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  1. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

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    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  2. Salt Lake Community College Veterans Services: A Model of Serving Veterans in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Aaron; Foster, Michael; Head, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the birth and growth of a veterans' program in Salt Lake City, Utah, and discusses next steps in spurring additional innovations and advancements to improve service for student veterans in community colleges.

  3. Reproductive health of male Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War

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    Kelsall, Helen L; Sim, Malcolm R; Ikin, Jillian F; Forbes, Andrew B; McKenzie, Dean P; Glass, Deborah C; Ittak, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the 1991 Gulf War concerns have been raised about the effects of deployment to the Gulf War on veterans' health. Studies of the reproductive health of Gulf War veterans have reported varied findings. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of male Australian Gulf War veterans (n = 1,424) and a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1,548). The study was conducted from August 2000 to April 2002. A postal questionnaire included questions about difficultie...

  4. Veterans' Transitions to Community College: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Veterans on college campuses are not new; however, the recent influx of veterans returning home from war-time service present challenges to the colleges they attend. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the transition process experienced by veterans leaving military service and attending community college for the first time.…

  5. The mental health of partners of Australian Vietnam veterans three decades after the war and its relation to veteran military service, combat, and PTSD.

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    O'Toole, Brian I; Outram, Sue; Catts, Stanley V; Pierse, Katherine R

    2010-11-01

    This study assessed psychiatric diagnoses in female partners of Australian Vietnam veterans, compared these with national Australian population statistics, and assessed their relationship with veterans' military service and mental health. Independent assessments of 240 veteran-partner couples used standardized physical and psychiatric diagnostic interviews that permitted comparison with Australian population data. Multivariate regression modeling examined associations of veterans' war service, combat, and psychiatric status with women's mental health. Anxiety disorders and severe recurrent depression were among 11 of 17 psychiatric diagnoses that were significantly in excess of population expectations. Veterans' combat and post-traumatic stress disorder were significant predictors of women's depressive disorder, particularly severe depression. We conclude that veterans' war service and mental health sequelae including post-traumatic stress disorder are associated with higher rates of mental disorder in their female partners 3 decades after the war.

  6. Psychiatric morbidity in Australian veterans of the United Nations peacekeeping force in Somalia.

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    Ward, W

    1997-04-01

    Since World War II, an increasing number of soldiers have been deployed in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping forces. However, little is known about the psychiatric impact of such deployments. The present study investigated the nature, prevalence, aetiology and natural history of psychiatric morbidity in Australian veterans of the United Nations peacekeeping force in Somalia. Fifteen months after their return from Somalia, 117 Somalian veterans completed the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Impact of Events Scale (IES), the Combat Exposure Scale (CES), and a checklist of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, completed by veterans 12 months previously as part of an evaluation by the Department of Defence. Seventy-seven non-veteran controls also completed the GHQ-28. Veterans scored significantly higher on the GHQ-28 than controls. Twenty-four-point-eight per cent (24.8%) of veterans were GHQ cases (using 4/5 as a cut-off point) compared to 13.0% of controls. Psychiatric morbidity in veterans was associated with combat exposure and a past psychiatric history. Levels of morbidity reduced over time, although they remained substantial at 15 months following soldiers' return to Australia, with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms being reported by approximately 20% of veterans. At least one-fifth of Australian soldiers who served in Somalia had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity 15 months following their return. This was almost twice that of their non-veteran peers. Risk factors for the development of psychiatric morbidity included combat exposure and past psychiatric history. Levels of psychiatric morbidity were much higher than those reported in previous studies on UN soldiers.

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder in Australian World War II veterans attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic.

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    Kidson, M A; Douglas, J C; Holwill, B J

    1993-04-19

    To ascertain the frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II veterans attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic in an Australian veterans' hospital and to compare veterans with and without PTSD according to certain psychological variables. Over a three-month period veterans were assessed at their next appointment by their treating doctors (psychiatrists or psychiatric registrars) for PTSD according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-III-R). At the same time they completed two questionnaires and provided information about their war experiences. The psychiatric outpatient department at Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, Melbourne. One hundred and twenty World War II veterans attended during the three-month period and 108 (90%) agreed to participate and are included in this study. The treating doctors recorded the presence or absence and severity of veterans' symptoms of PTSD. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-60) and the Impact of Events Scale (IES) were then completed by participants under supervision. Forty-nine veterans (45%) were found to have active PTSD 45 years after the war. The presence of PTSD was significantly associated with the taking of casualties (an indicator of severity of war stress as reported by the veterans themselves) and with combat stress as rated by their treating doctors. The veterans with PTSD obtained significantly higher scores on both the GHQ-60 and the IES, and reported no significant reduction in symptoms of PTSD over the preceding 10 years. The presence of both an anxiety and a depressive disorder was substantially and significantly more common in the veterans who had PTSD. Overall, the study revealed a high frequency of PTSD and a strong persistence of this condition in psychiatric outpatients who were veterans of World War II.

  8. Physical comorbidities of post-traumatic stress disorder in Australian Vietnam War veterans.

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    McLeay, Sarah C; Harvey, Wendy M; Romaniuk, Madeline Nm; Crawford, Darrell Hg; Colquhoun, David M; Young, Ross McD; Dwyer, Miriam; Gibson, John M; O'Sullivan, Robyn A; Cooksley, Graham; Strakosch, Christopher R; Thomson, Rachel M; Voisey, Joanne; Lawford, Bruce R

    2017-04-03

    To determine whether the prevalence of physical comorbidities in Australian Vietnam War veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher than in trauma-exposed veterans without PTSD. Cross-sectional analysis of the health status (based on self-reported and objective clinical assessments) of 298 Australian Vietnam War veterans enrolled by the Gallipoli Medical Research Institute (Brisbane) during February 2014 - July 2015, of whom 108 were confirmed as having had PTSD and 106 served as trauma-exposed control participants.Main outcomes and measures: Diagnostic psychiatric interview and psychological assessments determined PTSD status, trauma exposure, and comorbid psychological symptoms. Demographic data, and medical and sleep history were collected; comprehensive clinical examination, electrocardiography, spirometry, liver transient elastography, and selected pathology assessments and diagnostic imaging were performed. Outcomes associated with PTSD were identified; regression analysis excluded the effects of potentially confounding demographic and risk factors and comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. The mean total number of comorbidities was higher among those with PTSD (17.7; SD, 6.1) than in trauma-exposed controls (14.1; SD, 5.2; P Vietnam veterans is associated with comorbidities in several organ systems, independent of trauma exposure. A comprehensive approach to the health care of veterans with PTSD is needed.

  9. Reproductive health of male Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War

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    Glass Deborah C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 1991 Gulf War concerns have been raised about the effects of deployment to the Gulf War on veterans' health. Studies of the reproductive health of Gulf War veterans have reported varied findings. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of male Australian Gulf War veterans (n = 1,424 and a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1,548. The study was conducted from August 2000 to April 2002. A postal questionnaire included questions about difficulties achieving pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes including live births, stillbirths, miscarriages and terminations; and for all live births gestation, birth weight, sex, and any cancers, birth defects, chromosomal abnormalities or serious health problems. Results Male Gulf War veterans reported slightly increased risk of fertility difficulties following the Gulf War (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–1.8, but were more successful at subsequently fathering a child (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3–2.6. The study groups reported similar rates of pregnancies and live births. There was no increased risk in veterans of miscarriage, stillbirth, or terminations. Children of male Gulf War veterans born after the period of the Gulf War were not at greater risk of being born prematurely, having a low birth weight, or having a birth defect or chromosomal abnormality (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.6–1.6. The numbers of cancers and deaths in children were too small to draw any firm conclusions. Conclusion The results of this study do not show an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcome in Australian male Gulf War veterans.

  10. 'Post-deployment appraisal' and the relationship with stress and psychological health in Australian veterans.

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    Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.

  11. Intergenerational transmission of post-traumatic stress disorder in Australian Vietnam veterans' families.

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    O'Toole, B I; Burton, M J; Rothwell, A; Outram, S; Dadds, M; Catts, S V

    2017-05-01

    To assess the association between parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and offspring PTSD and its specificity for other disorders in a non-clinical epidemiological cohort of Australian Vietnam veterans, their partners and their sons and daughters. Veterans were interviewed twice, in 1992-1994 and 2005-2006; partners were interviewed in 2006-2007, and their offspring in 2012-2014. A total of 125 sons and 168 daughters were interviewed from 197 families, 137 of which also included partners who were the mothers of the children. Statistical analysis used multi-level modelling to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while controlling for clustering effects within families. Parent PTSD diagnoses were examined for associations with offspring trauma exposure, PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses. Veteran PTSD increased the risk of PTSD and no other disorder in both sons and daughters; partner PTSD did not. Veteran depression was also a risk factor for sons' PTSD, and alcohol disorder was linked to alcohol dependence in sons and PTSD in daughters, but not when controlling for veteran PTSD. We conclude that PTSD in a Vietnam veteran father increases the risk specifically for PTSD in his sons and daughters. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Barriers and facilitators to Veterans Administration collaboration with community providers: the Lodge Project for homeless veterans.

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    Cretzmeyer, Margaret; Moeckli, Jane; Liu, William Ming

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, the U.S. Veterans Administration has made concentrated efforts to end homelessness among veterans. As part of these efforts, the Iowa City, Iowa, VA Health Care System in collaboration with local community providers deployed a supportive housing program aimed at homeless veterans. Called the Lodge program, it is intended to serve a Mid-Western mid-size city and its surrounding rural communities. This article presents qualitative findings from a mixed-method, two-year formative evaluation of the Lodge's implementation. Primary barriers to the effectiveness of the Lodge program were regulations hindering cooperation between service programs, followed by problems regarding information sharing and client substance abuse. Facilitators included personal communication and cooperation between individuals within and among service groups. The feasibility of implementing a Lodge program in a more rural community than Iowa City was also discussed.

  13. Prevalence of probable mental disorders and help-seeking behaviors among veteran and non-veteran community college students.

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    Fortney, John C; Curran, Geoffrey M; Hunt, Justin B; Cheney, Ann M; Lu, Liya; Valenstein, Marcia; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of disadvantaged youth and returning veterans are enrolled in community colleges. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and help-seeking behaviors among community college students. Veterans (n=211) and non-veterans (n=554) were recruited from 11 community colleges and administered screeners for depression (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety (GAD-7), posttraumatic stress disorder (PC-PTSD), non-lethal self-injury, suicide ideation and suicide intent. The survey also asked about the perceived need for, barriers to and utilization of services. Regression analysis was used to compare prevalence between non-veterans and veterans adjusting for non-modifiable factors (age, gender and race/ethnicity). A large proportion of student veterans and non-veterans screened positive and unadjusted bivariate comparisons indicated that student veterans had a significantly higher prevalence of positive depression screens (33.1% versus 19.5%, PStudent veterans had significantly higher odds of perceiving a need for treatment than non-veterans (OR=1.93, P=.02) but were more likely to perceive stigma (beta=0.28, P=.02). Despite greater need among veterans, there were no significant differences between veterans and non-veterans in use of psychotropic medications, although veterans were more likely to receive psychotherapy (OR=2.35, P=.046). Findings highlight the substantial gap between the prevalence of probable mental health disorders and treatment seeking among community college students. Interventions are needed to link community college students to services, especially for student veterans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Influence of comorbidities on therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans: a cohort study.

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    Agnes I Vitry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether the number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was associated with a delay in therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using data from the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA claims database between July 2000 and June 2008. The study included new users of metformin or sulfonylurea medicines. The outcome was the time to addition or switch to another antidiabetic treatment. The total number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was identified using the pharmaceutical-based comorbidity index, Rx-Risk-V. Competing risk regression analyses were conducted, with adjustments for a number of covariates that included age, gender, residential status, use of endocrinology service, number of hospitalisation episodes and adherence to diabetes medicines. Overall, 20,134 veterans were included in the study. At one year, 23.5% of patients with diabetes had a second medicine added or had switched to another medicine, with 41.4% progressing by 4 years. The number of unrelated comorbidities was significantly associated with the time to addition of an antidiabetic medicine or switch to insulin (subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.84-0.91], P<0.001. Depression, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and Parkinson's disease were individually associated with a decreased likelihood of therapeutic progression. Age, residential status, number of hospitalisations and adherence to anti-diabetic medicines delayed therapeutic progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing numbers of unrelated conditions decreased the likelihood of therapeutic progression in veterans with diabetes. These results have implications for the development of quality measures, clinical guidelines and the construction of models of care for management of diabetes in elderly people with comorbidities.

  15. Childhood adversity and traumatic exposures during deployment as predictors of mental health in Australian military veterans.

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    Zheng, Wu Yi; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Waller, Michael; McGuire, Annabel C; Treloar, Susan A; Dobson, Annette J

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether the relationship between traumatic exposure on deployment and poor mental health varies by the reported level of childhood adversity experienced in Australian military veterans deployed to the Bougainville or East Timor military operations. Cross-sectional self-reported survey data were collected in 2008 from 3,564 Australian military veterans who deployed to East Timor or Bougainville on their deployment experiences, health and recall of childhood events. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between childhood adversity, deployment exposures and mental health. The most common childhood adversity reported was 'not having a special teacher, youth worker or family friend who looked out for them while growing up'. On average, responders reported experiencing 3.5 adverse childhood experiences (SD 2.7) and averaged 5.3 (SD 4.9) traumatic exposures on deployment. Both childhood adversity and traumatic exposures on deployment were associated with higher odds of poorer mental health. However, there was no evidence that level of childhood adversity modified the association between traumatic exposure and mental health. These findings suggest that military personnel who recalled a higher level of childhood adversity may need to be monitored for poor mental health and, if required, provided with appropriate support. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. A Health Assessment Survey of Veteran Students: Utilizing a Community College-Veterans Affairs Medical Center Partnership.

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    Misra-Hebert, Anita D; Santurri, Laura; DeChant, Richard; Watts, Brook; Sehgal, Ashwini R; Aron, David C

    2015-10-01

    To assess health status among student veterans at a community college utilizing a partnership between a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a community college. Student veterans at Cuyahoga Community College in Cleveland, Ohio, in January to April 2013. A health assessment survey was sent to 978 veteran students. Descriptive analyses to assess prevalence of clinical diagnoses and health behaviors were performed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for independent predictors of functional limitations. 204 students participated in the survey (21% response rate). Self-reported depression and unhealthy behaviors were high. Physical and emotional limitations (45% and 35%, respectively), and pain interfering with work (42%) were reported. Logistic regression analyses confirmed the independent association of self-reported depression with functional limitation (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-7.8, p stress disorder with pain interfering with work (OR 3.9, CI 1.1-13.6, p student veterans at a community college. A partnership between a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a community college can be utilized to help understand the health needs of veteran students. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. A Community Standard: Equivalency of Healthcare in Australian Immigration Detention.

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    Essex, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    The Australian government has long maintained that the standard of healthcare provided in its immigration detention centres is broadly comparable with health services available within the Australian community. Drawing on the literature from prison healthcare, this article examines (1) whether the principle of equivalency is being applied in Australian immigration detention and (2) whether this standard of care is achievable given Australia's current policies. This article argues that the principle of equivalency is not being applied and that this standard of health and healthcare will remain unachievable in Australian immigration detention without significant reform. Alternate approaches to addressing the well documented issues related to health and healthcare in Australian immigration detention are discussed.

  18. The Course and Correlates of Combat-Related PTSD in Australian Vietnam Veterans in the Three Decades After the War.

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    O'Toole, Brian I; Catts, Stanley V

    2017-02-01

    Australian male Vietnam veterans (N = 388) were assessed 22 and 36 years after their return to Australia using standardized diagnostic interviews, with added data from Army records and self-report questionnaires. Among veterans who ever had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 50.3% had a current diagnosis at the second assessment; of those who had a current diagnosis at Wave 1, 46.9% were also current at Wave 2. Late onset occurred for 19.0% of veterans, of whom 60.8% were current at Wave 2. Multivariate analysis compared veterans with no history of PTSD (n = 231) with veterans who had ever had PTSD (n = 157) to assess risk factors for PTSD incidence; and veterans with a history, but not current PTSD (n = 78) with veterans who had current PTSD at the second assessment (n = 79) to assess risk factors for failure to remit. Incidence was associated with lower education, shorter Army training predeployment, higher combat, excess drinking, and help-seeking after return to Australia. Prevalence was associated with having a father who saw combat in World War II, being injured in battle, having a lower intelligence test score, experiencing higher combat, and having a diagnosis of phobia at the first assessment. Only combat was common to incidence and prevalence. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. The physical and mental health of Australian Vietnam veterans 3 decades after the war and its relation to military service, combat, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

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    O'Toole, Brian I; Catts, Stanley V; Outram, Sue; Pierse, Katherine R; Cockburn, Jill

    2009-08-01

    The long-term health consequences of war service remain unclear, despite burgeoning scientific interest. A longitudinal cohort study of a random sample of Australian Vietnam veterans was designed to assess veterans' postwar physical and mental health 36 years after the war (2005-2006) and to examine its relation to Army service, combat, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed 14 years previously (1990-1993). Prevalences in veterans (n = 450) were compared with those in the Australian general population. Veterans' Army service and data from the first assessments were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression prediction modeling. Veterans' general health and some health risk factors were poorer and medical consultation rates were higher than Australian population expectations. Of 67 long-term conditions, the prevalences of 47 were higher and the prevalences of 4 were lower when compared with population expectations. Half of all veterans took some form of medication for mental well-being. The prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses exceeded Australian population expectations. Military and war service characteristics and age were the most frequent predictors of physical health endpoints, while PTSD was most strongly associated with psychiatric diagnoses. Draftees had better physical health than regular enlistees but no better mental health. Army service and war-related PTSD are associated with risk of illness in later life among Australian Vietnam veterans.

  20. Health status, service use, and costs among veterans receiving outreach services in jail or community settings.

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    McGuire, James; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J

    2003-02-01

    This study compared client characteristics, service use, and health care costs of two groups of veterans who were contacted by outreach workers: a group of veterans who were contacted while incarcerated at the Los Angeles jail and a group of homeless veterans who were contacted in community settings. Between May 1, 1997, and October 1, 1999, a total of 1,676 veterans who were in jail and 6,560 community homeless veterans were assessed through a structured intake procedure that documented their demographic, clinical, and social adjustment characteristics. Data on the use and costs of health services during the year after outreach contact were obtained from national databases of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Chi square and t tests were used for statistical comparisons. The veterans who were contacted in jail obtained higher scores on several measures of social stability (marital status and homelessness status) but had higher rates of unemployment. They had fewer medical problems but higher levels of psychiatric and substance use problems, although the rate of current substance use was lower among these veterans than among the community homeless veterans. One-year service access for the jailed veterans was half that of the community homeless veterans. No differences were observed in the intensity of use of mental health services among those who used services, but the jailed outreach clients used fewer residential, medical, and surgical services. Total health care expenditures for the veterans who received outreach contact in jail were $2,318 less, or 30 percent less, than for those who were contacted through community outreach. Specialized outreach services appear to be modestly effective in linking veterans who become incarcerated with VA health care services. Although it is clinically challenging to link this group with services, the fact that the rate of current substance use is lower during incarceration may provide a window of opportunity for

  1. Discounting of medicines in Australian community pharmacies.

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    Thai, Loc P; Vitry, Agnes I; Moss, John R

    2014-11-01

    There are many medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in which point of sale price is less than the level of the general patient co-payment. In these circumstances, the patient covers the total cost of the medicine from their own pocket with no government subsidy. The aim of the present study was to compare the consumer prices of under general co-payment prescription medicines between banner group pharmacies with open discounting policies and community pharmacies without; and to assess the impact of the April 2012 PBS price disclosure policies on the discounts offered. The consumer prices of 31 under co-payment medicines were collected from banner group pharmacy websites and individual pharmacies both before and after April 2012. PBS maximum prices were obtained from the PBS website. Absolute and relative price differences between PBS and pharmacy groups were calculated. Before April 2012, banner group pharmacies provided discounts to patients of around 40% per prescription, whereas other pharmacies provided discounts of around 15%. Total price savings were on average $9 per prescription at banner group pharmacies and $3.50 at other pharmacies. Percentage discounts did not change greatly after April 2012, when price decreases occurred on the PBS. Banner group pharmacies with pricing strategies are able to provide greater discounts to patients compared with other pharmacies. Community pharmacies still have the ability to provide substantial discounts after the April 2012 price reductions. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: There is currently little known about the under co-payment medicines market in Australia and the price discounts available to patients. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This research shows that patients who purchase under co-payment medicines are able to save money if they purchase from pharmacies with openly advertised discounting policies. Price reductions related to the implementation of the price disclosure policy had a

  2. Psychological health of Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War: an assessment using the SF-12, GHQ-12 and PCL-S.

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    McKenzie, D P; Ikin, J F; McFarlane, A C; Creamer, M; Forbes, A B; Kelsall, H L; Glass, D C; Ittak, P; Sim, M R

    2004-11-01

    Elevated rates of psychological morbidity and symptomatology have been widely reported in 1991 Gulf War veterans. The present study used brief self-report instruments to compare the psychological health of Australian Gulf War veterans with that of a randomly sampled military comparison group. The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist--Specific (PCL-S) and Military Service Experience (MSE) questionnaire were administered to 1424 male Australian Gulf War veterans and 1548 male Australian Defence Force members who were operational at the time of the Gulf War conflict, but were not deployed there. The Gulf War veterans exhibited poorer psychological health, as measured by the above three instruments, than the comparison group members. For Gulf War veterans, the number of stressful experiences, as measured by the MSE questionnaire, was correlated with scores on the three instruments. SF-12 mental health component summary scores and PCL-S caseness, but not GHQ-12 caseness, differed significantly between Gulf War veterans and comparison group members who had been on at least one active deployment. More than a decade after the 1991 Gulf War, Australian Gulf War veterans are exhibiting higher levels of current (past month) psychological ill-health, as measured using the GHQ-12 and PCL-S, as well as lower mental health status, as measured by the SF-12, than the comparison group. Although not a replacement for formal psychiatric diagnosis, instruments such as those above may aid in the assessment of veterans' psychological health.

