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  7. Asymmetric Mutual Social Perception of Austrians and Germans: A Social Identity Approach Assessing Implicit and Explicit Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Renner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whereas Austrians tend to perceive Germans as "competent but cold", Germans tend to see Austrians as "incompetent but nice" in the sense of Fiske's Stereotype Content Model. With respect to the unequal distribution of power between Austria and Germany, which outnumbers Austria by approximately the tenfold population, Social Identity Theory (SIT predicts that Austrians will tend to devalue Germans, attempting to preserve their self-esteem and cultural identity, whereas Germans will perceive Austrians more positively. We tested this expectation with N = 31 Austrian and N = 49 German students at an Austrian university. Our hypotheses of asymmetrical mutual attitudes and massive devaluation of Germans by Austrians were confirmed by the Implicit Association Test, whereas on adjective lists as an explicit measure, Austrians described Germans more favourably, obviously out of a desire not to appear prejudiced. The results support SIT and have important implications for the development of Austrian academic education.

  8. Austrian Transition to Open Access“ 2017–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In December the higher education structural funds project (Hochschulraumstrukturmittelprojekt “Austrian Transition to Open Access (AT2OA“ was authorised by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy. The 21 public universities cooperate on this project running from 2017 to 2020 in order to promote open access through concerted measures. Constitutive on OANA’s “suggestions for the implementation of Open Access in Austria” published in 2015 four subprojects have been developed. These subprojects’ main focuses are drafting an expert’s report about the financial impact of a total adjustment to open access on a national and institutional basis, the extension of existing consortium licences with an open access component, establishment of an open access publishing fund as well as the promotion of open access monographs and suitable open access infrastructures.

  9. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  10. Austrian Security Strategy: Need For Reformulation Due To Security Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-14

    accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) as an option. Under the Austrian Constitution , the federal government wanted to maintain the...the Middle East and Africa completely overwhelmed the police at the border crossing between Austria and Hungary and Slovenia . On 14 September 2015...Hungary, Croatia, and Slovenia .33, 34, 35 At the end of October 2015 refugees broke through the barriers several times at the border crossing point

  11. Seasonality in the Austrian Economy: Common Seasonals and Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Kunst, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Abstract: Seasonal cointegration generalizes the idea of cointegration to processes with unit roots at frequencies different from 0. Here, also the dual notion of common trends, "common seasonals", is adopted for the seasonal case. Using a five-variable macroeconomic core system of the Austrian economy, it is demonstrated how common seasonals and seasonal cointegrating vectors look in practice. Statistical tests provide clear evidence on seasonal cointegration in the system. However, it is sh...

  12. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  13. Austrian Economics - The Ultimate Achievement of an Intellectual Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Salin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture delivered November 2008 on the occasion of the presentation of the Mises Institute’s Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize for lifetime achievement in the cause of liberty, Professor Salin discusses his discovery of Austrian economics and his involvement in “the world of individual liberty,” and draws various lessons from his intellectual journey. The coherence of Austrian economics appealed to Salin—it is not a patchwork of partial theories, but a logical process of thought founded on realistic assumptions about individual action. Salin also discusses differences between the Chicago and Austrian approaches, and his views about monetary systems.The financial crisis beginning in late 2008 is not a crisis of capitalism, but of state intervention, caused by the expansionary monetary policy of the Fed. Capitalism is the solution, not the cause. There is no need to create money. There is never any balance of payments problem. What is required is tax systems more friendly to capital accumulation, a decrease in the role of the state, the end of monetary policy and, if possible, the disappearing of central banks and the IMF.

  14. The Austrian Research Centers activities in energy risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Among the institutions involved in energy analyses in Austria the risk context is being treated by three different entities: the Energy Consumption Agency, internationally known as EVA, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, or Urnweltbundesarnt assessing mainly the environmental risks involved and the Austrian Research Centers, working on safety and risk evaluation. The Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf draws form its proficiency in Reactor Safety and Fusion Research, two fields of experience it has been involved in since its foundation, for some 40 years now. Nuclear energy is not well accepted by the Austrian population. Therefore in our country only energy systems with advanced safety level might be accepted in the far future. This means that the development of methods to compare risks is an important task. The characteristics of energy systems featuring advanced safety levels are: A very low hazard potential and a focus on deterministic safety instead of probabilistic safety, meaning to rely on inherently safe physics concepts, confirmed by probabilistic safety evaluation results. This can be achieved by adequate design of fusion reactors, advanced fission reactors and all different renewable sources of energy

  15. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  16. Auriacusite, Fe[superscript 3+]Cu[superscript 2+]AsO[subscript 4]O, the first M[superscript 3+] member of the olivenite group, from the Black Pine mine, Montana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Stuart J.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Poirier, Glenn; Raudsepp, Mati; Steele, Ian M. (CMN); (NHM-LA); (UC); (UBC)

    2011-08-16

    Auriacusite, ideally Fe{sup 3+}Cu{sup 2+}AsO{sub 4}O, is a new arsenate mineral (IMA2009-037) and the Fe{sup 3+} analogue of olivenite, from the Black Pine mine, 14.5 km NW of Philipsburg, Granite Co., Montana, USA. It occurs lining quartz vughs and coating quartz crystals and is associated with segnitite, brochantite, malachite, tetrahedrite and pyrite. Auriacusite forms fibrous crystals up to about 5 {micro}m in width and up to about 100 {micro}m in length, which are intergrown to form fibrous mats. Individual crystals are a brownish golden yellow, whilst the fibrous mats are ochreous yellow. The crystals have a silky lustre and a brownish yellow streak. Mohs hardness is about 3 (estimated). The fracture is irregular and the tenacity is brittle. Auriacusite crystals are biaxial (+), with {alpha} = 1.830(5), {beta} = 1.865(5) and {gamma} = 1.910(5), measured using white light, and with 2V{sub meas.} = 83(3){sup o} and 2V{sub calc.} = 84.6{sup o}. Orientation: X = a, Y = c, Z = b. Crystals are nonpleochroic or too weakly so to be observed. The empirical formula (based on 5 O atoms) is (Fe{sub 1.33}{sup 3+}Cu{sub 0.85}Zn{sub 0.03}){sub {Sigma}2.21}(As{sub 0.51}Sb{sub 0.27}Si{sub 0.04}S{sub 0.02}Te{sub 0.01}){sub {Sigma}0.85}O{sub 5}. Auriacusite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, a = 8.6235(7), b = 8.2757(7), c = 5.9501(5) {angstrom}, V = 424.63(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs} in {angstrom}/(I)/hkl]: 4.884/(100)/101, 001; 2.991/(92)/220; 2.476/(85)/311; 2.416/(83)/022; 2.669/(74)/221. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data utilising synchrotron radiation and refined to R{sub 1} = 0.1010 on the basis of 951 unique reflections with F {alpha} > 4{sigma}F. Auriacusite is identified as a member of the olivenite group with Fe{sup 3+} replacing Zn{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+} in trigonal bipyramidal coordination. Evidence suggests that auriacusite is an intermediate

  17. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  18. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  19. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  20. Some remarks on the Austrian radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, H.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the provisions of the Austrian Radiation Protection Law and Radiation Protection Ordinance differ from those recommended by ICRP and IAEO. This is particularly true for the definition of working conditions, the categorization of radiation areas and the classification of radiation workers. It is suggested that the responsible authorities when considering a revision of the legislation in the light of ICRP 26 and the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards, also study the desirability of adapting the currently applicable provisions to the universally accepted international norms. (Auth.)

  1. Emission factors of Austrian industry production and international comparison. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turi, K.

    1997-05-01

    During the last few years a number of measures have been implemented in the Austrian industries to reduce air pollution and energy use. Therefore specific emissions in the various sectors were changed considerably during this period. The aim of this research project was to better characterize air pollutant emissions of the Austrian industry. Emission data as measured by the Austrian industry was compared with published emission factors from international literature. The results show that the emission factors of the Austrian industry are generally lower than literature emission factors. This is because on the one hand many older data from the literature do not reflect current state of the knowledge, and on the other hand because emission reduction measures and new technologies were introduced in the Austrian industry. (author)

  2. 4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

  3. 69 The Multicultural Education in Bucovina during the Austrian Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1775, the territory of Bucovina became part of the Habsburg monarchy and it stayed like that for 143 years. All throughout this period when the Romanians lived here next to Ukrainians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities, the Austrian government took into consideration their need for culture, which resulted in the development of a multicultural teaching system. This implied that the languages of teaching in the Bukovinian schools were: Latin, Greek, Romanian, Ukrainian and, more often than not, German. Although the weighty presence of the German language in the academic institutions limited the number of young Romanians in schools, the teaching in German enabled the access of the Bukovinian students to the great European universities from Vienna, Salzburg, Lemberg, Kraków or Prague, before the founding of the Chernivtsi University (1875. Thus, beyond the negative aspects of the separation of this territory from Romania, the Austrian occupation represented an effervescent period from a cultural viewpoint, which lent a specific identity to the teaching system in Bukovina.

  4. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, A.

    1984-10-01

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60 Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided ( 147 Pm, 204 Tl and 90 Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137 Cs and 60 Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  5. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  6. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  7. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  8. Actualization and enlargement of the Upper Austrian emission inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Schimak, G.; Raup, N.

    2001-06-01

    The functionality of the Upper Austrian emission inventory has been increased by simplifying the evaluation routines. Thus access to existing data will be simplified. This version 2.0 not only improves evaluation procedures already in place, but also allows to retrieve annual information on point sources, as routinely reported by the individual industrial facilities on an annual basis. In the same way as for such point source information, also statistical information is used to derive annual emission changes. This is currently limited to the sector of domestic heating, where emissions are directly influenced by climate parameters that can be easily obtained. Trend analysis currently is not possible due to the limited number of sectors included. First conclusions on the temporal behavior of emissions are still possible and are discussed here. Likewise, additional plausibility checks are facilitated by using temporal emission changes, which will help improve data quality. (author)

  9. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  10. Lay theories of suicide among Austrian psychology undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Lester, David

    2007-01-01

    Lester and Bean's (1992) Attribution of Causes to Suicide Scale gauges lay theories of suicide including intrapsychic problems, interpersonal conflicts, and societal forces as causes. Results obtained with its German form (n=165 Austrian psychology undergraduates) showed no sex differences and no social-desirability effects. Intriguingly, all three subscales were moderately intercorrelated, thereby indicating respondents' general agreement (or disagreement) with all three theories. Thus, the critical dimension of lay theories of suicide appears to be the belief that suicide has definite causes (regardless of type) versus that it is without causes (unpredictable). In addition, religiosity was positively associated (and overall knowledge about suicide negatively associated) with belief in intrapsychic causes, whereas liberal political views were negatively associated with belief in interpersonal causes.

  11. Austrian WBC intercomparison by means of a BOMAB phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Edelmeier, R. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    The paper discusses the results obtained in the intercomparison between the Austrian Institute for Legal Metrology and the ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Institute for Radiation Protection, which gave a BOMAB phantom. Values related to potassium content and MBA (minimum detectable activity) for each identified nuclide are also discussed. [Italian] L'Istituto Austriaco di Metrologia Legale ha organizzato l'interconfronto usando un fantoccio gelificato di tipo BOMAB fornito dall'Istituto di Radioprotezione dell'ENEA nel periodo marzo-giugno 1996. Vengono riportati i risultati ottenuti relativi al contenuto di potassio e all'attivita' minima rilevabile (MDA) per ogni nuclide identificato.

  12. 51. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhummer, H.

    2001-01-01

    The 51th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 17-21 September 2001 at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria). The topics covered deal with: energy (greenhouse effect, climatic change, environment protection, energy system transformation, innovative energy technologies), neutrons and synchrotron radiation, quantum mechanics, microscopy, accelerator-driven systems, physics aspects of radiotherapy, nano world, micro cosmos, modern physics, life in the universe, x-ray fluorescence, heavy-ion accelerator mass spectrometry, acoustics, atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics, solid-state physics, nuclear and particle physics, medical-, bio-and environmental physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  13. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  14. The radiation protection units of the Austrian fire brigades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspek, W.; Schoenhacker, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1960s, Austrian fire brigades have been involved in radiation protection. With the preparations for the NPP Zwentendorf and the building of the research reactor in Seibersdorf, the first radiation protection units of the fire brigade were founded. 45 years later: The NPP Zwentendorf never saw its start-up, the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity is prohibited by a constitutional law, and the research reactor is being decommissioned. What's left are the radiation protection units of the fire brigades. The contribution gives an overview of similarities and differences of the radiation protection units in the nine federal states of Austria, with a special focus on equipment, training and organisation. Nation-wide guidelines and regulations for the tactics of first responders at radiological emergencies are presented and a couple of incidents will be analysed. (orig.)

  15. [CGM-Continuous Glucose Monitoring--Statement of the Austrian Diabetes Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Hofer, Sabine; Stadler, Marietta; Bischof, Martin; Zlamal-Fortunat, Sandra; Laimer, Markus; Weitgasser, Raimund; Prager, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    This position statement represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association regarding the clinical diagnostic and therapeutic application, safety and benefits of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems in patients with diabetes mellitus, based on current evidence.

  16. [CGM-continuous glucose monitoring - statement of the Austrian Diabetes Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Schober, Edith; Rami, Birgit; Stadler, Marietta; Bischof, Martin; Fortunat, Sandra; Laimer, Markus; Weitgasser, Raimund; Prager, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    This position statement represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association regarding the clinical diagnostic and therapeutic application, safety and benefits of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems in patients with diabetes mellitus, based on current evidence.

  17. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M Lanner; Kristina F. Connor

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senscence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in great basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To teast a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statiscally significant...

  18. Diseases of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth

    1964-01-01

    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  19. Smoke hardiness of pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    It has been determined in East Germany that some species of pines are more susceptible to the damaging effects of sulfates than others. On sites that are deficient in nutrients, the trees were found to be more susceptible to injuries. Pinus nigra was the most resistant, then Pinus strobus was next, and Pinus sylvestris was the most sensitive.

  20. The Remembrance of World War One and the Austrian Federation of Jewish War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Lamprecht

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses discourses and activities of memory of the Austrian “Federation of Jewish War Veterans” (Bund jüdischer Frontsoldaten/BJF, based primarily on the analysis of the journal “Jewish Front” (Jüdische Front as well as on archival sources. A remarkable increase in anti-Semitic activities as well as acts of violence committed by the National Socialists led former Jewish soldiers of the Austrian army to found the BJF in 1932. The aim of the BJF was to defend the Austrian Jewry against anti-Semitic accusations as well as to strengthen their Jewish self-consciousness by focusing on the remembrance of the Jewish military service during the Great War and an idealized and exaggerated war experience. To reach their objectives, the BJF was organized hierarchically and militarily. The members wore uniforms, and the BJF organized military inspections, spread propaganda via the journal “Jewish Front” and initiated the erection of Jewish war memorials in several Austrian cities. Due to the fact that the BJF wanted to unify the Austrian Jewry under its leadership, it claimed to be above all party lines and propagandized a common Austrian Jewish identity.

  1. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  2. Occupational radiation exposure in upper Austrian water supplies and Spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Simader, M.; Bernreiter, M.; Aspek, W.; Kaineder, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM lays down the basic safety standards for the protection of the workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, including natural radiation. Based on the directive and on the corresponding Austrian legislation a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the occupational radiation exposure in Upper Austrian water supplies and spas. The study comprises 45 water supplies and 3 spas, one of them being a radon spa. Most measurements taken were to determine the radon concentration in air at different workplaces (n = 184), but also measurements of the dose rate at dehumidifiers (n = 7) and gamma spectrometric measurements of back washing water (n = 4) were conducted. To determine the maximum occupational radon exposure in a water supply measurements were carried out in all water purification buildings and in at least half o f the drinking water reservoirs of the water supply. The results were combined with the respective working times in these locations (these data having been collected by means of a questionnaire). Where the calculated exposure was greater than 1 MBq h/m then all drinking water reservoirs of the concerned water suppl y were measured for their radon concentration to ensure a reliable assessment of the exposure. The results show that the radon concentrations in the water supplies were lower as expected, being in 55% of all measurement sites below 1000 Bq/m in 91% below 5000 Bq/m and with a maximum value of 38700 Bq/m.This leads to exposures that are below 2 MBq h/m (corresponding to approx. 6 mSv/a) in 42 water supplies. However, for the remaining three water supplies maximal occupational exposures due to radon of 2.8 MBq h/m (∼ 10 mSv/a), 15 MBq h/m (∼ 50 mSv/a), and 17 MBq h/m ( ∼ 56 mSv/a), respectively, were determined. In these water supplies remediation measures were proposed, based mainly on improved ventilation of and/or reduction of working time in the building

  3. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  4. First experiences with NORM regulations in the Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauke, Michael; Katzlberger, C.; Haider, W.; Ringer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives a brief overview of important aspects of the recently implemented NORM ordinance in the Austrian Radiation Protection Legislation. It describes first experiences from pilot studies and dose assessments in this field. The field of application of this ordinance is defined by a list of work activities which might cause a significant increase in the exposure of workers and of members of the public. This list includes work activities, which potentially increase the exposure due to radon or uranium, thorium and their progenies and work activities, where residues with elevated levels of natural radionuclides may lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers and the public. The first level of a dose assessment is the determination of activity concentrations in materials. It is assumed that the dose of workers does not exceed 1 mSv per year, if the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides are below 1 Bq/g. A notification of the workplace to the radiation protection authority is sufficient in this case. Otherwise a detailed dose assessment considering all relevant exposure pathways has to be performed as well as radiation protection measures and organisational measures, if needed. If the results of the dose assessment show higher levels than 6 mSv per year, radiation protection measures like personal dosimeters and periodical medical examination and reporting to the radiation protection authority are obligatory. A similar dose assessment procedure has to be applied for residues. The residues are allowed to be disposed as conventional waste, as long as the dose assessment shows a dose lower than 1 mSv per year. Otherwise the residues have to be treated as radioactive waste. Only accredited or certified institutions may perform authorised dose assessments. The Austrian Agency for Food and Health Safety performed pilot studies in this field for getting more experience in the field of dose assessment and to get an overview of the

  5. [Austrian guideline for palliative sedation therapy (long version) : Results of a Delphi process of the Austrian Palliative Society (OPG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weixler, Dietmar; Roider-Schur, Sophie; Likar, Rudolf; Bozzaro, Claudia; Daniczek, Thomas; Feichtner, Angelika; Gabl, Christoph; Hammerl-Ferrari, Bernhard; Kletecka-Pulker, Maria; Körtner, Ulrich H J; Kössler, Hilde; Meran, Johannes G; Miksovsky, Aurelia; Pusswald, Bettina; Wienerroither, Thomas; Watzke, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    Palliative sedation therapy (PST) is an important and ethically accepted therapy in the care of selected palliative care patients with otherwise unbearable suffering from refractory distress. PST is increasingly used in end-of-life care. Austria does not have a standardized ethical guideline for this exceptional practice near end of life, but there is evidence that practice varies throughout the country. The Austrian Palliative Society (OPG) nominated a multidisciplinary working group of 16 palliative care experts and ethicists who established the national guideline on the basis of recent review work with the aim to adhere to the Europeans Association of Palliative Care's (EAPC) framework on palliative sedation therapy respecting Austrians legal, structural and cultural background. Consensus was achieved by a four-step sequential Delphi process. The Delphi-process was strictly orientated to the recently published EUROIMPACT-sedation-study-checklist and to the AGREE-2-tool. Additionally national stakeholders participated in the reflection of the results. As a result of a rigorous consensus process the long version of the Austrian National Palliative Sedation Guideline contains 112 statements within eleven domains and is supplemented by a philosophers excursus on suffering. By establishing a national guideline for palliative sedation therapy using the Delphi technique for consensus and stakeholder involvement the Austrian Palliative Society aims to ensure nationwide good practice of palliative sedation therapy. Screening for the practicability and efficacy of this guideline will be a future task.

  6. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  7. Structures and perspectives of the Austrian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemut, N.

    1992-03-01

    The technical tools for projecting future energy demand can be grouped into two broad categories: Firstly, time series or cross section data based econometric models which contain information about customers' past behavior and thus enable to judge the causal effects of economic factors like incomes and prices on energy demand (passive forecasting). Secondly, structural simulation models which indicate how energy services transform to flows of useful, final and primary energy. These models enable to estimate the technical potential of improving the energy application and energy transformation systems (active scenario approach). Comparison of the two approaches with respect to projections for future energy demand yields that, typically, in the short run of econometric approach will dominate the structural simulation model. In the long run, however, this relation will be reversed. The econometric models suffer lack of technical information necessary to describe the demand for energy. The structural simulation model enables an incorporation of technical factors like efficiencies and fuel shares. An application of the structural model is a simulation run describing a scenario in order to reduce the Austrian CO 2 -emissions according to the recommendations of the conference of Toronto

  8. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of arguments about why that is. The author argues that moral education and teaching of Human Rights are important components of, but ought not be the main goal of teaching about the Holocaust. The role of Austria after World War II, and exploration of the so called victim myth, prevalent until the 1990s are important to understanding history and to how history textbooks were created. After a discussion of how the Holocaust can be taught to elementary and early secondary school aged children, some suggestions are made about approaches to teaching the Holocaust to students in these age groups.