  3. Caregivers Create a Veteran-Centric Community in VHA Medical Foster Homes.

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    Haverhals, Leah M; Manheim, Chelsea E; Gilman, Carrie V; Jones, Jacqueline; Levy, Cari

    2016-01-01

    The Veteran's Health Administration's Medical Foster Home program offers a unique long-term care option for veterans who require nursing-home- or assisted-living-level care. Veterans in a medical foster home reside with community-based caregivers who provide 24-hr-a-day care and monitoring. The veterans often remain in the medical foster home until end of life. Support and oversight is provided to the caregiver from the Veteran's Health Administration's community-based medical team. This qualitative descriptive study is based on secondary analysis of interviews with 20 medical foster home caregivers from 7 programs across the United States. The study's research aims are to describe and explain (a) the type of care backgrounds and skills these caregivers possess, (b) caregivers' primary motivations to open their homes to veterans who often have complex medical and social needs, and (c) how caregivers function in their role as primary caregiver for veterans. Findings indicated that caregivers interviewed had worked in long-term care settings and/or cared for family members. A strong desire to serve veterans was a primary motivation for caregivers, rather than financial gain. The caregivers' long-term care skills aided them in building and sustaining the unique medical foster home family-like community.

  4. Use of health services and medicines amongst Australian war veterans: a comparison of young elderly, near centenarians and centenarians

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    Ryan Philip

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age and life expectancy of residents in many developed countries, including Australia, is increasing. Health resource and medicine use in the very old is not well studied. The purpose of this study was to identify annual use of health services and medicines by very old Australian veterans; those aged 95 to 99 years (near centenarians and those aged 100 years and over (centenarians. Methods The study population included veterans eligible for all health services subsidised by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA aged 95 years and over at August 1st 2006. A cohort of veterans aged 65 to 74 years was identified for comparison. Data were sourced from DVA claims databases. We identified all claims between August 1st 2006 and July 31st 2007 for medical consultations, pathology, diagnostic imaging and allied health services, hospital admissions, number of prescriptions and unique medicines. Chi squared tests were used to compare the proportion of centenarians (those aged 100 years and over and near centenarians (those aged 95 to 99 years who accessed medicines and health services with the 65 to 74 year age group. For those who accessed health services during follow up, Poisson regression was used to compare differences in the number of times centenarians and near centenarians accessed each health service compared to 65 to 74 year olds. Results A similar proportion (98% of centenarians and near centenarians compared to those aged 65 to 74 consulted a GP and received prescription medicine during follow up. A lower proportion of centenarians and near centenarians had claims for specialist visits (36% and 57% respectively, hospitalisation (19% and 24%, dental (12% and 18%, physiotherapy (13% and 15%, pathology(68% and 78% and diagnostic imaging services (51% and 68% (p Conclusions Medical consultations and medicines are the health services most frequently accessed by Australian veteran centenarians and near centenarians. For most

  5. Regional variation in post-stroke multidisciplinary rehabilitation care among veteran residents in community nursing homes.

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    Jia, Huanguang; Pei, Qinglin; Sullivan, Charles T; Cowper Ripley, Diane C; Wu, Samuel S; Vogel, W Bruce; Wang, Xinping; Bidelspach, Douglas E; Hale-Gallardo, Jennifer L; Bates, Barbara E

    2017-01-01

    Effective post-acute multidisciplinary rehabilitation therapy improves stroke survivors' functional recovery and daily living activities. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) places veterans needing post-acute institutional care in private community nursing homes (CNHs). These placements are made under the same rules and regulations across the VA health care system and through individual per diem contracts between local VA facilities and CNHs. However, there is limited information about utilization of these veterans' health services as well as the geographic variation of the service utilization. The aims of this study were to determine rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care utilization by veterans with stroke in VA-contracted CNHs and to assess risk-adjusted regional variations in the utilization of rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care. This retrospective study included all veterans diagnosed with stroke residing in VA-contracted CNHs between 2006 and 2009. Minimum Dataset (a health status assessment tool for CNH residents) for the study CNHs was linked with veterans' inpatient and outpatient data within the VA health care system. CNHs were grouped into five VA-defined geographic regions: the North Atlantic, Southeast, Midwest, Continental, and Pacific regions. A two-part model was applied estimating risk-adjusted utilization probability and average weekly utilization days. Two dependent variables were rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care utilization by veterans during their CNH stays. The study comprised 6,206 veterans at 2,511 CNHs. Rates for utilization of rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care were 75.7% and 30.1%, respectively. Veterans in North Atlantic and Southeast CNHs were significantly ( p nursing care compared with veterans in all other regions, before and after risk adjustment. The majority of veterans with stroke received rehabilitation therapy, and about one-third had restorative nursing

  6. Implementing a Veteran-Centered Community Health Clinical Experience in a Baccalaureate Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Barbara E; Kunkel, Dorcas Elisabeth

    2017-03-01

    In a baccalaureate nursing curriculum, students focused on the unique health care needs of veterans and their families. The learning experiences aimed to equip them with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) to provide holistic relation-centered care to veterans and their families. The clinical course integrated the findings of several veteran-centered publications and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing veteran-centered resources. Formative and summative anecdotal information was gathered in the learning experience during weekly postclinical discussions, course assignments, and a seminar after completion of the experience. Three noteworthy themes stand out: Increased Descriptions of Resources and Services Available to Veterans and Their Families, Increased Expressions of the Complex Health Care Needs of Veterans, and Increasing Recognition of the Autonomous Nature of the Community Health Nursing Role. Early indicators are that this community health field work experience will be sustainable into the future. The academic institution and clinical partner remain committed to working together to provide meaningful learning opportunities to students. Students completed the experience with increased KSAs and a beginning orientation to the Veterans Affairs Health Care System. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(3):186-190.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Understanding the Health Needs and Barriers to Seeking Health Care of Veteran Students in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra-Hebert, Anita D; Santurri, Laura; DeChant, Richard; Watts, Brook; Rothberg, Michael; Sehgal, Ashwini R; Aron, David C

    2015-08-01

    Access to care at Veterans Affairs facilities may be limited by long wait times; however, additional barriers may prevent US military veterans from seeking help at all. We sought to understand the health needs of veterans in the community to identify possible barriers to health-seeking behavior. Focus groups were conducted with veteran students at a community college until thematic saturation was reached. Qualitative data analysis involved both an inductive content analysis approach and deductive elements. A total of 17 veteran students participated in 6 separate focus groups. Health needs affecting health-seeking behavior were identified. Themes included lack of motivation to improve health, concern about social exclusion and stigma, social interactions and behavior, limited access to affordable and convenient health care, unmet basic needs for self and family, and academics competing with health needs. Veterans face a range of personal, societal, and logistical barriers to accessing care. In addition to decreasing wait times for appointments, efforts to improve the transition to civilian life; reduce stigma; and offer assistance related to work, housing, and convenient access to health care may improve health in veteran students.

  8. Increased risk of attempted suicide in Australian veterans is associated with total and permanent incapacitation, unemployment and posttraumatic stress disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Romaniuk, Madeline; McLeay, Sarah; Khoo, Andrew; Dent, Michael T; Boshen, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Military veterans have higher rates of suicidality and completed suicides compared to the general population. Previous research has demonstrated suicidal behaviour is higher in US combat veterans who are younger, suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety and score lower on measures of health. However, research on predictors of suicide for Australian veterans is limited. The aim of this study was to identify significant demographic and psychological differences between veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attempted suicide and those with posttraumatic stress disorder who had not, as well as determine predictors of suicide attempts within an Australian cohort. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 229 ex-service personnel diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attended a Military Service Trauma Recovery Day Program as outpatients at Toowong Private Hospital from 2007 to 2014. Patients completed a battery of mental health self-report questionnaires assessing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, anger, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Demographic information and self-reported history of suicide attempts were also recorded. Results indicated the average age was significantly lower, and the rates of posttraumatic stress disorder, anger, anxiety and depression symptoms were significantly higher in those veterans with history of a suicide attempt. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, unemployment or total and permanent incapacity pension status significantly predicted suicide attempt history. Among a cohort of Australian veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, psychopathology severity, unemployment and total and permanent incapacity status are significantly associated with suicidality. This study highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder and psychopathology, therapeutic and social

  9. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  10. Contextual Facilitators and Barriers of Community Reintegration Among Injured Female Military Veterans: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; Crowe, Brandi M

    2018-02-01

    To understand the facilitators and barriers to community reintegration (CR) among injured female veterans. Phenomenologic qualitative design. Community. Community-dwelling female veterans with physical and/or psychological injury (N=13). None. None. Conventional content analysis revealed 3 types of facilitators, including (1) strong social support, (2) impactful programs, and (3) protective personal beliefs. Six types of barriers included (1) inadequate services, (2) lack of access to services, (3) poor social support, (4) difficulty trusting others, (5) nonsupportive personal beliefs, and (6) injury factors. Multiple environmental and personal factors acted as facilitators and barriers to CR. Findings are relatively consistent with previous veteran and civilian community reintegration research that indicates the importance of health-related services, attitudes of others, and social support. However, women in this study reported being effected by many of these facilitators and barriers because of their sex. This study supports the need to foster social support among injured female veterans throughout the rehabilitation process to promote CR. Long-term social support can be gained by incorporating services (eg, adjunctive therapies, recreation, other social programming) into the rehabilitation repertoire to help with CR for all veterans, particularly women. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in social activism across Australian minority communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores trends in social activism across Australian ethnic minority communities over a ten year period (1999-2009 and its relationship to indicators of social cohesion. It explores the impact of social modernisation in enabling the facilitation of effective grassroots campaigns on issues relevant the communities', and how they may influence public policy. Consideration is afforded to the impact on community participation with the rise of security policy on the national agenda, and significant events on domestic and global scales over a period which encompassed extraordinary acts of terrorism, irregular arrivals of asylum seekers, and unparalleled political and community confutation. It is asserted that participation in social activism is an important indicator of political empowerment within the dominant political structure, and could suitably enrich research into social cohesion in Australia. Keywords: political participation, public policy, social activism, social cohesion, social modernisation

  12. Understanding food security issues in remote Western Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Nyaradi, Anett; Lester, Matthew; Sauer, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Food insecurity in remote Western Australian (WA) Indigenous communities. This study explored remote community store managers' views on issues related to improving food security in order to inform health policy. A census of all remote WA Indigenous community store managers was conducted in 2010. Telephone interviews sought managers' perceptions of community food insecurity, problems with their store, and potential policy options for improving the supply, accessibility, affordability and consumption of nutritious foods. Descriptive analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Managers stated that freight costs and irregular deliveries contributed to high prices and a limited range of foods. Poor store infrastructure, compromised cold chain logistics, and commonly occurring power outages affected food quality. Half of the managers said there was hunger in their community because people did not have enough money to buy food. The role of nutritionists beyond a clinical and educational role was not understood. Food security interventions in remote communities need to take into consideration issues such as freight costs, transport and low demand for nutritious foods. Store managers provide important local knowledge regarding the development and implementation of food security interventions. SO WHAT? Agencies acting to address the issue of food insecurity in remote WA Indigenous communities should heed the advice of community store managers that high food prices, poor quality and limited availability are mainly due to transport inefficiencies and freight costs. Improving healthy food affordability in communities where high unemployment and low household income abound is fundamental to improving food security, yet presents a significant challenge.

  13. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  14. Telephone-Administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Veterans Served by Community-Based Outpatient Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…

  15. Enabling Persistence of Veteran Students at North Carolina Community Colleges through Institutional Support Programs and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzes, Janice Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Over two million service men and women, returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, will take advantage of the educational benefits of the Post-9/11 GI Bill and will enroll in community colleges. Despite over 70 years of education benefits for U.S. veterans, there has been little research into the availability and effectiveness of…

  16. College and Community Partnerships: Extending the Benefits of Therapeutic Recreation to Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Steven J.; Cannella, Lee grace; Pisano, Susan

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2010, St. Joseph's College initiated a partnership between the college, Northport VA Medical Center, and Long Island State Veterans Home that provides a therapeutic platform for the integration of the three communities through sustainable and mutually beneficial curricular and co-curricular service and experiential learning programs. In…

  17. Current dietary supplement use of Australian military veterans of Middle East operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pols, Jolieke C; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Bell, Alison; Lui, Chi-Wai

    2017-12-01

    To assess patterns and levels of dietary supplement use among Australian Defence Forces, previously deployed to the Middle East Area of Operations. A cross-sectional study. Participants of a large survey self-completed questions about dietary supplement use, health status, personal and job-related characteristics, and lifestyle factors. Frequency of current use of supplements was assessed in three categories (bodybuilding, energy and weight loss). Middle East Area of Operations post-deployment health survey. Current and ex-serving Australian Defence Force personnel (n 14 032) who deployed to the Middle East between 2001 and 2009. Bodybuilding supplements were used by 17·5 % of participants, energy supplements by 24·5 % and weight-loss supplements by 7·6 %. Overall, 32·3 % of participants used any of these supplements. Bodybuilding and energy supplements were more often used by men, younger persons and those in the Army, while weight-loss supplements were more commonly used by women and Navy personnel. Supplements in all three categories were more commonly used by persons in lower ranks, active service and combat roles. Users of bodybuilding supplements had healthier lifestyles and better health status, while users of energy and weight-loss supplements had less healthy lifestyles and poorer mental and physical health status. Overall, 11·7 % of participants used supplements containing caffeine and 3·6 % used a creatine-containing product. Use of dietary supplements among Australian Defence Force personnel is common, and patterned by lifestyle factors and health status.

  18. Supporting Resilience in the Academic Setting for Student Soldiers and Veterans as an Aspect of Community Reintegration: The Design of the Student Veteran Project Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa M. Smith-Osborne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Post 9/11 GI Bill is leading an increasing proportion of wounded warriors to enter universities. This paper describes the design and development of an adapted supported education intervention for veterans. The intervention trial was one of two projects which grew out of a participatory action research process aimed at supporting reintegration of returning veterans into the civilian community. This intervention is being tested in a foundation-funded randomized controlled trial in a large southwestern university, with participation now extended to student-veterans at colleges around the country. Some protective mechanisms which were found in theory and in prior research were also supported in early results. SEd intervention was associated with the protective mechanisms of support network density, higher mood, and resilience. Practitioners may benefit from the lessons learned in the development of this supported education intervention trial when considering implementation of this complementary intervention for veterans reintegrating into civilian life

  19. Trauma-related dreams of Australian veterans with PTSD: content, affect and phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Andrea J; Forbes, David; Hopwood, Malcolm; Creamer, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Consensus on the parameters of trauma-related dreams required to meet criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critical when: (i) the diagnosis requires a single re-experiencing symptom; and (ii) trauma dreams are prevalent in survivors without PTSD. This study investigated the phenomenology of PTSD dreams in 40 veterans, using structured interview and self-report measures. Dream content varied between replay, non-replay, and mixed, but affect was largely the same as that experienced at the time of trauma across all dream types. ANOVA indicated no difference between dream types on PTSD severity or nightmare distress. The findings provide preliminary support for non-replay dreams to satisfy the DSM B2 diagnostic criterion when the affect associated with those dreams is the same as that experienced at the time of the traumatic event.

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life anxiety: Similarities and differences between Veteran and community participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Terri L; Cully, Jeffrey A; Amspoker, Amber B; Wilson, Nancy L; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Wagener, Paula D; Calleo, Jessica S; Teng, Ellen J; Rhoades, Howard M; Masozera, Nicholas; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety; however, a growing body of research suggests that CBT effect sizes are smaller in Veteran samples. The aim of this study was to perform secondary data analyses of a randomized controlled trial of CBT for late-life generalized anxiety disorder compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in a Veteran (n = 101) and community-based (n = 122) sample. Veterans had lower income and less education than community participants, greater severity on baseline measures of anxiety and depression, poorer physical health, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment effects were statistically significant in the community sample (all ps 0.05). Further analyses in Veterans revealed that poorer perceived social support significantly predicted poorer outcomes (all ps anxiety, and suggest that additional work is needed to improve the efficacy of CBT for Veterans, with particular attention to social support. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Military and Veteran Student Achievement in Postsecondary Education: A Structural Equation Model Using the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De LaGarza, Thomas R.; Manuel, Marcus A.; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2016-01-01

    Few quantitative studies exist on veteran success in postsecondary education, and existing qualitative research has also not accurately identified factors related to veteran achievement or pathways to success in postsecondary education. In this article, the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) evaluates predictors of student success for…

  2. Microbial Communities of Three Sympatric Australian Stingless Bee Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing – among other taxa – host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4–5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  3. Earning and learning among Australian community residents with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Geoff; Chant, David; Lloyd, Chris; Harris, Meredith

    2011-03-30

    At a population level the extent that psychiatric disorders and other health conditions disrupt participation in education and employment is rarely considered simultaneously and remains largely unknown. This is an important issue because policy makers are as concerned with educational attainment, school to work transitions, and workforce skills, as they are with overall labour force participation. We investigated earning or learning, and educational attainment, among Australian community residents by age group and by category of psychiatric disorder. Data files were provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from a population survey conducted in 2003 using a multi-stage probability sample (N=23,787). Adults with schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety disorders were compared to (1) working age adults with other non-psychiatric health conditions and disabilities; and (2) healthy adults of working age. Participation in formal education and employment was extensively disrupted by all health conditions and by psychiatric disorders in particular. The extent of career-related disruption provides benchmarks for policy makers and service providers attempting to increase participation in formal education and in the labour force. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Australian Football League concussion guidelines: what do community players think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players’ views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. Methods 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Results Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players’ rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players’ desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Conclusions Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport. PMID:28890801

  5. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  6. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  7. Child-Caregiver Interaction in Two Remote Indigenous Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eVaughan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu respectively to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English respectively. The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children’s productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately two years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children’s speech.At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT, there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio. For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU, children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study’s findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children’s language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As

  8. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  9. Community Reintegration Problems Among Veterans and Active Duty Service Members With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Suzanne; Barnett, Scott D; Lamberty, Greg; Kretzmer, Tracy; Powell-Cope, Gail; Patel, Nitin; Nakase-Richardson, Risa

    To examine community reintegration problems among Veterans and military service members with mild or moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 1 year postinjury and to identify unique predictors that may contribute to these difficulties. VA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers. Participants were 154 inpatients enrolled in the VA TBI Model Systems Program with available injury severity data (mild = 28.6%; moderate/severe = 71.4%) and 1-year postinjury outcome data. Prospective, longitudinal cohort. Community reintegration outcomes included independent driving, employability, and general community participation. Additional measures assessed depression, posttraumatic stress, and cognitive and motor functioning. In the mild TBI (mTBI) group, posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of various community reintegration outcomes. In the moderate/severe TBI group, cognition and motor skills were significantly associated with lower levels of community participation, independent driving, and employability. Community reintegration is problematic for Veterans and active duty service members with a history of TBI. Unique comorbidities across injury severity groups inhibit full reintegration into the community. These findings highlight the ongoing rehabilitation needs of persons with TBI, specifically evidence-based mental healthcare, in comprehensive rehabilitation programs consistent with a chronic disease management model.

  10. Analysis of stomach bacterial communities in Australian feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Benoit; de la Fuente, Gabriel; O'Neill, Sean; Wright, André-Denis G; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the community structure of bacteria that populate the stomach of the Brumby, a breed of feral horses from the Australian outback. Using a 16S rRNA gene clone library, we identified 155 clones that were assigned to 26 OTUs based on a 99.0 % sequence identity cutoff. Two OTUs represented 73.5 % of clones, while 18 OTUs were each assigned only a single clone. Four major bacterial types were identified in the Brumby stomach: Lactobacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae and Pasteurellaceae. The first three groups, which represented 98.1 % of the Brumby stomach library clones, belonged to the bacterial phylum Firmicutes. We found that 49.7 % of clones were related to bacterial species previously identified in the equine hindgut, and that 44.5 % of clones were related to symbiotic bacterial species identified in the mouth or throat of either horses or other mammals. Our results indicated that the composition of mutualistic bacterial communities of feral horses was consistent with other studies on domestic horses. In addition to bacterial sequences, we also identified four plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, which may help in further characterizing the type of vegetation consumed by Brumby horses in their natural environment.

  11. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery.