  9. Attitude Towards End of Life Communication of Austrian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpold, Tamara; Lütgendorf-Caucig, Carola; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Roider-Schur, Sophie; Pötter, Richard; Kirchheiner, Kathrin

    2018-04-23

    Medical students have to acquire theoretical knowledge, practical skills, and a personal attitude to meet the emerging needs of palliative care. The present study aimed to assess the personal attitude of Austrian medical students towards end of life communication (EOLC), as key part of palliative care. This cross-sectional, mono-institutional assessment invited all medical students at the Medical University of Vienna in 2015. The assessment was conducted web-based via questionnaire about attitudes towards EOLC. Additional socio-demographic and medical education-related parameters were collected. Overall, 743 medical students participated in the present report. Differences regarding the agreement or disagreement to several statements concerning the satisfaction of working with chronically ill patients, palliative care, and health care costs, as well as the extent of information about palliative disease, were found for age, gender, and academic years. The overall attitude towards EOLC in the present sample can be regarded as quite balanced. Nevertheless, a considerable number of medical students are still reluctant to inform patients about their incurable disease. Reservations towards palliative care as part of the health care system seem to exist. The influence of the curriculum as well as practical experiences seems to be important but needs further investigation.

  10. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W.

    2015-01-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  11. A Proposal for an Austrian Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, W.O.; Ammenwerth, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Nursing Minimum Data Sets can be used to compare nursing care across clinical populations, settings, geographical areas, and time. NMDS can support nursing research, nursing management, and nursing politics. However, in contrast to other countries, Austria does not have a unified NMDS. The objective of this study is to identify possible data elements for an Austrian NMDS. Methods A two-round Delphi survey was conducted, based on a review of available NMDS, 22 expert interviews, and a focus group discussion. Results After reaching consensus, the experts proposed the following 56 data elements for an NMDS: six data elements concerning patient demographics, four data elements concerning data of the healthcare institution, four data elements concerning patient’s medical condition, 20 data elements concerning patient problems (nursing assessment, nursing diagnoses, risk assessment), eight data elements concerning nursing outcomes, 14 data elements concerning nursing interventions, and no additional data elements concerning nursing intensity. Conclusion The proposed NMDS focuses on the long-term and acute care setting. It must now be implemented and tested in the nursing practice. PMID:25024767

  12. 52. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.

    2002-01-01

    The 52th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 23.-26. September 2002 at the Montan University of Leoben (Austria). The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (intermetallic materials, nanostructures as sensors, volcanic products as dating materials); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2002 (electronic structure and charge transfer in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes), Max-Auwaerter-price 2002 ( growth phenomena of thin overlayers on semiconductor surfaces), Viktor-Hess-price 2002 (analysis of rare Ke4 - decays), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2002 (experienced physics); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (plasma ion mass spectrometers, proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry, radiation damage, electron-molecule interactions, decay); solid physics (nanoopticcs, nanocrystalline magnetic materials, nanostructure, nanoelectronics); nuclear and particle physics (CP-violations, neutral kaons, quark-antiquark systems, QCD, kaonic atoms spectroscopy, hadronic decay, long-lived radionuclides); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (biological radiation damage, photons therapy, Med-AUSTRON, doses rate, endovascular brachytherapy); physics-industry-energy (ski-simulation, acoustic surface wave); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (neutron quantum interferometry, AUSTRON, synchrotron-induced x-ray analysis); polymer physics(micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray analysis); quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (solid-state lasers, doped lasers, quantum purification and teleportation, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum optics, Talbot-Lau interferometry, neutron quantum phases) and two poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  13. 55. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, G.; Sepiol, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The 55 th Annual Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 27.-29. September 2005 at the University of Vienna (Austria), it consisted of a plenary session, oral and poster sessions devoted to: acoustics; women and physics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics; solid physics; nuclear and particle physics; medical-, bio-and environmental physics; neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics; surface and thin film analysis and quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Topics such as graphs quantization, molecular interferometry, Brownian movement, ion beam diagnostics, electron emission, optical pumping, Bose-Einstein condensates, molecular matter waves, double-wall carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, ferromagnetic nanocomposites, nanowires, transmission electron microscopy analysis of nanostructures, nanocrystals studies, atomic defects in intermetallic compounds, electron energy loss spectroscopy of intermetallic compounds, CHIRALTEM project, covariance data, nuclear astrophysics, kaonic atoms, pionic hydrogen, geometric phase measurements with neutrons, International linear collider project, ATLAS muon spectrometer, ATLAS detector, LHC's protection system, baryon structure, QCD, lattice QCD, coherent tomography, light microscopy, high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, polymer gel dosimetry, radon microdosimetry, traffic air pollutants, BVOC seasonal variations, biogenic VOC emissions, ice dating, synchrotron small angle x-ray diffraction, small angle neutron scattering, stepped surfaces oxidation, grazing incidence synchrotron reflexion studies, magnetic thin films, atoms quantum dynamics, quantum entanglement, BEC and quantum gases experiments were discussed. This book of abstracts contains their summaries and those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  14. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  15. Pedigree analysis in the Austrian Noriker draught horse: genetic diversity and the impact of breeding for coat colour on population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, T; Baumung, R; Sölkner, J

    2009-10-01

    The pedigree of the current Austrian Noriker draught horse population comprising 2808 horses was traced back to the animals considered as founders of this breed. In total, the number of founders was 1991, the maximum pedigree length was 31 generations, with an average of 12.3 complete generations. Population structure in this autochthonous Austrian draught horse breed is defined by seven breeding regions (Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria and Vorarlberg) or through six coat colour groups (Bay, Black, Chestnut, Roan, Leopard, Tobiano). Average inbreeding coefficients within the breeding regions ranged from 4.5% to 5.5%; for the colour groups, the coefficients varied from 3.5% to 5.9%. Other measures of genetic variability like the effective number of founders, ancestors and founder genomes revealed a slightly different genetic background of the subpopulations. Average co-ancestries between and within breeding areas showed that the Salzburg population may be considered as the nucleus or original stock whereas all other subpopulations showed high relationship to horses from Salzburg. The target of draught horse breeding in the 21st century does not meet the breeding concept of maximizing genetic gains any more. Stabilizing selection takes place. In this study, we show that demographic factors as well as structure given by different coat colours helped to maintain genetic diversity in this endangered horse breed.

  16. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  17. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  18. Development of a water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate and its preventative effect against the wilting of pot-grown pine trees inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, K; Soejima, T; Suzuki, T; Kawazu, K

    2001-05-01

    Water-soluble preparations have been investigated to develop a trunk injection agent based on the poorly water-soluble anti-nematode emamectin benzoate. Following tests on the phytotoxicity of some solvents and solubilizers and demonstration of the ability of some solubilizers to dissolve emamectin benzoate in water, acetone + methanol was selected as the solvent and Polysorbate 80 as the solubilizer. This water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate prevented the wilting of pot-grown 4-year-old trees of the Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, artificially inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, at a dose of 20 g emamectin benzoate per cubic metre of pine tree.

  19. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  20. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  1. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  2. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  3. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  4. Growth and Survival of Hardwoods and Pine Interplanted with European Alder

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Plass

    1977-01-01

    European black alder is recommended for planting on many surface mine spoils in the eastern United States. It grows rapidly on a range of spoil types and contributes to soil enrichment by fixing nitrogen and providing a leaf fall rich in nutrients. This study evaluated the effect of alder on the survival and growth of five hardwood and five pine species. After 10...

  5. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  6. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  7. Austrian Painter Leopold Kupelwieser and Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Dulibić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All 20th-century chronologies of the collector’s activity of Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer (1815-1905 and overviews of the evolution of today’s Strossmayer’s Gallery of Old Masters at the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts mention the bishop’s cooperation with the Austrian Nazarene painter Leopold Kupelwieser (1796-1862, father of Paul Kupelwieser, the former owner of the Brijuni islands. This episode from the “prehistory” of Strossmayer’s Gallery has hitherto been known only as a brief notice repeated in almost identical formulations: “In 1857, the bishop sent the first larger group of paintings to Vienna in order to be restored under the supervision of painter Leopold Kupelwieser.” Research of archival documents mentioning the cooperation between Bishop Strossmayer and painter Kupelwieser has now been complemented with an overview of Kupelwieser’s activity in Croatia, with an aim of promoting the preservation and evaluation of this segment of his painting oeuvre. Besides paintings ordered by Strossmayer (presently at the Diocesan Museum of Zagreb, Kupelwieser produced two paintings for Croatian churches independently of his cooperation with the bishop (for the church of St Stephen of Hungary, today’s church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Nova Gradiška, and for the chapel of St Peter and Paul in Dvor na Uni. Two more paintings are preserved on the Brijuni islands that do not directly belong to Kupelwieser’s oeuvre yet are closely linked to him.

  8. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  9. Space-use and habitat associations of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) occupying recently disturbed forests in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Chadwick P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are a disturbance-dependent species that occupy recently burned forest and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestations. Forest management practices that reduce the amount of disturbed forest may lead to habitat loss for Black-backed Woodpeckers, which have recently been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act. We...

  10. Quantifying low-value services by using routine data from Austrian primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Martin; Robausch, Martin; Moser, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    Open debates about the reduction of low-value services, unnecessary diagnostic tests and ineffective therapeutic procedures and initiatives like "Choosing Wisely "in the USA and Canada are still absent in Austria. The objectives of this study are: (i) to establish a list of ineffective or low-value services possibly provided in Austrian primary care, (ii) to explore how many of these services are quantifiable using routine data and (iii) to estimate the number of affected beneficiaries and avoidable costs arising from the provision of these services. In May 2014, we identified low-value care services relevant for primary care in Austria. For our analysis we used routine data sets from the Austrian health insurance. All analysis refer to the insured population of the Lower Austrian Sickness Fund (n = 1 168 433) in the year 2013. (i) We found 453 low-value services possibly offered in Austrian primary care. (ii) Only 34 (7.5%) services were quantifiable using routine data. (iii) In the year 2013, these 34 services were provided to at least 246 131 beneficiaries and the estimated avoidable costs arising were at least 11.38 million Euros. This accounts for 1.2% of overall spending of the Lower Austrian Sickness Fund for drugs and services provided by primary care doctors in the year 2013. The absence of a homogeneous, transparent and accessible coding system for diagnosis in Austrian primary care restrained our assessment. However, our study findings illustrate the potential utility and limitations of using claims-based measures to identify low-value care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Social, psychological and demographic reflections on the Austrian nuclear power question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschneider, R.

    1980-01-01

    The political history of an Austrian referendum in 1978, which led to abandonment of a nuclear power station, is reviewed, and an attempt is made to analyse the reasons for the 'No' vote. Surveys are presented which attempt to classify the yes, no and undecided voters in terms of political views. The effects of the Harrisburg accident on Austrian public opinion is examined and the possibility of accentuated differences between 'for' and 'against' groups is stated. It is noted that success in energy saving may reduce the significance of the atomic energy question. (G.M.E.)

  12. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  13. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  14. Pine weevil feeding in Scots pine and Norway spruce regenerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Damage caused by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L) feeding on conifer seedlings is a major problem in reforested areas in many parts of Europe. The adult weevil feeds on the stem-bark of young seedlings, frequently killing a large proportion of newly planted seedlings. The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to investigate whether additional food supplies could decrease the damage caused by pine weevil to seedlings, and to determine whether access to extra food might explain w...

  15. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  16. Understory biomass from southern pine forests as a fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, T.T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Monticello, AR (United States); Baker, J.B. [USDA Forest Service, Monticello, AR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The energy crisis in the US in the late 1970s led to accelerated research on renewable energy resources. The use of woody biomass, harvested from pine forests in the southern US, as a renewable energy source would not only provide an efficient energy alternative to forest industries, but its use would also reduce understory competition and accelerate growth of overstory crop trees. This study was initiated in the early 1980s to investigate the feasibility and applicability of the use of understory vegetation as a possible energy fuel resource. All woody understory vegetation [<14 cm (<5.5 in) in dbh], on 0.2 ha (0.5 ac) plots that represented a range of stand/site conditions of pine stands located in twelve southern Arkansas counties and two northern Louisiana parishes were characterized, quantified, and harvested. Based on the biomass yield from 720 subplots nested within 40 main plots, the top five dominant species in the understory, based on number and size were: Red maple, red oaks, pines, sweetgum, and winged elm. Some other species occurring, but in smaller proportions, were flowering dogwood, beautyberry, white oaks, black gum, wax myrtle, hickories, persimmon, and ashes. Most of these species are deciduous hardwoods that provide high BTU output upon burning. The average yield of chipped understory biomass was 23.5 T/ha with no difference occurring between summer and winter harvests. A predictive model of understory biomass production was developed using a step-wise multivariate regression analysis. In relation to forest type, high density pine stands produced 53% more understory biomass than high density pine-hardwood stands. The average moisture content of biomass was significantly lower when harvested in winter than when harvested in summer.

  17. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  18. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  19. Use of isotopic sulfur to determine whitebark pine consumption by Yellowstone bears: a reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2014-01-01

    Use of naturally occurring stable isotopes to estimate assimilated diet of bears is one of the single greatest breakthroughs in nutritional ecology during the past 20 years. Previous research in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), USA, established a positive relationship between the stable isotope of sulfur (δ34S) and consumption of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) seeds. That work combined a limited sample of hair, blood clots, and serum. Here we use a much larger sample to reassess those findings. We contrasted δ34S values in spring hair and serum with abundance of seeds of whitebark pine in samples collected from grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) in the GYE during 2000–2010. Although we found a positive relationship between δ34S values in spring hair and pine seed abundance for grizzly bears, the coefficients of determination were small (R2 ≤ 0.097); we failed to find a similar relationship with black bears. Values of δ34S in spring hair were larger in black bears and δ34S values in serum of grizzly bears were lowest in September and October, a time when we expect δ34S to peak if whitebark pine seeds were the sole source of high δ34S. The relationship between δ34S in bear tissue and the consumption of whitebark pine seeds, as originally reported, may not be as clean a method as proposed. Data we present here suggest other foods have high values of δ34S, and there is spatial heterogeneity affecting the δ34S values in whitebark pine, which must be addressed.

  20. Citizen participatory dioxin monitoring campaign by pine needles as biomonitor of ambient air dioxin pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komichi, I.; Takatori, A. [Environmental Research Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Environment and Informations; Vrzic, B. [Maxxam Analytics Inc. HRMS Laboratory, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The needle-type leaves of Japanese black pine trees (hereafter abbreviated as pine needles) have been used as an effective bio-monitor of ambient air pollution. Miyata Laboratory of Setsunan University has reported that the pine needles accumulate PCDDs and PCDFs (hereafter abbreviated as D/F) through photosynthesis and respiration during their lifetime. On the basis of this study, we have revealed the correlation between ambient air and pine needle concentrations to be estimated at or near 1:10 by analyzing long term continuous ambient dioxin monitoring data and that of pine needles sampled from the same area as ambient air in the Kanagawa Prefecture in 1999. Since then, the citizen groups of each local area all over Japan have started monitoring the ambient air dioxin concentration levels by using pine needles. Samples analyzed during these 5 years totaled more than 650 throughout Japan. The results of these citizen participatory environmental monitoring activities are the tremendous effects achieved in reducing the dioxin levels. This occurs through observation of the dioxin emission sources such as Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plants as well as the Industrial Waste Incineration plants, which exist in numbers exceeding several thousands in Japan. This short paper will present the results of 56 municipalities of western Japan where ambient air dioxin levels have improved steadily against local averages during these 5 years.

  1. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  2. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsamer, G.; Proksch, E.; Stolba, G.; Strigl, A.; Falta, G.; Zeger, J.

    1984-02-01

    This paper describes methods and measurements developed at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf for the evaluation of the irradiation performance of HTR fuel. Main interest is concentrated on particle failure rates, fission product release, burn-up and inventory measurements (solid and gaseous fission products, uranium inventory). (Author) [de

  3. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society; 45. Jahrestagung der Oesterreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This volume contains lectures of the 45{sup th} symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda).

  4. Progress Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1986-06-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  5. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz in Austrian Medical and Psychology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S.; Sonneck, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Psychometric properties and demographic correlates of a German form of R. W. Hubbard and J. L. McIntosh's (1992) Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz (RFOS), an inventory for assessing overall knowledge about suicide, were investigated in a sample of 1,093 Austrian medical and psychology students. Internal consistency of the RFOS was weak, as were many…

  7. Coming together but staying apart: continuity and change in the Austrian and Swiss varieties of capitalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso, A.; Mach, A.; Becker, U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of continuity and change in the Swiss and Austrian political economies over the last 20 years. After outlining the different institutional foundations of economic governance in both countries (fragmented state, constrained executive power and bourgeois dominance in

  8. PCDD/F and PCB levels in Austrian cow's milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanner, G.; Moche, W. [Umweltbundesamt Wien (Austria)

    2004-09-15

    In 2003 the Federal Environment Agency carried out a first Austrian wide milk monitoring study with the objective to get an overview of average PCDD/F levels in cow's milk, additionally dioxinlike PCBs, according to WHO, and indicator PCBs, as listed by national regulations, were analysed.

  9. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for honey yield, gentleness, calmness and swarming behaviour in Austrian honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brascamp, Evert; Willam, Alfons; Boigenzahn, Christian; Bijma, Piter; Veerkamp, Roel F.

    2016-01-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated for honey yield and behavioural traits in Austrian honey bees using data on nearly 15,000 colonies of the bee breeders association Biene Österreich collected between 1995 and 2014. The statistical models used distinguished between the genetic

  10. Measurement of the 226Ra-concentration in bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.; Hernegger, F.

    1978-01-01

    226 Ra being regarded nowadays as a toxic trace element, a systementic examination of bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages has been carried out. Only in one case was the maximum allowable concentration of 3.3 pCi/l, a value set up by the WHO, clearly exceeded. (orig.) [de

  11. Deaustrification? : the policy-area-specific evolution of Austrian social partnership.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kittel, B.E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the functioning of Austrian Social Partnership has been increasingly questioned. If this interpretation of current strains on the relations between the state and the main economic interest organizations would be correct, Austria would become a significant case in favor of disorganization

  12. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46 th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  13. Quality of Austrian and Dutch Falls-Prevention Information: A Comparative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoberer, Daniela; Mijnarends, Donja M.; Fliedner, Monica; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of written patient information material available in Austrian and Dutch hospitals and nursing homes pertaining to falls prevention. Design: Comparative descriptive study design Setting: Hospitals and nursing homes in Austria and the Netherlands. Method: Written patient…

  14. Evaluation of air pollution-related risks for Austrian mountain forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Stefan; Herman, Friedl

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes air pollution status and evaluation of risks related to effects of phytotoxic pollutants in the Austrian mountain forests. The results are based on Austrian networks (Forest Inventory, Forest Damage Monitoring System, Austrian Bioindicator Grid), the Austrian sample plots of the European networks of the UN-ECE (ICP Forests, Level I and Level II) and interdisciplinary research approaches. Based on the monitoring data and on modelling and mapping of Critical Thresholds, the evaluation of risk factors was possible. Cause-effect relationships between air pollution and tree responses were shown by tree-physiological measurements. Sulfur impact, proton and lead input, concentrations of nitrogen oxides, nitrogen input and ozone were evaluated. The risk was demonstrated at a regional and large-scale national level. Especially the increasing O 3 level and the accumulation of Pb with altitude present most serious risk for mountain forests. - Despite strong reduction of emissions in Europe, pollutants are still a potential stress factor, especially for sensitive mountain forest ecosystems in Austria

  15. Progress Report 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1986-06-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1984. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  16. Civic Education under Pressure? A Case Study from an Austrian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Isabella; Breitfuss, Judith

    2018-01-01

    When the politician Roman Haider of the party Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ--Freedom Party of Austria) caused the interruption of a lecture about political extremism in an Austrian school in spring 2017, a heated debate erupted over the place of politics in school education. While Haider accused the lecturer of political propaganda,…

  17. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society; 50. Jahrestagung der Oesterreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippitsch, M E [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2000-07-01

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  18. 1983 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society, University of Linz, 28 - 30 September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Proceedings of lectures and poster presentations given at the 1983 convention of the Austrian Physical Society, with (German) abstracts only. The four topical sessions were: 1) electrodynamics and optics 2) solid state physics 3) nuclear and particle physics 4) physics of high polymers Only part of the presentations pertain to the subject scope of INIS. (G.Q.)

  19. Utilization of the southern pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P

    1972-01-01

    After several years out of print, this book is again available. The two-volume reference characterizes the southern pine tree as raw material and describes the process by which it is converted to use. All 10 species are considered. The book is addressed primarily to the incoming generation of researchers and industrial managers in the southern pine industry. Foremen, superintendents, quality control personnel, wood procurement men, forest managers, extension workers, professors, and students of wood technology should find the handbook of value.