  12. 'Repeat' prescriptions and antibiotic resistance: findings from Australian community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Ian; Hollingworth, Samantha; Pudmenzky, Alex; Rossato, Laurence; Kairuz, Therése

    2017-02-01

    Australians are among the highest users of antibiotics in the developed world. The primary aim was to determine the 'age' of antibiotic prescriptions at the time of dispensing as a possible contributor to antibiotic misuse and ultimately, resistance. The secondary aim was to test customised software to permit extraction and de-identification of dispensing records for analysis. Data were extracted and de-identified from computerised dispensing systems in three community pharmacies in Brisbane, Australia, according to a strict ethical protocol. All prescription records dispensed between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 were merged to form a complete dataset of 1 158 871 de-identified dispensing records which were analysed using Microsoft Excel ® . A retrospective drug utilisation study was conducted on a subset of 100 573 antibiotic records. In a substudy conducted at a single pharmacy site, all antibiotic records dispensed over a 4-month (winter) period were examined to determine the age of prescriptions. Nearly one in ten antibiotics (9.0%) was dispensed from prescriptions that were more than a month old, and over one in five (22.1%) were dispensed from a repeat prescription. Health system factors may contribute to inappropriate antibiotic use in Australia, including availability and validity of repeat antibiotic prescriptions. Government health departments, prescribers, pharmacists, other health professionals and consumers have to share the responsibility of ensuring that antibiotics are used appropriately. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Ground hardness and injury in community level Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Dara M; Finch, Caroline F; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C; Doyle, Tim L A

    2012-07-01

    To describe the risk and details of injuries associated with ground hardness in community level Australian football (AF). Prospective injury surveillance with periodic objective ground hardness measurement. 112 ground hardness assessments were undertaken using a Clegg hammer at nine locations across 20 grounds, over the 2007 and 2008 AF seasons. Details of 352 injuries sustained by community level players on those grounds were prospectively collected as part of a large randomised controlled trial. The ground location of the injury was matched to the nearest corresponding ground hardness Clegg hammer readings, in gravities (g), which were classified from unacceptably low (hardness (>120 g). Clegg hammer readings ranged from 25 to 301 g. Clegg hammer hardness categories from low/normal to high/normal were associated with the majority of injuries, with only 3.7% (13 injuries) on unacceptably high hardness and 0.3% (1 injury) on the unacceptably low hardness locations. Relative to the preferred range of hardness, the risk of sustaining an injury on low/normal hardness locations was 1.31 (95%CI: 1.06-1.62) times higher and 1.82 (95%CI: 1.17-2.85) times higher on locations with unacceptably high hardness. The more severe injuries occurred with low/normal ground hardness. Despite the low number of injuries, the risk of sustaining an injury on low/normal and unacceptably hard grounds was significantly greater than on the preferred range of hardness. Notably, the severity of the injuries sustained on unacceptably hard grounds was lower than for other categories of hardness. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon profiles of remote Australian Indigenous communities: A base for opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.; Anda, M.; Harper, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    A decision-making model was constructed to assist remote Australian Indigenous communities select appropriate climate change mitigation programs. The Resilient Community and Livelihood Asset Integration Model (ReCLAIM) comprises six steps that focus on community assets and aspirations. The second of these steps is to determine the baseline carbon profiles of communities based on six sources of carbon emissions: materials, construction processes, stationary energy, transport, water systems and waste. The methodology employed an annualised lifecycle analysis of housing materials and construction, and an annual inventory of other emission sources. Profiles were calculated for two remote communities and compared to the Australian average and also average electricity consumption by remote communities in the Northern Territory. The results, expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO 2 -e), showed that average household carbon profiles of the two communities (6.3 and 4.1 tCO 2 -e/capita/yr) were generally lower than the Australian average (7.3 tCO 2 -e/capita/yr). The stationary energy results revealed that infrastructure and building design could raise fuel consumption and costs, and therefore carbon emissions, despite modest lifestyles. The carbon emission categories differed between the two communities highlighting the need for an individualised approach to understanding the drivers of carbon emissions and mitigation responses. - Highlights: •We model carbon profiles of two remote Aboriginal communities. •Community carbon profiles were lower than the Australian average. •We compare stationary energy with a 72-community sample average. •Low-carbon communities are possible with renewable energy systems. •Building design and energy source can impact significantly on emissions.

  15. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  16. An Open Letter to the Professional Communities of Australian Council for Computers in Education (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an open letter to the Professional Communities of Australian Council for Computers in Education (ACCE). In preparing for this article, the author looked back over the contributions of other fellows in publications and ACCE Minutes, and recognized that each had led the ACCE family in this endeavor. Creating direction was the…

  17. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE

  18. Australian community members' attitudes toward climate change impacts at the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena J. vanRiper; Gerard Kyle; Jee In Yoon; Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-01-01

    This research identified homogenous groups of Australian community members that share similar attitudes toward climate change impacts within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of adult residents living near the GBRWHA (n = 1,623) in order to assess public awareness of climate change, concern about...

  19. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Thaochan; Richard A.I. Drew; Anuchit Chinajariyawong; Anurag Sunpapao; Chaninun Pornsuriya

    2015-01-01

    The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria w...

  20. Linking Returning Veterans in Rural Community Colleges to Mental Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    from the survey indicate that psychiatric distress is prevalent in the sample of veterans : 32% depression, 23% generalized anxiety, 26% PTSD , 44...anxiety. Twenty-Six percent of the student Veterans screened positive on a 4-item screener for post- traumatic stress ( PTSD ). Forty-Four percent of the...the Healthy Minds Study at 4-year schools with non- Veterans usually get closer to 40+%). It likely was a combination of age and cultural factors

  1. Using Motivational Enhancement among OIF / OEF Veterans Returning to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-25

    34Using Motivational Enhancement among OI F I OEF Veterans Returning to the Comm u n ity" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W8lXWH-11-1-0726 5b. GRANT NUMBER... motivational enhancement (ME) intervention to address barriers to engaging in mental health treatment for recently returned veterans of Operation Iraqi... motivational enhancement will demonstrate greater readiness to change and higher treatment program attendance than veterans who receive treatment as usual

  2. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  3. Mental health literacy among refugee communities: differences between the Australian lay public and the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M; Coello, Mariano; Momartin, Shakeh; Aroche, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated differences in mental health knowledge and beliefs between participants from the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities, and Australian-born individuals, in Sydney, Australia. Ninety-seven participants were given vignettes of characters describing symptoms of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress. They were required to identify psychological symptoms as disorders, rate beliefs about the causes of and helpful treatments for these disorders, and rate attitude statements regarding the two characters. Australian participants recognized the presented symptoms as specific mental disorders significantly more than Iraqi and Sudanese participants did, and reported causal and treatment beliefs which were more congruent with expert beliefs as per the western medical model of mental disorder. The Sudanese group endorsed supernatural and religious causal beliefs regarding depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms most often; but both Sudanese and Iraqi participants strongly supported options from the supernatural and religious treatment items. However, evidence for pluralistic belief systems was also found. Although sampling was non-random, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results, it appears that the mental health literacy of lay Australians may be more aligned with the western medical model of mental disorder than that of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Mental health literacy support needs of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities resettled in western countries such as Australia might include education about specific symptoms and causes of mental disorder and the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments. These findings provide useful directions for the promotion of optimal service utilization among such communities.

  4. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Smout

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively. The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7% and soil (55.6% in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to “closing the gap” in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  5. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.

  6. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.

  7. Injuries in community-level Australian football: Results from a club-based injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-11-01

    Far fewer injury surveillance systems exist within community sport than elite sport. As a result, most epidemiological data on sports injuries have limited relevance to community-level sporting populations. There is potential for data from community club-based injury surveillance systems to provide a better understanding of community sports injuries. This study aimed to describe the incidence and profile of community-level Australian football injuries reported using a club-based injury surveillance system. Prospective, epidemiological study. Sports trainers from five community-level Australian football leagues recorded injury data during two football seasons using the club-based system. An online surveillance tool developed by Sports Medicine Australia ('Sports Injury Tracker') was used for data collection. The injury incidence, profile and match injury rate were reported. Injury data for 1205 players were recorded in season one and for 823 players in season two. There was significant variability in injury incidence across clubs. However, aggregated data were consistent across football seasons, with an average of 0.7 injuries per player per season and 38-39 match injuries per 1000 h match exposure. A large proportion of injuries occurred during matches, involved the lower limb and resulted from contact. Data from the club-based system provided a profile of injuries consistent with previous studies in community-level Australian football. Moreover, injury incidence was consistent with other studies using similar personnel to record data. However, injury incidence was lower than that reported in studies using player self-report or healthcare professionals and may be an underestimate of true values. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of oral health initiatives by Australian rural communities: Factors for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Judy; Carlisle, Karen; Farmer, Jane; Larkins, Sarah; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we consider factors significant in the success of community participation in the implementation of new oral health services. Our analysis draws on data from the Rural Engaging Communities in Oral Health (Rural ECOH) study (2014-2016). We aimed to assess the Australian relevance of a Scottish community participation framework for health service development; Remote Service Futures. Internationally, community participation in planning of health initiatives is common, but less common in new service implementation. Health managers query the legitimacy of "lay" community members, whether they will persist, and whether they can act as change agents. Our data provide evidence that helps answer these queries. Six communities, located within regions covered by two large rural primary healthcare organisations (Medicare Locals), were selected in two Australian states. Two university-based facilitators worked with a group of local residents (for each community) to monitor implementation of new oral health initiatives designed through participatory processes. Data about implementation were collected through interviews with 28 key stakeholders at the beginning of implementation and 12 months later. Data were coded, themed and analysed abductively. Five themes emerged; the inter-relationship between community motivation to participate with the fortunes of the oral health initiatives, having the "right" people involved, continuing involvement of sponsors and/or significant people, trusting working relationships between participants and perceiving benefits from participation. Findings provide evidence of a role for community participation in implementing new community services if solid partnerships with relevant providers can be negotiated and services are seen to be relevant and useful to the community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Rural Veterans by State (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This spreadsheet contains data from the 2015 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  10. Rural Veterans by State (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  11. Community-based preparedness programmes and the 2009 Australian bushfires: policy implications derived from applying theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Clark, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    The Victorian Country Fire Authority in Australia runs the Community Fireguard (CFG) programme to assist individuals and communities in preparing for fire. The objective of this qualitative research was to understand the impact of CFG groups on their members' fire preparedness and response during the 2009 Australian bushfires. Social connectedness emerged as a strong theme, leading to an analysis of data using social capital theory. The main strength of the CFG programme was that it was driven by innovative community members; however, concerns arose regarding the extent to which the programme covered all vulnerable areas, which led the research team to explore the theory of diffusion of innovation. The article concludes by stepping back from the evaluation and using both applied theories to reflect on broad options for community fire preparedness programmes in general. The exercise produced two contrasting options for principles underlying community fire preparedness programmes. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  12. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  13. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    , and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful...... building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...

  14. Patterns of care and survival after a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) diagnosis: A population-based nested cohort study in Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Andrea L; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Dobbins, Timothy A; Er, Chuang C; Ward, Robyn L; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about patterns of care after a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) diagnosis. We performed a retrospective cohort study to describe and compare the treatment, health service use and survival of patients with CUP and metastatic cancer of known primary among 143,956 Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients, 2004-2007. We randomly matched clients with CUP (C809; n=252) with clients with a first diagnosis of metastatic solid cancer of known primary (n=980). We ascertained health services from the month of diagnosis up to 2 months post-diagnosis for consultations, hospitalizations and emergency department visits, and up to 1 year for treatment. We compared cancer treatments using conditional logistic regression; consultation rates using negative binomial regression; and survival using stratified Cox regression. 30% of CUP patients and 70% of patients with known primary received cancer treatment and the median survival was 37 days and 310 days respectively. CUP patients received fewer cancer medicines (odds ratio (OR)=0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.89) and less cancer-related surgery (OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.41); males with CUP received more radiation therapy (OR=2.88, 95% CI 1.69-4.91). CUP patients had more primary care consultations (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41), emergency department visits (IRR=1.86, 95% CI 1.50-2.31) and hospitalizations (IRR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.35), and a higher risk of death within 30 days (hazard ratio=3.30, 95% CI 1.69-6.44). Patients with CUP receive less treatment but use more health services, which may reflect underlying patient and disease characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Promoting physical activity among children and youth in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative community sport opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard

    2016-02-29

    Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts. Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers. Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites. Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities. So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.

  16. Mapping Point-of-Purchase Influencers of Food Choice in Australian Remote Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Henryks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians relies, in part, on addressing the poor levels of nutrition in remote Indigenous communities (RIC. This article identifies and maps key influencers of food choice at the point-of-purchase (POP in Australian RIC and identifies gaps in our knowledge. It is based on a narrative review of the literature pertaining to food in RIC from a range of disciplinary perspectives including nutrition, ethnography, public health, anthropology, and remote health to map POP drivers of food choice. In particular, the role of habit is identified as a key factor that has previously not been discussed in the literature. The conceptual framework can be used as a basis for future POP research in RIC and provides guidance for social marketers, public health, nutrition, and policy workers operating in this field.

  17. Evaluation of home lead remediation in an Australian mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreland, F; Lesjak, M; Lyle, D

    2009-12-20

    In 1994 a comprehensive program was established to reduce children's blood lead levels in Broken Hill, NSW, Australia. Home remediation (abatement of lead hazards in a child's home) was included as part of a case management strategy for children with blood lead levels >or=15 microg/dL. Children with blood lead levels >or=30 microg/dL were offered immediate home remediation. Children with blood lead levels of 15-29 microg/dL were allocated to 'immediate' or 'delayed' home remediation; a subset of these participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of home remediation for reducing blood lead levels. One hundred and seventeen children received home remediation. One hundred and thirteen returned for follow-up blood tests, 88 of whom participated in the RCT. On average children's blood lead levels decreased by 1.7 microg/dL (10%) in the 6 months after remediation and by 2.2 microg/dL (13%) in the 6-12 months after remediation. However, remediation did not significantly change the rate of decline in blood lead levels (P=0.609). There was no evidence of association between change in children's blood lead levels and changes in lead loading in their homes. The results are consistent with the published literature, which suggests that home remediation does not reduce children's exposure to lead sufficiently to cause a moderate or greater decrease in their blood lead level. In communities where lead is widely dispersed, the study suggests that it is important to assess potential sources and pathways by which children are exposed to lead when developing an intervention plan, and the need for multiple interventions to effectively reduce blood lead levels. The findings reinforce the ongoing need for rigorous epidemiological evaluation of lead management programs to improve the evidence base, and for effective primary prevention to avoid children being exposed to lead in the first place.

  18. Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Elissa; Mellish, Sarah; Sanders, Ben; Litchfield, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Marine debris and marine wildlife entanglement remains a significant global issue. • We examined awareness of this issue in an Australian community sample. • Findings reveal gaps exist in terms of what entanglement is and the risks posed. • Enhancing community understanding may facilitate greater conservation action. • The ‘Seal the Loop’ initiative provides one potential mechanism for such education. - Abstract: Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative ‘Seal the Loop’ [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours)

  19. Proposing a health promotion framework to address gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Marisa; Coalter, Nicola; Gordon, Ashley; Breen, Helen

    2018-02-01

    Gambling impacts affect Australian Indigenous families and communities in diverse and complex ways. Indigenous people throughout Australia engage in a broad range of regulated and unregulated gambling activities. Challenges in this area include the complexities that come with delivering services and programmes between the most remote regions, to highly populated towns and cities of Australia. There is little knowledge transfer between states and territories in Australia and no conceptual understanding or analysis of what constitutes 'best practice' in gambling service delivery for Indigenous people, families and communities. This article reviews health promotion approaches used in Australia, with a particular focus on Indigenous and gambling-based initiatives. Contributing to this review is an examination of health promotion strategies used in Indigenous gambling service delivery in the Northern Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia, demonstrating diversity and innovation in approaches. The article concludes by emphasizing the potential value of adopting health promotion strategies to underpin programme and service delivery for addressing gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities. However, success is contingent on robust, evidence-based programme design, implementation and evaluation that adhere to health promotion principles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Evaluation of a 'healthiness' rating system for food outlet types in Australian residential communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyed, Hamid; Kelly, Bridget; Feng, Xiaoqi; Flood, Victoria

    2017-02-01

    To obtain expert consensus to develop and evaluate a rating system on the relative healthiness of Australian suburbs' food outlet types. Twenty-four food outlet types and 10 local suburbs were identified from previous mapping studies and based on a scan of suburbs across one large Australian geographical region. Initial food outlet 'scores' for relative healthiness were proposed based on available literature, classified into five categories, from 'most' to 'least' healthy. In round 1 of a modified Delphi survey, participants, Australian public health and nutrition experts, were given each outlet type's definition and the proposed scores and invited to modify the scores based on their perceived 'healthiness'. In round 2, participants were able to revise or adjust their scores. Median scores for food outlet types from both rounds highly correlated with the originally proposed scores (two-tailed Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.97 and 0.96, respectively, P = 0.01), and scores from round 1 highly correlated with those from round 2 (Pearson's coefficient 0.998, P = 0.01). Round 2 scores were used to calculate suburbs' overall food environment score, healthiness score, unhealthiness score and a ratio of unhealthiness to healthiness scores. There was strong positive correlation between suburbs' ratio of unhealthiness to healthiness scores and a previously recognised scoring ratio, Retail Food Environment Index (Spearman's rho 0.847, P outlet types found in Australian neighbourhoods. Proposed scores can be used to assess and compare healthiness of community food environments and to explore their associations with area characteristics, population's diet and health outcomes. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  1. Interagency partnership to deliver Veteran-Directed Home and Community-Based Services: Interviews with Aging and Disability Network agency personnel regarding their experience with partner Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Allen, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Veteran-Directed Home and Community-Based Services (VD-HCBS) is a consumer-directed program that began in 2009 and is jointly administered in a partnership between the Veterans Health Administration and the Administration for Community Living. The objective of this article is to describe the Aging and Disability Network agency (ADNA) personnel's perceptions of the implementation of the VD-HCBS program with partner Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers (VAMCs). Qualitative interviews with 26 ADNA VD-HCBS personnel across the country were transcribed, coded, and analyzed. Results suggest that the majority of ADNA personnel interviewed perceive the collaboration experience to be positive. Interviewees reported several key mechanisms for facilitating a successful partnership, including frequent communication, training in VAMC billing procedures, having a designated VAMC staff person for the program, and active involvement of the VAMC from the onset of VD-HCBS program development. Findings have implications for other interagency partnerships formed to deliver services to vulnerable Veterans.

  2. Increasing physical activity for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program: A community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, S Akeya; Libet, Julian; Pope, Charlene; Lauerer, Joy A; Johnson, Emily; Edlund, Barbara J

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), experience increased mortality-20 years greater disparity for men and 15 years greater disparity for women-compared to the general population (Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442). Numerous factors contribute to premature mortality in persons with SMI, including suicide and accidental death (Richardson RC, Faulkner G, McDevitt J, Skrinar GS, Hutchinson D, Piette JD. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(3):324-331; Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442), but research has shown that adverse health behaviors-including smoking, low rate of physical activity, poor diet, and high alcohol consumption-also significantly contribute to premature deaths (Jones J. Life expectancy in mental illness. Psychiatry Services. 2010. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/07/13/life-expectancy-in-mental-illness). This quality improvement (QI) project sought to improve health and wellness for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program (MHICM), which is a community-based intensive program for veterans with SMI at risk for decompensation and frequent hospitalizations. At the time of this QI project, the program had 69 veterans who were assessed and treated weekly in their homes. The project introduced a pedometer steps intervention adapted from the VA MOVE! Program-a physical activity and weight management program-with the addition of personalized assistance from trained mental health professionals in the veteran's home environment. Because a large percentage of the veterans in the MHICM program had high blood pressure and increased weight, these outcomes were the focus of this project. Through mental health case management involvement and

  3. The economic feasibility of price discounts to improve diet in Australian Aboriginal remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Anne; Moodie, Marj L; Ferguson, Megan; Cobiac, Linda J; Liberato, Selma C; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fiscal measures applied in remote community food stores for Aboriginal Australians. Six price discount strategies on fruit, vegetables, diet drinks and water were modelled. Baseline diet was measured as 12 months' actual food sales data in three remote Aboriginal communities. Discount-induced changes in food purchases were based on published price elasticity data while the weight of the daily diet was assumed constant. Dietary change was converted to change in sodium and energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) over a 12-month period. Improved lifetime health outcomes, modelled for the remote population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, were converted to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) saved using a proportional multistate lifetable model populated with diet-related disease risks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rates of disease. While dietary change was small, five of the six price discount strategies were estimated as cost-effective, below a $50,000/DALY threshold. Stakeholders are committed to finding ways to reduce important inequalities in health status between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and non-Indigenous Australians. Price discounts offer potential to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. Verification of these results by trial-based research coupled with consideration of factors important to all stakeholders is needed. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Considering pharmacy workflow in the context of Australian community pharmacy: A pilot time and motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaye, Diana; Lehnbom, Elin C; Laba, Tracey-Lea; El-Boustani, Elise; Joshi, Rohina; Webster, Ruth

    2018-01-04

    Given time pressures on primary care physicians, utilising pharmacists for chronic disease management is of great interest. However, limited data are available on the current workflow in community pharmacies to guide these discussions. This study aimed to test the feasibility of collecting workflow data from Australian community pharmacies using the Work Observation Method By Activity Timing (WOMBAT) software and provide preliminary data on Australian pharmacy workflow. Data were collected from three pharmacies and four variables were recorded: what the pharmacist did, with whom, where and how. All tasks were timed and data were analysed to identify total number of tasks, median time per task, proportion of time per task, and common task combinations. Pharmacists' main tasks consisted of counselling, dispensing and management activities (27%, 21% and 17% respectively of the overall number of tasks) and these tasks also took the majority of their time. Tasks were frequent but short, with the average time per task ranging from 0.55 to 8.46 min and most time was spent in areas without the capacity for patient interaction (51% in the dispensing/compounding area and 6% in the back office). Pharmacies are dynamic environments with the average task taking 1-2 min. Longer interventions may not be easily integrated into current pharmacy workflow. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Tsey, Komla; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Singleton, Michele; Doran, Christopher

    2013-08-07

    While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and

  6. Olivebranches and idiot's guides: Frameworks for community engagement in Australian wind farm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, renewable energy is under pressure in the context of a highly politicised debate about how to act on climate change. The recent repeal of an established carbon tax has seen the defunding of significant renewable energy initiatives and a controversial review of the national Renewable Energy Target is threatening key drivers for investment in renewable energy. The current regulatory focus on community ‘acceptance’ does not facilitate the active community support necessary to challenge this increasingly hostile policy context. This research considers current experiences of community engagement in wind farm governance in one Australian jurisdiction. Through documentary analysis and two qualitative case studies, it examines legal and non-legal requirements for community governance mechanisms and considers how these influence wind farm development in rural areas. Findings include a problematic reliance on procedural compliance in assessing wind farm consultation, domination by vested interests, and reduced expertise in community engagement at the time it is needed most. Recommendations include integration of best practice guidelines in current regulation; harmonisation of policy settings to ensure equity across energy sectors; and an evidence-based commitment to benefit sharing as a strategy for increasing community support of rural wind farm development. - Highlights: • Changes to renewable energy policy in Australia threaten wind farm development. • Active community support is required to ensure ongoing viability of the industry. • Benefit sharing models are shown to increase community support for wind farms. • Legal frameworks reinforce a minimum compliance paradigm and entrench vested interests. • Best practice guidelines improve implementation of community engagement procedures

  7. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  8. Mental disorders in Australian prisoners: a comparison with a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tony; Andrews, Gavin; Allnutt, Stephen; Sakashita, Chika; Smith, Nadine E; Basson, John

    2006-03-01

    The plight of those with mental health problems and the possible role of prisons in "warehousing" these individuals has received considerable media and political attention. Prisoners are generally excluded from community-based surveys and to date no studies have compared prisoners to the community. The objective was to examine whether excess psychiatric morbidity exists in prisoners compared to the general community after adjusting for demographics. Prison data were obtained from a consecutive sample of reception prisoners admitted into the state's correctional system in 2001 (n = 916). Community data were obtained from the 1997 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8168). Mental health diagnoses were obtained using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and a number of other screening measures. Weighting was used in calculating the 12-month prevalence estimates to control for demographic differences between the two samples. Logistic regression adjusting for age, sex and education was used to compare the prison and community samples. The 12-month prevalence of any psychiatric illness in the last year was 80% in prisoners and 31% in the community. Substantially more psychiatric morbidity was detected among prisoners than in the community group after accounting for demographic differences, particularly symptoms of psychosis (OR = 11.8, 95% CI 7.5-18.7), substance use disorders (OR = 11.4, 95% CI 9.7-13.6) and personality disorders (OR = 8.6, 95% CI 7.2-10.3). Mental functioning and disability score were worse for prisoners than the community except for physical health. This study found an overrepresentation of psychiatric morbidity in the prisoner population. Identifying the causes of this excess requires further investigation.