  20. From the 'Austrian Foundation for Atomic Energy Research' to the 'Seibersdorf Laboratories'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rößner, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the description of the process of institutionalization of nuclear research in Austria in the context of the „Atoms for Peace“ program in the 1950s. This aspect of the history of Austrian nuclear research has been relatively unexplored. The focus of this work is the presentation of measures that have been put in Austria to participate in the 'Atoms for Peace' program. Moreover, the expectations and goals of the Austrian nuclear program are analyzed. For this purpose, foundation, structure and research activities of the “Austrian Atomic Energy Commission”, the “Austrian Society for the Study of Atomic Energy” and the “Nuclear Reactor Centre Seibersdorf“ in the period from 1954 until about 1970 are examined. To establish a relationship with the international historical research of the history of nuclear research, the Austrian situation is compared to the Swiss and the German. It turns out that the Austrian expectations and objectives in nuclear research at the beginning of the period of observation roughly corresponded with the international trends. It also follows that by the establishment of the SGAE and the “Nuclear Reactor Centre Seibersdorf“ the development course of Austrian nuclear research occupied a special position compared to foreign institutions.(author) [de

  1. Austrian Daily Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, A.; Lipa, W.; Adler, S.; Albenberger, J.; Lechner, W.; Swietli, R.; Vossberg, I.; Zehetner, S.

    2010-09-01

    Checked climate datasets are a "conditio sine qua non" for all projects that are relevant for environment and climate. In the framework of climate change studies and analysis it is essential to work with quality controlled and trustful data. Furthermore these datasets are used as input for various simulation models. In regard to investigations of extreme events, like strong precipitation periods, drought periods and similar ones we need climate data in high temporal resolution (at least in daily resolution). Because of the historical background - during Second World War the majority of our climate sheets were sent to Berlin, where the historical sheets were destroyed by a bomb attack and so important information got lost - only several climate sheets, mostly duplicates, before 1939 are available and stored in our climate data archive. In 1970 the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna started a first attempt to digitize climate data by means of punch cards. With the introduction of a routinely climate data quality control in 1984 we can speak of high-class-checked daily data (finally checked data, quality flag 6). Our group is working on the processing of digitization and quality control of the historical data for the period 1872 to 1983 for 18 years. Since 2007 it was possible to intensify the work (processes) in the framework of an internal project, namely Austrian Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control. The aim of this initiative was - and still is - to supply daily data in an outstanding good and uniform quality. So this project is a kind of pre-project for all scientific projects which are working with daily data. In addition to routine quality checks (that are running since 1984) using the commercial Bull Software we are testing our data with additional open source software, namely ProClim.db. By the use of this spatial and statistical test procedure, the elements air temperature and precipitation - for several sites in Carinthia - could

  2. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  3. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  4. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  5. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  6. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  7. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  8. Prescribed Burn at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance

    2000-01-01

    .... Abandoned fields grew up in pine or in some cases were planted in pine during the 1930's. The burning of farm stubble and woodlands was a common practice in Arkansas throughout this time period...

  9. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  10. Results of the Czech-Austrian calculations of BDBA radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Hohenberg, J.-K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Common Czech - Austrian comparisons of codes and calculations of BDBA radiological consequences have been performed. Background of these comparisons is described in the paper presented at this symposium. Results of single steps are summarized and discussed in this poster presentation. From the Czech side calculations have been performed with computer codes PC Cosyma, este, RTARC, HAVAR, HERALD, PTM, RODOS/MATCH and long range code MEDIA used by the Czech meteorological institute (CHMI). Code PC Cosyma is taken as main comparable code in this inter-comparisons as it is used by the Czech and the Austrian side. For every accident scenario and for deterministic as well as probabilistic assessment of accident consequences results of both sides have been practically identical. Computer code 'este' is instrument for projection of release and evaluation of real release under real VVER 440 and WER 1000 emergency conditions. The code can be operated with real radiological, meteorological and technological data from the plant. The code calculates projection of avertable doses and simulates movement of radioactive clouds in the vicinity (up to 40-50 km) of the plant. The code participates in these comparisons as it serves as a support instrument for the staff at the emergency centre of the Czech nuclear regulatory body. Code RTARC (Real Time Accident Release Consequences) serves as an instrument for evaluation of radiation situation in the vicinity of the plant (up to 40 km) during the early phase of an accident. The code participates in these comparisons as it was used in the process of the Czech nuclear power plants protective action planning zone determination. Codes HERALD and HAVAR have been used by Skoda and Energoprojekt for analyses of consequences of design bases accidents in Temelin safety report. They were compared with PC Cosyma in one step of these common calculations by the Czech side. The code HAVAR enables to calculate ingestion doses, too, and

  11. Are we over-managing longleaf pine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is not loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) or slash pine (Pinus elliottii L.). There is the need for a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about longleaf pine. All too often we think of longleaf as an intolerant species, slow-grower, difficult to regenerate, and yet it dominated the pre...

  12. Guidelines for whitebark pine planting prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenda L. Scott; Ward W. McCaughey; Kay Izlar

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species in high-elevation ecosystems of the western United States. Unfortunately many fragile subalpine ecosystems are losing whitebark pine as a functional community component due to the combined effects of an introduced disease, insects and succession. Planting whitebark pine is one part of a multifaceted restoration...

  13. Why Credit Deflation Is More Likely than Mass Inflation: An Austrian Overview of the Inflation Versus Deflation Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Boyapati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an Austrian overview of the inflation versus deflation debate which has captured the attention of the economics profession in the years following the US housing bust. Much of the Austrian analysis of this debate has focused on the massive expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and attendant creation of new reserves. Several Austrian economists have predicted that the creation of new reserves will cause a massive increase in inflation. The money multiplier theory, on which these predictions are based, is criticized and an overview of the Austrian business cycle theory is provided to explain why banks are reluctant to issue new credit. Finally, an analysis of the politics of deflation is provided and a class theory is presented to explain why a policy of controlled credit deflation is more likely than a policy that would result in mass inflation or hyperinflation.

  14. Biblical Allusions in Expressionist Poetry in the Context of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian Literature : A Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mykhalchuk, T.

    2016-01-01

    With the application of comparative methodology, this article analyzes biblical allusions, reminiscences, paraphrases, direct and indirect quotations, and symbols in the poetry of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian writers (Georg Heym, Mykola Bazhan, Mykola Khvyliovyj Todosii, T. Osmachka, Pavlo

  15. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  16. Comparison of amount of physical load in the Czech and Austrian footballers at the same level of performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bujnovský, David

    2011-01-01

    Title: Comparison of the size of the motor load in the Czech and Austrian soccer players at the same performance level Objectives: The aim is to determine the size of the physical load of players during a football match. At the same time the next aim is to determinate the differences of physical load between Czech and Austrian soccer players at the same performance level. Methods: The indirect (mediated) observations was used in this bachelor thesis, because the data were recorded by computer...

  17. A Prospectus on Restoring Late Successional Forest Structure to Eastside Pine Ecosystems Through Large-Scale, Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Zack; William F. Laudenslayer; Luke George; Carl Skinner; William Oliver

    1999-01-01

    At two different locations in northeast California, an interdisciplinary team of scientists is initiating long-term studies to quantify the effects of forest manipulations intended to accelerate andlor enhance late-successional structure of eastside pine forest ecosystems. One study, at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest, uses a split-plot, factorial, randomized block...

  18. Impact of Austrian hydropower plants on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsuffa, I.

    1999-01-01

    Statistical analysis of daily water level data from four gauging stations along the Hungarian Danube reach has been carried out with the purpose of analysing the impact of the Austrian hydropower plants on the floods of the river. Conditional probability distribution functions of annual flood load maxima and annual number of floods were generated for the periods 1957-1976 and 1977-1996. By comparing these distribution functions, it could be shown that the flood load maxima have decreased, while the number of small and medium floods have increased during the past forty years. These changes indicate a decreased rate of flood superposition resulting from the barrages constructed in this period. The significantly decreased flood load maxima indicate that the Austrian barrage system has positive impact on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach

  19. Legal aspects of the crimes committed in insolvency proceedings – comparison of Czech and Austrian legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Uhlířová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to compare the Czech and Austrian legislation considering offenses which entrepreneurs and other entities (natural person may commit within the insolvency proceedings or which are related to the insolvency. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of Czech and Austrian legislation with regard cross-border relationships within the business environment and living between the Czech Republic and Austria.Czech entrepreneurs and natural person in Austria can get into a situation where their debtor is located in Austria and finds himself insolvent or vice versa. Also the Czech entrepreneurs and natural person may do their bussines or live in Austria and may get into such a situation when they are close to the situation which can lead to their decline. This paper would be for them a practical recommendation on how to avoid potential criminal liability.

  20. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Towards a Dynamic Resource-Based View: Insights from Austrian capital and Entrepreneurship Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Ishikawa, Ibuki

    The dominant view in the strategic management field is the resource-based view ("RBV"). It has often been observed that the RBV is lacking in the dynamic dimension. For example, processes of building competitive advantages by means of combining existing complementary resources in novel ways...... are not inquired into. We argue that the RBV may profitably draw on Austrian (Misesian) and Knightian insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory, particularly in its Lachmannian manifestation, in order to strengthen its dynamic components. We link the RBV and Austrian ideas in the context of the theory...... of complex systems pioneered by Herbert Simon. We draw a number of implications for strategic management from this synthesis, notably into resource value and sustainability of competitive advantage.JEL Code: B53, D21, L23, M1...

  2. Austrian Capital Theory and the Link Between Entrepreneurship and the Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    tangible and intangible,are heterogeneous; arranging these assets to minimize contractual hazards, toprovide efficient investment incentives, or to exploit competitive advantage isconceived as the prime task of economic organization. None of these approaches,however, is based on a systematic theory......Several writers link entrepreneurship to asset ownership, trying to incorporatethe theory of entrepreneurship into the theory of the firm. The critical link, weargue, is capital heterogeneity. Transaction cost, property rights, and resourcebasedapproaches to the firm assume that assets, both...... of capital heterogeneity. Inthis paper we outline the approach to capital developed by the Austrian schoolof economics and integrate it into an entrepreneurial theory of the firm. We refineAustrian capital theory by defining capital heterogeneity in terms of subjectivelyperceived attributes, that is...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-09

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  4. Segregated integration : recent trends in the Austrian gender division of labor

    OpenAIRE

    Kreimer, Margareta; Mora, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Using micro data from the Austrian Labor Force Survey, this paper explores how decreases in the gender differential in participation rates together with increasing differentials in the incidence of part-time jobs and stable or rising levels of occupational segregation by gender affect the gender division of labor. To so so, we propose an index for the gender division of labor based on the Mutual Information index. Our main results show that the gender division of labor is very sta...

  5. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; J?rchel, Amrei C.; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22....

  6. European parliament in Strasbourg more courageous against 'atomic neighbours' than Austrian politicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockinger, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author is refering to a notice in the german journal VDI-Nachrichten that the European Parliament claims that nuclear power stations should be put into operation upon agreement of the neighbouring member state up to a distance of 100 km from the border. The presently accepted distance is 30 km only. The author gives a list of claims the Austrian authorities should insist on when negotiating with neighbours operating nuclear power plants, primarily West Germany and Czechoslovakia. 1 fig. (qui)

  7. Longer Working Hours? More Flexible Work Schedules? Do Austrian Economic Policymakers Need to Act?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Stiglbauer

    2004-01-01

    On September 23, 2004, the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) hosted a workshop to discuss extending working hours and increasing working time flexibility. After Peter Mooslechner (OeNB) outlined the development of the present discussion in the media and presented some facts, the participants delivered their statements. Erhard Fu‹rst (Federation of Austrian Industry and Austria perspektiv) called for more flexibility rather than for an extension of working hours. He supported this view by p...

  8. Open Access Policies of Research Funders: The Case Study of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.

  9. Abundance of Black-backed woodpeckers and other birds in relation to disturbance and forest structure in the Black Hills and Bear Lodge Mountains of South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Matseur

    2017-01-01

    Natural disturbances, such as wildfire and mountain pine beetle (Dentroctonus ponderosae, hereafter MPB) infestations, are two sources of large-scale disturbance that can significantly alter forest structure in the Black Hills. The Black Hills has recently experienced one of the largest MPB outbreaks in the last 100 years, along with varying levels of wildfires...

  10. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  11. Joint Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society and the Swiss Physical Society together with the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society and the Swiss Physical Society was organized together with both national societies of Astronomy and Astrophysics (SSAA and ÖGAA) at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle, atomic and molecular physics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear, particle- and astro particle physics; physics teachers; acoustics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; medical, bio and environmental physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; careers in physics. There were special sessions on thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. In addition to the regular program, an Energy Day (Energietag) with several parallel sessions on recent topics of energy generation, -transport and -storage was jointly organized by the Energy and Industry Subdivisions of the Austrian Physical Society and by the Johannes Kepler Universität Linz. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  12. [Comparison between the Austrian and German DRG systems in hand surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, O; Jaminet, P; Schwarzach, S; Schaller, H E

    2013-02-01

    Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) are a patient classification system grouping related types of patients treated to the resources they consumed. In this analysis, we compared the Austrian and the German DRG systems. The 15 most common hand surgical diagnoses and their corresponding operative treatment were transferred into the Austrian system. Thus, the length of stay and the reimbursement of both countries could be obtained and compared. The mean values and the median values of the upper and lower thresholds of length of stay as well as the average length of stay were all lower in Austria compared to Germany. Reimbursement in Germany was higher in 13 of 19 cases. Total proceeds amounted to 1.67 million in the German and 1.70 million in the Austrian health care system. Considering the purchasing power applying consumer prize parities, the difference of reimbursement between the countries rose to 130,000 which equals a difference of almost 8%. Reimbursement of the top 15 diagnoses in hand surgery in Austria is 8% higher than in Germany. Except for one case, mean values as well as upper and lower thresholds of length of stay are considerably shorter in Austria. Comparison of international data to refine a national compensation system is advocated.

  13. Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien [Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Der süd- und südostasiatische Raum befindet sich im Aufholprozess. Der anhaltende Wachstumstrend geht einher mit der steigenden Nachfrage aus den Industriestaaten sowie dem Binnenmarkt und führt auch zu erhöhtem Bedarf an Infrastruktur. Auch die österreichische Wirtschaft profitiert vom Asien-Boom. Dies zeigt das stete Wachstum österreichischer Warenexporte in die Region, der Anstieg heimischer Direktinvestitionen sowie die wachsende Präsenz österreichischer Firmen. Ziel der österreichischen WirtschaftsvertreterInnen ist es, die Tigerstaaten Südostasiens mehr aus dem Schatten der aufstrebenden Wirtschaftssupermacht China zu holen und die österreichische Wirtschaftsverflechtung mit diesen Ländern zu intensivieren.The South and South East Asian Area has been catching up with the developed world. The sustained economic growth trend goes hand in hand with a higher demand from industrialized nations and a stronger internal demand, pushing for better infrastructure. The Austrian economy is also benefiting from booming Asia, underscored by the steady increase of Austrian exports to this region, the rise of foreign direct investment and companies doing business in these countries. The Austrian business community would like to see the South East Asian tiger states more out of the shadow of the new super power China. The overall objective is to intensify the economic integration with South and South East Asia.

  14. Pine creek geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Ewers, G.R.; Ferguson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline is a 66,000 km 2 inlier of Early Proterozoic metasediments, mafic and felsic intrusives and minor extrusives, surrounding small late Archaean granitic domes. Economic uranium occurrences cluster into three fields, with the Alligator Rivers field being the most significant. The metasediments are alluvial and reduced shallow-water pelites and psammites. Evaporitic carbonate developed on shallow shelves around Archaean islands. Basin development and sedimentation (c. 2000-1870 Ma) were related to gradual subsidence induced by crustal extension. Facies variations and volcanism were in places controlled by the extensional faults. The rocks were metamorphosed to lower the high grade, complexly folded, and intruded by numerous granitoids from c. 1870 to 1730 Ma. Late orogenic felsic volcanics accumulated in local rift systems. Middle Proterozoic sandstone was deposited on a peneplaned and deeply weathered surface from about 1650 Ma. Uranium is enriched in some Archaean and Proterozoic igneous rocks, but there is no local or regional enrichment of the metasedimentary hosts or of the unconformably overlying sandstone. There is no regional gravity, magnetic or radiometric character attributable to the region's significance as a uranium province; contrasts with surrounding sedimentary basins reflect expected differences in rock properties between a heterogeneous igneous/metamorphic region and relatively homogeneous undeformed and unmineralized sediments. Uranium-enriched Archaean and Proterozoic granitoids and felsic volcanics with labile U are likely though not exclusive source rocks. U was probably transported in oxidized low temperature solutions as uranyl complexes and precipitated in reduced, structurally controlled, low-pressure traps. All uranium occurrences are broadly classified as 'Proterozoic unconformity related'. Greatest potential for further discovery is offered in the Alligator Rivers field, where perhaps at least 3 to 5.5 times the

  15. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  16. Longleaf Pine: An Updated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer; Charles K. McMahon

    1996-01-01

    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest figured prominently in the cultural and economic development of the South. What was once one of the most extensive forest ecosystems in North America has now become critically endangered (6). At the time of European settlement, this ecosystem dominated as much as 92 million acres throughout the...

  17. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator

    1978-01-01

    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  18. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  19. Limited growth recovery after drought-induced forest dieback in very defoliated trees of two pine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eGuada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width and intra-annual (xylogenesis scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized three years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die.

  20. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem D., E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Baysal, Ergun, E-mail: bergun@mu.edu.tr [Mugla University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Kotekli, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Peker, Huseyin, E-mail: peker100@hotmail.com [Artvin Coruh University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 06100 Artvin (Turkey)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  1. Naturally Occurring Compound Can Protect Pines from the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer; J.L. Hayes

    1995-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, is the most destructive insect pest of southern pine forests. This tiny insect, smaller than a grain of rice, is responsible for killing pine timber worth millions of dollars on a periodic basis in Louisiana.

  2. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  3. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    longleaf pine forests (Figure 1) for the diverse values they provide. These forests afford abundant recreational opportunities like hiking , bird...combined herbicide-fertilizer treatments that might benefit planted longleaf pine seedlings after planting. In addition to measuring longleaf pine

  4. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  5. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  6. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  7. Bio-composites made from pine straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang

    2004-01-01

    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  8. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  9. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  10. THE AUSTRIAN CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION: CONTINUING THE PATH TO REFORM THE FEDERAL STATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gamper

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the different debates and attempts to reform the Austrianfederal system over the last fifteen years. The article is based on a historicalperspective that describes the most relevant developments of Austrianfederalism during the 20th century, highlighting the importance of thecentralisation process through the constant transfer of powers from the Länderto the Federal Government, as well as various debates in this regard.According to the author, since 1995, the year of Austrian adhesion to theEuropean Union, two opportunities have been missed to carry out a generalreform of the federal system which could contribute to compensating thecentralisation process.The first missed opportunity is directly related to the Austrian adhesion tothe European Union. The Länder agreed to the adhesion under the conditionthat the Federal Constitution would include their participation in Europeandecision-making processes. By focussing on this point, the Länder set aside the opportunity to take advantage of the debate and, as a consequence,press for structural reform of the federal system. The second missed opportunitywas related to the dispersion of proposals resulting from the work ofthe Austrian Constitutional Convention. The Convention, created in 2003,had the mission of discussing those aspects of the reform of the Constitutionthat regulated the federal structure of the country and, as a consequence,of making a first draft reform. The incapability of establishing and definingcommon ground for reform, together with the lack of flexibility and ofseeking political commitment, weakened the role of the Convention and,thus, any possibility to carry on with the reform.

  11. The effectiveness of psychotherapy with refugees and asylum seekers: preliminary results from an Austrian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Walter

    2009-02-01

    An Austrian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) offered psychotherapy to 37 asylum seekers and refugees (21 of them female) with a mean age of 36.1 years (s = 7.5), with the majority of them from Chechnya or Afghanistan. Comparative data between the start of therapy and the time of evaluation revealed a highly significant positive effect (d = 0.77), while most therapies were still going on. By a retrospective measure of perceived change, 85% of the participants reported significant improvements. The results show that even under difficult conditions, when working with asylum seekers and refugees, psychotherapy can be effective.

  12. Progress report 1980/81 of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the numerous institutes and divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences presented in this report the Commission for Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Research (application of radioimmunoassay) and the Institute for X-ray Microstructure Research (investigation of biological substances by X-ray and neutron small angle scattering) are partly within the scope of INIS. Fully in scope are short project discriptions of the Institute for Radium Research and Nulear Physics: the Commission for the SIN-project and the Institute for High Energy Physics, completed by publication lists. (G.Q.)

  13. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel.

  14. Feasibility and acceptance of biofeedback-assisted mental training in an Austrian elementary school: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Richard; Krammer, Christine; Keilani, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study aimed to investigate feasibility, acceptance, and effects of biofeedback-assisted mental training in a population of fifteen 10-year-old pupils in an Austrian elementary school. Participants were instructed in relaxation techniques by using biofeedback. Before intervention, after 6 weeks with active mental training and with regular instructions by the teacher, and after a further time period of 6 weeks without instructions, attention and concentration improved. The results indicate feasibility, good acceptance, and beneficial effects of biofeedback-assisted mental techniques in Austrian elementary school pupils.

  15. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  16. Dynamics of whlte pine in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; J.B. Cullen; Thomas S. Frieswyk

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of growth, regeneration, and quality changes for white pine between the 1970's and 1980's in the six-state New England region. Growth rates seemed comparable among ail states except Rhode Island, where the percentage of growth (1.71%) seemed low. Over all states, the proportion of acreage in seedling/sapling white pine stands averaged too low (8%) to...

  17. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  18. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  19. Survey of microsatellite DNA in pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt

    1997-01-01

    A large insert genomic library from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) was probed for the microsatellite motifs (AC)n and (AG)n, all 10 trinucleotide motifs, and 22 of the 33 possible tetranucleotide motifs. For comparison with a species from a different subgenus, a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) genomic...

  20. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  1. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  2. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  3. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  4. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  5. Why Context Matters: Social Inclusion and Multilingualism in an Austrian School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Jessner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws attention to language choice and language use of Austrian bi- and multilingual school children. We explore some implications of their linguistic practices with regard to social inclusion in an Austrian educational school setting. Pursuing a Dynamic Systems and Complexity Theory approach, we hypothesise that before language users actually use a language within a certain context, they have to evaluate the respective communicative situation by taking multiple contextual factors into consideration, meaning language users choose to use, or not to use, a language based on the socio-contextual information at hand. We consider these contextual factors to be most relevant as they provide the basis on which speakers can actually make use of a certain language within a given context. By drawing on examples of empirical data obtained through a language background survey, we examine some of the complex and dynamic interactions of contextual parameters influencing language choice and language use in the formal educational setting of classroom instruction. Based on the results of this study, we display a selection of the dynamic and complex interactions of pupils’ language use in one specific context as well as their language preferences and how these relate to social inclusion.

  6. Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Austrian companion animals and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginders, Maximilian; Leschnik, Michael; Künzel, Frank; Kampner, Doris; Mikula, Claudia; Steindl, Georg; Eichhorn, Inga; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Spergser, Joachim; Loncaric, Igor

    2017-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of a collection of Austrian Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 12 non-repetitive isolates presumptively identified as S. pneumoniae were obtained during routinely diagnostic activities between March 2009 and January 2017. Isolates were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by bile solubility and optochin susceptibility testing, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of a part recA and the 16S rRNA genes. Isolates were further characterized by pneumolysin polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance genes were detected by specific PCR assays. All isolates were serotyped. Four sequence types (ST) (ST36, ST3546, ST6934 and ST6937) and four serotypes (3, 19A, 19F and 23F) were detected. Two isolates from twelve displayed a multidrug-resistance pheno- and genotype. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation on characteristics of S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from Austrian companion animals and horses. The obtained results indicate that common human sero- (23F) and sequence type (ST36) implicated in causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) may circulate in dogs. Isolates obtained from other examined animals seem to be host-adapted.

  7. Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S. M.; Paulus, G.

    2013-06-01

    The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

  8. [Counselling customers with psychotropic vs. cardiovascular prescriptions: a survey among Austrian community pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmair, Gisela; Amering, Michaela; Kaiser, Gerda; Katschnig, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs in general and their share of all prescriptions have substantially risen over the last decades. Thus, also counselling by pharmacists becomes more important in this area. This study focuses on how community pharmacists see their own role when counselling persons with prescriptions for psychotropic medication and how this differs from counselling persons with other types of prescriptions. Based on the Toronto Community Pharmacists' Questionnaire an online questionnaire was developed with the assistance of the Austrian Pharmacists Association. This instrument elicits pharmacists' attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychotropic drugs on the one hand and of cardiovascular medication on the other. After a pilot study the questionnaire - which was to be filled in anonymously - was put on a web portal for six months and Austrian community pharmacists were invited to answer it. 125 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Overall it was reported, that new customers with psychotropic prescriptions were less often counselled than those with prescriptions for cardiovascular medication. The main reasons for this difference seem to be the lack of privacy in public pharmacies, the fear of stigmatising customers with psychotropic medication and a perceived lack of training concerning the treatment of mental disorders. In addition to improving such training, it was suggested that seminars and workshops for communication skills should be organised. The reduced frequency in counselling new customers with psychotropic medication is related to a lack of privacy in public pharmacies, fear of stigmatising customers and a perceived need for improving the training on the treatment of mental disorders.

  9. Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ward

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

  10. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthaler, W.

    2001-05-01

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  11. Recent Developments Concerning Pellet Combustion Technologies - A Review of Austrian Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obernberger, I.; Thek, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent developments concerning pellet combustion technologies in Austria. It covers basic information about the Austrian pellet market and market developments in recent years as well as about national framework conditions in Austria with regard to standards for Pellets, pellet furnaces and emission limits. A detailed overview is given of the state-of-the-art of Austrian pellet boiler technology, which is - from a technological point of view - probably the best developed market world-wide. Innovations, which have recently been developed and introduced into the market, are described. The most important innovations are new furnace developments based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, flue gas condensation systems for small-scale pellet boilers and multi-fuel concepts, where e.g. firewood and Pellets can be utilised in one boiler. Moreover, emissions from pellet furnaces are discussed and evaluated based on test stand and field measurements. In this respect, a focus is put on fine particulate emissions from pellet boilers. Finally, future developments based on ongoing research projects are described and discussed. The ongoing R and D activities focus on the further reduction of fine particulate emissions by primary and secondary measures, the utilisation of herbaceous biomass fuels and small or micro-scale CHP systems

  12. Speaking up behaviors and safety climate in an Austrian university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David; Sendlhofer, Gerald; Häsler, Lynn; Gombotz, Veronika; Leitgeb, Karina; Hoffmann, Magdalena; Jantscher, Lydia; Brunner, Gernot

    2018-04-26

    To analyze speaking up behavior and safety climate with a validated questionnaire for the first time in an Austrian university hospital. Survey amongst healthcare workers (HCW). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha was calculated as a measure of internal consistencies of scales. Analysis of variance and t-tests were used. The survey was conducted in 2017. About 2.149 HCW from three departments were asked to participate. To measure speaking up behavior and safety climate. To explore psychological safety, encouraging environment and resignation towards speaking up. About 859 evaluable questionnaires were returned (response rate: 40%). More than 50% of responders perceived specific concerns about patient safety within the last 4 weeks and observed a potential error or noticed rule violations. For the different items, between 16% and 42% of HCW reported that they remained silent though concerns for safety. In contrast, between 96% and 98% answered that they did speak up in certain situations. The psychological safety for speaking up was lower for HCW with a managerial function (P speak up (P speaking up behaviors for the first time in an Austrian university hospital. Only moderately frequent concerns were in conflict with frequent speaking up behaviors. These results clearly show that a paradigm shift is needed to increase speaking up culture.

  13. Strategic capacity withholding through failures in the German-Austrian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergler, Julian; Heim, Sven; Hüschelrath, Kai

    2017-01-01

    In electricity day-ahead markets organized as uniform price auction, a small reduction in supply in times of high demand can cause substantial increases in price. We use a unique data set of failures of generation capacity in the German-Austrian electricity market to investigate the relationship between electricity spot prices and generation failures. Differentiating between strategic and non-strategic failures, we find a positive impact of prices on non-usable marginal generation capacity for strategic failures only. Our empirical analysis therefore provides evidence for the existence of strategic capacity withholding through failures suggesting further monitoring efforts by public authorities to effectively reduce the likelihood of such abuses of a dominant position. - Highlights: • We investigate the relationship between electricity spot prices and generation failures. • Announced (non-strategic) failures are found to decrease with increasing price. • Unannounced (strategic) failures of marginal technologies increase with increasing price. • Our evidence is consistent with the presence of capacity withholding strategies in the German-Austrian electricity market.

  14. The relevance and legibility of radio/TV weather reports to the Austrian public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A. G.; Holzer, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    The communicative quality of media weather reports, especially warnings, can be evaluated by user research. It is an interdisciplinary field, still uncoordinated after 35 years. The authors suggest to shift from a cognitive learning model to news processing, qualitative discourse and usability models as the media audience is in an edutainment situation where it acts highly selective. A series of field surveys 2008-2011 tested the relevance and legibility of Austrian radio and television weather reports on fair weather and in warning situations. 247 laypeople heard/saw original, mostly up-to-date radio/TV weather reports and recalled personally relevant data. Also, a questionnaire on weather knowledge was answered by 237 Austrians. Several research hypotheses were tested. The main results were (a) a relatively high level of meteorological knowledge of the general population, with interest and participation of German-speaking migrants, (b) a pluralistic media usage with TV, radio and internet as the leading media, (c) higher interest and attention (also for local weather) after warnings, but a risk of more false recalls after long warnings, (d) more recall problems with radio messages and a wish that the weather elements should always appear in the same order to faciliate processing for the audience. In their narrow time windows, radio/TV weather reports should concentrate on main features (synoptic situation, tomorrow's temperature and precipitation, possible warnings), keep a verbal “speed limit” and restrict show elements to serve the active, selective, multioptional, multicultural audience.

  15. Preliminary survey on the information campaign on nuclear energy of the Austrian Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.

    1977-01-01

    To provide adequate, unbiased information to the public as well as basic material for future decisions concerning nuclear energy to parliament, the Austrian Government began the Information Campaign on Nuclear Energy in October 1976 and it will continue to June 1977. In the first phase of this campaign, teams of experts consisting of promoters and critics of nuclear energy discussed the various aspects of this topic in public as well as in internal debates, finally producing exhaustive reports. In the second phase, scheduled to take place in May and June 1977, these reports will be discussed in a series of symposia by representatives of the different viewpoints of the Austrian public on nuclear energy. They will then be submitted to parliament together with a summary provided by the Government. The motivation of the campaign, the preparation and execution of the first phase, as well as the first steps in the preparation of the second pahse, are described. Preliminary analyses concern: a) the interaction between the authorities, the experts and the public; b) the interaction among the experts; c) the character of the protest movement and its activities and the public activities of the promoters of nuclear energy; d) the role of the mass media and the information flow in society; and, very cursorily; e) the international echo. Preliminary conclusions are drawn on the organisation of the process of optimal transfer of information to the public, consensus-finding in society and decision-making; a comparison with experiences in other countries is attempted

  16. Geographic variation in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) - cortical monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Schmidtling; J.H. Myszewski; C.E. McDaniel

    2005-01-01

    Cortical monoterpenes were assayed in bud tissue from 16 Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study (SSPSS) sources and from 6 seed orchard sources fiom across the natural range of the species, to examine geogaphic variation in shortleaf pine. Spruce pine and pond pine were also sampled. The results show geographic differences in all of the major terpenes. There was no...

  17. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  18. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  19. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles periodically infest pine forests in western North America, killing many or most overstory pine stems. The surviving secondary stand structure, along with recruited seedlings, will form the future canopy. Thus, even-aged pine stands become multiaged and multistoried. The species composition of affected stands will depend on the presence of nonpines...

  20. Biogeography and diversity of pines in the Madrean Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Ferguson; Aaron D. Flesch; Thomas R. Van Devender

    2013-01-01

    Pines are important dominants in pine-oak, pine and mixed-conifer forests across the Colorado Plateau, southern Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, and in the intervening Sky Islands of the United States-Mexico borderlands. All 17 native species of pines in the Sky Islands region or their adjacent mountain mainlands reach the northern or southern margins of their...

  1. Length Research Paper The effects of the pine processionary moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pine processionary moth (PPM), causing significant damage on pine stands in Turkey, affects mainly crimean pine stands within the Ulus vicinity. To determine the damage, 20 sample plots of second site class crimean pine stands were measured; 10 of which were taken as the control sample and 10 of which were ...

  2. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  3. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  4. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  5. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  6. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  7. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  8. Non-Ribes alternate hosts of white pine blister rust: What this discovery means to whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul J. Zambino; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook. Kim

    2006-01-01

    From early to present-day outbreaks, white pine blister rust caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, in combination with mountain pine beetle outbreaks and fire exclusion has caused ecosystem-wide effects for all five-needled pines (McDonald and Hoff 2001). To be successful, efforts to restore whitebark pine will require sound management decisions that incorporate an...

  9. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  10. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  11. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  12. Feeding ecology of Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    W e studied the feeding ecology of Merriam’s turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills, South Dakota, between 1986 and 1989. Adult birds consumed 78 kinds of food, of which four food categories constituted >79% of winter diets and six food categories constituted >75% of summer diets. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seeds were...

  13. 25 October 2017- Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations signing the guest book in the Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations in Globe: Professor Klement Tockner, Präsident, Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Austria; Professor Peter, Strohschneider, Präsident, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Germany; Professor Matthias Egger, Präsident, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Switzerland

  14. ["Maintaining a Common Culture"--the German Research Foundation and the Austrian-German scientific aid in the interbellum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Silke; Luxbacher, Günther

    2011-12-01

    After the end of the Great War, private as well as public research funding in Austria was anaemic and slow to develop. Whereas the German state-funded Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) was established as early as 1920, first steps in that direction were only taken in Austria in the late 1920s. In 1929, the Osterreichisch-deutsche Wissenschaftshilfe (ODW) was founded under the auspices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the DFG. Although prima facie on an equal footing, the new research funding organisation was in fact highly dependent on its German cooperation partner. The article explores for the first time ODW's position within the German and Austrian science and foreign policies, which aimed to promote the idea of unification of both states within the German Reich. A quantitative analysis of the subsidies policy in the first five years of existence shows that the ODW gave financial aid primarily to conservative research fields, affecting the intellectual balance of power in the First Austrian Republic. Policy continuities and discontinuities of the organisation in the course of the national-socialist rise to power in Germany after 1933 are examined in the second part of the article. The article thus both increases our knowledge about the most important German research funding organisation DFG, and identifies some of the fundamental structural features of Austrian science policy in the interwar years.

  15. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzer, Otto; Dworak, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO 2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO 2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  16. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  17. The regulation of social housing outcomes : A micro examination of Dutch and Austrian social landlords since financing reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, J.M.; Nieboer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, significant changes affecting financial arrangements have permeated both the Dutch and Austrian system of social housing provision. Potentially, these changes could have influenced the role and performance of social landlords in both countries. This paper explores the actual impact

  18. Austrian Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Günter; Plasser, Fritz; Maltschnig, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Writing biographies for a long time had been a male hegemonic project. Ever since Plutarch and Sueton composed their vitae of the greats of classical antiquity, to the medieval obsession with the hagiographies of holy men (and a few women) and saints, Vasari's lives of great Renaissance artists, down to the French encyclopedists, Dr. Johnson and Lytton Strachey, as well as Ranke and Droysen the genre of biographical writing has become increasingly more refined. In the twentieth century male p...

  19. Damage by pathogens and insects to Scots pine and lodgepole pine 25 years after reciprocal plantings in Canada and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A combined species - provenance - family experiment with Scots pine and lodgepole pine was planted in Canada and Sweden. One aim of the experiment was to evaluate the two species' sensitivities to pathogens and insects 25 years after establishment in their non-native continents. In Canada, Scots pine had better average survival than lodgepole pine, but survival rates among trees from the best seed-lots were equal. In Canada only western gall rust infected Scots pine to some extent, and mounta...

  20. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  1. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  2. Southern pine beetle in loblolly pine: simulating within stand interactions using the process model SPBLOBTHIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; J. R. Meeker; J. Bishir; James Roberds; X. Wan

    2016-01-01

    Pine stand density is a key determinant of damage resulting from attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). High-density stands of maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are at high risk for losses to SPB, and reducing stand density is the primary tool available to forest managers for preventing and mitigating damage. Field studies are...

  3. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Amalesh; Balliet, Nicole; Runzer, Kyle; Hawkins, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age) trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in y...

  4. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  5. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  7. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  8. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  9. Modelling the impact of changes in the interest rates on the economy: An Austrian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Le Roux

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though econometric models and yield curve analysis are useful in assessing the impact of interest rate changes on the economic structure, their power to predict the magnitude and direction of swings in the business cycle is often restricted to the use of short-term interest rates. From an Austrian school perspective on interest rates, empirical evidence suggests that the profitability of heavy industries further downstream outperforms that of light industries in the initial stages of monetary easing, due to a rising demand for investment goods and a rise in capacity utilisation levels. This paper assesses the impact of interest rates changes on the productive structure of the economy by taking into account the effect thereof on sector earnings and ultimately share prices.

  10. The Austrian school of economics in Russia: From criticism and rejection to absorption and adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Avtonomov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissemination and adoption of Western economic ideas in Russia have never been a simple process, always bearing marks of the socio-political and ideological circumstances of the country and inner processes in economics, as well as marks of the national intellectual tradition in general. It is not surprising that the history of Austrian economics in Russia was akin to a long road with many windings and turns. We can distinguish three different periods, or waves, each of them rather complex: from the 1890s until the late 1920s (introduction and, to a certain degree, adoption and criticism, from the beginning of the 1930s until the mid-1980s (hostile attitude and ignorance, and from the mid-1980s onwards (rediscovery, dissemination, and adoption.

  11. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, X. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at

    2006-11-15

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 {mu}l of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines.

  12. The Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling in a peripheral region of Upper Styria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gstach Isabell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.

  13. SOCIETAL CULTURE: A COMPARISON OF ROMANIAN, AUSTRIAN AND GERMAN STUDENTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATANA DOINA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study compares the students’ view on the existing cultural practices with their ideal societal value system in compared societies. For the purpose of this investigation, Austria and Germany were selected to represent Central European values since they are seen as a ‘bridge’ between Eastern and Western European societal values. The research findings are helpful in identifying signs of cultural convergence of Romanian societal culture with Central European values. In doing so, our study will hopefully broaden the body of knowledge about the cultural harmonization between newer and older members of European Union. As seen in the literature review section, such studies started only a few years ago. Comparison of Romanian, Austrian and German students’ perspective on societal culture is performed for the first time by the authors of this study. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  14. Eight- and twelve-hour shifts in Austrian rail traffic controllers: a psychophysiological comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. WOLFGANG KALLUS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared a 12-hour and an 8-hour shift system in 18 Austrian rail traffic controllers. To gain objective indicators for arousal and fatigue induced by the whole workrest sequence, we recorded heart rate during the last night shift, in addition to subjective measures that included physical symptoms. A higher increase of monotony, fatigue and saturation emerged during the 8-hour compared to the 12-hour regime, together with a heart rate decrease during the last 8-hour night shift. In line with other researchers, we conclude that flexible working conditions in specific occupational groups may compensate for disadvantages of prolonged working periods, giving way to advantages of longer shifts such as longer pauses and extra days off for social and other personal activities.

  15. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, X.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  16. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  17. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  18. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  19. Present and future situation of Austrian petroleum supply in consideration of energy economy aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filip, G

    1982-02-02

    The author attempts to show the present situation (as of 1979/80) of the Austrian petroleum industry. Section two of the study is, to a certain extent, pointing out the range of activities of the OeMV-AG, which is the most important national petroleum company. Furthermore, the most important data and figures documenting the importance of petroleum and its processing products are mentioned in that section. In many countries the energy source petroleum contributes more than 50% to the total energy supply. Especially for this reason, it is necessary to attribute a certain weight to this energy source in making forecasts. This is considered in detail mainly in the third section, and apart from imports problems and environmental protection also the recent technologies in the field of petroleum production are described. The dissertation ends with a short view to the future energy situation and its problems.