  9. Could targeted exercise programmes prevent lower limb injury in community Australian football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nadine; Gabbe, Belinda J; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David G; Donnelly, Cyril J; Nash, Clare; Finch, Caroline F

    2013-08-01

    Australian football is a popular sport in Australia, at both the community and elite levels. It is a high-speed contact sport with a higher incidence of medically treated injuries when compared with most other organized sports. Hamstring injuries, ligament injuries to the knee or ankle, hip/groin injuries and tendinopathies are particularly common and often result in considerable time lost from sport. Consequently, the prevention of lower limb injuries is a priority for both community and elite Australian football organizations. There is considerable literature available on exercise programmes aimed at reducing lower limb injuries in Australian football and other running-related sports. The quality and outcomes of these studies have varied considerably, but indicate that exercise protocols may be an effective means of preventing lower limb injuries. Despite this, there has been limited high-quality and systematic evaluation of these data. The aim of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the evidence about the benefits of lower limb injury prevention exercise protocols aimed at reducing the most common severe lower limb injuries in Australian football. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE and other electronic databases were searched, from January 1990 to December 2010. Papers reporting the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cohort and case-control studies were extracted. Primary outcomes were injury reduction or risk factor identification and/or modification. Secondary outcomes were adherence to any trialled interventions, injury severity and adverse effects such as secondary injuries and muscle soreness. The methodological quality of extracted manuscripts was assessed and results were collated. Forty-seven papers were identified and reviewed of which 18 related to hamstring injury, eight related to knee or ankle ligament injury, five

  10. The Community Integration Questionnaire - Revised: Australian normative data and measurement of electronic social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Libby; Winkler, Dianne; Tippett, Alice; Herd, Natalie; Migliorini, Christine; Willer, Barry

    2016-06-01

    Consideration of the relationship between meaningful participation, health and wellbeing underpins occupational therapy intervention, and drives measurement of community integration following acquired brain injury (ABI). However, utility of community integration measures has been limited to date by lack of normative data against which to compare outcomes, and none examine the growing use of electronic social networking (ESN) for social participation. This research had four aims: (i) develop and pilot items assessing ESN to add to the Community Integration Questionnaire, producing the Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised (CIQ-R); (ii) examine factor structure of the CIQ-R; (iii) collect Australian CIQ-R normative data; and (iv) assess test-retest reliability of the revised measure. Australia. A convenience sample of adults without ABI (N = 124) was used to develop and pilot ESN items. A representative general population sample of adults without ABI aged 18-64 years (N = 1973) was recruited to gather normative CIQ-R data. Cross-sectional survey. Demographic items and the CIQ-R. The CIQ-R demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, with minor modification to the original scoring based on the factor analyses provided. Large representative general population CIQ-R normative data have been established, detailing contribution of a range of independent demographic variables to community integration. The addition of electronic social networking items to the CIQ-R offers a contemporary method of assessing community integration following ABI. Normative CIQ-R data enhance the understanding of community integration in the general population, allowing occupational therapists and other clinicians to make more meaningful comparisons between groups. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Thaochan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt, was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria which was prominent in all clones. The total bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (more than 75% of clones, except in the crop of B. cacuminata where more than 50% of clones belonged to Firmicutes. Firmicutes gave the number of the secondary community structure in the fly’s gut. Four orders, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in both fruit fly species, while the order Epsilonproteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes were found only in B. tryoni. Two phyla, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were rare and less frequent in the flies. There was a greater diversity of bacteria in the crop of the two fruit fly species than in the midgut. The midgut of B. tryoni females and the midgut of B. cacuminata males had the lowest bacterial diversity.

  12. Specialist clinics in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: where rock art meets rocket science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Russell; Bailie, Ross

    2004-10-01

    People in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory have greater morbidity and mortality than other Australians, but face considerable barriers when accessing hospital-based specialist services. The Specialist Outreach Service, which began in 1997, was a novel policy initiative to improve access by providing a regular multidisciplinary visiting specialist services to remote communities. It led to two interesting juxtapositions: that of 'state of the art' specialist services alongside under-resourced primary care in remote and relatively traditional Aboriginal communities; and that of attempts to develop an evidence base for the effectiveness of outreach, while meeting the short-term evaluative requirements of policy-makers. In this essay, first we describe the development of the service in the Northern Territory and its initial process evaluation. Through a Cochrane systematic review we then summarise the published research on the effectiveness of specialist outreach in improving access to tertiary and hospital-based care. Finally we describe the findings of an observational population-based study of the use of specialist services and the impact of outreach to three remote communities over 11 years. Specialist outreach improves access to specialist care and may lessen the demand for both outpatient and inpatient hospital care. Specialist outreach is, however, dependent on well-functioning primary care. According to the way in which outreach is conducted and the service is organised, it can either support primary care or it can hinder primary care and, as a result, reduce its own effectiveness.

  13. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    unemployment increased relative to nonveteran youth unemployment between 2003 and 2005 (and that this relative increase is statistically significant) and...that veteran youth unemployment decreased between 2005 and 2006. However, analysis of ACS unemployment data also draws into question whether veteran... youth unemployment in fact increased relative to nonveteran youth unemployment between 2003 and 2005. While veteran youth unemployment did increase in

  14. Evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator Chemistry-Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K. A.; Morgenstern, O.; Karoly, D. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; French, W. J. R.; Abraham, N. L.; Schofield, R.

    2015-07-01

    Chemistry climate models are important tools for addressing interactions of composition and climate in the Earth System. In particular, they are used for assessing the combined roles of greenhouse gases and ozone in Southern Hemisphere climate and weather. Here we present an evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator-Chemistry Climate Model, focusing on the Southern Hemisphere and the Australian region. This model is used for the Australian contribution to the international Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which is soliciting hindcast, future projection and sensitivity simulations. The model simulates global total column ozone (TCO) distributions accurately, with a slight delay in the onset and recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion, and consistently higher ozone values. However, October averaged Antarctic TCO from 1960 to 2010 show a similar amount of depletion compared to observations. A significant innovation is the evaluation of simulated vertical profiles of ozone and temperature with ozonesonde data from Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica from 38 to 90° S. Excess ozone concentrations (up to 26.4 % at Davis during winter) and stratospheric cold biases (up to 10.1 K at the South Pole) outside the period of perturbed springtime ozone depletion are seen during all seasons compared to ozonesondes. A disparity in the vertical location of ozone depletion is seen: centered around 100 hPa in ozonesonde data compared to above 50 hPa in the model. Analysis of vertical chlorine monoxide profiles indicates that colder Antarctic stratospheric temperatures (possibly due to reduced mid-latitude heat flux) are artificially enhancing polar stratospheric cloud formation at high altitudes. The models inability to explicitly simulated supercooled ternary solution may also explain the lack of depletion at lower altitudes. The simulated Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index compares well with ERA-Interim data. Accompanying these

  15. Flying-foxes in the Australian urban environment—community attitudes and opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Y. Kung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban presence of flying-foxes (pteropid bats in eastern Australia has increased in the last 20 years, putatively reflecting broader landscape change. The influx of large numbers often precipitates community angst, typically stemming from concerns about loss of social amenity, economic loss or negative health impacts from recently emerged bat-mediated zoonotic diseases such as Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Local authorities and state wildlife authorities are increasingly asked to approve the dispersal or modification of flying-fox roosts to address expressed concerns, yet the scale of this concern within the community, and the veracity of the basis for concern are often unclear. We conducted an on-line survey to capture community attitudes and opinions on flying-foxes in the urban environment to inform management policy and decision-making. Analysis focused on awareness, concerns, and management options, and primarily compared responses from communities where flying-fox management was and was not topical at the time of the survey. While a majority of respondents indicated a moderate to high level of knowledge of both flying-foxes and Hendra virus, a substantial minority mistakenly believed that flying-foxes pose a direct infection risk to humans, suggesting miscommunication or misinformation, and the need for additional risk communication strategies. Secondly, a minority of community members indicated they were directly impacted by urban roosts, most plausibly those living in close proximity to the roost, suggesting that targeted management options are warranted. Thirdly, neither dispersal nor culling was seen as an appropriate management strategy by the majority of respondents, including those from postcodes where flying-fox management was topical. These findings usefully inform community debate and policy development and demonstrate the value of social analysis in defining the issues and options in this complex human

  16. Role of art centres for Aboriginal Australians living with dementia in remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Melissa; Mackell, Paulene; Lin, Xiaoping; Farthing, Annie; Jensen, Heather; Meredith, Maree; Haralambous, Betty

    2017-06-01

    To explore the role art centres in remote communities play for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians living with dementia. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken, with no restrictions on articles regarding year of publication. Art programmes have been found to be of benefit to both people living with dementia and their carers, particularly when programmes are administered in environments that are culturally revered. Findings indicate remote art centres play a key role in maintaining traditions, culture and practices unique to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, but there is a gap in knowledge regarding how they cater for the needs of people with dementia. Addressing this gap will be helpful in remote areas where prevalence of dementia is up to five times that of non-Aboriginal people, and there are limited health and support services. Further research is required to explore strengths and gaps of current practices. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  17. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  18. Community in Credit Unions: Has banking regulationimpaired CSR in Australian Customer Owned Banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne McGrath

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sector scan of a sample of Australian Credit Unions and Mutual Banks to examine the CSR reporting from the perspective of the three pillars model proposed by vanOorschot, de Hoog, van der Steen and van Twist (2013. It is argued that the pillar requiringco-operatives to ensure activities which ‘aim for change’, should promote increasing adoptionof CSR. The paper theorises that regulatory requirements imposed in Australia on all bankinginstitutions carry a higher proportional cost to the customer owned banking sector than theshareholder based commercial banks. This consumption of the limited financial resourcesavailable in this sector of banking services, are inhibiting regional Customer Owned Bankingproviders, as co-operative organisations, to fulfil the required co-operative principle to instigatechange for the betterment of communities. This failure could signal the demise of some entitiesin the jurisdiction of Customer Owned Banking.

  19. An Australian Indigenous community-led suicide intervention skills training program: community consultation findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Bushra; Kisely, Steve; Hides, Leanne; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Gill, Neeraj S; Hayman, Noel; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Toombs, Maree

    2017-06-13

    Little is known of the appropriateness of existing gatekeeper suicide prevention programs for Indigenous communities. Despite the high rates of Indigenous suicide in Australia, especially among Indigenous youth, it is unclear how effective existing suicide prevention programs are in providing appropriate management of Indigenous people at risk of suicide. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with Indigenous communities in rural and regional areas of Southern Queensland. Thematic analysis was performed on the gathered information. Existing programs were time-intensive and included content irrelevant to Indigenous people. There was inconsistency in the content and delivery of gatekeeper training. Programs were also not sustainable for rural and regional Indigenous communities. Appropriate programs should be practical, relevant, and sustainable across all Indigenous communities, with a focus on the social, emotional, cultural and spiritual underpinnings of community wellbeing. Programs need to be developed in thorough consultation with Indigenous communities. Indigenous-led suicide intervention training programs are needed to mitigate the increasing rates of suicide experienced by Indigenous peoples living in rural and remote locations.

  20. Impact of an Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration on Scabies Prevalence in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Thérèse M; Speare, Richard; Cheng, Allen C; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Holt, Deborah C; Currie, Bart J; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Bundhala, Leanne; Mulholland, Eddie; Chatfield, Mark; Andrews, Ross M

    2015-10-01

    Scabies is endemic in many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with 69% of infants infected in the first year of life. We report the outcomes against scabies of two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured scabies prevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined disease acquisition and treatment failures. Scabies infestations were diagnosed clinically with additional laboratory investigations for crusted scabies. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 2-3 weeks if scabies was diagnosed, others followed a standard alternative algorithm. We saw >1000 participants at each population census. Scabies prevalence fell from 4% at baseline to 1% at month 6. Prevalence rose to 9% at month 12 amongst the baseline cohort in association with an identified exposure to a presumptive crusted scabies case with a higher prevalence of 14% amongst new entries to the cohort. At month 18, scabies prevalence fell to 2%. Scabies acquisitions six months after each MDA were 1% and 2% whilst treatment failures were 6% and 5% respectively. Scabies prevalence reduced in the six months after each MDA with a low risk of acquisition (1-2%). However, in a setting where living conditions are conducive to high scabies transmissibility, exposure to presumptive crusted scabies and population mobility, a sustained reduction in prevalence was not achieved. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register (ACTRN-12609000654257).

  1. Urinary incontinence and quality of life among older community-dwelling Australian men: the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Po Wan; Cumming, Robert G; Chan, Lewis; Seibel, Markus J; Naganathan, Vasi; Creasey, Helen; Le Couteur, David; Waite, Louise M; Sambrook, Philip N; Handelsman, David

    2010-05-01

    to describe the prevalence and impact on quality of life of urinary incontinence in a population-based cohort of older community-dwelling Australian men. the population comprised 1,705 men aged >or=70 years participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, a population-based study of urban older Australian men. data were collected between January 2005 and June 2007, and the participation rate was 47%. Data on demographics, medical history and from the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire were collected. Urinary incontinence was defined as urinary leakage at least two times a week over the past 4 weeks. the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 14.8%, increasing from 12.0% for men aged 70-74 years old to 16.3% for those aged >or=90 years, with urgency incontinence being the most frequent type of urinary incontinence. Daily urine leakage was reported by 3% of men. Men with incontinence had lower overall SF-12 scores with greater impact on the physical (PCS) than the mental (MCS) components of that scale. After adjusting for age, number of co-morbidities, enlarged prostate and prostate cancer, men with incontinence had worse PCS (43.6 vs 45.9) and MCS scores (52.2 vs 54.6) compared with continent men. urinary incontinence is common among older community-dwelling men and is associated with worse quality of life with greater impact on physical than mental factors. As the population ages, urinary incontinence prevalence will increase and increased resources will be needed to address this growing problem.

  2. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  3. Development of the good food planning tool: A food system approach to food security in indigenous Australian remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Wood, Beverley; Liberato, Selma C; Brown, Jacqui; Barnes, Adam; Rogers, Alison; Coveney, John; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Few frameworks exist to assist food system planning, especially for Indigenous Australian remote communities. We developed a Good Food Planning Tool to support stakeholders to collectively plan and take action for local food system improvement. Development occurred over a four-year period through an evolving four phase participatory process that included literature review, several meetings with representatives of various organisations and communities and application of the Tool with multi-sector groups in each of four Indigenous Australian remote communities. A diverse range of 148 stakeholders, 78 of whom were Indigenous, had input to its development. Five food system domains: (i) Leadership and partnerships; (ii) Traditional food and local food production; (iii) Food businesses; (iv) Buildings, public places and transport; (v) Community and services and 28 activity areas form the framework of the Tool. The Good Food Planning Tool provides a useful framework to facilitate collective appraisal of the food system and to identify opportunities for food system improvement in Indigenous Australian remote communities, with potential for adaptation for wider application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A survey of foot problems in community-dwelling older Greek Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired mobility and quality of life. However, the characteristics of foot problems in older Australians for whom English is a second language have not been evaluated. Methods One hundred and four community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years with disabling foot pain (according to the case definition of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, or MFPDI were recruited from four Greek elderly citizens clubs in Melbourne, Australia. All participants completed a Greek language questionnaire consisting of general medical history, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire, the MFPDI, and specific questions relating to foot problems and podiatry service utilisation. In addition, all participants underwent a brief clinical foot assessment. Results The MFPDI score ranged from 1 to 30 (median 14, out of a total possible score of 34. Women had significantly higher total MFPDI scores and MFPDI subscale scores. The MFPDI total score and subscale scores were significantly associated with most of the SF-36 subscale scores. The most commonly reported foot problem was difficulty finding comfortable shoes (38%, and the most commonly observed foot problem was the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (29%. Only 13% of participants were currently receiving podiatry treatment, and 40% stated that they required more help looking after their feet. Those who reported difficulty finding comfortable shoes were more likely to be female, and those who required more help looking after their feet were more likely to be living alone and have osteoarthritis in their knees or back. Conclusions Foot problems appear to be common in older Greek Australians, have a greater impact on women, and are associated with reduced health-related quality of life. These findings are broadly similar to previous studies in English-speaking older people in Australia. However, only a small

  5. Bacterial community dynamics over successional stages of Australian biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Angela; Woodhouse, Jason; Neilan, Brett

    2015-04-01

    A key aspect for successful ecological rehabilitation is understanding the naturally occurring ecosystem and landscape function which is to be restored. This allows for recovery indicators to be identified and criteria to be developed to assess progress and outcomes. In arid rangelands, environmental stresses result in characteristically heterogeneous landscapes where biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover large expanses of inter-plant areas. Here, BSCs perform crucial roles in nutrient cycling and re-distribution, affect hydrological patterns and stabilise the soil surface. They also serve as a large reservoir of microbial and avascular plant biodiversity. The recognition of these important roles has resulted in increased global arid rehabilitation efforts employing BSCs. Within Australia, research has focused on the macro components of BSCs including lichens and mosses, however, there have been insufficient studies examining the BSC bacterial communities and their dynamics over different successional stages. This project surveyed the bacterial community of crust-free soil and three successional stages of undisturbed BSCs from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in order to provide reference standards of naturally occurring Australian BSCs. Visual assessments were conducted and BSCs were categorised as Early, Mid or Late stage depending on colour, thickness, topography and presence of lichens and mosses. The crust-free soil and different stages were sampled within three 50 m2 plots of the same edaphic conditions near the town of Cobar, NSW. High throughput sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform was performed targeting the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Preliminary analysis has revealed a clear distinction between the crust-free and crusted soil while Canonical Analysis of Principal Co-ordinates (CAP) suggests the presence of two distinct BSC microbial communities despite three stages being sampled. Across all sample types, the dominant phyla were Actinobacteria

  6. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese M Kearns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus.We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818 at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%, falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297 to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157 at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical

  7. Sedative load and functional outcomes in community-dwelling older Australian men: the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjidic, Danijela; Le Couteur, David G; Hilmer, Sarah N; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona M; Naganathan, Vasi; Waite, Louise; Handelsman, David J; Bell, John Simon; J S, Bell

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between sedative load and functional outcomes in community-dwelling older Australian men. A total of 1696 males aged ≥ 70 years, enrolled in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, were studied. Participants underwent assessments during 2005-2007. Sedative load was computed using a published model. Outcomes included activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), physical performance measures and a clinical diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Of the participants, 15.3% took medications with sedative properties. After adjusting for age, education, depressive symptoms and comorbidities, participants who took one medication with sedation as a prominent side effect (sedative load = 1) had odds ratio (OR) of 2.15 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.20-3.85) for ADL disability, compared with participants with sedative load = 0. Participants who took at least one primary sedative or two medications with sedation as a prominent side effect (sedative load ≥ 2) had an OR of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.02-2.35) for IADL disability, compared with participants with sedative load = 0. The mean 6-m walking speed (P = 0.001) and grip strength (P = 0.003) were significantly different between sedative load groups in unadjusted models only. No association between sedative load and poorer performance on balance and chair stands tests or cognitive impairment was observed. Participants with sedative load of one were more likely to report ADL disability, whereas participants with sedative load of ≥2 were more likely to report IADL disability. Higher sedative load was not associated with poorer physical performance or cognitive impairment in older Australian men. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. Psychotropic drug use and alcohol drinking in community-dwelling older Australian men: the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilomäki, Jenni; Gnjidic, Danijela; Hilmer, Sarah N; Le Couteur, David G; Naganathan, Vasi; Cumming, Robert G; Waite, Louise M; Seibel, Markus J; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Bell, J Simon

    2013-03-01

    To explore the association between psychotropic drug use and alcohol drinking in community-dwelling older Australian men. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study using baseline data collected between 2005 and 2007 from 1705 participants in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) conducted in Sydney, Australia. All participants were men aged ≥70 years. The prevalence of antidepressant and sedative or anxiolytic drug use was ascertained at clinical examinations and alcohol drinking was self-reported. Logistic regression models were used to compute the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between sedative or anxiolytic use and antidepressant use with drinking patterns. In the study sample, 8.0% used an antidepressant, 5.7% used a sedative or anxiolytic, 33.7% were daily drinkers, 13.9% were binge drinkers, 19.2% were heavy drinkers and 11.0% were problem drinkers. Overall, 27.1% of antidepressant users were daily drinkers and 42.7% of sedative or anxiolytic users were daily drinkers. Sedative or anxiolytic use was associated with daily drinking (prevalence ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence intervals 1.09-1.76) but not with other drinking patterns. The associations between antidepressant use and alcohol drinking were not statistically significant. Potential psychotropic drug-alcohol interactions were common in older Australian men. Users of sedative or anxiolytic drugs were more likely to engage in daily drinking compared with non-users of sedative or anxiolytic drugs. Clinicians should monitor patients prescribed sedative or anxiolytic drugs for possible adverse events arising from concomitant use with alcohol. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Surgical wound dehiscence in an Australian community nursing service: time and cost to healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy-Hodgetts, K; Leslie, G D; Lewin, G; Hendrie, D; Carville, K

    2016-07-02

    Surgical wound dehiscence (SWD) increases the length of hospital stay and impacts on patient wellbeing and health-care costs. Globally, the health-care costs associated with SWD are poorly reported and those reported are frequently associated with surgical site infection (SSI), rather than dehiscence of non-microbial cause. This retrospective study describes and reports on the costs and time to healing associated with a number of surgical patients who were referred to a community nursing service for treatment of an SWD following discharge from a metropolitan hospital, in Perth, Western Australia. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out to describe the patient, wound and treatment characteristics. A costing analysis was conducted to investigate the cost of healing these wounds. Among the 70 patients referred with a SWD, 55% were treated for an infected wound dehiscence which was a significant factor (p=0.001). Overall, the cost of treating the 70 patients with a SWD in a community nursing service was in excess of $56,000 Australian dollars (AUD) (£28,705) and did not include organisational overheads or travel costs for nurse visits. The management of infection contributed to 67% of the overall cost. SWD remains an unquantified aspect of wound care from a prevalence and fiscal point of view. Further work needs to be done in the identification of SWD and which patients may be 'at risk'. The authors declare they have no competing interests.