  20. Low offspring survival in mountain pine beetle infesting the resistant Great Basin bristlecone pine supports the preference-performance hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Eidson

    Full Text Available The preference-performance hypothesis states that ovipositing phytophagous insects will select host plants that are well-suited for their offspring and avoid host plants that do not support offspring performance (survival, development and fitness. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, a native insect herbivore in western North America, can successfully attack and reproduce in most species of Pinus throughout its native range. However, mountain pine beetles avoid attacking Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva, despite recent climate-driven increases in mountain pine beetle populations at the high elevations where Great Basin bristlecone pine grows. Low preference for a potential host plant species may not persist if the plant supports favorable insect offspring performance, and Great Basin bristlecone pine suitability for mountain pine beetle offspring performance is unclear. We infested cut bolts of Great Basin bristlecone pine and two susceptible host tree species, limber (P. flexilis and lodgepole (P. contorta pines with adult mountain pine beetles and compared offspring performance. To investigate the potential for variation in offspring performance among mountain pine beetles from different areas, we tested beetles from geographically-separated populations within and outside the current range of Great Basin bristlecone pine. Although mountain pine beetles constructed galleries and laid viable eggs in all three tree species, extremely few offspring emerged from Great Basin bristlecone pine, regardless of the beetle population. Our observed low offspring performance in Great Basin bristlecone pine corresponds with previously documented low mountain pine beetle attack preference. A low preference-low performance relationship suggests that Great Basin bristlecone pine resistance to mountain pine beetle is likely to be retained through climate-driven high-elevation mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  1. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsamer, G.; Proksch, E.; Stolba, G.; Strigl, A.; Falta, G.; Zeger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Austrian R and D activities in the HTR-field reach back almost to the beginning of this advanced reactor line. For more than 20 years post-irradiation examination (PIE) of HTR-fuel has been performed at the laboratories of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd. (OEFZS) (formerly OESGAE) and a high degree of qualification has been achieved in the course of that time. Most of the PIE-work has been carried out by international cooperation on contract basis with the OECD-DRAGON-project and with KFA-Juelich (FRG). There has also been some collaboration with GA (USA), Belgonucleaire and others in the past. HTR-fuel elements contain the fissile and fertile materials in form of coated particles (CPs) which are embedded in a graphite matrix. Because of this special design it has been necessary from the very beginning of the PIE work up to now to develop new methods (i.e. fuel element disintegration methods, chlorine gas leach, single particle examination techniques...) as well as to adapt and improve already existing methods (i.e. gamma spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, optical methods...). The main interests on PIE-work at Seibersdorf are concentrated on particle performance, fission product distribution and the 'free' Uranium content (contamination and broken particles) of the fuel elements (fuel spheres or cylindrical compacts). A short compilation of the applied methods and of available instrumental facilities is given as follows: deconsolidation of fuel elements; equipment for electrochemical deconsolidation; examinations and measurements of graphite and electrolyte samples; examination of coated particles; single particle examinations

  2. Survey to identify depth of penetration of critical incident reporting systems in Austrian healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Eder, Harald; Leitgeb, Karina; Gorges, Roland; Jakse, Heidelinde; Raiger, Marianne; Türk, Silvia; Petschnig, Walter; Pregartner, Gudrun; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Brunner, Gernot

    2018-01-01

    Incident reporting systems or so-called critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) were first recommended for use in health care more than 15 years ago. The uses of these CIRS are highly variable among countries, ranging from being used to report critical incidents, falls, or sentinel events resulting in death. In Austria, CIRS have only been introduced to the health care sector relatively recently. The goal of this work, therefore, was to determine whether and specifically how CIRS are used in Austria. A working group from the Austrian Society for Quality and Safety in Healthcare (ASQS) developed a survey on the topic of CIRS to collect information on penetration of CIRS in general and on how CIRS reports are used to increase patient safety. Three hundred seventy-one health care professionals from 274 health care facilities were contacted via e-mail. Seventy-eight respondents (21.0%) completed the online survey, thereof 66 from hospitals and 12 from other facilities (outpatient clinics, nursing homes). In all, 64.1% of the respondents indicated that CIRS were used in the entire health care facility; 20.6% had not yet introduced CIRS and 15.4% used CIRS only in particular areas. Most often, critical incidents without any harm to patients were reported (76.9%); however, some health care facilities also use their CIRS to report patient falls (16.7%), needle stick injuries (17.9%), technical problems (51.3%), or critical incidents involving health care professionals. CIRS are not yet extensively or homogeneously used in Austria. Inconsistencies exist with respect to which events are reported as well as how they are followed up and reported to health care professionals. Further recommendations for general use are needed to support the dissemination in Austrian health care environments.

  3. Lymphedema and employability - Review and results of a survey of Austrian experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Markus; Schoberwalter, Dieter; Cenik, Fadime; Keilani, Mohammad; Crevenna, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Literature about lymphedema and its influence on the ability to work and employability is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the opinion of Austrian experts on factors influencing the ability to work and employability in patients suffering from lymphedema. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 6 questions was sent to 12 Austrian lymphedema experts with 6 different specializations from May to August 2016. These experts were asked about suitable and unsuitable professions, the possible influence of lymphedema on the ability to work and employability as well as about existing and additional measures to improve the return to work. The reply rate was 100% (12 out of 12). All experts agreed that lymphedema can restrict the ability to work and employability. The leading reason for limited ability to work and employability was restricted mobility or function of the affected limb along with time-consuming therapeutic modalities, pain and psychological stress. The most suitable job named was teacher and the most unsuitable job named was cook. As easements for return to work, early rehabilitation, self-management, coping strategies, patient education, employer's goodwill and employer's cooperation were reported. Furthermore, experts stressed the need for an adjustment of the legal framework as well as low-barrier and more therapy offers. Adjusted work demands seem to be of greater importance to support the ability to work and employability than recommendations for specific job profiles alone. Experts suggest an adjustment of the legal framework for affected patients, claiming a right for early rehabilitation as well as for life-long therapy. Even though some clinically useful conclusions may be drawn from this article, further research in the field is warranted.

  4. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsamer, G; Proksch, E; Stolba, G; Strigl, A; Falta, G; Zeger, J [Department of Chemistry, Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd., Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1985-07-01

    Austrian R and D activities in the HTR-field reach back almost to the beginning of this advanced reactor line. For more than 20 years post-irradiation examination (PIE) of HTR-fuel has been performed at the laboratories of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd. (OEFZS) (formerly OESGAE) and a high degree of qualification has been achieved in the course of that time. Most of the PIE-work has been carried out by international cooperation on contract basis with the OECD-DRAGON-project and with KFA-Juelich (FRG). There has also been some collaboration with GA (USA), Belgonucleaire and others in the past. HTR-fuel elements contain the fissile and fertile materials in form of coated particles (CPs) which are embedded in a graphite matrix. Because of this special design it has been necessary from the very beginning of the PIE work up to now to develop new methods (i.e., fuel element disintegration methods, chlorine gas leach, single particle examination techniques...) as well as to adapt and improve already existing methods (i.e. gamma spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, optical methods...). The main interests on PIE-work at Seibersdorf are concentrated on particle performance, fission product distribution and the 'free' Uranium content (contamination and broken particles) of the fuel elements (fuel spheres or cylindrical compacts). A short compilation of the applied methods and of available instrumental facilities is given as follows: deconsolidation of fuel elements; equipment for electrochemical deconsolidation; examinations and measurements of graphite and electrolyte samples; examination of coated particles; single particle examinations.

  5. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  6. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  7. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  8. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  9. Comparative Transcriptomics Among Four White Pine Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. G. Baker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus. The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors. RNA from the needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola, limber pine (Pinus flexilis, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana was sampled, Illumina short read sequenced, and de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts and their subsequent structural and functional annotations were processed through custom pipelines to contend with the challenges of non-model organism transcriptome validation. Orthologous gene family analysis of over 58,000 translated transcripts, implemented through Tribe-MCL, estimated the shared and unique gene space among the four species. This revealed 2025 conserved gene families, of which 408 were aligned to estimate levels of divergence and reveal patterns of selection. Specific candidate genes previously associated with drought tolerance and white pine blister rust resistance in conifers were investigated.

  10. Black widow spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider (Latrodectus) has a shiny black body with a ...

  11. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  12. Is lodgepole pine mortality due to mountain pine beetle linked to the North American Monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes

    2012-01-01

    Regional precipitation patterns may have influenced the spatial variability of tree mortality during the recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) (MPB) outbreak in the western United States. Data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program show that the outbreak was especially severe in the state of Colorado where over 10 million lodgepole pines (...

  13. Strong partial resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr.; Deems Burton; Dean A. Davis; Robert D. Westfall; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative resistance to white pine blister rust in 128 controlled- and open-pollinated sugar pine families was evaluated in a “disease garden”, where alternate host Ribes bushes were interplanted among test progenies. Overall infection was severe (88%), but with great variation among and within families: a 30-fold range in numbers of infections...

  14. Silvicultural Considerations in Managing Southern Pine Stands in the Context of Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin

    2011-01-01

    Roughly 30 percent of the 200 million acres of forest land in the South supports stands dominated by southern pines. These are among the most productive forests in the nation. Adapted to disturbance, southern pines are relatively easy to manage with even-aged methods such as clearcutting and planting, or the seed tree and shelterwood methods with natural regeneration....

  15. Dose-dependent pheromone responses of mountain pine beetle in stands of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; B. Staffan Lindgren; John H. Borden

    2005-01-01

    We conducted seven behavioral choice tests with Lindgren multiple-funnel traps in stands of mature lodgepole pine in British Columbia, from 1988 to 1994, to determine the dosedependent responses of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to its pheromones. Amultifunctional dose-dependent response was exhibited by D. ...

  16. Insect biodiversity reduction of pine woods in southern Greece caused by the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrakis, P. V.; Spanos, K.; Feest, A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica Gennadius, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Margarodidae) on the insect biodiversity of pinewoods in Attica, Greece. The comparison of biodiversities was done by estimating the biodiversity by the Ewens-Caswells V statistic in a set of nine sites each containing two linetransects. Transects pairs went through free and infested pine woods from the pine scale and each one had several tenth hectare plots on both sides. The ecosystem temperature (= disorder) of the sites was computed and found high, together with the idiosyncratic temperatures (= susceptibility to extinction) of the 158 species in order to detect local extinctions. The indicator values of insect species were computed on the basis of the relative cover of each plant species. The main findings of this study are (1) the reduction of insect species biodiversity because of the introduction of the pine scale, (2) the moderate increase of disorder in pine scale infested sites,(3) many insect species can characterize site groups but none of them can distinguish infested from pine scale free sites. The introduction of pine scale in pine woods disturbs their insect fauna before its influence to the floristic composition and the associated vegetation structure appears. The causes behind this reduction of biodiversity and the anthropogenic influences are discussed. (Author) 64 refs.

  17. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  18. Preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials from mountain pine beetle-killed pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) wood treated with iron (III) nitrate solution was used for the preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials (Fe-CNs) under various carbonization temperatures. The carbonization yield of Fe-treated sample (5% as Fe) was always 1–3% higher (after ash compensation) than that of the non-...

  19. Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the production of submicron lignocellulose fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid Hoeger; Rolland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Orlando J. Rojas; J. Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer lignocellulose fibrils for value-added materials from the widely available resource represented by dead pines after...

  20. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: Evidence for a major gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections...

  1. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  2. Threats, status & management options for bristlecone pines and limber pines in Southern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; K. S. Burns; F. Freeman; R. A. Sniezko

    2006-01-01

    High-elevation white pines define the most remote alpine-forest ecotones in western North America yet they are not beyond the reach of a lethal non-native pathogen. The pathogen (Cronartium ribicola), a native to Asia, causes the disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) and was introduced into western Canada in 1910. Whitebark (Pinus albicaulis) and...

  3. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  4. Teaching in Bukovina at the time of the Austrian domination. The Foundation of the University of Tchernivtsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a mirror that reveals how a nation defines and limits its identity in history, taking its landmarks at cultural level. The situation of education in Bukovina during the Austrian occupation was precarious, especially in the presence of the Romanian language in schools. In that sense, the Romanians of Bukovina fought against the preponderance of German language, imposed by the Austrian occupation and against the pressure exerted by the Ukrainians to impose their mother tongue in educational institutions. If the quality of the teaching of the first schools remained at a fairly low level, the time has come when, following the Western model, Bukovina raised the level of its institutions. The Theological Institute which turns into the Faculty of Theology so that the University of Tchernivtsi allowed students to complete their studies in Bukovina, without having to study in the academic centers of Liov or Vienna.

  5. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-20

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  6. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    city of Sydney, Australia. This giant ... It is also being exploited to grow commer- cially to ... Australia. There are huge kauri pines (Agathis sps) along with. Wollemi pine seedling ... Natural History Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies.

  7. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  8. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Meixner; Rainer Haas; Helmut Moosbrugger; Philipp Magdits

    2013-01-01

    Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the applic...

  9. Attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia in small animal practice: impacts of age and gender on views on euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnack, Sonja; Springer, Svenja; Pittavino, Marta; Grimm, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Background Euthanasia of pets has been described by veterinarians as ?the best and the worst? of the profession. The most commonly mentioned ethical dilemmas veterinarians face in small animal practice are: limited treatment options due to financial constraints, euthanizing of healthy animals and owners wishing to continue treatment of terminally ill animals. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia of small animals. This include...

  10. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48% compared to females (46%. Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Rise, use and treatment of works in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perz, K.

    2001-06-01

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  12. Modeling glacier beds in the Austrian Alps: How many lakes will form in future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dominik; Geilhausen, Martin; Linsbauer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Glacial retreat exposes landscapes with relief characteristics greatly differing from the former ice covered surfaces. If glacial retreat exposes natural basins capable of forming proglacial lakes, then the downstream hydrologic and geomorphic systems in such catchments will be significantly altered due to discharge modifications, sediment trapping, decoupling effects and long term sediment storage (e.g. Geilhausen et al. 2013). Further implications are related to hydropower management, tourism and natural hazards. Consequently, sound knowledge of present day glacier beds ("proglacial zones of tomorrow") and in particular the total number, locations and characteristics of overdeepenings are of importance. For Austria, however, this important information about significant future changes of high alpine regions is yet missing. An interdisciplinary research project is currently in preparation to close this gap. This paper presents results of a pilot study. We used a novel GIS-based approach (GlabTop, cf. Linsbauer et al. 2012) to compute approximate glacier beds in the Austrian Alps. GlabTop ('Glacier bed Topography') is based on an empirical relation between average basal shear stress and elevation range of individual glaciers and makes use of digital elevation models (DEM), glacier outlines and branch lines (i.e. a set of lines covering all important glacier branches). DEMs and glacier outlines were derived from the Austrian glacier inventory (1998) and branch lines were manually digitized. The inventory includes 911 glaciers of which 876 (96%) were considered and 35 were excluded due to size restrictions ( 0.01 km²) with the potential of forming proglacial lakes when glacier retreat reveals the bed. The total area and volume of all overdeepenings is approx. 10 km² and 236 Mio m³ respectively and 33 lakes will be larger than 1 km³. A total glacier volume of 16 ± 5 km³ with an average ice thickness of 36 ± 11 m was calculated for 1998. Comparisons with

  13. Past and future of the Austrian snow cover - results from the CC-Snow project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Ragg, Hansjörg; Kleindienst, Hannes; Wilcke, Renate; Gobiet, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This study has the goal to simulate the evolution of the Austrian snow cover from 1971 to 2050 by means of a coupled modelling scheme, and to estimate the effect of climate change on the evolution of the natural snow cover. The model outcomes are interepreted with focus on both the future natural snow conditions, and the effects on winter skiing tourism. Therefore the regional temperature-index snow model SNOWREG is applied, providing snow maps with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is trained by means of assimilating local measurements and observed natural snow cover patterns. Meteorological forcing consists of the output of four realizations of the ENSEMBLES project for the A1B emission scenario. The meteorological variables are downscaled and error corrected with a quantile based empirical-statistical method on a daily time basis. The control simulation is 1971-2000, and the scenario simulation 2021-2050. Spatial interpolation is performed on the basis of parameter-elevation relations. We compare the four different global/regional climate model combinations and their effect on the snow modelling, and we explain the patterns of the resulting snow cover by means of regional climatological characteristics. The provinces Tirol and Styria serve as test regions, being typical examples for the two climatic subregions of Austria. To support the interpretation of the simulation results we apply indicators which enable to define meaningful measures for the comparison of the different periods and regions. Results show that the mean duration of the snow cover will decrease by 15 to 30 days per winter season, mostly in elevations between 2000 and 2500 m. Above 3000 m the higher winter precipitation can compensate this effect, and mean snow cover duration may even slightly increase. We also investigate the local scale by application of the physically based mountain snow model AMUNDSEN. This model is capable of producing 50 m resolution output maps for indicators

  14. Effects of crop management, soil type, and climate on N2O emissions from Austrian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Kasper, Martina; Kitzler, Barbara; Haas, Edwin; Wandl, Michael; Strauss, Peter; Poetzelsberger, Elisabeth; Dersch, Georg; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Amon, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Within the project FarmClim ("Farming for a better climate") we assessed recent N2O emissions from two selected regions in Austria. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of Austrian N2O fluxes regarding region specific properties. Currently, N2O emissions are estimated with the IPCC default emission factor which only considers the amount of N-input as an influencing factor for N2O emissions. We evaluated the IPCC default emission factor for its validity under spatially distinct environmental conditions. For this two regions for modeling with LandscapeDNDC have been identified in this project. The benefit of using LandscapeDNDC is the detailed illustration of microbial processes in the soil. Required input data to run the model included daily climate data, vegetation properties, soil characteristics and land management. The analysis of present agricultural practices was basis for assessing the hot spots and hot moments of nitrogen emissions on a regional scale. During our work with LandscapeDNDC we were able to adapt specific model algorithms to Austrian agricultural conditions. The model revealed a strong dependency of N2O emissions on soil type. We could estimate how strongly soil texture affects N2O emissions. Based on detailed soil maps with high spatial resolution we calculated region specific contribution to N2O emissions. Accordingly we differentiated regions with deviating gas fluxes compared to the predictions by the IPCC inventory methodology. Taking region specific management practices into account (tillage, irrigation, residuals) calculation of crop rotation (fallow, catch crop, winter wheat, barley, winter barley, sugar beet, corn, potato, onion and rapeseed) resulted in N2O emissions differing by a factor of 30 depending on preceding crop and climate. A maximum of 2% of N fertilizer input was emitted as N2O. Residual N in the soil was a major factor stimulating N2O emissions. Interannual variability was affected by varying N-deposition even in case

  15. Inverting the pyramid! Extent and quality of food advertised on Austrian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Weber, Adelheid; Huber, Elke M; König, Jürgen S

    2015-09-18

    Research showed that food marketing for children frequently contradicts national dietary guidelines. Children, unlike adults, are not able to understand the persuasiveness of the advertisements with its short- and long-term effects on health, thus the common international tenor is to restrict food marketing. In the European Union, marketing restriction based on self-regulation have been initiated (EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria). The study aims contribute to depict the status quo of television advertisement targeted at children before the pledged initiative came into full effect. In this study we analyze the quality and displaying frequency of a set of advertisements targeted at children broadcasted on Austrian television. Promoted food products targeted at children or adults were identified. Category-based analysis of the displayed food was performed based on the Austrian Nutrition guidelines (number of displayed food per food category). The children's food content was analyzed according to the newly established nutritional quality criteria for advertised food in the EU to assess the nutritional quality of the depicted food. In total, 360 h of video material was recorded in February and March 2014. A set of 1919 food advertisements, with 15.1 % targeted at children were broadcasted. Of all food advertisements targeted at children, 92.4 % was for fatty, sweet and salty snacks, while no advertisements for vegetables, legumes or fruits were shown. From all food advertisements for children, 65.9 % originated from participating companies of the EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria. Further analysis revealed that 95.9 % of the advertised food for children showed at least one aspect of nonconformity with the EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria; on the contrary 64.7 % of the displayed food advertisement also featured at least one desirable food component (e.g. high fibre content, high protein content). The present research suggests that the majority of advertised food for children do not

  16. Quality assurance and quality control methodologies used within the austrian UV monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mario, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Austrian UVB monitoring network is operational since 1997. Nine detectors for measuring erythemally weighted solar UV irradiance are distributed over Austria in order to cover the main populated areas as well as different levels of altitude. The detectors are calibrated to indicate the UV-Index, the internationally agreed unit for erythemally weighted solar UV irradiance. Calibration is carried out in the laboratory for determination of spectral sensitivity of each detector, and under the sun for absolute comparison with a well-calibrated, double-monochromator spectro-radiometer. For the conversion from detector-weighted units to erythemally weighted units a lookup table is used, which is calculated using a radiative transfer model and which reflects the dependence of the conversion on the solar zenith angle and total ozone content of the atmosphere. The uncertainty of the calibration is about ±7%, dominated by the uncertainty of the calibration lamp for the spectro-radiometer (±4%). The long-term stability of this type of detectors has been found to be not satisfactory. Therefore, routinely every year all detectors are completely re-calibrated. Variations of the calibration factors up to ±10% are found. Thus, during routine operation, several measures take place for quality control. The measured data are compared to results of model calculations with a radiative transfer model, where clear sky and an aerosol-free atmosphere are assumed. At each site, the UV data are also compared with data from a co-located pyrano-meter measuring total solar irradiance. These two radiation quantities are well correlated, especially on clear days and when the ozone content is taken into account. If suspicious measurements are found for one detector in the network, a well-calibrated travelling reference detector of the same type is set up side-by-side, allowing the identification of relative differences of ∼3%. If necessary, a recalibration is carried out. As the main aim

  17. The Austrian breast implant register: recent trends in implant-based breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Rappl, Thomas; Friedl, Herwig; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Spendel, Stephan; Hoflehner, Helmut; Parvizi, Daryousch

    2014-12-01

    Due to the fact that the number of breast implant surgeries for cosmetic and medical purposes is rising yearly, a discussion about the quality of service for both patients and physicians is more important than ever. To this end, we reviewed the Austrian Breast Implant Register with one specific question in mind: What are the trends? In the statistical analysis of the Austrian Breast Implant Register, we were able to identify 13,112 registered breast implants between 2004 and 2012. The whole dataset was then divided into medical and cosmetic groups. We focused on device size, surface characteristics, filling material, device placement and incision site. All factors were considered for all examined years. In summary, the most used device had a textured surface (97 %) and silicone gel as the filling material (93 %). The mean size of implants for the cosmetic group was 240 cc, placement was submuscular (58 %) and the incision site was inframammary (67 %). In the medical group, the mean size was 250 cc. Yearly registrations had their peak in 2008 (1,898 registered devices); from this year on, registrations decreased annually. A slight trend away from subglandular placement in the cosmetic group was noted. Also, the usage of implants with polyurethane surface characteristics has increased since 2008. The smooth surface implants had a peak usage in 2006 and their usage decreased steadily from then on whereas the textured surface was steady over the years. Keeping the problems related to the quality of breast implants in mind, we could recommend an obligatory national register. Organisations of surgeons and governments should develop and establish these registers. Furthermore, an all-encompassing international register should be established by the European Union and the American FDA (Food and Drug Administration); this might be useful in comparing the individual country registers and also would help in delivering "evidence based" medicine in cosmetic and medical procedures

  18. Ecosystem-based management in the lodgepole pine zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Robert E. Keane; Catherine A. Stewart

    2000-01-01

    The significant geographic extent of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the interior West and the large proportion within the mixed-severity fire regime has led to efforts for more ecologically based management of lodgepole pine. New research and demonstration activities are presented that may provide knowledge and techniques to manage lodgepole pine...

  19. Restoring fire in lodgepole pine forests of the Intermountain west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Ward W. McCaughey

    1997-01-01

    We are developing new management treatments for regenerating and sustaining lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests through emulation of natural disturbance processes. Lodgepole pine is the principal forest cover on over 26 million hectares in western North America. While infrequent, stand replacing fires following mountain pine beetle outbreaks are common to the...

  20. Direct and indirect chemical defence of pine against folivorous insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Hilker, M.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical defence of pine against herbivorous insects has been intensively studied with respect to its effects on the performance and behaviour of the herbivores as well as on the natural enemies of pine herbivores. The huge variety of terpenoid pine components play a major role in mediating

  1. Early longleaf pine seedling survivorship on hydric soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Cohen; Joan Walker

    2006-01-01

    We established a study to evaluate site preparation in restoring longleaf pine on poorly drained sites. Most existing longleaf pine stands occur on drier sites, and traditional approaches to restoring longleaf pine on wetter sites may rely on intensive practices that compromise the integrity of the ground layer vegetation. We applied silvicultural treatments to improve...

  2. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss

    1940-01-01

    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  3. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  4. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  5. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  6. White pines, blister rust, and management in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Conklin; M Fairweather; D Ryerson; B Geils; D Vogler

    2009-01-01

    White pines in New Mexico and Arizona are threatened by the invasive disease white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. Blister rust is already causing severe damage to a large population of southwestern white pine in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico. Recent detection in northern and western New Mexico suggests that a major expansion of the...

  7. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  8. Natural regeneration of whitebark pine: Factors affecting seedling density

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Goeking; D. Izlar

    2014-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is an ecologically important species in high-altitude areas of the western United States and Canada due to the habitat and food source it provides for Clark’s nutcrackers, red squirrels, grizzly bears, and other animals. Whitebark pine stands have recently experienced high mortality due to wildfire, white pine blister rust, and a...

  9. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and coevolution of pines and their stem rusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. I. Millar; B. B. Kinloch

    1991-01-01

    We review and reinterpret major events in the evolution of pines and their stem rusts using information from their taxonomy, genetics, biogeography, and fossil history. Understanding of pine evolution has been significantly revised in the last 20 years. Pines appear to have evolved early in the Mesozoic and to have diversified and migrated throughout middle latitudes...

  10. Mechanized row-thinning systems in slash pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Anderson; James E. Granskog

    1974-01-01

    Over the next decade or two, most of the 15 to 20 million acres of pine plantations in the South will become ready for a first commercial thinning. The magnitude and nature of the job is illustrated by the situation in slash pine-the most extensively planted of the southern pines.

  11. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  12. Separating Trends in Whitebark Pine Radial Growth Related to Climate and Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia L. van de Gevel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins outbreaks have affected millions of hectares of high-elevation conifer forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains during the past century. Little research has examined the distinction between mountain pine beetle outbreaks and climatic influence on radial growth in endangered whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. ecosystems. We used a new method to explore divergent periods in whitebark pine radial growth after mountain pine beetle outbreaks across six sites in western Montana. We examined a 100-year history of mountain pine beetle outbreaks and climate relationships in whitebark pine radial growth to distinguish whether monthly climate variables or mountain pine outbreaks were the dominant influence on whitebark pine growth during the 20th century. High mortality of whitebark pines was caused by the overlapping effects of previous and current mountain pine beetle outbreaks and white pine blister rust infection. Wet conditions from precipitation and snowpack melt in the previous summer, current spring, and current summer benefit whitebark pine radial growth during the following growing season. Whitebark pine radial growth and climate relationships were strongest in sites less affected by the mountain pine beetle outbreaks or anthropogenic disturbances. Whitebark pine population resiliency should continue to be monitored as more common periods of drought will make whitebark pines more susceptible to mountain pine beetle attack and to white pine blister rust infection.

  13. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Resilience of ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests to mountain pine beetle disturbance and limited regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vandendriesche, Don

    2015-01-01

    After causing widespread mortality in lodgepole pine forests in North America, the mountain pine beetle (MPB) has recently also affected ponderosa pine, an alternate host species that may have different levels of resilience to this disturbance. We collected field data in ponderosa pine- and lodgepole pine-dominated forests attacked by MPB in Colorado and then simulated stand growth over 200 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared scenarios of no disturbance with scenarios of MPB-caused mortality, both with and without regeneration. Results indicated that basal area and tree density recovered to predisturbance levels relatively rapidly (within 1‐8 decades) in both forest types. However, convergence of the disturbed conditions with simulated undisturbed conditions took longer (12‐20+ decades) and was delayed by the absence of regeneration. In MPB-affected ponderosa pine forests without regeneration, basal area did not converge with undisturbed conditions within 200 years, implying lower resilience in this ecosystem. Surface fuels accumulated rapidly in both forest types after MPB-induced mortality, remaining high for 3‐6 decades in simulations. Our results suggest that future patterns of succession, regeneration, fuel loading, climate, and disturbance interactions over long time periods should be considered in management strategies addressing MPB effects in either forest type, but particularly in ponderosa pine.

  15. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine: mortality and fire implications (Project INT-F-07-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Daniel R. West; Mike A Battaglia; Sheryl L. Costello; José F. Negrón; Charles C. Rhoades; John Popp; Rick Caissie

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested over 2 million acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest since an outbreak began approximately in 2000 in north central Colorado. The tree mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter stand composition and stand...

  17. Probability of infestation and extent of mortality models for mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Jennifer G. Klutsch

    2017-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant agent of tree mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forests throughout western North America. A large outbreak of mountain pine beetle caused extensive tree mortality in north-central Colorado beginning in the late 1990s. We use data from a network of plots established in...

  18. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  19. Fertilizer responses of longleaf pine trees within a loblolly pine plantation: separating direct effects from competition effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter H Anderson; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is mixed on how well longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) responds to increased soil nitrogen via fertilization. We examined growth and physiological responses of volunteer longleaf pine trees within an intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertilization experiment. Fertilizer was applied annually following thinning at age 8 years (late 1992) at rates...

  20. The push–pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; Constance J. Mehmel; Sylvia R. Mori; Jeffrey N. Webster; David L. Wood; Nadir Erbilgin; Donald R. Owen

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (...

  1. Development and assessment of 30-meter pine density maps for landscape-level modeling of mountain pine beetle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin A. Crabb; James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting spatial patterns of mountain pine beetle (MPB) population success requires spatially explicit information on host pine distribution. We developed a means of producing spatially explicit datasets of pine density at 30-m resolution using existing geospatial datasets of vegetation composition and structure. Because our ultimate goal is to model MPB population...

  2. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  3. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  4. Genomic selection in maritime pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Fikret; Bartholomé, Jérôme; Farjat, Alfredo; Chancerel, Emilie; Raffin, Annie; Sanchez, Leopoldo; Plomion, Christophe; Bouffier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A two-generation maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) breeding population (n=661) was genotyped using 2500 SNP markers. The extent of linkage disequilibrium and utility of genomic selection for growth and stem straightness improvement were investigated. The overall intra-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium was r(2)=0.01. Linkage disequilibrium corrected for genomic relationships derived from markers was smaller (rV(2)=0.006). Genomic BLUP, Bayesian ridge regression and Bayesian LASSO regression statistical models were used to obtain genomic estimated breeding values. Two validation methods (random sampling 50% of the population and 10% of the progeny generation as validation sets) were used with 100 replications. The average predictive ability across statistical models and validation methods was about 0.49 for stem sweep, and 0.47 and 0.43 for total height and tree diameter, respectively. The sensitivity analysis suggested that prior densities (variance explained by markers) had little or no discernible effect on posterior means (residual variance) in Bayesian prediction models. Sampling from the progeny generation for model validation increased the predictive ability of markers for tree diameter and stem sweep but not for total height. The results are promising despite low linkage disequilibrium and low marker coverage of the genome (∼1.39 markers/cM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pinon Pine IGCC project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, E.B.; Lamarre, L.J.; Glazer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) intends to build the Pinon Pine Power Project, an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant at its Tracy Power Station near Reno, Nevada. The plant will burn approximately 800 tons of coal per day to generate electricity in a base load application. The Pinon Project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for funding under Round IV of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project will demonstrate the use of the KRW agglomerating fluidized bed gasifer operating in the air blown mode. Hot gas cleanup consisting of particulate and sulfur removal will also be demonstrated. The Cooperative Agreement between SPPCo and the DOE was executed in August 1992. Foster Wheeler USA Corporation (FWUSA) will provide engineering and construction management services. The M.W. Kellogg Company (MWK) will provide engineering of the gasifer and hot gas cleanup systems. A discussion of project progress since the 1992 Clean Coal Technology Conference, design and economic considerations, and current project status is presented

  6. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-05-30

    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  7. Multi-methodical realisation of the new Austrian climate maps for 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, I.; Böhm, R.; Hiebl, J.; Reisenhofer, S.; Schöner, W.

    2010-09-01

    Constantly changing climate, the further development of geostatistical interpolation methods and the availability of a higher resolved digital elevation model gave reason for updating the most frequently demanded climate maps out of the Austrian digital climate atlas (ÖKLIM) from 1961-1990 to 1971-2000. The resulting 19 grids concern 30-year-means of air temperature (annual, January, July means) and derived indices (ice days, frost days, freeze-thaw days, summer days, hot days, heating degree days), precipitation (annual, winter half-year, summer half-year sums) and derived indices (days with precipitation, percentage of solid precipitation), snow (sum of fresh-fallen snow, snow cover duration, maximum snow depth) and sunshine (January, July absolute sunshine duration) parameters. For application in all branches of geosciences (e.g. climate variability and modelling, hydrology, biogeography, natural hazards) as well as for planning in all kinds of contexts (e.g. agriculture, tourism, generation of renewable energy, climate change adaption) such digital grids of standard climate information are greatly demanded and likely to gain even more importance in the near future. Data preparation was carried out with large effort. In order to avoid adverse border effects and to guarantee an equal state of quality across all parts of the country, the study region was extended beyond the national borders and stations from all neighbouring countries were requested. The final data collection includes between 319 (percentage of solid precipitation) and 1,399 (annual precipitation sum) records from eleven national and foreign institutes. To achieve a station density as high as possible, data gaps of up to five or ten years were filled considering the same parameter at reference stations or a related parameter station-wise. According to the climate parameter, different geostatistical interpolation methods were applied. Multiple regressions against elevation, longitude, latitude and

  8. Doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W

    2015-02-01

    Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak in an Austrian healthcare facility caused by asymptomatic, norovirus-excreting kitchen staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Kuo, H-W; Hell, M; Kasper, S; Lederer, I; Mikula, C; Springer, B; Allerberger, F

    2011-03-01

    An outbreak of norovirus GGII.4 2006b affected an Austrian 600-bed healthcare facility from 15 to 27 March 2009. A total of 204 patients, residents and staff fitted the outbreak case definition; 17 (8.3%) were laboratory-confirmed. Foodborne origin was suspected in the 114 patient and resident cases with onset 15-18 March. A case-cohort study was performed to test the hypothesis that consumption of dishes offered on 14, 15 and 16 March (risk days) was associated with increased risk of infection. Data on food exposure of 62% (317/510) of the patient and resident cohort were available for a simultaneous retrospective cohort study. The case-cohort analysis revealed that consumption of sliced cold sausage offered on 15 March [odds ratio (OR): 3.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-14.1], a meat dish with salad (adjusted OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19-4.08) and a rolled spinach pancake (adjusted OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.27-3.71) on 16 March were independent risk factors. It is likely that one of the five asymptomatic excretors among the kitchen staff on duty on the risk days was the source of food contamination. The case-cohort study design was found to be a valid alternative to the retrospective cohort study design for the investigation of a suspected foodborne outbreak in a large cohort. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Austrian consensus on the definition and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications (Billroth II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Angermayr, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Ferlitsch, Arnulf; Ferlitsch, Monika; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Häfner, Michael; Kramer, Ludwig; Maieron, Andreas; Payer, Berit; Reiberger, Thomas; Stauber, Rudolf; Steininger, Rudolf; Trauner, Michael; Thurnher, Siegfried; Ulbrich, Gregor; Vogel, Wolfgang; Zoller, Heinz; Graziadei, Ivo

    2013-04-01

    In November 2004, the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (ÖGGH) held for the first time a consensus meeting on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications in the Billroth-Haus in Vienna, Austria (Billroth I-Meeting). This meeting was preceded by a meeting of international experts on portal hypertension with some of the proponents of the Baveno consensus conferences (http://www.oeggh.at/videos.asp). The consensus itself is based on the Baveno III consensus with regard to portal hypertensive bleeding and the suggestions of the International Ascites Club regarding the treatment of ascites. Those statements were modified by new knowledge derived from the recent literature and also by the current practice of medicine as agreed upon by the participants of the consensus meeting. In October 2011, the ÖGGH organized the second consensus meeting on portal hypertension and its complications in Vienna (Billroth II-Meeting). The Billroth II-Guidelines on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications take into account the developments of the last 7 years, including the Baveno-V update and several key publications.

  11. Images of the Second World War in Austrian Literature after 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Müller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines selected examples of post-1945 Austrian literature, asking what pictures of the Second World War they imparted and what role they played when, certainly from 1948 on, a certain image of history began to take shape in Austria against the background of the Cold War. This image involved a fade-out in particular of the racist nature of the war, and it had a collectively exonerating and distorting impact. Attention is paid to the stories and novels of former participants in the war and National Socialists, such as, for example, Erich Landgrebe, Erich Kern, Hans Gustl Kernmayr, Kurt Ziesel. A contrast is seen in the anti-war novel, Letzte Ausfahrt (Last Exit (1952 by the former soldier Herbert Zand, who turns against the dominant image of history, as well as in Ingeborg Bachmann's use of war memories as a topic. The texts are read as a reservoir of selective memory: on the one hand they are critical, individual counter-memories and on the other hand, they make a positive contribution to the formation of the aforesaid collective image. One may say that a war of perception was fought around the Second World War; it was undoubtedly won in the immediate post-war years by those literary works that legitimized or at least trivialized the war. The critical voices of Herbert Zand, Gerhard Fritsch, and Ingeborg Bachmann were unfortunately the quieter ones and were not particularly successful in their time.

  12. [Voluntary stopping eating and drinking (VSED) : A position paper of the Austrian Palliative Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtner, Angelika; Weixler, Dietmar; Birklbauer, Alois

    2018-05-01

    In some cases terminally ill patients fear of prolonged dying and suffering can manifest itself in the voluntary refusal of food and fluids, aiming to accelerate the dying process. This represents a considerable area of conflict, because of the ethical responsibility to not aid a person's death but also to respect a patients autonomy.There is a clear separation between an assisted suicide and following a patient's wishes. Not to accept the voluntary refusal of FVNF would have to be considered as forced treatment of patients while they are capable of self-determination.Several symptoms associated with or caused by voluntary refusal of food and fluids do require palliative care. It is important to be aware, that caring for dying patients refusing food and fluids and accepting their choice is not synonymous with assisted suicide. Rather is it part of medical and nursing care for patients during their dying-process.An interprofessional working group of the Austrian Palliative Society (OPG) intends to shed light on the legal, ethical, medical and nursing related aspects concerning this subject of growing public and professional interest.

  13. Coordinated subprojects of the Austrian forest damage monitoring system; Koordinierte Teilprojekte des Oesterr. Waldschaden-Beobachtungssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollanschuetz, J

    1993-12-31

    Any actions to preserve nature as the base of our survival needs to rely on knowledge about the condition of ecosystems and their `evolutionary` trends. A monitoring system ensuring timely detection of a critical `evolution` of forests as sensitive bio-indicators is an absolute must when addressing the global threat to our living environment. The Austrian forest damage monitoring system addresses this task. It involves subprojects and interdisciplinary studies integrated within this biomonitoring system to enhance our knowledge about and detection capabilities for forest diseases and injuries. (orig.) [Deutsch] Massnahmen zur Bewahrung der Natur als Lebensgrundlage setzen das Wissen ueber den Zustand der Oekosysteme und Kenntnisse ueber deren Entwicklung voraus. Ein Ueberwachungssystem das rechtzeitig kritische Entwicklung am sensiblen Bioindikator Wald erkennen laesst, ist angesichts der Anzeichen einer globalen Bedrohung der belebten Umwelt eine zwingende Selbstverstaendlichkeit. Mit dem Waldschaden-Beobachtungssystem wird diesen Aufgabenstellungen Rechnung getragen. Durch die in diesem Biomonitoring-System integrierten Teilprojekte und interdisziplinaeren Untersuchungen wird auch ein wesentlicher Beitrag zur Erkennung von Ursachen fuer Waldschaeden und Waldkrankheiten geleistet. (orig.)

  14. Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA – comparison between Austrian and German Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ganner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: With the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD the treatment of people with disabilities is changing from a protective perspective to a rights - based approach. The Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA is an important instrument, which helps with the implementation of the CRPD into national law. As an instrument of self - determined substituted decision - making it is recognised as the best practice model to safeguard the autonomy of people suffering the deprivations of age and other disabilities. This article touches briefly on general supported and substituted decision - making instruments and then goes on to examine the differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages b e- tween Austrian and German laws concerning EPoAs. DEUTSCH: Mit der Umsetzung der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention findet ein Paradigmenwechsel und Umdenken im Umgang mit Personen mit Behinderungen statt. Der Primat der Fürsorge weicht einem liberalen, auf Menschenrechten basierenden Ansatz. In diesem Kontext ist die Vorsorgevollmacht ein effektives Mittel, das die Implementation der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention in nationales Recht vorantreibt und die Selbstbestimmung und Eigenständigkeit altersbedingt eingeschränkter Menschen und von Menschen mit Behinderungen gewährleistet. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich einleitend mit allgemeinen Rechtsinstrumenten der (unterstützten Entscheidungsfindung bei nicht selbst entscheidungsfähigen Personen und analysiert in weiterer Folge Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede sowie Vor- und Nachteile der Vorsorgevollmacht nach österreichischem und deutschem Recht.

  15. Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 μg/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

  16. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime.

  17. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  18. The liberalization of the European energy market from the perspective of the Austrian regional power company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, H.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the liberalization of the European energy sector from an Austrian perspective, emphasizing its effect on a regional power company (KELAG). The energy market's changing conditions are creating new opportunities for consumers that allow them to optimize their ability to fulfill their power requirements. Decentralized solutions are now just as viable for large industrial customers as the ability to have all energy supplied through the utility network. In addition, partnerships with independent power producers (IPP's) or cooperation between the large customers in energy production can be considered. From a regional perspective, the central management concept of KELAG is the answer to an altered market situation, since this concept created tremendous potential for streamlining the management of energy production and operation of the network. The liberalization of the energy market for large industrial customers in Carinthia's electricity sector was preceded by a series of important decisions. The Verbundgesellschaft combine their generating facilities. In the future the power plants of Draukraft in Carinthia will be supervised and controlled remotely from KELAG's central control unit in Klagenfurt, as a result of which the central control unit becomes the primary energy control for Carinthia. (author)

  19. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The meeting was organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society ((ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) participated additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcomed for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. This meeting was hosted by CERN, Genève. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in molecular spintronics, biophotonic micro manipulation of cells, gravitational waves, spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen atoms, reflective optical systems for astronomical applications, trapped-ion interfaces for quantum networks and quantum photonics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: Applied Physics and Plasma Physics; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics; Biophysics, Medical Physics and Soft Matter; Condensed Matter Physics; Correlated-Electron Physics in Transition-Metal Oxides; Earth, Atmosphere and Environmental Physics; Emergent phenomena in novel low-dimensional materials; History of Physics; Magnetism and Spintronics at the Nanoscale; Nuclear, Particle- and Astrophysics; Physics in Startups; Scientific Opportunities with SwissFEL; Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films; Theoretical Physics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually.