  10. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    ...". Analyses of CPS data indicates that veteran youth unemployment increased relative to nonveteran youth unemployment between 2003 and 2005 "and that this relative increase is statistically significant...

  11. What do you think overdiagnosis means? A qualitative analysis of responses from a national community survey of Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Ray; Nickel, Brooke; Hersch, Jolyn; Doust, Jenny; Barratt, Alexandra; Beller, Elaine; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Objective Overdiagnosis occurs when someone is diagnosed with a disease that will not harm them. Against a backdrop of growing evidence and concern about the risk of overdiagnosis associated with certain screening activities, and recognition of the need to better inform the public about it, we aimed to ask what the Australian community understood overdiagnosis to mean. Design, setting and participants Content analysis of verbatim responses from a randomly sampled community telephone survey of 500 Australian adults, between January and February 2014. Data were analysed independently by two researchers. Main outcome measures Analysis of themes arising from community responses to open-ended questions about the meaning of overdiagnosis. Results The sample was broadly representative of the Australian population. Forty per cent of respondents thought overdiagnosis meant exaggerating a condition that was there, diagnosing something that was not there or too much diagnosis. Twenty-four per cent described overdiagnosis as overprescribing, overtesting or overtreatment. Only 3% considered overdiagnosis meant doctors gained financially. No respondents mentioned screening in conjunction with overdiagnosis, and over 10% of participants were unable to give an answer. Conclusions Around half the community surveyed had an approximate understanding of overdiagnosis, although no one identified it as a screening risk and a quarter equated it with overuse. Strategies to inform people about the risk of overdiagnosis associated with screening and diagnostic tests, in clinical and public health settings, could build on a nascent understanding of the nature of the problem. PMID:25991454

  12. The hookwormAncylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  13. Engaging rural Australian communities in National Science Week helps increase visibility for women researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Margaret C; Desselle, Mathilde R

    2017-10-01

    During a week-long celebration of science, run under the federally supported National Science Week umbrella, the Catch a Rising Star: women in Queensland research (CaRS) programme flew scientists who identify as women to nine regional and remote communities in the Australian State of Queensland. The aim of the project was twofold: first, to bring science to remote and regional communities in a large, economically diverse state; and second, to determine whether media and public engagement provides career advancement opportunities for women scientists. This paper focuses on the latter goal. The data show: (i) a substantial majority (greater than 80%) of researchers thought the training and experience provided by the programme would help develop her career as a research scientist in the future, (ii) the majority (65%) thought the programme would help relate her research to end users, industry partners or stakeholders in the future, and (iii) analytics can help create a compelling narrative around engagement metrics and help to quantify influence. During the week-long project, scientists reached 600 000 impressions on one social media platform (Twitter) using a program hashtag. The breadth and depth of the project outcomes indicate funding bodies and employers could use similar data as an informative source of metrics to support hiring and promotion decisions. Although this project focused on researchers who identify as women, the lessons learned are applicable to researchers representing a diverse range of backgrounds. Future surveys will help determine whether the CaRS programme provided long-term career advantages to participating scientists and communities.

  14. Sleep and academic performance in Indigenous Australian children from a remote community: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick; Kohler, Mark; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Disruptions to sleep in childhood are associated with poor behaviour and deficits in academic performance and executive function. Although academic performance of indigenous children from remote communities in Australia is documented as well below that of non-indigenous children, the extent of sleep disruption and its contribution to academic performance among this population has not been assessed. This pilot study aimed to objectively assess the sleep of remote indigenous children and the association between sleep disruption and both academic performance and executive function. Twenty-one children from a remote Australian indigenous community aged 6-13 years wore actigraphy for two consecutive nights, reported subjective sleepiness, and were objectively assessed for academic performance (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition) and executive function (NEuroloPSYcological Assessment-II). Results show marked reduction in sleep time, sleep fragmentation, academic performance and auditory attention compared with non-indigenous norms. Sleep duration was not associated with performance, possibly because of reduced sleep and performance observed across the entire group. Sleep fragmentation was associated with reduced reading and numerical skills (P sleep of indigenous children in remote communities is an important area of future inquiry, and our initial findings of poor sleep and an association between sleep disruption and academic performance may have important implications for intervention strategies aimed at 'closing the gap'. Further studies should assess a broader range of demographic, social and economic factors to better understand the associations reported here and guide future intervention. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Management of over-the-counter insomnia complaints in Australian community pharmacies: a standardized patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Krishneeta C; Nissen, Lisa M; Smith, Simon S; Kyle, Greg

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the current management of over-the-counter (OTC) insomnia complaints in Australian community pharmacies using standardized patient methodology. Trained standardized patients visited a sample of 100 randomly selected South East Queensland community pharmacies in June 2011. The standardized patients enacted two OTC insomnia scenarios: a direct product request (DPR) (n = 50) and a symptom-based request (SBR) (n = 50). Results of the interactions were documented immediately after each visit and evaluated using the Pharmaceutical Society of Australia's WHAT STOP GO protocol as a standard comparison. Of all DPRs, 30% were handled entirely by the pharmacist, 70% of staff enquired about specific symptoms and 28% investigated the cause of insomnia. No staff investigated the frequency of product use. The DPR scenario resulted in a 92% supply of the requested doxylamine product (Restavit). In the SBR scenario, 18% of requests were handled entirely by the pharmacist, 58% of staff enquired about specific symptoms and 44% investigated the cause of insomnia. Staff recommended medicated products (38%), or herbal (78%) or non-drug techniques (18%). Investigation into smoking and alcohol intake was not undertaken in DPR or SBR interactions, while questioning on caffeine intake was undertaken in 2 and 14% of cases respectively. There were no significant differences found in the handling of sleep requests by pharmacists compared to pharmacy assistants. The standardized patient methodology was a successful way to assess the community pharmacy counselling provided with OTC sleep requests and suboptimal staff responses were found when compared with recommended practice standards. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Reporting rates of child sexual abuse in Indigenous communities in two Australian jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Cate; Powell, Martine; Brubacher, Sonja

    2017-06-01

    Child sexual abuse is a significant problem in many Indigenous communities; there is also evidence of chronic under-reporting of this crime. This study aimed to compare reporting rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous cases of child sexual abuse across two Australian jurisdictions. Datasets comprising child sexual abuse reports from the Police Information Management Systems of the two jurisdictions were used to calculate reporting rates, and to compare case characteristics and case progression. Results indicated that the reporting rate for child sexual abuse of Indigenous children was between two and four times that of non-Indigenous children. In the Indigenous cases, the second jurisdiction had lower reporting rates than the first jurisdiction. Further analysis of the Indigenous cases only found that cases in the second jurisdiction were more severe, more likely to have a forensic interview, and more likely for the suspect to be charged, than in the first jurisdiction. However, there were no significant differences in conviction rates between the two jurisdictions. Differences observed in severity and case progression suggest that the lower reporting rates observed in the second jurisdiction may be due to comparatively high levels of under-reporting, rather than lower actual levels of child sexual abuse. In conclusion, reporting rates of child sexual abuse can be better understood when further information, such as case characteristics and case progression rates, is available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of community pharmacists in asthma - Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary care models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, B; Krass, I; Smith, L; Bosnic-Anticevich, S; Armour, C

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting the Australian population. Amongst primary healthcare professionals, pharmacists are the most accessible and this places pharmacists in an excellent position to play a role in the management of asthma. Globally, trials of many community pharmacy-based asthma care models have provided evidence that pharmacist delivered interventions can improve clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes for asthma patients. In Australia, a decade of coordinated research efforts, in various aspects of asthma care, has culminated in the implementation trial of the Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS), a comprehensive disease management model.There has been research investigating asthma medication adherence through data mining, ways in which usual asthma care can be improved. Our research has focused on self-management education, inhaler technique interventions, spirometry trials, interprofessional models of care, and regional trials addressing the particular needs of rural communities. We have determined that inhaler technique education is a necessity and should be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. We have identified this effectiveness of health promotion and health education, conducted within and outside the confines of the pharmacy, in public for a and settings such as schools, and established that this outreach role is particularly well received and increases the opportunity for people with asthma to engage in their asthma management.Our research has identified that asthma patients have needs which pharmacists delivering specialized models of care, can address. There is a lot of evidence for the effectiveness of asthma care by pharmacists, the future must involve integration of this role into primary care.

  18. Using breath carbon monoxide to validate self-reported tobacco smoking in remote Australian Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivers Rowena G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the specificity and sensitivity of a breath carbon monoxide (BCO test and optimum BCO cutoff level for validating self-reported tobacco smoking in Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory (NT. Methods In a sample of 400 people (≥16 years interviewed about tobacco use in three communities, both self-reported smoking and BCO data were recorded for 309 study participants. Of these, 249 reported smoking tobacco within the preceding 24 hours, and 60 reported they had never smoked or had not smoked tobacco for ≥6 months. The sample was opportunistically recruited using quotas to reflect age and gender balances in the communities where the combined Indigenous populations comprised 1,104 males and 1,215 females (≥16 years. Local Indigenous research workers assisted researchers in interviewing participants and facilitating BCO tests using a portable hand-held analyzer. Results A BCO cutoff of ≥7 parts per million (ppm provided good agreement between self-report and BCO (96.0% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity. An alternative cutoff of ≥5 ppm increased sensitivity from 96.0% to 99.6% with no change in specificity (93.3%. With data for two self-reported nonsmokers who also reported that they smoked cannabis removed from the analysis, specificity increased to 96.6%. Conclusion In these disadvantaged Indigenous populations, where data describing smoking are few, testing for BCO provides a practical, noninvasive, and immediate method to validate self-reported smoking. In further studies of tobacco smoking in these populations, cannabis use should be considered where self-reported nonsmokers show high BCO.

  19. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  20. Role of community pharmacists in asthma – Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary care models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting the Australian population. Amongst primary healthcare professionals, pharmacists are the most accessible and this places pharmacists in an excellent position to play a role in the management of asthma. Globally, trials of many community pharmacy-based asthma care models have provided evidence that pharmacist delivered interventions can improve clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes for asthma patients. In Australia, a decade of coordinated research efforts, in various aspects of asthma care, has culminated in the implementation trial of the Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a comprehensive disease management model. There has been research investigating asthma medication adherence through data mining, ways in which usual asthma care can be improved. Our research has focused on self-management education, inhaler technique interventions, spirometry trials, interprofessional models of care, and regional trials addressing the particular needs of rural communities. We have determined that inhaler technique education is a necessity and should be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. We have identified this effectiveness of health promotion and health education, conducted within and outside the confines of the pharmacy, in public for a and settings such as schools, and established that this outreach role is particularly well received and increases the opportunity for people with asthma to engage in their asthma management. Our research has identified that asthma patients have needs which pharmacists delivering specialized models of care, can address. There is a lot of evidence for the effectiveness of asthma care by pharmacists, the future must involve integration of this role into primary care.

  1. Community awareness and predictors of uptake of pertussis booster vaccine in South Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle; Thomas, Natalie; Giles, Lynne; Marshall, Helen

    2015-12-16

    Pertussis is a highly virulent vaccine preventable disease that remains a global challenge. This study aimed to assess community knowledge of pertussis infection as well as awareness and uptake of adult pertussis booster vaccine. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of randomly selected households in South Australia by Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews in 2011. Survey data were weighted to the age, gender and geographical area profile of the population. From 3124 randomly sampled contactable households, 1967 interviews were conducted (participation rate 63%) with individuals aged 18-93 years, including 608 parents of children aged pertussis (whooping cough) and 18% reported that a household member had previously contracted whooping cough infection. Most respondents considered whooping cough to be highly contagious (73%) and severe for infants (89%). Over half (51%) of those surveyed were aware that family members commonly transmit pertussis to infants. Despite high knowledge, pertussis vaccine uptake was low, with only 10% of respondents reporting pertussis vaccination in the previous five years. Whilst 61% of respondents were aware of the availability of an adult pertussis booster vaccine, only 8% (n=154) reported their Family Physician had discussed it with them. If provided free, 77% agreed that they would be more likely to accept a booster pertussis vaccination. Independent predictors of recent pertussis vaccination included higher education, larger household size, perception of greater disease severity for infants and discussion with a Family Physician about pertussis vaccination. Whilst knowledge regarding transmission and severity of Bordetella pertussis was high, uptake of pertussis vaccination for adults is remarkably low amongst the South Australian community. Improved awareness regarding the availability of a booster pertussis vaccine through Family Physicians and/or provision of funded pertussis vaccination for adults has the potential to improve

  2. Medical-attention injuries in community Australian football: a review of 30 years of surveillance data from treatment sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-03-01

    In recent reports, Australian football has outranked other team sports in the frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) presentations. Understanding the profile of these and other "medical-attention" injuries is vital for developing preventive strategies that can reduce health costs. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency and profile of Australian football injuries presenting for medical attention. A systematic search was carried out to identify peer-reviewed articles and reports presenting original data about Australian football injuries from treatment sources (hospitals, EDs, and health-care clinics). Data extracted included injury frequency and rate, body region, and nature and mechanism of injury. Following literature search and review, 12 publications were included. In most studies, Australian football contributed the greatest number of injuries out of any sport or recreation activity. Hospitals and EDs reported a higher proportion of upper limb than lower limb injuries, whereas the opposite was true for sports medicine clinics. In hospitals, fractures and dislocations were most prevalent out of all injuries. In EDs and clinics, sprains/strains were most common in adults and superficial injuries were predominant in children. Most injuries resulted from contact with other players or falling. The upper limb was the most commonly injured body region for Australian football presentations to hospitals and EDs. Strategies to prevent upper limb injuries could reduce associated public health costs. However, to understand the full extent of the injury problem in football, treatment source surveillance systems should be supplemented with other datasets, including community club-based collections.

  3. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities.

  4. Culture and healthy lifestyles: a qualitative exploration of the role of food and physical activity in three urban Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Ruth; Stanley, Rebecca; Probst, Yasmine; McMahon, Anne

    2017-08-01

    1) To explore the links between Indigenous Australian children's perspectives on culture, and healthy lifestyle behaviours. 2) To provide insight into how to approach the development of a health intervention targeting lifestyle behaviours in Australian Indigenous children. Seven semi-structured focus groups sessions were conducted with Australian Indigenous children aged 5-12 years living on the South Coast of New South Wales. Audio-recordings were transcribed and thematic analyses were conducted and related to principles of grounded theory. Participants had connections to aspects of Australian Indigenous culture that were embedded in their everyday lives. Healthy lifestyle behaviours (such as healthy eating and physical activity) were found to be interconnected with Australian Indigenous culture and positive emotional wellbeing was identified as an important outcome of connecting Australian Indigenous children to cultural practices. Understanding the importance of culture and its role in healthy lifestyles is critical in the development of health interventions for Indigenous populations. Health interventions embedded with Australian Indigenous culture may have potential to improve physical and emotional health within Australian Indigenous communities. However, it is unlikely that a 'one size fits all' approach to health interventions can be taken. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Consumer and community involvement in health and medical research: evaluation by online survey of Australian training workshops for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Anne; Alpers, Kirsten; Heyworth, Jane; Phuong, Cindy; Hanley, Bec

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, since 2009, the Consumer and Community Involvement Program (formerly the Consumer and Community Participation Program) has developed and run workshops to help people working in health and medical research involve more consumers (patients) and community members (the public) in their research. In 2012, workshop attendees were invited to do an online survey to find out the effect, if any, that attending a workshop had on their awareness of and attitudes to consumer and community involvement. They were also asked about changes in their behaviour when it came to the involvement of consumers and the community in their work. The study found that, for people who answered the survey, more than double the number found consumer and community involvement very relevant after attending a workshop, compared with the number who thought that before attending one. Also, amongst those who answered the survey, 94 % thought that the workshop increased their understanding about involvement. Background There is limited evidence of the benefits of providing training workshops for researchers on how to involve consumers (patients) and the community (public) in health and medical research. Australian training workshops were evaluated to contribute to the evidence base. The key objective was to evaluate the impact of the workshops in increasing awareness of consumer and community involvement; changing attitudes to future implementation of involvement activities and influencing behaviour in the methods of involvement used. A secondary objective was to use a formal evaluation survey to build on the anecdotal feedback received from researchers about changes in awareness, attitudes and behaviours. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, online survey of researchers, students, clinicians, administrators and members of non-government organisations who attended Consumer and Community Involvement Program training workshops between 2009 and 2012 to ascertain changes to awareness

  6. Minority stress and community connectedness among gay, lesbian and bisexual Australians: a comparison of rural and metropolitan localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Ross, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) Australians residing in rural-remote and other non-inner metropolitan localities experience increased levels of minority stress and reduced social support relative to their inner metropolitan counterparts. A convenience sample of (n=1306) LGB Australians completed an online survey that assessed minority stressors, level of connection with other LGB individuals and social isolation. Postcodes provided were coded into three metropolitan and two rural zones. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to examine the effect of locality on minority stress and social support independent of sex, age, ethnicity, education and income. Those residing in rural-remote localities reported significantly increased concealment of sexuality from friends, more concern regarding disclosure of sexuality, less LGB community involvement, fewer friendships with other LGB people and, among men, higher levels of internalised homophobia than those residing in inner metropolitan areas. Unexpectedly, those residing in outer metropolitan areas of major cities experienced comparable levels of minority stress and LGB disconnection to those in rural and remote Australia. LGB individuals in rural-remote and outer metropolitan areas of major cities face increased exposure to a number of minority stressors and less LGB community connectedness. These are risk factors associated with psychiatric morbidity in LGB populations. Health promotion targeted at reducing homophobia and discrimination in rural-remote and outer metropolitan communities and additional services to assist LGB Australians struggling with stigma and isolation in non-inner city areas may help mitigate the disadvantages faced by these LGB populations. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Amphidromy Links a Newly Documented Fish Community of Continental Australian Streams, to Oceanic Islands of the West Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, Paul A.; Ebner, Brendan C.; Larson, Helen; Keith, Philippe; Silcock, Rebecca M.; Prince, Jason; Russell, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. Methods/Principal Findings Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76), than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98). Main Conclusions/Significance Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared), than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics. The evolutionary and

  8. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  9. Cultural competence in working with the Arab Australian community: a conceptual review and the experience of the Arab Council Australia (ACA gambling help counselling service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Mazbouh-Moussa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Culturally And Linguistically Diverse (CALD communities participate less in gambling than the general population, those who gamble are more likely to show signs of disordered gambling (Moore and Ohtsuka International Gambling Studies, 1, 87–101, 2001; Raylu and Oei Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1087–1114, 2004; Yamine and Thomas The impact of gaming on specific cultural groups, Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority, Melbourne, 2000. Research data on gambling problems and interventions in the Arab Australian community are extremely scarce. Therefore, this article will present an overview of the Arab Australian community and cultural issues regarding gambling within the Arab Australian community. Identifying these issues is important to work effectively with Arab Australians clients and those from other CALD backgrounds. The article also presents a conceptual review of peer-reviewed research articles on cultural competence in working with the Arab clients, the overview of Arab migration history to Australia and a summary of recent events that suggest a tension between Arab and non-Arab Australian communities. Observations and experiences that were encountered during the gambling counselling service operating in the Australian Arab community in New South Wales are also discussed. The research data to validate the effectiveness and positive impact of cultural competence are still in its early stages. However, a small number of community education resources have been available for working with the Arab community. From the data in annual reviews on the Arab Council Australia gambling counselling service, it was identified that cultural beliefs and expectations influence risk-taking decisions, identification of gambling issues, and preference of help seeking within the client’s social network. Further, culturally-specific sensitive issues related to political and global security events, which in turn influenced openness and

  10. No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context.

  11. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkinson Lynne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal and related health promotion program. Methods A community Advisory Group (CAG comprising Elders, Aboriginal Health Workers, academics, nurses, a general practitioner and chiropractors assisted in the development of measures to assess self-reported musculo-skeletal conditions including LBP risk factors. The Kempsey survey included a community-based survey administered by Aboriginal Health Workers followed by a clinical assessment conducted by chiropractors. Results Age and gender characteristics of this Indigenous sample (n = 189 were comparable to those reported in previous Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS studies of the broader Indigenous population. A history of traumatic events was highly prevalent in the community, as were occupational risk factors. Thirty-four percent of participants reported a previous history of LBP. Sporting injuries were associated with multiple musculo-skeletal conditions, including LBP. Those reporting high levels of pain were often overweight or obese and obesity was associated with self-reported low back strain. Common barriers to medical management of LBP included an attitude of being able to cope with pain, poor health, and the lack of affordable and appropriate health care services. Though many of the modifiable risk factors known to be associated with LBP were highly prevalent in this study, none of these were statistically associated with LBP. Conclusion Addressing particular modifiable risk factors associated with LBP

  12. Neighbourhood Effects and Community Spillovers in the Australian Youth Labour Market. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Dan; Green, Colin; Mangan, John

    Data taken primarily from the Australian Youth Survey were used to model unemployment as a function of personal characteristics, family structure, and neighborhood composition using binomial probit estimation techniques. The cross-sectional model developed indicated that significant neighborhood effects on unemployment outcomes exist in high- and…

  13. Veterans' homecomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2015-01-01

    experiences, present conditions, and future ambitions are embedded in webs of concealment, disclosure, exposure, deception, lying, silence, and so forth, only partially controlled by the veterans themselves. The intricacies and anxieties associated with secrecy work are discussed in relation to three veteran......For Danish soldiers, returning from the battlefields and army camps of international operations to the tranquility of everyday life at home can be a challenging and unsettling experience. Homecoming is often particularly daunting for veterans who leave the army and are compelled to develop a new...... social identity and find a meaningful life in the civilian world. When doing so, they need to navigate an ambiguous political environment and emergent public imaginaries of the veteran while also wrestling with their own military socialization and personal experiences of war. The certainty previously...