  20. Austrian height and body proportion references for children aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Andreas; Lassi, Michael; Blümel, Peter; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Mayer, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Häusler, Gabriele

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences between national and the WHO reference curves in children older than 5 years. Moreover, reference curves for body proportions (sitting height, subischial leg length and their ratio) based on state-of-the-art statistics are not available. To develop reference curves for height and body proportions for use in Austria and compare the curves with WHO reference curves. To estimate and statistically investigate extreme percentiles. A sample of ∼14 500 children between 4-19 years of age was drawn via schooling institutions, stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions. GAMLSS models were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. After the age of 5 years national reference curves are more suitable than the WHO reference curves for clinical use in Austria. These height curves are very similar to the German reference curves published recently. Therefore, these reference curves for criteria of body proportions are recommended for use in other populations. Further validation studies are needed to establish whether the recently recommended -2.5 and -3.0 SD for height are a sensitive and specific cut-off in the diagnostic work-up for children with a suspected growth disorder using this new Austrian height chart.

  1. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  2. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. The radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore TM Radium Disks) and 210 Po was determined by α-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by α-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from 228 Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from 226 Ra

  3. Success Factors for an E-Government Strategy: Austrian Experiences, Indonesian Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Behrens

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this paper are success factors for the implementation of an E-Government strategy. While concepts for a sophisticated strategy process in Public Sector are delivered on a regular basis, the gap between ambitious planning and its implementation seems to get wider. Authors seek to define what makes a “good strategy” in order to enhance management capacity. Meanwhile some scholars from Political Science see limitation of Governments on announcements which are not followed up by sufficient action rather as systematic problems, challenging concept and rules of liberal western democracy, or owed to growing complexity of Governance under the conditions of globalization. In context of the introduction of New Public Management and its perception of citizens as customers and on the basis of new available technical options in Information Society, a key Governance reform project in European and other Countries over the last fifteen years has been the introduction of E-Government. European market leader in this field is Austria. The author reviews concept and implementation experiences of the Austrian E-Government strategy, analyzes key success factors and opens a discussion, under which conditions a successful implementation of E-Government can take place in Indonesia.

  4. Influence of regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants on the backfitting of Austrian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1985-01-01

    In general the licensing and backfitting activities have once more demonstrated the fact that safety assessment of a research reactor is by no means just a scaled-down version of a nuclear power plant licensing procedure. Naturally the risk potential is much lower, however, the very nature of research calls for much more flexibility in operation, for temporary installations and for experimental methods which cannot be covered by detailed regulations in advance. Therefore the application of nuclear power reactor criteria to such facilities has to be considered with extreme caution. If NPP standards are applicable at all, they have to be carefully interpreted in each individual case. It is interesting to compare the original reactor safety reports with their modern versions: emphasis has shifted from reactivity accident calculations to thermal-hydraulic considerations, to better instrumentation (both in quality and quantity) and to more effort in reducing, measuring and documenting all radioactive effluents. This tendency is also reflected in most of the backfitting requirements. In summary, the result of the lengthy licensing and backfitting process is certainly a considerable improvement in performance and safety of the Austrian research reactors

  5. Joint annual meeting of the Swiss Physical and the Society Austrian Physical Society

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The next annual meeting, hosted by CERN, will take place from 21 - 25 August 2017 in Genève at two different locations. Starting at CERN on 21st with internal meetings of some of the participating societies, the 22nd will be dedicated to plenary and invited talks and more (see below). We will then move to the Centre International de Conférences de Genève (CICG) on 23 - 25 August where further plenary talks and all topical sessions will take place. The meeting is organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society (ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) will participate additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcome for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. Many thanks go to CERN for their generous help and support with the organisation.

  6. Continuous rainfall simulation for regional flood risk assessment - application in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Nester, Thomas; Komma, Jürgen; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Generation of realistic synthetic spatial rainfall is of pivotal importance for assessing regional hydroclimatic hazard as the input for long term rainfall-runoff simulations. The correct reproduction of the observed rainfall characteristics, such as regional intensity-duration-frequency curves, is necessary to adequately model the magnitude and frequency of the flood peaks. Furthermore, the replication of the observed rainfall spatial and temporal correlations allows to model important other hydrological features like antecedent soil moisture conditions before extreme rainfall events. In this work, we present an application in the Tirol region (Austrian alps) of a modification of the model presented by Bardossy and Platte (1992), where precipitation is modeled on a station basis as a mutivariate autoregressive model (mAr) in a Normal space, and then transformed to a Gamma-distributed space. For the sake of simplicity, the parameters of the Gamma distributions are assumed to vary monthly according to a sinusoidal function, and are calibrated trying to simultaneously reproduce i) mean annual rainfall, ii) mean daily rainfall amounts, iii) standard deviations of daily rainfall amounts, and iv) 24-hours intensity duration frequency curve. The calibration of the spatial and temporal correlation parameters is performed in a way that the intensity-duration-frequency curves aggregated at different spatial and temporal scales reproduce the measured ones. Bardossy, A., and E. J. Plate (1992), Space-time model for daily rainfall using atmospheric circulation patterns, Water Resour. Res., 28(5), 1247-1259, doi:10.1029/91WR02589.

  7. Provenance variations of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Southern PART of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulcu, S.; Bilir, N.

    2015-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p <= 0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05 <= p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p <= 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species. (author)

  8. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with 40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined

  9. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  10. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  11. Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Austrian and Belgian Wheat Germplasm within a Regional Context Based on DArT Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Esawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop genetic diversity and structure provides valuable information needed to broaden the narrow genetic base as well as to enhance the breeding and conservation strategies of crops. In this study, 95 Austrian and Belgian wheat cultivars maintained at the Centre for Genetic Resources (CGN in the Netherlands were characterised using 1052 diversity array technology (DArT markers to evaluate their genetic diversity, relationships and population structure. The rarefacted allelic richness recorded in the Austrian and Belgian breeding pools (A25 = 1.396 and 1.341, respectively indicated that the Austrian germplasm contained a higher genetic diversity than the Belgian pool. The expected heterozygosity (HE values of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.411 and 0.375, respectively. Moreover, the values of the polymorphic information content (PIC of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.337 and 0.298, respectively. Neighbour-joining tree divided each of the Austrian and Belgian germplasm pools into two genetically distinct groups. The structure analyses of the Austrian and Belgian pools were in a complete concordance with their neighbour-joining trees. Furthermore, the 95 cultivars were compared to 618 wheat genotypes from nine European countries based on a total of 141 common DArT markers in order to place the Austrian and Belgian wheat germplasm in a wider European context. The rarefacted allelic richness (A10 varied from 1.224 (Denmark to 1.397 (Austria. Cluster and principal coordinates (PCoA analyses divided the wheat genotypes of the nine European countries into two main clusters. The first cluster comprised the Northern and Western European wheat genotypes, whereas the second included the Central European cultivars. The structure analysis of the 618 European wheat genotypes was in a complete concordance with the results of cluster and PCoA analyses. Interestingly, a highly significant difference was recorded between regions (26.53%. In

  12. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  13. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  14. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  15. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Lerch

    Full Text Available Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug. and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  16. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  17. Imago feeding preference of the black fir sawyer Monochamus urussovi Fisch. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodnitsky Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass outbreaks of the black fir sawyer M. urussovi regularly occur in forest stands dominated by Siberian fir Abies sibirica; outbreaks have been observed only on fir and exclusively in Siberia, although the beetle is also found in the vast territory including Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, China, Russian Far East and Japan. A closely related common species M. sutor has never produced outbreaks; its larvae have been registered only in Scots pine. Feeding preferences of the two species were compared under experimental conditions; total numbers of tested specimens were 132 (M. urussovi and 40 (M. sutor. M. sutor beetles were caught in nature, M. urussovi pupas and young adults were collected from fir trunks; pupas were reared to beetles. Each beetle was placed into a covered plastic enclosure for 24 hours and offered cut shoots of fir, spruce, Siberian pine, Scots pine, larch, birch and willow; all cuts were of the same length and diameter, needles and leaves had been previously removed. Beetles of the two species showed different feeding preference. M. sutor imagoes completely ignored fir shoots, definitely preferring Scots pine. M. urussovi feeding behavior was different: beetles did consume bark, bast and cambium of fir. However, they were mainly fed on Scots pine shoots. Feeding preference given to Scots pine by beetles grown in fir trunks can be explained by the hypothesis that this species originated on pine. Mass outbreaks of M. urussovi in Siberian fir-dominated forest ecosystems occur, because these plant communities are historically young (evidently much less than 10 000 years and yet unbalanced, transitional sort of ecosystems, so fir did not have enough evolutionary time to get adapted to injure by the sawyer and Ophiostoma fungi carried by beetles.

  18. Caledonian scots pine: origins and genetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B Kinloch; R. D. Westfall; G. I. Forrest

    1986-01-01

    Monoterpene and isozyme loci, used as markers to study the genetic structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native to Scotland, showed that the endemic populations are not genetically impoverished, in spite of severe contraction in range and numbers as a result of both natural and anthropogenic causes. On the contrary, variability in the relict...

  19. Producing high-quality slash pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Barnett; Sue Varela

    2003-01-01

    Slash pine is a desirable species. It serves many purposes and is well adapted to poorly drained flatwoods and seasonally flooded areas along the lower Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. The use of high-quality seeds has been shown to produce uniform seedlings for outplanting, which is key to silvicultural success along the Coastal Plain and elsewhere. We present...

  20. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  1. Esthetic considerations in management of shortleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Stignani

    1986-01-01

    Application of esthetic concerns in the management of shortleaf pine or any species should be predicated on a systematic approach. Many mitigation techniques are available, but those selected will need to be carefully tailored to the specific situation and to the unique characteristics of plant communities and landforms involved. Some additional costs should be...

  2. Limber pine health in the Canadian Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; David Langor; Colin Myrholm; Jim Weber; Cameron Gillies; Jon Stuart-Smith

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) reaches the northern limit of its range at about 52 degrees latitude in Alberta (AB) and 51 degrees latitude in British Columbia (BC). Most populations are found on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, with a few disjunct populations west of the Continental Divide in southeastern BC.

  3. Comparing Planting Tools for Container Longleaf Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Leduc; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2011-01-01

    We examined if compressing the soil to make a planting hole with a custom-built, solid round dibble versus coring the soil with a commercially available tube dibble influenced container-grown longleaf pine seedling development differently. Seven teen months after planting, the planting tool did not significantly affect root collar diameter, shoot or root mass, root-to-...

  4. Direct-seedling pines in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold J. Derr; William F. Mann

    1971-01-01

    Direct seeding of the southern pines is a versatile reforestation technique that is being widely accepted by land managers. On many sites it is more economical than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural reproduction. It is applicable on some sites where access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult. Commercial trials have proved it...

  5. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  6. Sugar pine management—an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Averell; John C. Crowell; Clarence R. Quick; Gilbert H. Schubert

    1955-01-01

    The purposes of this bibliography are to enumerate and describe publications that have a bearing on the growing of sugar pine for timber production. It is intended primarily for the information of forest managers, and it includes mainly those articles which appeared to pertain rather directly to management. Although a careful search was made for titles, no claim is...

  7. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the understanding gained from these trials allowed for the development of vegetation management standards, their operational and economic viability need to be tested on a commercial basis. Four pine trials were thus initiated to test the applicability of these standards when utilised on a commercial scale. Two of ...

  8. What's known about managing eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Lockard

    1959-01-01

    At the 1957 meeting of the Northeastern Forest Research Advisory Council the comment was made that although Eastern white pine has been the most studied forest tree species in the Northeast, the only literature on the management of the species was in reports on isolated and uncoordinated studies. There was no comprehensive compendium of knowledge.

  9. Electromagnetic treatment of loblolly pine seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. P. [Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA (United States); Krugman, S. L.

    1989-11-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus faeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process@, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed any improvement over untreated controls.

  10. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1968-01-01

    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  11. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  12. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the

  13. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Thapa; Dean Gjerstad; John Kush; Bruce Zutter

    2010-01-01

    The Southeastern United States was once dominated by a longleaf pine ecosystem which ranged from Virginia to Texas and covered approximately 22 to 36 million ha. The unique fire tolerant species provided the necessary habitat for numerous plant and animal species. Different seasons of prescribed fire have various results on the ecosystem and the carbon which is stored...

  14. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism and mortality in a large Austrian cohort: a possible impact on treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Florian Maria; Fang, I-Fei; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Slavka, Georg; Födinger, Manuela; Endler, Georg; Wagner, Oswald F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical implications of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) are still matter of intense debate, resulting in the controversial discussion whether subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated. We performed a cohort study to evaluate the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on vascular and overall mortality. Between 02/1993 and 03/2004, a total of 103,135 persons attending the General Hospital Vienna with baseline serum thyrotropin (TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and free thyroxin (fT4) measurements could be enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined by elevated TSH ranging from 4.5 to 20.0 mIU/L and normal fT4 concentration (0.7-1.7 ng/dL). Overall and vascular mortality as primary endpoints were assessed via record linkage with the Austrian Death Registry. A total of 80,490 subjects fulfilled inclusion criteria of whom 3934 participants (3.7%) were classified as SCH (868 males and 3066 females, median age 48 years). The mean follow-up among the 80,490 subjects was 4.1 years yielding an observation period of 373,301 person-years at risk. In a multivariate Cox regression model adjusted for age and gender TSH levels showed a dose-dependent association with all-cause mortality. The association between SCH and overall or vascular mortality was stronger in men below 60 years compared to older males or females. Our data support the hypothesis that SCH might represent an independent risk factor for overall and vascular mortality, especially in men below 60 years. Whether this group would benefit from replacement therapy should be evaluated in interventional studies.

  16. A new CCD-camera neutron radiography detector at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, S.; Boeck, H.; Rauch, H.; Lehmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron radiography provides a very efficient tool for non-destructive testing as well as for many applications in fundamental research. A neutron beam penetrating a specimen is attenuated by the sample material and detected by a two dimensional imaging device. The image contains information about materials and structure inside the sample because neutrons are attenuated according to the basic law of radiation attenuation. At the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities neutron radiographic examinations have been carried out for more than 35 years, mainly with detectors consisting of X-ray films and a Gd- converter enclosed in a vacuum cassette. Presently a neutron tomography set-up is under development. For high quality 3D image reconstruction, about 200 digitized neutron transmission images from different angles of the object are necessary. Therefore the first step was the design of an adequate electronic neutron radiography imaging device. The requirements for a detector suitable for neutron tomography are: exact and reproducible positioning, easy handling, high spatial resolution and dynamic range, high efficiency and a good linearity. The key components of the detector system selected on the basis of the requirements consist of a neutron sensitive scintillator screen, a cooled slow scan CCD camera and a mirror to reflect the light emitted by the scintillator to the CCD camera. The whole assembly is placed in a light tight enclosure. In this paper the strategy of the selection of the individual detector components is described. Comparisons on the influence of the use of different components on the properties of the whole position sensitive imaging device are demonstrated. Finally the new CCD camera neutron radiography detector of the Atominstitute is presented and first results of test measurements performed at the neutron radiography facility NEUTRA at the continuous spallation source SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institute are shown.(author)

  17. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme for Austrian school teachers: a cluster randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl-Hertlein, A; Horsak, B; Dean, E; Schöny, W; Stamm, T

    2014-03-01

    Although physiotherapists have long advocated workplace health, school teachers have not traditionally been a focus of study by these professionals. However, classroom teaching contributes to a range of occupational health issues related to general health as well as ergonomics that can be prevented or addressed by physiotherapists. To undertake a pilot study to explore the potential effects of a physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme individualised for school teachers, develop study methodology and gather preliminary data to establish a 'proof of concept' to inform future studies. Cluster randomised pilot study using a convenience sample. Eight Austrian regional secondary schools. Schools and their teachers were recruited and allocated to an intervention group (IG, n=26 teachers) or a control group (CG, n=43 teachers). Teachers were eligible to participate if they reported no health issues that compromised their classroom responsibilities. The IG participated in an individualised physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme (six 30-minute sessions) related to ergonomics and stress management conducted over a 5-month semester. The CG had a pseudo-intervention of one oral education session. Primary outcomes included scores from the physical and mental components and health transition item of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and emotional well-being and resistance to stress items from the work-related behaviour and experience patterns questionnaire. Data were collected before and after one semester. The primary outcome measure, the SF-36 physical component score, showed a reduction in the CG and no change in the IG, meaning that the CG deteriorated over the study semester while the IG did not show any change. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme may prevent deterioration of physical health of school teachers in one semester (proof of concept). This pilot study provided valuable information to inform the

  18. Quasi-dynamic Material Flow Analysis applied to the Austrian Phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Rechberger, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the key elements that sustain life on earth and that allow achieving the current high levels of food production worldwide. It is a non-renewable resource, without any existing substitute. Because of its current dissipative use by mankind and to its very slow geochemical cycle, this resource is rapidly depleting and it is strongly connected to the problem of ensuring food security. Moreover P is also associated to important environmental problems. Its extraction often generates hazardous wastes, while its accumulation in water bodies can lead to eutrophication, with consequent severe ecological damages. It is therefore necessary to analyze and understand in detail the system of P, in regard to its use and management, to identify the processes that should be targeted in order to reduce the overall consumption of this resource. This work aims at establishing a generic quasi-dynamic model, which describes the Austrian P-budget and which allows investigating the trends of P use in the past, but also selected future scenarios. Given the importance of P throughout the whole anthropogenic metabolism, the model is based on a comprehensive system that encompasses several economic sectors, from agriculture and animal husbandry to industry, consumption and waste and wastewater treatment. Furthermore it includes the hydrosphere, to assess the losses of P into water bodies, due to the importance of eutrophication problems. The methodology applied is Material Flow Analysis (MFA), which is a systemic approach to assess and balance the stocks and flows of a material within a system defined in space and time. Moreover the model is integrated in the software STAN, a freeware tailor-made for MFA. Particular attention is paid to the characteristics and the quality of the data, in order to include data uncertainty and error propagation in the dynamic balance.

  19. Can online benchmarking increase rates of thrombolysis? Data from the Austrian stroke unit registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Julia; Seyfang, Leonhard; Lang, Wilfried

    2013-09-01

    Despite its widespread availability and known safety and efficacy, a therapy with intravenous thrombolysis is still undergiven. We aimed to identify whether nationwide quality projects--like the stroke registry in Austria--as well as online benchmarking and predefined target values can increase rates of thrombolysis. Therefore, we assessed 6,394 out of 48,462 patients with ischemic stroke from the Austrian stroke registry (study period from March 2003 to December 2011) who had undergone thrombolysis treatment. We defined lower level and target values as quality parameters and evaluated whether or not these parameters could be achieved in the past years. We were able to show that rates of thrombolysis in Austria increased from 4.9% in 2003 to 18.3% in 2011. In a multivariate regression model, the main impact seen was the increase over the years [the OR ranges from 0.47 (95% CI 0.32-0.68) in 2003 to 2.51 (95% CI 2.20-2.87) in 2011). The predefined lower and target levels of thrombolysis were achieved at the majority of participating centers: in 2011 the lower value of 5% was achieved at all stroke units, and the target value of 15% was observed at 21 of 34 stroke units. We conclude that online benchmarking and the concept of defining target values as a tool for nationwide acute stroke care appeared to result in an increase in the rate of thrombolysis over the last few years while the variability between the stroke units has not yet been reduced.

  20. Medical studies and Nazi medicine: Nazi medicine as perceived by Austrian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Stefan; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Austrian medical universities have not covered the topic of Nazi medicine in their curricula to any satisfactory degree to date. In the context of medical-ethical education and on-going medical ethics debates, it seems indispensable to be confronted also with the dark chapters of medical history, and especially Nazi medicine. Students should learn to understand controversial discussions, e.g. about euthanasia, in a historical context. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether students had, during their studies, been confronted with Nazi medical crime and whether they considered such a confrontation as important. The survey also focused on extant knowledge about this topic. From late 2012 to May 2013, 341 late semester students of the medical universities in Vienna, Graz, and Innsbruck were questioned about the coverage of Nazi medicine during their courses, using multiple choice questionnaires. The data were evaluated using a descriptive-statistical approach. The study has shown a low level of knowledge of students about Nazi medicine in the three universities. Only a third of the students had ever heard about "Aktion T4". About 65% of the participants found it important to be comprehensively informed about Nazi medicine during their studies, e.g. with a view to their future career. On average across the three universities, only 43% of the students had been confronted with this topic. The study found a clear wish for more information about Nazi medicine. Universities should, therefore, offer students various opportunities and ways of discussing this issue in the university context.

  1. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria's waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap -1 . In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap -1  a -1 for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita.

  2. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  3. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  4. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  5. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  6. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  7. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  8. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  9. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  10. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  11. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  12. Evaluation of recommendations on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the basis of data from the Austrian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, G.; Schauberger, G.; Cabaj, A.

    1996-01-01

    For the application of solaria at present the following international recommendations on limits of exposure exist, which differ strongly: 1. IRPA/INIRC (1991): 30 MED/a (i.e. 7.5 kJ/a). 2. IEC 335-2-27 (1978, 1989): 25 kJ/m 2 /a for each region of the body, that is 100 MED/a. On the basis of our data from the Austrian population we give an evaluation of these recommendations for the entire population. This evaluation shows that 100 MED/a is much too high, it seduces rather to use solaria than to restrict their application

  13. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-01-01

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community

  14. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  15. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  16. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  17. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  18. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  19. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  20. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  1. The discharge of certain amounts of industrial microplastic from a production plant into the River Danube is permitted by the Austrian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Aaron; Ramler, David

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have quantified the amount of plastic litter in aquatic ecosystems and tried to assess its impacts and threats. This reflects a rising awareness of plastic as an environmental problem. As a next logical step, identifying and regulating the sources must be in the focus of scientific efforts. We report on a spillage of industrial microplastic (IMP) from a production plant situated at an Austrian Danube tributary. This is the first identified point source of IMP litter in freshwater systems. However, due to generous thresholds established by the Austrian government substantial amounts of IMP are legally introduced into running waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on resource availability and their relationships with planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the southeastern United States, land managers are currently interested in converting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations to species rich longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems. In a 3-year study on moderately well- to well-drained soils of the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina, we examined the...

  3. Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills.

  4. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  5. Xylem monoterpenes of pines: distribution, variation, genetics, function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Smith

    2000-01-01

    The monoterpenes of about 16,000 xylem resin samples of pine (Pinus) speciesand hybrids—largely from the western United States—were analyzed in this long-term study of the resistance of pines to attack by bark beetles (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), with special emphasis on resistance to the western pine beetle(Dendroctonus brevicomis). The samples were analyzed by gas liquid...

  6. Whitebark pine vulnerability to climate-driven mountain pine beetle disturbance in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jesse A; MacFarlane, William W; Willcox, Louisa

    2010-06-01

    Widespread outbreaks of mountain pine beetles (MPB) are occurring throughout the range of this native insect. Episodic outbreaks are a common occurrence in the beetles' primary host, lodgepole pine. Current outbreaks, however, are occurring in habitats where outbreaks either did not previously occur or were limited in scale. Herein, we address widespread, ongoing outbreaks in high-elevation, whitebark pine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, where, due to an inhospitable climate, past outbreaks were infrequent and short lived. We address the basic question: are these outbreaks truly unprecedented and a threat to ecosystem continuity? In order to evaluate this question we (1) present evidence that the current outbreak is outside the historic range of variability; (2) examine system resiliency to MPB disturbance based on adaptation to disturbance and host defenses to MPB attack; and (3) investigate the potential domain of attraction to large-scale MPB disturbance based on thermal developmental thresholds, spatial structure of forest types, and the confounding influence of an introduced pathogen. We conclude that the loss of dominant whitebark pine forests, and the ecological services they provide, is likely under continuing climate warming and that new research and strategies are needed to respond to the crisis facing whitebark pine.

  7. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C

    2011-01-01

    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components.

  8. Digital age and the public eHealth perspective: Prevailing health app use among Austrian Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszay, Marlene; Stockinger, Andreas; Jungwirth, David; Haluza, Daniela

    2017-12-19

    New technological developments affect almost every sector of our daily lives including the healthcare sector. Successful adoption and sustainable integration of eHealth and telemedicine in Public Health strategies (also known as Public eHealth) depend on knowledge and constant evaluation of consumers' needs, proficiencies, and preferences. We therefore assessed how the general Austrian population perceived innovative Public eHealth solutions. The online survey on 562 Austrian adults (58.9% females) collected self-reported data on current and expected use of smartphone-based health applications (apps) of digital natives (35 years and younger) and digital immigrants (aged 35+). In total, 26.7% (95% CI 23.0-30.4) of participants already used health apps, especially lifestyle-associated apps for monitoring exercise habits and nutritional habits. We found substantial digital age group differences; compared to digital immigrants digital natives were more likely to use mobile devices and health apps. Health apps have the potential to improve community health and prevent lifestyle diseases cost-effectively and efficiently, and thus build an important pillar of Public eHealth. With regard to aging societies, healthcare providers could take advantage of consumer-oriented health apps by assessing individual needs of specific target groups such as elderly people.

  9. Secondary Use of Claims Data from the Austrian Health Insurance System with i2b2: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endel, Florian; Duftschmid, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In conformity with increasing international efforts to reuse routine health data for scientific purposes, the Main Association of Austrian Social Security Organisations provides pseudonymized claims data of the Austrian health care system for clinical research. We aimed to examine, whether an integration of the corresponding database into i2b2 would be possible and provide benefits. We applied docker-based software containers and data transformations to set up the system. To assess the benefits of i2b2 we plan to reenact the task of cohort formation of an earlier research project. The claims database was successfully integrated into i2b2. The docker-based installation approach will be published as git repository. The assessment of i2b2's benefits is currently work in progress and will be presented at the conference. Docker enables a flexible, reproducible, and resource-efficient installation of i2b2 within the restricted environment implied by our highly secured target system. First preliminary tests indicated several potential benefits of i2b2 compared to the methods applied during the earlier research project.

  10. Use of the TRIGA Reactor by the Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.; Grass, F.; Ismail, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities uses the TRIGA Mark II Reactor mainly for neutron activation analysis. Transport of samples to and from the irradiation positions in the reactor is performed by fast pneumatic transfer systems (transfer time 20 msec and 300 msec) and slow conventional transport facilities. Gamma-spectrometric instrumentation equipped with loss free counting systems is used to handle the high count rates up to 500 000 counts/sec. During the last years neutron activation analysis was applied to investigate environmental samples (soil, dust, incineration ash), geological samples (rocks, sediments, fossils, volcanic gases), biological materials (lichens, mushrooms and other plant materials, human diet, biological reference materials), raw materials (phosphate, coal) and archaeological materials (ancient glass). Lichen analysis was used for environmental monitoring. The content of some of the trace elements can be correlated with industrial activities, like manganese content with steel industry, the occurrence of vanadium and nickel with oil firing plants and stainless steel industry, selenium is found in lichen near coal firing plants. The amount of chlorine and sodium indicates the application of salt for road treatment during winter time, aluminum, scandium and hafnium content depends on the amount of dust in the environment. A further environmental application of neutron activation analysis is the determination of trace elements in volcanic gases. The halogens, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and mercury were determined and their daily output was calculated. The distribution of trace elements in fossils of known age gives us a geochemical key to condition and development of the paleo-environment. For this purpose we determined rare earth elements in 250 million years old microfossils (conodonts). Neutron activation analysis served also for some non scientific but nevertheless useful purposes: Organic

  11. Continuous monitoring of a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps by above-ground neutron sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattan, Paul; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.; Schöber, Johannes; Fey, Christine; Francke, Till; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In alpine catchments the knowledge of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous dynamics of snow accumulation and depletion is crucial for modelling and managing water resources. While snow covered area can be retrieved operationally from remote sensing data, continuous measurements of other snow state variables like snow depth (SD) or snow water equivalent (SWE) remain challenging. Existing methods of retrieving both variables in alpine terrain face severe issues like a lack of spatial representativeness, labour-intensity or discontinuity in time. Recently, promising new measurement techniques combining a larger support with low maintenance cost like above-ground gamma-ray scintillators, GPS interferometric reflectometry or above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) have been suggested. While CRNS has proven its potential for monitoring soil moisture in a wide range of environments and applications, the empirical knowledge of using CRNS for snowpack monitoring is still very limited and restricted to shallow snowpacks with rather uniform evolution. The characteristics of an above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensor (CRNS) were therefore evaluated for monitoring a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps (Kaunertal, Tyrol) during three winter seasons. The measurement campaign included a number of measurements during the period from 03/2014 to 06/2016: (i) neutron count measurements by CRNS, (ii) continuous point-scale SD and SWE measurements from an automatic weather station and (iii) 17 Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) with simultaneous SD and SWE surveys. The highest accumulation in terms of SWE was found in 04/2014 with 600 mm. Neutron counts were compared to all available snow data. While previous studies suggested a signal saturation at around 100 mm of SWE, no complete signal saturation was found. A strong non-linear relation was found for both SD and SWE with best fits for spatially distributed TLS based snow data. Initially slightly different shapes were

  12. Results of a first look into the Austrian animal phenological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifinger, H.; Koch, E. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Winkler, H. [Konrad Lorenz Inst. for Ethology, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-04-01

    The year to year variability and trends of animal phenological phases (honey bee, cockchafer, 3 butterfly species, swallow and cuckoo) of the Austrian phenological observational network were related to each other and to mean monthly temperatures over the time period 1951-1998. Insect phases were well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.4 to 0.6) and with temperature (r{sup 2} = 0.25 to 0.55), whereas both bird phases were only well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.57), but showed low common variance values with temperature and with other animal phases. The slope of the temperature-pheno regression, also termed as temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase, was high in the case of the insect phases (-3 to -5 days/ C), but low in the cases of both bird phases (about -1 days/ C). All animal phenological time series showed a trend towards later occurrence dates. The trends of the bird phases were even significant (p<0.1). There was a marked discrepancy between the trends of all animal phenological and temperature time series, especially between the insects and temperature: the mean temperature time series of February, March and April with the highest common variance with the insect phases showed a strongly increasing trend (0.027 C/year), whereas the first appearance dates of the insects tended to occur later (0.06 to 0.15 days/year). Both bird phases correlated weakly with the mean April temperature (r{sup 2} about 0.1). The temperature trend of April was 0.0003 C/year, whereas the trend of the bird phases was 0.2 days/year for the cuckoo and 0.25 days/year for the swallow. From these observations we conclude that a strong temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase based on the year to year variability (in days/ C) does not necessarily result in corresponding trends of temperature and phenological phase. A strong trend of non-atmospheric factors such as population density influencing the animal phases is suspected. Factors other than local

  13. Formalizing the Austrian Procedure Catalogue: A 4-step methodological analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neururer, Sabrina Barbara; Lasierra, Nelia; Peiffer, Karl Peter; Fensel, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an internationally accepted and adopted standard for coding health interventions, Austria has established its own country-specific procedure classification system - the Austrian Procedure Catalogue (APC). Even though the APC is an elaborate coding standard for medical procedures, it has shortcomings that limit its usability. In order to enhance usability and usefulness, especially for research purposes and e-health applications, we developed an ontologized version of the APC. In this paper we present a novel four-step approach for the ontology engineering process, which enables accurate extraction of relevant concepts for medical ontologies from written text. The proposed approach for formalizing the APC consists of the following four steps: (1) comparative pre-analysis, (2) definition analysis, (3) typological analysis, and (4) ontology implementation. The first step contained a comparison of the APC to other well-established or elaborate health intervention coding systems in order to identify strengths and weaknesses of the APC. In the second step, a list of definitions of medical terminology used in the APC was obtained. This list of definitions was used as input for Step 3, in which we identified the most important concepts to describe medical procedures using the qualitative typological analysis approach. The definition analysis as well as the typological analysis are well-known and effective methods used in social sciences, but not commonly employed in the computer science or ontology engineering domain. Finally, this list of concepts was used in Step 4 to formalize the APC. The pre-analysis highlighted the major shortcomings of the APC, such as the lack of formal definition, leading to implicitly available, but not directly accessible information (hidden data), or the poor procedural type classification. After performing the definition and subsequent typological analyses, we were able to identify the following main characteristics of

  14. Radon measurements in Austrian buildings and estimation of collective doses for the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear track etch detectors were used for the determination of radon and radon daughter levels in Austrian dwelling houses. A diffusion chamber, developed at Karlsruhe, FRG, was used to construct a passive radon detector. It consists of a plastic beaker covered with a glass fibre filter. It is shielded by a cover which has openings on the side so that air can diffuse through and on the top there is a mounted thermoluminescent detector card. The TLD dosimeter was used to determine beta and gamma radiation levels. A polycarbonate foil was placed at the bottom of the diffusion chamber which served as a detector for the alphas emitted by radon daughters. The dosimeters were exposed for a period of three months. The mean concentration of radon in all rooms in dwelling houses in Austria were clearly higher in winter than in summer time. This was interpreted as the effect of reduced ventilation rates in winter time. This effect of ventilation on radon concentration is more significant in living and sleeping rooms than in the cellar. Compared to all rooms in a dwelling house the level of radon concentration was distinctly higher in the cellar. Higher values of radon concentration were found in famous radon spa of Gastein and in the Waldviertel and in a landscape near the Czechoslovakian border. In Vienna a mean value for radon concentration in the living and sleeping rooms was found to be 47 bq/m 3 which corresponds to an estimated effective dose equivalent to the lung of 10.7 mSv per annum. The whole body effective dose equivalent was estimated to be 1.27 mSv per annum. These estimations were based on the radon equilibrium factor of 0.5. The exposure to radon at such concentration is estimated to cause 3-4% incidence of excess lung cancer in Vienna within the next 20 years. The value of 47 bq/m 3 of radon in Vienna and its surrounding areas corresponds well with the mean values in Switzerland and Germany, but it is lower than those found in Great Britain, Canada, Sweden

  15. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  16. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  17. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  18. Antioxidant potential of six pine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Anilda; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Roussis, Vassilios

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of extracts obtained from six Pinus species (P. pinea, P. brutia, P. radiata, P. halepensis, P. attenuata, P. nigra) growing in natural forests in Southern Greece. Specimens of fresh, dry needles and pine bark were extracted and fractionated with a variety of organic solvents and the efficient concentration and their radical scavenging activity was evaluated by the Co(II)/EDTA induced luminol plateau chemiluminescence assay. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Tolerance of Loblolly Pines to Fusiform Rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Walkinshaw; James P. Barnett

    1995-01-01

    Loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) that were 8 to 17 yr old tolerated one to three fusiform rust (Cronartium quercuum [Berk.] Miyabe ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme) galls in their stems.Families with four or more galls in their stems lost 2.5% or more of the trees by age 17.In living trees with less than four stem galls, diameter growth was comparable to...

  20. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  1. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoruk, Tara M; Hartley, Ian D; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-12-31

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  2. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey, sp. nov.) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study. (author)

  3. Calculating wind profiles above a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A major part of the environmental transport work at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) involves the dispersion of airborne pollutants (aerosols and gases). A major part of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is covered with pine forests. Because forests are ''rough'' surfaces which increase turbulence and surface shear stress and, hence, alter the dispersion patterns, the nature of the wind profiles above the forests is being investigated. Two methods for determining the surface shear caused by the atmospheric wind field over a pine plantation were compared. Friction velocity [the square root of the ratio of shearing stress over the density of air; U/sub */ = (stress/density)1/2] calculated by eddy correlation was compared with friction velocity calculated from wind profiles. Data from the first five meters above the pine forest were compared. The data indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean friction velocity measured by each method. However, there were large differences in individual values calculated by the two methods for many of the measurement periods. An attempt was made to reconcile the differences in the measured values, but no satisfactory method was found

  4. [Analysis of the population structure of the Black Forest Draught Horse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Kerstin; Wrede, Jörn; Distl, Ottmar

    2003-01-01

    Gene contributions of foreign populations as well as coefficients of inbreeding and relationship were evaluated in 699 Black Forest Draught horses of Baden-Württemberg actually registered in the year 2002. Based on nearly complete 5-generation-pedigrees and after taking into account the remaining incompleteness, the mean coefficient of inbreeding for the total population was 6.5%. The recently by incrossing with different breeds newly established lines of stallions showed significantly lower mean coefficients of inbreeding. High rates of inbreeding of about 1.6% in the last five generations could also be faced by incrossing stallions of foreign coldblooded populations what resulted in a decrease of inbreeding in the last generation. In the total population the mean degree of relationship was 16%. The mean degree of relationships within lines of stallions was between 18.3 and 26.8%. The coefficients of relationships between lines of stallions varied between 5.1 and 16.6%. Especially, the newly established lines of stallions showed a lower mean degree of relationships to the other different lines of stallions. The proportion of purebred Black Forest Draught horses in the total population was nearly 70%. Assuming that most animals of unknown origin were purebred, the proportion of purebred Black Forest Draught horses reached about 90%. Austrian Noric, Swiss Freiberg and South German Coldblood stallions were the most important contributors to the Black Forest Draught horse population.

  5. Current role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (2011). A clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies of Cardiology and Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergan, K.; Globits, S.; Loewe, C.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies for Cardiology and Radiology on the actual role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases includes the following issues: CT calcium scoring; CT angiography (CTA) of the coronaries; actually recommended application of MDCR; generally inappropriate use of the technique for specific patients; radiation exposure; structural and organizational framework.

  6. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts; 46. Jahrestagung der Oesterreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft. Programm und Kurzfassungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H G [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46{sup th} symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  7. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  8. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  9. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  10. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. The Black Family as Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joan

    The black family is the primary socializing agent of the black child and, thus, the primary educator. The culture of blacks in America, in which the child is steeped, is unique, complex and rich-the result of a convergence and fusion of African, American, and European influences. In its education of the black child, the black family must deal,…

  13. ... AND HERE COMES THE WEATHER - Austrian TV and radio weather news in the eye of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A.; Holzer, A. M.; Wostal, T.

    2010-09-01

    Media weather reports as the main avenue of meteorological and climatological information to the general public have always been in the focus of critical investigation. Former research found that although weather reports are high-interest topics, the amount of information recalled by non-experts is rather low, and criticized this. A pilot study (Keul et al., 2009) by the Salzburg University in cooperation with ORF, the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, used historic radio files on a fair-weather and a storm situation. It identified the importance of intelligible wording of the weather forecast messages for lay people. Without quality control, weather information can stimulate rumours, false comfort or false alarms. More qualitative and experimental research, also on TV weather, seems justified. This need for further research was addressed by a second and larger field experiment in the spring of 2010. The survey took place in Salzburg City, Austria, with a quota sample of about 90 lay persons. This time TV and radio weather reports were used and a more realistic listening and viewing situation was created by presenting the latest weather forecasts of the given day to the test persons in the very next hours after originally broadcasting them. It asked lay people what they find important in the weather reports and what they remember for their actual next-day use. Reports of a fairweather prognosis were compared with a warning condition. The weather media mix of the users was explored. A second part of the study was a questionnaire which tested the understanding of typical figures of speech used in weather forecasts or even meteorological terms, which might also be important for fully understanding the severe weather warnings. This leads to quantitative and qualitative analysis from which the most important and unexpected results are presented. Short presentation times (1.5 to 2 minutes) make Austrian radio and TV weather reports a narrow compromise between general

  14. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  15. Body and diet composition of sympatric black and grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has experienced changes in the distribution and availability of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) food resources in recent decades. The decline of ungulates, fish, and whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis) has prompted questions regarding their ability to adapt. We examined body composition and diet of grizzly bears using bioelectrical impedance and stable isotopes to determine if 1) we can detect a change in diet quality associated with the decline in either ungulates or whitebark pine, and 2) the combined decline in ungulates, fish, and pine seeds resulted in a change in grizzly bear carrying capacity in the GYE. We contrasted body fat and mass in grizzly bears with a potential competitor, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), to address these questions. Grizzly bears assimilated more meat into their diet and were in better body condition than black bears throughout the study period, indicating the decline in ungulate resources did not affect grizzly bears more than black bears. We also found no difference in autumn fat levels in grizzly bears in years of good or poor pine seed production, and stable isotope analyses revealed this was primarily a function of switching to meat resources during poor seed-producing years. This dietary plasticity was consistent over the course of our study. We did not detect an overall downward trend in either body mass or the fraction of meat assimilated into the diet by grizzly bears over the past decade, but we did detect a downward trend in percent body fat in adult female grizzly bears after 2006. Whether this decline is an artifact of small sample size or due to the population reaching the ecological carrying capacity of the Yellowstone ecosystem warrants further investigation.

  16. Influence of Thinning and Pruning on Southern Pine Veneer Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Gibson; Terry R. Clason; Gary L. Hill; George A. Grozdits

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of intensive pine plantation management on veneer yields, veneer grade distribution and veneer MOE as measured by ultrasonic stress wave transmission (Metriguard). Veneer production trials were done at a commercial southern pine plywood plant to elucidate the effects of silvicultural treatments on veneer quality, yield, and modulus of...

  17. Weevil - red rot associations in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Clifford H. Foster

    1957-01-01

    The presence of red rot (Fomes pini) in pruned white pine stands has often been attributed to the act of pruning. This assumption may well be true for heavily stocked stands where thinning has been neglected and pruning scars are slow to heal. The question then arises: How do we account for the red rot often found in vigorous unpruned white pine stands? Evidence...

  18. Longleaf pine forests and woodlands: old growth under fire!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan L. Walker

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses a once widespread forest type of the Southeast – longleaf pine dominated forests and woodlands. This system depends on fire – more or less frequent, and often of low intensity. Because human-mediated landscape fragmentation has drastically changed the behavior of fire on longleaf pine dominated landscapes, these forests and woodlands will never be...

  19. Grazing on Regeneration Sites Encourages Pine Seedling Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Renee G. Denton

    1995-01-01

    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the...

  20. Possibilities of breeding weevil-resistant white pine strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Wright; William J. Gabriel

    1959-01-01

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) is a highly versatile species. It is easily planted, adaptable to a wide variety of soils and climates, and reproduces itself well. Also it grows rapidly and is capable of producing high-quality lumber. These characteristics once entitled white pine to a top position in the forest economy throughout much of the...