  14. Australian survey of current practice and guideline use in adult cancer pain assessment and management: The community nurse perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jane L; Lovell, Melanie; Luckett, Tim; Agar, Meera; Green, Anna; Davidson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Cancer pain remains a major public health concern. Despite effective treatments being available to manage the majority of cancer pain, this debilitating symptom is frequently under treated. As cancer has becomes a chronic disease a range of health professionals, including community nurses in Australia are increasingly caring for people living with cancer related pain. Yet, little is known about community nurses capacity to assess and manage cancer pain in accordance with best available evidence. This study aimed to: identify the barriers and facilitators to adult cancer pain assessment and management as perceived by Australian health professionals; identify if cancer pain guidelines are currently used; identify barriers and facilitators to guideline use; and establish the need for Australian cancer pain guidelines. This article reports on community nurses' perceptions of managing cancer pain in the community setting. A cross-sectional survey was administered online. Invitations were circulated via peak bodies and clinical leaders seeking the views and experiences of health professionals involved in caring for people living with cancer pain. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the quantitative data, and thematic content analysis were used to describe the qualitative data. Sixty-two community nurses responded to the survey, representing 29% of the total sample. These participants reported high levels of adherence to accepted cancer pain management practices in their workplace, with 71% nominating the Palliative Care Therapeutic Guideline V.3 as being most frequently used to manage community patients' cancer related pain. Key barriers to effective cancer pain management in the community were: difficulties accessing non-pharmacological interventions (89%), lack of coordination by multiple providers (89%), and impact of distance on ability to access pain-related services for patients (86%). A range of system, health professional and consumer barriers limit

  15. Gender, race & the veteran wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Women Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report summarizes the history of women Veterans in the military and as Veterans. It profiles the characteristics of women Veterans in 2015, and illustrates how...

  17. Methylphenidate for Apathy in Community-Dwelling Older Veterans With Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padala, Prasad R; Padala, Kalpana P; Lensing, Shelly Y; Ramirez, Daniel; Monga, Varun; Bopp, Melinda M; Roberson, Paula K; Dennis, Richard A; Petty, Frederick; Sullivan, Dennis H; Burke, William J

    2018-02-01

    Apathy is a common behavioral problem in Alzheimer's disease. Apathy has profound consequences, such as functional impairment, higher service utilization, higher caregiver burden, and increased mortality. The authors' objective was to study the effects of methylphenidate on apathy in Alzheimer's disease. A 12-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (methylphenidate versus placebo) was conducted in community-dwelling veterans (N=60) with mild Alzheimer's disease. The primary outcome for apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale-Clinician) and secondary outcomes for cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination), functional status (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living), improvement and severity (Clinical Global Impressions Scale [CGI]), caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Scale), and depression (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia) were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Participants were all men (77 years old, SD=8). After adjusting for baseline, the methylphenidate group had significantly greater improvement in apathy than the placebo group at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, there was also greater improvement in cognition, functional status, caregiver burden, CGI scores, and depression in the methylphenidate group compared with the placebo group. Methylphenidate improved apathy in a group of community-dwelling veterans with mild Alzheimer's disease. Methylphenidate also improved cognition, functional status, caregiver burden, CGI scores, and depression.

  18. Health service utilisation and investigations before diagnosis of cancer of unknown primary (CUP): A population-based nested case-control study in Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajdic, Claire M; Schaffer, Andrea L; Dobbins, Timothy A; Ward, Robyn L; Er, Chuang C; Pearson, Sallie-Anne

    2015-08-01

    Population-based data on the use of health services and diagnostic investigations for patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is scarce. It is uncertain whether the pathways to diagnosis are different for CUP compared to other cancers. We performed a population-based nested matched case-control study using linked routinely collected records for Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients, 2004-2007. We compared health care consultations, hospitalisations, emergency department visits, and diagnostic procedures in the three months prior and the month of diagnosis for 281 clients registered with a diagnosis of CUP (C809) and 1102 controls randomly selected from clients registered with a first diagnosis of metastatic cancer of known primary. Overall, the median age at cancer diagnosis was 83 years. CUP patients were slightly older and had significantly more comorbidities prior to diagnosis than those with known primary. Compared to known primary, a diagnosis of CUP was significantly more likely after an emergency department visit, less specialist input, fewer invasive diagnostic procedures such as resection or endoscopy, and more non-invasive procedures such as magnetic resonance imaging. There were no differences in primary care or allied health consultations and hospitalisations. This health care pathway suggests delayed recognition of cancer and scope for improvement in the medical management of high-risk individuals presenting to primary care. The pattern of diagnostic investigations reveals under-investigation in some CUP patients but this is likely to reflect recognition of limited treatment options and poor prognosis and is consistent with clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Dual Tasking in the Assessment of Gait, Cognition and Community Reintegration of Veterans with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Azadeh; Tavakol, Kamran; Scholten, Joel; Mathis, Debra; Maron, David; Bakhshi, Simin

    2017-12-01

    This study focussed on the effect of dual versus single tasking on balance, gait and cognition in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We examined the correlation between these parameters, with responses to questions on community reintegration activities. 22 male and female veterans (aged 19-65) walked along a narrow and 6.1-meter long path, both at their self-selected and fastest but safe pace under single and dual tasking conditions. For dual tasking, participants were required to recall and vocalize a 5-digit number at the end of the path. The outcome measures were the accuracy, velocity, cadence, stride length, and number of steps off the path. We calculated the reliability and correlation coefficient values for the walking time compared with the stride length, velocity, and percentage of swing and stance. Under dual task, the participants demonstrated slower gait, recalled shorter digit span and stepped off the path 12.6% more often than under single task. The stride length decreased by about 20% and the stride velocity increased by over 2% in dual compared with single tasking. Dual tasking slows down the gait and reduces the attention span in patients with mTBI, which can negatively impact their community reintegration, at least early after their hospital discharge, hence the need for exercising caution with their community reintegration activities. Dual tasking may have the potential to improve balance, gait and attention span of the patients in the long-term, thus leading to safer community integration, if incorporated in the rehabilitation plans.

  20. A curriculum for training quality scholars to improve the health and health care of veterans and the community at large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splaine, Mark E; Aron, David C; Dittus, Robert S; Kiefe, Catarina I; Landefeld, C Seth; Rosenthal, Gary E; Weeks, William B; Batalden, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the Veterans Health Administration invested in the creation of the Veterans Administration National Quality Scholars Fellowship Program (VAQS) to train physicians in new ways to improve the quality of health care. We describe the curriculum for this program and the lessons learned from our experience to date. The VAQS Fellowship program has developed a core improvement curriculum to train postresidency physicians in the scholarship, research, and teaching of the improvement of health care. The curriculum covers seven domains of knowledge related to improvement: health care as a process; variation and measurement; customer/beneficiary knowledge; leading, following, and making changes in health care; collaboration; social context and accountability; and developing new, locally useful knowledge. We combine specific knowledge about the improvement of health care with the use of adult learning strategies, interactive video, and development of learner competencies. Our program provides insights for medical education to better prepare physicians to participate in and lead the improvement of health care.

  1. Views on equine-related research in Australia from the Australian equestrian community: perceived outputs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K; Clarkson, L

    2016-04-01

    The extension of research into public practice is enhanced by communication and behaviour change strategies that are consistent with consumer needs and perspectives. To gain support for equine research (or to appreciate the perspectives contributing to disagreement), it is necessary to determine how aware consumers are of research, what research means to them, how they perceive its benefits (if at all) and how they engage with (or resist) it. Because of a surprising dearth of research evaluating consumer perceptions of research in any sector, our aim was to identify the perceived outputs and benefits of research from the perspective of the Australian horse owner. We analysed the data for 930 participants in an online survey. Participants' understanding of research was associated with a broad terminology. Slightly more than half were aware of equine research that had taken place in Australia, with almost half reporting gaining some benefit, notably in relation to equine health. Although comments demonstrated an awareness of the collective benefit of research, research was made meaningful in relation to local conditions and participants' own equestrian disciplines. There is a significant opportunity for increasing awareness of Australia-based equine research and its value to owners of horses. The critical engagement with research by some owners suggests the need for communicators to present research in terms suitable for an intelligent lay audience, with clear identification of the personal and collective benefits for owners, horses and the equestrian community. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. The Components of Resilience--Perceptions of an Australian Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikstra, Elizabeth; Ross, Helen; King, Christine A.; Baker, Peter G.; Hegney, Desley; McLachlan, Kathryn; Rogers-Clark, Cath

    2010-01-01

    Resilience, of individuals, is a well-established concept in the psychology/mental health literatures, but has been little explored in relation to communities. Related theory in the community development and social impact assessment literature provides insight into qualities and assets of communities that enable them to develop effectively or to…

  3. Treating asthma with a self-management model of illness behaviour in an Australian community pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lorraine; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Mitchell, Bernadette; Saini, Bandana; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol

    2007-04-01

    Asthma affects a considerable proportion of the population worldwide and presents a significant health problem in Australia. Given its chronic nature, effective asthma self-management approaches are important. However, despite research and interventions targeting its treatment, the management of asthma remains problematic. This study aimed to develop, from a theoretical basis, an asthma self-management model and implement it in an Australian community pharmacy setting in metropolitan Sydney, using a controlled, parallel-groups repeated-measures design. Trained pharmacists delivered a structured, step-wise, patient-focused asthma self-management program to adult participants over a 9-month period focusing on identification of asthma problems, goal setting and strategy development. Data on process- clinical- and psychosocial-outcome measures were gathered. Results showed that participants set an average of four new goals and six repeated goals over the course of the intervention. Most common goal-related themes included asthma triggers, asthma control and medications. An average of nine strategies per participant was developed to achieve the set goals. Common strategies involved visiting a medical practitioner for review of medications, improving adherence to medications and using medications before exercise. Clinical and psychosocial outcomes indicated significant improvements over time in asthma symptom control, asthma-related self-efficacy and quality of life, and negative affect. These results suggest that an asthma self-management model of illness behaviour has the potential to provide patients with a range of process skills for self-management, and deliver improvements in clinical and psychosocial indicators of asthma control. The results also indicate the capacity for the effective delivery of such an intervention by pharmacists in Australian community pharmacy settings.

  4. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-04-18

    Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Data were collected from 1,139 Australians regarding types of racial discrimination experienced, settings for these incidents, response mechanisms and psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6) Psychological Distress Scale. Age, education, religion, gender, visibility and rurality were all significantly associated with differences in the frequency of experiencing racial discrimination. Experiencing racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. Mental health impacts were not associated with the type of discriminatory experience, but experiencing racial discrimination in shops and in employment and government settings was associated with being above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. One out of twelve response mechanisms was found to be associated with lower stress following a discriminatory incident. Study results indicate that poorer mental health was associated with the volume of discrimination experienced, rather than the type of experience. However, the impact of experiencing discrimination in some settings was shown to be particularly associated with high or very high psychological distress. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent the occurrence of racism have more potential to increase mental health in racial and ethnic minority communities than interventions that work with individuals in response to experiencing racism.

  5. PTSD risk and mental health care engagement in a multi-war era community sample of women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Davis, Teri D; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2013-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in women veterans (WVs), and associated with significant co-morbidity. Effective treatment is available; however, PTSD is often unrecognized. Identify PTSD prevalence and mental healthcare (MHC) use in a representative national WV sample. Cross-sectional, population-based 2008-2009 national survey of 3,611 WVs, weighted to the population. We screened for PTSD using a validated instrument, and also assessed demographic characteristics, health characteristics, and MHC use in the prior 12 months. Among those screening positive, we conducted multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors of MHC use. Overall, 13.0 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 9.8-16.2) of WVs screened PTSD-positive. Veterans Health Administration (VA) healthcare was used by 31.1 % of PTSD-positives and 11.4 % of PTSD-negatives (phealth care (OR=0.2; 95 % CI 0.1-0.4) and household income below the federal poverty level (OR=0.2; 95 % CI 0.1-0.5) predicted nonuse. More than one in eight WVs screened positive for PTSD. Though a majority of VA-users received MHC, low income predicted nonuse. Only a minority of VA-nonusers received MHC. The majority of WVs use non-VA healthcare providers, who may be unaware of their veteran status and PTSD risk. VA outreach to educate VA-nonusers and their healthcare providers about WVs' PTSD risk and available evidence-based VA treatment options is one approach to extend the reach of VA MHC. Research to characterize barriers to VA MHC use for VA-nonusers and low income VA-users is warranted to better understand low service utilization, and to inform program development to engage more WVs in needed MHC.

  6. Stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental disorders: a comparison of Australian health professionals with the general community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Morgan, Amy J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore attitudes towards people with mental disorders among Australian health professionals (psychiatrists, psychologists and general practitioners (GPs)) and to compare their attitudes with members of the general community. The study involved a postal survey of 518 GPs, 506 psychiatrists and 498 clinical psychologists and a telephone survey of 6019 members of the general community. Participants were given a case vignette describing a person with either depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or social phobia and two questionnaires to assess stigmatising attitudes (the Depression Stigma Scale and the Social Distance Scale). Exploratory structural equation modelling was used to elucidate the structure of stigma as measured by the two scales, to establish dimensions of stigma and to compare patterns of association according to gender, age, vignette and professional grouping. The measurement characteristics of stigmatising attitudes in health professionals were found to be comparable to those in members of the general community in social distance and also in personal and perceived attitude stigma, with each forming distinct dimensions and each comprising 'Weak-not-sick' and 'Dangerous/unpredictable' components. Among health professionals, female gender, age and being a GP were associated with higher scores on the personal stigma scales. Mental health professionals had lower scores on the personal 'Weak-not-sick' and 'Dangerous/unpredictable' scales than members of the general community, while there were no significant differences in the desire for social distance between health professionals and the general community. While mental health professionals have less stigmatising attitudes than the general public, the greater beliefs in dangerousness and personal weakness by GPs should be addressed.

  7. Research protocol for the Picture Talk Project: a qualitative study on research and consent with remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Emily F M; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Lawford, Tom; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; D'Antoine, Heather A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-12-28

    Research with Indigenous populations is not always designed with cultural sensitivity. Few publications evaluate or describe in detail seeking consent for research with Indigenous participants. When potential participants are not engaged in a culturally respectful manner, participation rates and research quality can be adversely affected. It is unethical to proceed with research without truly informed consent. We describe a culturally appropriate research protocol that is invited by Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley in Western Australia. The Picture Talk Project is a research partnership with local Aboriginal leaders who are also chief investigators. We will interview Aboriginal leaders about research, community engagement and the consent process and hold focus groups with Aboriginal community members about individual consent. Cultural protocols will be applied to recruit and conduct research with participants. Transcripts will be analysed using NVivo10 qualitative software and themes synthesised to highlight the key issues raised by the community about the research process. This protocol will guide future research with the Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley and may inform the approach to research with other Indigenous communities of Australia or the world. It must be noted that no community is the same and all research requires local consultation and input. To conduct culturally sensitive research, respected local people from the community who have knowledge of cultural protocol and language are engaged to guide each step of the research process from the project design to the delivery of results. Ethics approval was granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (No. 2012/348, reference:14760), the Western Australia Country Health Service Ethics Committee (No. 2012:15), the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and reviewed by the Kimberley Aboriginal Health Planning Forum Research Sub-Committee (No. 2012

  8. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing orbital cellulitis in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaska, Vikram L; Grimwood, Keith; Gole, Glen A; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L; Nissen, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has only emerged recently as a cause of serious ocular infections in several different countries. At a tertiary pediatric hospital in Brisbane, Australia, community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus orbital cellulitis was first noted in 2009. Since then, it has caused 4 of 9 such infections.

  9. An Interprofessional Education Project to Address Veterans' Healthcare Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jane; Brommelsiek, Margaret; Amelung, Sarah Knopf

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective: The number of veterans and their families seeking healthcare and support within civilian communities is increasing worldwide. There is a need for healthcare providers to provide sensitive, comprehensive care for veterans with both physical and behavioral health conditions. Many civilian providers are unfamiliar with veterans'…

  10. 78 FR 26698 - Report: Strategies for Serving Our Women Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... for homeless women Veterans; importance of culture change across VA with regard to women Veterans... NGOs, local community organizations, and other Federal agencies to provide training, services, outreach... requiring full-time availability of certain staff that provides direct assistance to women Veterans such as...

  11. Pharmacy diabetes care program: analysis of two screening methods for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, I; Mitchell, B; Clarke, P; Brillant, M; Dienaar, R; Hughes, J; Lau, P; Peterson, G; Stewart, K; Taylor, S; Wilkinson, J; Armour, C

    2007-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of two methods of screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy. A random sample of 30 pharmacies were allocated into two groups: (i) tick test only (TTO); or (ii) sequential screening (SS) method. Both methods used the same initial risk assessment for type 2 diabetes. Subjects with one or more risk factors in the TTO group were offered a referral to their general practitioner (GP). Under the SS method, patients with risk factors were offered a capillary blood glucose test and those identified as being at risk referred to a GP. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these approaches was assessed. A total of 1286 people were screened over a period of 3 months. The rate of diagnosis of diabetes was significantly higher for SS compared with the TTO method (1.7% versus 0.2%; p=0.008). The SS method resulted in fewer referrals to the GP and a higher uptake of referrals than the TTO method and so was the more cost-effective screening method. SS is the superior method from a cost and efficacy perspective. It should be considered as the preferred option for screening by community based pharmacists in Australia.

  12. Benchmarking the cost efficiency of community care in Australian child and adolescent mental health services: implications for future benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Gareth; Brann, Peter; Skene, Clive; Allison, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to benchmark the cost efficiency of community care across six child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) drawn from different Australian states. Organizational, contact and outcome data from the National Mental Health Benchmarking Project (NMHBP) data-sets were used to calculate cost per "treatment hour" and cost per episode for the six participating organizations. We also explored the relationship between intake severity as measured by the Health of the Nations Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) and cost per episode. The average cost per treatment hour was $223, with cost differences across the six services ranging from a mean of $156 to $273 per treatment hour. The average cost per episode was $3349 (median $1577) and there were significant differences in the CAMHS organizational medians ranging from $388 to $7076 per episode. HoNOSCA scores explained at best 6% of the cost variance per episode. These large cost differences indicate that community CAMHS have the potential to make substantial gains in cost efficiency through collaborative benchmarking. Benchmarking forums need considerable financial and business expertise for detailed comparison of business models for service provision.

  13. Evaluating a handwashing with soap program in Australian remote Aboriginal communities: a pre and post intervention study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola

    2015-11-27

    The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A survey questionnaire taking an ecological approach and based on the principals and constructs of the TPB was developed. Surveys were completed in six discrete Aboriginal communities immediately before and on completion of four weeks intensive televising of the three new commercials. Across the six communities access in the home to a television that worked ranged from 49 to 83 % (n = 415). Seventy-seven per cent (n = 319) of participants reported having seen one or more of the new commercials. Levels of acceptability and comprehension of the content of the commercials was high (97 % n = 308). Seventy-five per cent (n = 651) of participants reported they would buy more soap, toilet paper and facial tissues if these were not so expensive in their communities. For TPB constructs demonstrated to have good internal reliability the findings were mixed and these need to be interpreted with caution due to limitations in the study design. Cultural, social-economic and physical barriers in remote communities make it challenging to promote adults and children wash their hands with soap and maintain clean faces such that these behaviours become habit. Low levels of access to a television in the home illustrate the extreme level of disadvantage experienced in these communities. Highlighting that social marketing programs have the potential to increase disadvantage if expensive items such as television sets are needed to gain access to information. This trial of a theory informed evaluation design allowed for new and rich

  14. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  15. Health Programs for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... Advocating for health promotion, disease prevention, and health education for our nation’s Veterans Fisher House A "home ...

  16. The role of the consultant pediatrician in community pediatrics--an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, S

    1984-06-01

    The consultant pediatrician plays an important role within the community. The task includes assessing the child in all parameters, appropriately treating organic disease, and making efforts to understand and manage the emotional difficulties that may be present. This paper reviews the work of a consultant pediatrician within the community, emphasizing the importance of preventing disease and emotional ill-health in the child and family.

  17. The relationship between risky alcohol consumption, crime and traffic accidents in Australian rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Dennis J; Doran, Christopher M; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2010-04-01

    To estimate the alcohol-attributable crime and traffic accidents for rural communities in Australia, controlling for potential bias. For 20 rural communities in New South Wales, Australia, crime and traffic accident data was obtained from police records along with risky alcohol use estimated from a postal questionnaire. The relationship between community levels of risky drinking and crime and traffic accidents that occur in alcohol-related times is analysed controlling for the underlying level of crime by using the rate of incidents that occur in non-alcohol-related times. For the 20 rural communities, it was estimated that risky alcohol use is likely to have attributed to between 1.4 and 7.7 common assaults per 1000 population and between 0.6 and 1.8 serious traffic injuries or fatalities per 1000 population, every year. Rural communities in Australia are experiencing a sizeable amount of potentially avoidable harm due to risky alcohol use. Reducing the population levels of those drinking at risk of acute harm or improving the settings in which drinking takes place may have benefits for these communities, especially in terms of crime and traffic accidents. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Exploratory Assessment of the Validity of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM): Implications for Serving Veteran Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Thomas; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2015-01-01

    The Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) assesses predictors of student success for historically underrepresented and underserved men in community colleges. The instrument is designed to inform programming and service-delivery for male students (Wood & Harris, 2013). While the instrument was designed for community college men in general,…

  19. Feasibility and costs of water fluoridation in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Jonathon P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoridation of public water supplies remains the key potential strategy for prevention of dental caries. The water supplies of many remote Indigenous communities do not contain adequate levels of natural fluoride. The small and dispersed nature of communities presents challenges for the provision of fluoridation infrastructure and until recently smaller settlements were considered unfavourable for cost-effective water fluoridation. Technological advances in water treatment and fluoridation are resulting in new and more cost-effective water fluoridation options and recent cost analyses support water fluoridation for communities of less than 1,000 people. Methods Small scale fluoridation plants were installed in two remote Northern Territory communities in early 2004. Fluoride levels in community water supplies were expected to be monitored by local staff and by a remote electronic system. Site visits were undertaken by project investigators at commissioning and approximately two years later. Interviews were conducted with key informants and documentation pertaining to costs of the plants and operational reports were reviewed. Results The fluoridation plants were operational for about 80% of the trial period. A number of technical features that interfered with plant operation were identified and addressed though redesign. Management systems and the attitudes and capacity of operational staff also impacted on the effective functioning of the plants. Capital costs for the wider implementation of these plants in remote communities is estimated at about $US94,000 with recurrent annual costs of $US11,800 per unit. Conclusion Operational issues during the trial indicate the need for effective management systems, including policy and funding responsibility. Reliable manufacturers and suppliers of equipment should be identified and contractual agreements should provide for ongoing technical assistance. Water fluoridation units should

  20. Feasibility and costs of water fluoridation in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Jonathon P; Bailie, Ross

    2007-06-08

    Fluoridation of public water supplies remains the key potential strategy for prevention of dental caries. The water supplies of many remote Indigenous communities do not contain adequate levels of natural fluoride. The small and dispersed nature of communities presents challenges for the provision of fluoridation infrastructure and until recently smaller settlements were considered unfavourable for cost-effective water fluoridation. Technological advances in water treatment and fluoridation are resulting in new and more cost-effective water fluoridation options and recent cost analyses support water fluoridation for communities of less than 1,000 people. Small scale fluoridation plants were installed in two remote Northern Territory communities in early 2004. Fluoride levels in community water supplies were expected to be monitored by local staff and by a remote electronic system. Site visits were undertaken by project investigators at commissioning and approximately two years later. Interviews were conducted with key informants and documentation pertaining to costs of the plants and operational reports were reviewed. The fluoridation plants were operational for about 80% of the trial period. A number of technical features that interfered with plant operation were identified and addressed though redesign. Management systems and the attitudes and capacity of operational staff also impacted on the effective functioning of the plants. Capital costs for the wider implementation of these plants in remote communities is estimated at about $US 94,000 with recurrent annual costs of $US 11,800 per unit. Operational issues during the trial indicate the need for effective management systems, including policy and funding responsibility. Reliable manufacturers and suppliers of equipment should be identified and contractual agreements should provide for ongoing technical assistance. Water fluoridation units should be considered as a potential priority component of health related

  1. Color me healthy: food diversity in school community gardens in two rapidly urbanising Australian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A

    2014-03-01

    Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of hypertension in an Australian community pharmacy setting - patients' beliefs and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Beata V; LeMay, Kate S; Magin, Parker J; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L

    2017-08-01

    To explore patients' perspectives and experiences following a trial of a pharmacist-led service in hypertension management. A qualitative study comprising individual interviews was conducted. Patients of a community pharmacy, where a pharmacist-led hypertension management service had been trialled in selected metropolitan regions in Sydney (Australia), were recruited to the study. Emergent themes describing patients' experiences and perspectives on the service were elicited via thematic analysis (using manual inductive coding). Patients' (N = 18) experiences of the service were extremely positive, especially around pharmacists' monitoring of blood pressure and provision of advice about medication adherence. Patients' participation in the service was based on their trust in, and relationship with, their pharmacist. The perception of working in a 'team' was conveyed through the pharmacist's caring style of communication and the relaxed atmosphere of the community pharmacy. Patients felt that the community pharmacy was an obvious place for such a service because of their regular contact with the pharmacist, but was limited because the pharmacists were not able to prescribe medication. Patients were extremely positive about the role of, and their experience of, the pharmacy-based hypertension management service. Factors contributing to the patients' positive experiences provide important insights for community pharmacy practice. Good rapport with the pharmacist and a long-term relationship underpin patient engagement in such services. Restrictions on the pharmacists' scope of practice prevent their expertise, and the benefits of their accessibility as a primary point of contact, from being fully realised. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  4. Rural Australian community pharmacists' views on complementary and alternative medicine: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Jon A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study. Methods A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics. Results Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books. Conclusions Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to

  5. Evaluating the health impacts of participation in Australian community arts groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Berman, Naomi; Curry, Steve; Joubert, Lindy; Johnson, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of three well-established community arts programmes in Victoria, Australia, on the mental health and well-being outcomes of participants typically from disadvantaged backgrounds during 2006-07. It employs a theoretical framework that reconciles evidence-based practice in health and the phenomenological nature of community arts practice. Self-determination theory (SDT) was used to do this with SDT-derived psychometric instruments [arts climate and Basic Psychological Needs Scales (BPNS)]. Self-administered surveys using these instruments as well as a measure of social support were undertaken on two occasions. Two overlapping but distinct samples were defined and analysed cross-sectionally. These were a (pre-)survey at the commencement of rehearsals for the annual performance (n = 103) and a (post-)survey following the performance (n = 70). The most significant change (MSC) technique was used to study the arts-making process and how it contributes to outcomes. Using these mixed-methods approach, impacts on the climate of the arts organizations, participant access to supportive relationships and participant's mental health and well-being were studied. There were positive changes in the BPNS (p = 0.00), as well as its autonomy (p = 0.04) and relatedness (p = 0.00) subscales. Social support increased from 65.3% in the pre-survey to 82.4% in the post-survey (p = 0.03). MSC data indicated that the supportive, collaborative environment provided by the arts organizations was highly valued by participants and was perceived to have mental health benefits.Overall, the study demonstrated the potential health promoting effects of community arts programmes in disadvantaged populations. Its multi-method approach should be further studied in evaluating other community arts programmes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Community Nursing Home (CNH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Community Nursing Home (CNH) database contains a list of all Community Nursing Home facilities under local contract to Veterans Health Administration (VHA). CNH...

  7. Exploring domestic violence and social distress in Australian-Indian migrants through community theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Manjula; Colucci, Erminia

    2016-02-01

    In many parts of the world, young adult women have higher levels of common mental disorders than men. The exacerbation of domestic violence (DV) by migration is a salient social determinant of poor mental health. Ecological models describe factors contributing to DV as operating at individual, family, cultural, and societal levels. We explored the interplay among these factors in an Indian community living in Melbourne, Australia, in a qualitative participatory action research study using a modified Forum Theater approach. We here present findings on connections between migration, societal factors, and social/family/cultural factors in DV. The study captured the voices of women living in the community as they describe how DV contributes to their emotional difficulties. Improved understanding of the sociocultural dynamics of DV and the associated social distress in this migrant Indian community can be used to guide the development of culturally sensitive prevention and response programs to assist migrant women from the Indian subcontinent who present with psychopathology and suicidal behaviors associated with DV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Interspecific variation in the phenology of advertisement calling in a temperate Australian frog community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Geoffrey W; Canessa, Stefano; Parris, Kirsten M

    2015-09-01

    Spatial and temporal partitioning of resources underlies the coexistence of species with similar niches. In communities of frogs and toads, the phenology of advertisement calling provides insights into temporal partitioning of reproductive effort and its implications for community dynamics. This study assessed the phenology of advertisement calling in an anuran community from Melbourne, in southern Australia. We collated data from 1432 surveys of 253 sites and used logistic regression to quantify seasonality in the nightly probability of calling and the influence of meteorological variables on this probability for six species of frogs. We found limited overlap in the predicted seasonal peaks of calling among these species. Those shown to have overlapping calling peaks are unlikely to be in direct competition, due to differences in larval ecology (Crinia signifera and Litoria ewingii) or differences in calling behavior and acoustics (Limnodynastes dumerilii and Litoria raniformis). In contrast, closely related and ecologically similar species (Crinia signfera and Crinia parinsignifera;Litoria ewingii and Litoria verreauxii) appear to have staggered seasonal peaks of calling. In combination with interspecific variation in the meteorological correlates of calling, these results may be indicative of temporal partitioning of reproductive activity to facilitate coexistence, as has been reported for tropical and temperate anurans from other parts of the globe.

  9. Prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning provision for Australian community aged care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Karen Margaret; Carter, Rachel Zoe; Sellars, Marcus William; Lewis, Virginia; Sutton, Elizabeth Anne

    2017-12-01

    Conduct a prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning (ACP) provision in community aged care: ACP conducted by the client's case manager (CM) ('Facilitator') and ACP conducted by an external ACP service ('Referral') over a 6-month period. This Australian study involved CMs and their clients. Eligible CM were English speaking, ≥18 years, had expected availability for the trial and worked ≥3 days per week. CMs were recruited via their organisations, sequentially allocated to a group and received education based on the group allocation. They were expected to initiate ACP with all clients and to facilitate ACP or refer for ACP. Outcomes were quantity of new ACP conversations and quantity and quality of new advance care directives (ACDs). 30 CMs (16 Facilitator, 14 Referral) completed the study; all 784 client's files (427 Facilitator, 357 Referral) were audited. ACP was initiated with 508 (65%) clients (293 Facilitator, 215 Referral; p<0.05); 89 (18%) of these (53 Facilitator, 36 Referral) and 41 (46%) (13 Facilitator, 28 Referral; p<0.005) completed ACDs. Most ACDs (71%) were of poor quality/not valid. A further 167 clients (facilitator 124; referral 43; p<0.005) reported ACP was in progress at study completion. While there were some differences, overall, models achieved similar outcomes. ACP was initiated with 65% of clients. However, fewer clients completed ACP, there was low numbers of ACDs and document quality was generally poor. The findings raise questions for future implementation and research into community ACP provision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Pathways into homelessness among post-9/11-era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metraux, Stephen; Cusack, Meagan; Byrne, Thomas H; Hunt-Johnson, Nora; True, Gala

    2017-05-01

    Despite the scale of veteran homelessness and government-community initiatives to end homelessness among veterans, few studies have featured individual veteran accounts of experiencing homelessness. Here we track veterans' trajectories from military service to homelessness through qualitative, semistructured interviews with 17 post-9/11-era veterans. Our objective was to examine how veterans become homeless-including the role of military and postmilitary experiences-and how they negotiate and attempt to resolve episodes of homelessness. We identify and report results in 5 key thematic areas: transitioning from military service to civilian life, relationships and employment, mental and behavioral health, lifetime poverty and adverse events, and use of veteran-specific services. We found that veterans predominantly see their homelessness as rooted in nonmilitary, situational factors such as unemployment and the breakup of relationships, despite very tangible ties between homelessness and combat sequelae that manifest themselves in clinical diagnoses such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, although assistance provided by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and community-based organizations offer a powerful means for getting veterans rehoused, veterans also recount numerous difficulties in accessing and obtaining VA services and assistance. Based on this, we offer specific recommendations for more systematic and efficient measures to help engage veterans with VA services that can prevent or attenuate their homelessness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Protistan communities in the Australian sector of the Sub-Antarctic Zone during SAZ-Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salas, Miguel F.; Eriksen, Ruth; Davidson, Andrew T.; Wright, Simon W.

    2011-11-01

    Protistan species composition and abundance in the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) and Polar Front Zone (PFZ) south of Tasmania were determined by microscopy and pigment analysis from samples collected during the Sub-Antarctic Zone—Sensitivity of the sub-Antarctic Zone to Environmental Change (SAZ-Sense) voyage, in January and February of 2007. A primary goal of this voyage was to determine the potential effects of climate change-induced natural iron fertilisation of the SAZ on the protistan community by exploring differences between communities in waters west of Tasmania, which are low in iron, and eastern waters, which are fertilised by continental iron input and mixing across the subtropical front. The SAZ is a sink for anthropogenic CO 2 in spring, but the magnitude of this may vary depending on seasonal changes in protistan abundance, composition and trophodynamics. Protistan species composition and abundance in the western Sub-Antarctic Zone at process station 1 (P1) showed a community in which low carbon biomass was dominated by a Thalassiosira sp., which was very weakly silicified under strong silica limitation. Protistan cell carbon was dominated by diatoms and nano-picoflagellates at process station 2 (P2) in the Polar Front Zone (PFZ), while dinoflagellates dominated in the iron-enriched waters of eastern SAZ at station 3 (P3). Iron enrichment enhanced production and favoured proliferation of small flagellates during summer in the silica-depleted eastern SAZ rather than large diatoms, though the effect this may have on the vertical export of particulate organic carbon (POC) is still unclear.

  12. Maintaining relevance: an evaluation of health message sponsorship at Australian community sport and arts events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee

    2014-12-04

    Health message sponsorship at community sport and arts events is an established component of a health promotion settings approach. Recent increases in commercial sponsorship of sport and community events has swelled competition for consumer attention and potentially reduced the impact of health message sponsorship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate awareness, understandings and behavioural intentions of health messages promoted at sponsored community sport and arts events. Interview and self-administered surveys were completed by 2259 adults attending one of 29 sport and arts events held in Western Australia between 2008 and 2013. The surveys measured participant awareness of the health message promoted at the event, as well as comprehension, acceptance and behavioural intention as a result of exposure to health messages. Awareness of the sponsored health message was 58% across all sponsored events, with high levels of comprehension (74%) and acceptance (92%) among those aware of the health message. Forming behavioural intentions was significantly related to the type of sponsored message promoted at the event, being female and over 40 years of age. Messages about sun protection and promoting mental health were the most likely to result in behavioural intention. Health message sponsorship, at least within a comprehensive sponsorship program, appears to remain an effective health promotion strategy for generating awareness and behavioural intention among people attending sport and arts events. Remaining relevant within a modern sponsorship environment appears closely aligned to selecting health messages that promote behavioural action relevant to the sponsored event that are also supported by broader health promotion campaigns.

  13. Assessment and management of serotonin syndrome in a simulated patient study of Australian community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of serotonin syndrome is increasing due to the widening use of serotonergic drugs. Identification of serotonin syndrome is challenging as the manifestations are diverse. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in care and inappropriate treatment. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if staff of community pharmacies in Australia could identify the symptoms of serotonin syndrome in simulated patients and recommend an appropriate course of action. Methods: Agents acting on behalf of a simulated patient were trained on a patient scenario that reflected possible serotonin syndrome due to an interaction between duloxetine and recently prescribed tramadol. They entered 148 community pharmacies in Australia to ask for advice about a 60 year old male simulated patient who was ‘not feeling well’. The interaction was audio recorded and analysed for degree of access to the pharmacist, information gathered by pharmacy staff, management advice given and pharmacotherapy recommended. Results: The simulated patient’s agent was consulted by a pharmacist in 94.0% (139/148 of cases. The potential for serotonin syndrome was identified by 35.1% (52/148 of pharmacies. Other suggested causes of the simulated patient’s symptoms were viral (16.9%; 25/148 and cardiac (15.5%; 23/148. A total of 33.8% (50/148 of pharmacies recommended that the simulated patient should cease taking tramadol. This advice always came from the pharmacist. Immediate cessation of tramadol was advised by 94.2% (49/52 of pharmacists correctly identifying serotonin syndrome. The simulated patient was advised to seek urgent medical care in 14.2% (21/148 of cases and follow up with a doctor when possible in 68.2% (101/148 of cases. The majority of pharmacies (87.8%; 130/148 did not recommend non-prescription medicines. Conclusion: While not identifying the cause of the simulated patient’s symptoms in the majority of cases, community pharmacies

  14. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  15. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community

  16. Addressing Veteran Homelessness to Prevent Veteran Suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Trevisan, Louis; Huang, Minda; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2018-04-02

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is shifting its focus from ending veteran homelessness to preventing veteran suicides. With supporting data, this Open Forum argues that VA homelessness services also help address veteran suicides. Analysis of a nationally representative survey of U.S. veterans in 2015 shows that veterans with a history of homelessness attempted suicide in the previous two years at a rate >5.0 times higher compared with veterans without a history of homelessness (6.9% versus 1.2%), and their rates of two-week suicidal ideation were 2.5 times higher (19.8% versus 7.4%). Because the majority of veterans who die by suicide are not engaged in VA care, VA services for the homeless that include outreach efforts to engage new veterans may be reaching some of these veterans. Thus continued federal support for VA homelessness services not only may help address homelessness but also may help prevent suicide of veterans.

  17. Piloting the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care multidisciplinary team: an Australian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Box Margaret

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the home is the most common setting for the provision of palliative care in Australia, a common problem encountered here is the inability of patient/carers to manage medications, which can lead to misadventure and hospitalisation. This can be averted through detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs by a pharmacist; however, they are rarely included as members of the palliative care team. The aim of this study was to pilot a model of care that supports the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care team. A component of the study was to develop a cost-effective model for continuing the inclusion of a pharmacist within a community palliative care service. Methods The study was undertaken (February March 2009-June 2010 in three phases. Development (Phase 1 involved a literature review; scoping the pharmacist's role; creating tools for recording DRPs and interventions, a communication and education strategy, a care pathway and evidence based patient information. These were then implemented in Phase 2. Evaluation (Phase 3 of the impact of the pharmacist's role from the perspectives of team members was undertaken using an online survey and focus group. Impact on clinical outcomes was determined by the number of patients screened to assess their risk of medication misadventure, as well as the number of medication reviews and interventions performed to resolve DRPs. Results The pharmacist screened most patients (88.4%, 373/422 referred to the palliative care service to assess their risk of medication misadventure, and undertook 52 home visits. Medication reviews were commonly conducted at the majority of home visits (88%, 46/52, and a variety of DRPs (113 were detected at this point, the most common being "patient requests drug information" (25%, 28/113 and "condition not adequately treated" (22%, 25/113. The pharmacist made 120 recommendations in relation to her interventions. Fifty percent of online

  18. Adherence to Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Australian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Adler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly patients, and is associated with a considerable economic burden on the healthcare system. The combination of high incidence and substantial financial costs necessitate accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients admitted with CAP. This article will discuss the rates of adherence to clinical guidelines, the use of severity scoring tools and the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing for patients diagnosed with CAP. The authors maintain that awareness of national and hospital guidelines is imperative to complement the physicians’ clinical judgment with evidence-based recommendations. Increased use of pneumonia severity assessment tools and greater adherence to therapeutic guidelines will enhance concordant antimicrobial prescribing for patients with CAP. A robust and multifaceted educational intervention, in combination with antimicrobial stewardship programs, may enhance compliance of CAP guidelines in clinical practice in Australia.

  19. Perceived barriers and enablers to participation in a community-tailored physical activity program with Indigenous Australians in a regional and rural setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Engelberg, Terry; Gebel, Klaus

    2017-09-18

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of chronic disease and a lower life expectancy than non-Indigenous Australians. In non-urban areas these health disparities are even larger. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore perceived barriers and enablers to attending an eight-week physical activity program in a rural and regional setting which aimed to improve health outcomes, but had a low attendance rate. Thirty-four Indigenous Australians participated in the intervention from the rural (n = 12) and the regional (n = 22) community. Qualitative semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at the follow-up health assessments with 12 participants. A thematic network analysis was undertaken to examine the barriers and enablers to participation in the program. Overall, there were positive attitudes to, and high levels of motivation towards, the physical activity program. Enablers to participation were the inclusion of family members, no financial cost and a good relationship with the principal investigator, which was strengthened by the community-based participatory approach to the program design. Barriers to program attendance were mostly beyond the control of the individuals, such as 'sorry business', needing to travel away from the community and lack of community infrastructure. More consideration is needed prior to implementation of programs to understand how community-specific barriers and enablers will affect attendance to the program. ACTRN12616000497404 . Registered 18 April 2016.

  20. The prevalence and experience of Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists working within community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Michael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Method Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. Results 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111 reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15 did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. Conclusions The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies

  1. Stages of Change, Smoking Behaviour and Readiness to Quit in a Large Sample of Indigenous Australians Living in Eight Remote North Queensland Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn McDermott

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major health issue for Indigenous Australians, however there are few interventions with demonstrated efficacy in this population. The Transtheoretical Model may provide a useful framework for describing smoking behaviour and assessing readiness to quit, with the aim of developing better interventions. Interviews were conducted with 593 Indigenous Australians in eight rural and remote communities in north Queensland, to examine stages of change and smoking behaviour. Among current smokers, 39.6% and 43.4% were in Precontemplation and Contemplation stages respectively. A further 13.9% were making preparations to quit (Preparation whilst only 3.2% said they were actively trying to quit (Action. When analysed by stage of change, the pattern of smoking-related behaviours conformed to the results of past research using the model. Importantly however, distribution of individuals across the stages opposes those observed in investigations of smoking behaviour in non-Indigenous Australian populations. The Transtheoretical Model can be used to meaningfully classify Indigenous smokers in remote north Queensland according to stages along the behaviour change continuum. Importantly, in this large sample across eight communities, most Indigenous smokers were not making preparations to change their smoking behaviour. This suggests that interventions should focus on promoting movement toward the Preparation and Action stages of change.

  2. Australian fly-in, fly-out operations: Impacts on communities, safety, workers and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Rebecca R; Biggs, Herbert C; Rowland, Bevan

    2016-10-17

    Australia's mineral, resource and infrastructure sectors continues to expand as operations in rural and remote locations increasingly rely on fly-in, fly-out or drive-in, drive-out workforces in order to become economically competitive. The issues in effectively managing these workforces are becoming more apparent with reported high amounts of turnover and concerns for safety and performance. The issues presented include a range of physical, mental, psychosocial, safety and community challenges. This review aims to consolidate a range of research conducted to communicate potential challenges for industry in relation to a wide variety of issues when engaging and using FIFO/DIDO workforces which includes compressed working schedule design (work schedules), working hours, fatigue, safety performance, employee wellbeing, turnover, psychosocial relationships and community concerns. A comprehensive literature review was performed using EBSCOhost, PubMed and google scholar, with a focus on FIFO or DIDO workforces engaged within the resources sector. Search terms were kept broad in order to capture all national and international research conducted and included: "fly-in, fly-out" "FIFO" "DIDO" "drive-in, drive-out" "mining". There was no date restriction included in the search. Many of the studies were focused on sleep quality, fatigue and the influence of lowered safety performance while at work, presenting an increased risk for health and safety. These issues may be exacerbated for the FIFO workforce when linked to additional research surrounding the extended periods of absence from families influencing workers personal relationships, psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction and the reported high amounts of turnover within the industry. Taken together, this presents a unique implication for the management and continued use of FIFO workforces when considering balancing safety and performance with economic viability of production and operations. The issues of long working

  3. The relationships between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction, and self-esteem among Australian gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousari-Rad, Pantea; McLaren, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction has been linked to belonging to the gay community and poor self-esteem among gay men. This study was designed to explore the applicability of a moderation model and a mediation model in explaining the relations between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem among 90 self-identified Australian gay men. Participants completed the psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Body Satisfaction Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results supported the moderation model; the relation between body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem was found to be statistically significant only at average and high levels of belonging to the gay community. The mediation model was also supported; body image dissatisfaction partially mediated the sense of belonging-self-esteem relation. Educating gay men and health professionals about the possible negative outcomes of "belonging" to an appearance-oriented community is important.

  4. Veterans transitioning from isolation to integration: a look at veteran/service dog partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Terry K; Sánchez, Victoria; Howard, Alyse; Western, Brenna; Barger, Stephanie

    2017-08-13

    This study explored the dynamics of veteran/service dog partnerships by gathering the perspectives of veterans with a history of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or traumatic brain injury. Exploratory qualitative methods (focus groups and individual interviews) were used to investigate veteran/service dog relationships related to community involvement, family and friend relationships, self-care, work, and leisure. Nine male veterans, Paws, and Stripes program graduates participated. Data were audio recorded and transcribed by two research team members who used qualitative analytic software to manage and code the data. The full research team discussed themes and reached consensus on the themes that emerged from analysis. Five themes emerged about the perceived benefit of veteran/service dog relationship: Secluded but Seeking Society (moving from isolation to reconnection); Opening Opportunities (navigating daily life); Bridging the Gap (facilitating social opportunities); and Reclaiming Life (transforming sense of worth and purpose). An overarching theme, Calming Catalyst, connected the other four themes. Veterans in this study reported that their goal was to reclaim and develop key aspects of their lives and they perceived service dogs as a support in their transition from isolation to reintegration. This study found that service dogs supported the veterans to meet their goal. Implications for rehabilitation There are a significant number of veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and/or traumatic brain injury who are facing life challenges including self-care, securing work, participating in leisure activities, and integrating into the community. Service dogs are an emerging intervention used to assist veterans with reintegration into civilian life. There is a need for professionals to be aware of potential benefits of service dog/veteran partnerships. Based on our findings, veterans could benefit from being paired with a service dog to facilitate their

  5. Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.

  6. After-hours respiratory physiotherapy for intubated and mechanically ventilated patients with community-acquired pneumonia: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Lisa; Hill, Anne-Marie; Patman, Shane

    2017-11-15

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common reason for admission to an intensive care unit for intubation and mechanical ventilation, and results in high morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of the study was to investigate availability and provision of respiratory physiotherapy, outside of normal business hours, for intubated and mechanically ventilated adults with CAP in Australian hospitals. A cross-sectional, mixed methods online survey was conducted. Participants were senior intensive care unit physiotherapists from 88 public and private hospitals. Main outcome measures included presence and nature of an after-hours physiotherapy service and factors perceived to influence the need for after-hours respiratory physiotherapy intervention, when the service was available, for intubated adult patients with CAP. Data were also collected regarding respiratory intervention provided after-hours by other ICU professionals. Response rate was 72% (n=75). An after-hours physiotherapy service was provided by n=31 (46%) hospitals and onsite after-hours physiotherapy presence was limited (22%), with a combination of onsite and on-call service reported by 19%. Treatment response (83%) was the most frequent factor for referring patients with CAP for after-hours physiotherapy intervention by the treating day-time physiotherapist. Nurses performing respiratory intervention (77%) was significantly associated with no available after-hours physiotherapy service (p=0.04). Physiotherapy after-hours service in Australia is limited, therefore it is common for intubated patients with CAP not to receive any respiratory physiotherapy intervention outside of normal business hours. In the absence of an after-hours physiotherapist, nurses were most likely to perform after-hours respiratory intervention to intubated patients with CAP. Further research is required to determine whether the frequency of respiratory physiotherapy intervention, including after-hours provision of treatment

  7. Honoring our Nation's Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Today is Armistice Day, renamed Veterans Day in 1954, to honor our Nation's Veterans. In Washington the rhetoric from both the political right and left supports our Veterans. My cynical side reminds me that this might have something to do with Veterans voting in a higher percentage than the population as a whole, but let me give the politicians this one. Serving our Country in the military is something that deserves to be honored. I was proud to serve our Veterans over 30 years at the four Department of Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals. However, the VA has had a very bad year. First, in Washington there were the resignations of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Eric Shinseki; the undersecretary for the Veterans Health Administration, Robert Petzel; and the undersecretary for the Veterans Benefits Administration, Allison Hickey. Locally, in the light of the VA wait scandal there were the firing of ...

  8. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Annie M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008 project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation, a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring and a Project Management Committee (project delivery. A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as

  9. Psychiatric disorder in male veterans and nonveterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquist, G S; Hough, R L; Golding, J M; Escobar, J I

    1990-05-01

    Prevalences of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-III psychiatric disorders for male veterans and nonveterans from four war eras were estimated using data from over 7500 male community respondents interviewed by the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program at five geographic areas across the country. Veterans serving after Vietnam (Post-Vietnam era) had greater lifetime and 6-month prevalences of psychiatric disorder than their nonveteran counterparts, whereas the reverse tended to be the case for the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II war eras. Comparisons across war eras revealed a trend for more psychiatric disorder, especially substance abuse, in younger veterans and nonveterans than in older respondents.

  10. Dalfampridine improves walking speed, walking endurance, and community participation in veterans with multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michelle H; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Overs, Shannon; Murchison, Charles; Manning, Jane; Whitham, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    In short-term trials, dalfampridine extended release (ER) improves walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The tolerability and effects of dalfampridine-ER in clinical practice have not been reported. The objective of this paper is to determine the clinical tolerability and effects of dalfampridine on walking and community participation. All patients at the Portland VA Medical Center prescribed dalfampridine-ER over one year completed the Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW), Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), Two-Minute Timed Walk (2MTW), and Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) at baseline and follow-up clinic visits. Ongoing use and measures over one year were analyzed. A total of 39 patients (mean age 56.5 years, mean disease duration 19.5 years, 82% male, 38% relapsing-remitting MS, 62% progressive MS) were prescribed dalfampridine-ER. Twenty-four (62%) continued to take dalfampridine-ER. At initial follow-up, all measures improved significantly from baseline (T25FW: -2.7 s, p = 0.004; 2MTW: 41 feet (ft), p = 0.002; MSWS12: -11, p endurance and self-perceived walking were still significantly improved (2MTW: 33 ft, p = 0.03; MSWS-12: 5.9, p = 0.007). Dalfampridine-ER was associated with short-term improvements in walking speed and community participation, and sustained improvements in walking endurance and self-perceived impact of MS on walking for one year. Our study supports the utility of this medication in late MS.

  11. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connected Twitter @PVA1946 Facebook @Paralyzed Veterans of America Instagram @PVA1946 National Veterans Wheelchair Games App Download Now ... 838-7782 CONNECT WITH US Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Flickr STAY INFORMED WITH NEWS & UPDATES Enter your ...

  12. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  13. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  14. Veterans and Homelessness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Libby

    2007-01-01

    .... The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) estimates that it has served approximately 300 returning veterans in its homeless programs and has identified over 1,000 more as being at risk of homelessness...

  15. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  16. Translation of tobacco policy into practice in disadvantaged and marginalized subpopulations: a study of challenges and opportunities in remote Australian Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Jan A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia generally, smoking prevalence more than halved after 1980 and recently commenced to decline among Australia's disadvantaged Indigenous peoples. However, in some remote Indigenous Australian communities in the Northern Territory (NT, extremely high rates of up to 83% have not changed over the past 25 years. The World Health Organisation has called for public health and political leadership to address a global tobacco epidemic. For Indigenous Australians, unprecedented policies aim to overcome disadvantage and close the 'health gap' with reducing tobacco use the top priority. This study identifies challenges and opportunities to implementing these important new tobacco initiatives in remote Indigenous communities. Methods: With little empirical evidence available, we interviewed 82 key stakeholders across the NT representing operational- and management-level service providers, local Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants to identify challenges and opportunities for translating new policies into successful tobacco interventions. Data were analysed using qualitative approaches to identify emergent themes. Results The 20 emergent themes were classified using counts of occasions each theme occurred in the transcribed data as challenge or opportunity. The 'smoke-free policies' theme occurred most frequently as opportunity but infrequently as challenge while 'health workforce capacity' occurred most frequently as challenge but less frequently as opportunity, suggesting that policy implementation is constrained by lack of a skilled workforce. 'Smoking cessation support' occurred frequently as opportunity but also frequently as challenge suggesting that support for individuals requires additional input and attention. Conclusions These results from interviews with local and operational-level participants indicate that current tobacco policies in Australia targeting Indigenous smoking are sound and comprehensive

  17. Sexual health and sexual trauma in women with severe mental illness: An exploratory survey of Western Australian community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thinh; Hauck, Yvonne L; Pedruzzi, Rebecca A; Frayne, Jacqueline; Rock, Daniel; Dragovic, Milan

    2017-07-01

    Australian women attending community mental health services were surveyed to determine the relationship between sexual trauma, sexual activity, and sexual health seeking behaviors. Self-reported history of "forced sex" was 58.4% (n = 122 out of 220). Latent class analysis revealed a three-class model: "sexually active and health seeking," "low sexual activity and health seeking" and "low sexual activity and not health seeking." An association with general practitioner engagement and sexual health seeking behaviors was found. Rates of self-reported sexual trauma reinforce the need for screening and trauma informed care. Groupings may reflect different aspects of recovery associated with sexual health behaviors.

  18. The carbon cycle in the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1) - Part 2: Historical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, Tilo; Lenton, Andrew; Law, Rachel M.; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.

    2017-07-01

    Over the last decade many climate models have evolved into Earth system models (ESMs), which are able to simulate both physical and biogeochemical processes through the inclusion of additional components such as the carbon cycle. The Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) has been recently extended to include land and ocean carbon cycle components in its ACCESS-ESM1 version. A detailed description of ACCESS-ESM1 components including results from pre-industrial simulations is provided in Part 1. Here, we focus on the evaluation of ACCESS-ESM1 over the historical period (1850-2005) in terms of its capability to reproduce climate and carbon-related variables. Comparisons are performed with observations, if available, but also with other ESMs to highlight common weaknesses. We find that climate variables controlling the exchange of carbon are well reproduced. However, the aerosol forcing in ACCESS-ESM1 is somewhat larger than in other models, which leads to an overly strong cooling response in the land from about 1960 onwards. The land carbon cycle is evaluated for two scenarios: running with a prescribed leaf area index (LAI) and running with a prognostic LAI. We overestimate the seasonal mean (1.7 vs. 1.4) and peak amplitude (2.0 vs. 1.8) of the prognostic LAI at the global scale, which is common amongst CMIP5 ESMs. However, the prognostic LAI is our preferred choice, because it allows for the vegetation feedback through the coupling between LAI and the leaf carbon pool. Our globally integrated land-atmosphere flux over the historical period is 98 PgC for prescribed LAI and 137 PgC for prognostic LAI, which is in line with estimates of land use emissions (ACCESS-ESM1 does not include land use change). The integrated ocean-atmosphere flux is 83 PgC, which is in agreement with a recent estimate of 82 PgC from the Global Carbon Project for the period 1959-2005. The seasonal cycle of simulated atmospheric CO2 is close to the observed seasonal

  19. MX1: a bending-magnet crystallography beamline serving both chemical and macromolecular crystallography communities at the Australian Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowieson, Nathan Philip; Aragao, David; Clift, Mark; Ericsson, Daniel J.; Gee, Christine; Harrop, Stephen J.; Mudie, Nathan; Panjikar, Santosh; Price, Jason R.; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Williamson, Rachel; Caradoc-Davies, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The macromolecular crystallography beamline MX1 at the Australian Synchrotron is described. MX1 is a bending-magnet crystallography beamline at the 3 GeV Australian Synchrotron. The beamline delivers hard X-rays in the energy range from 8 to 18 keV to a focal spot at the sample position of 120 µm FWHM. The beamline endstation and ancillary equipment facilitate local and remote access for both chemical and biological macromolecular crystallography. Here, the design of the beamline and endstation are discussed. The beamline has enjoyed a full user program for the last seven years and scientific highlights from the user program are also presented

  20. Introducing Veteran Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Glenn A.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2017-01-01

    Research on student veterans is in an infant state. As veterans continue to enroll in institutions of higher education, researchers must explore new ways of "knowing" student veterans. It is not enough to only describe and model this growing demographic, researchers must also have a tool for criticism and question. The next in an…

  1. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  2. The Lililwan Project: study protocol for a population-based active case ascertainment study of the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Lucas, Barbara; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Peadon, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Genevieve; Hand, Marmingee

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that high-risk drinking in pregnancy is common in some remote Australian communities. Alcohol is teratogenic and may cause a range of lifelong conditions termed 'fetal alcohol spectrum disorders' (FASD). Australia has few diagnostic services for FASD, and prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders remains unknown. In 2009, Aboriginal leaders in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia identified FASD as a community priority and initiated the Lililwani Project in partnership with leading research organisations. This project will establish the prevalence of FASD and other health and developmental problems in school-aged children residing in the Fitzroy Valley, providing data to inform FASD prevention and management. This is a population-based active case ascertainment study of all children born in 2002 and 2003 and residing in the Fitzroy Valley. Participants will be identified from the Fitzroy Valley Population Project and Communicare databases. Parents/carers will be interviewed using a standardised diagnostic questionnaire modified for local language and cultural requirements to determine the demographics, antenatal exposures, birth outcomes, education and psychosocial status of each child. A comprehensive interdisciplinary health and neurodevelopmental assessment will be performed using tests and operational definitions adapted for the local context. Internationally recognised diagnostic criteria will be applied to determine FASD prevalence. Relationships between pregnancy exposures and early life trauma, neurodevelopmental, health and education outcomes will be evaluated using regression analysis. Results will be reported according to STROBE guidelines for observational studies. Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Information and Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Country Health Service Board Research Ethics

  3. Fatherhood in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: An Examination of Barriers and Opportunities to Strengthen the Male Parenting Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Lyndon; Rees, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population. An expert sample of 25 Aboriginal and 6 non-Aboriginal stakeholders, including maternal and child health workers and men's group facilitators, considered barriers and opportunities to improve men's parenting knowledge and role, with an aim to inform services and practices intended to support men's parenting. A specific aim was to shape an existing men's group program known as Strong Fathers, Strong Families. A thematic analysis of data from the project identified barriers and opportunities to support men's role as parents. Challenges included the transition from traditional to contemporary parenting practices and low level of cultural and male gender sensitivity in maternal and child health services. Services need to better understand and focus on men's psychological empowerment and to address shame and lack of confidence around parenting. Poor literacy and numeracy are viewed as contributing to disempowerment. Communities need to champion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male father role models. Biases and barriers should be addressed to improve service delivery and better enable men to become empowered and confident fathers.

  4. "Time enough! Or not enough time!" An oral history investigation of some British and Australian community nurses' responses to demands for "efficiency" in health care, 1960-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Christine E; Madsen, Wendy; Pateman, Brian; Bradshaw, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Oral history methodology was used to investigate the perspectives of retired British district nurses and Australian domiciliary nurses who had practiced between 1960 and 2000. Interviews yielded insights into the dramatic changes in community nursing practice during the last four decades of the 20th century. Massive changes in health care and government-led drives for greater efficiency meant moving from practice governed by "experiential time" (in which perception of time depends on the quality of experience) to practice governed by "measured time" (in which experience itself is molded by the measurement of time). Nurses recognized that the quality of their working lives and their relationships with families had been altered by the social, cultural, and political changes, including the drive for professional recognition in nursing itself, soaring economic costs of health care and push for deinstitutionalization of care. Community nurses faced several dilemmas as they grappled with the demands for efficiency created by these changes.

  5. Helping Veterans and Their Families Fight On!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hazle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This new generation of veterans is coming home to families, friends, employers, and communities that likely do not understand military culture, nor the effects that military service and reintegration have on a veteran’s life, leading to the next war – the Reintegration War. Military servicemembers, veterans, and their families face challenges within the Reintegration War that are different from their civilian counterparts and are complicated by military-specific circumstances. In order to more effectively and efficiently address the challenges servicemembers, veterans, and their families face, we need to work together in a comprehensive effort. Strategies are presented to help win the Reintegration War and ease the transition for servicemembers, veterans, and their families.

  6. Oral health of community-dwelling older Australian men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Fac; Chu, Sk-Y; Milledge, K L; Valdez, E; Law, G; Hsu, B; Naganathan, V; Hirani, V; Blyth, F M; Le Couteur, D G; Harford, J; Waite, L M; Handelsman, D J; Seibel, M J; Cumming, R G

    2017-08-29

    The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) is a cohort study of the health of a representative sample of Australian men aged 70 years and older. The aim of this report is to describe the oral health of these men. Oral health was assessed when the men were all aged 78 years or older. Two calibrated examiners conducted a standardized intraoral assessment. Descriptive data were analysed by statistical association tests. Participants were excluded from the collection of some periodontal assessments if they had a medical contraindication. Dental assessments of 614 participants revealed 90 (14.6%) were edentate. Men had a mean of 13.8 missing teeth and 10.3 filled teeth. Dentate participants had a mean of 1.1 teeth with active coronal decay. Those in the low-income group had a higher rate of decayed teeth and lower rate of filled teeth. Thirty-four participants (5.5%) had one or more dental implants, and 66.3% relied on substitute natural teeth for functional occlusion. Of those with full periodontal assessments; 90.9% had sites with pocket depths of 3 mm or more, 96.6% had sites with CAL of 5 mm or more, and 79.7% had three or more sites with GI scores of 2 or more. There was a high prevalence of periodontal diseases and restorative burden of dentitions, which suggests that greater attention needs to be given to prevention and health maintenance in older Australian men. © 2017 The Authors. Australian Dental Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Dental Association.

  7. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  8. Fatigue in Cambodia veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Soetekouw, P M; Van Der Meer, J W; Bleijenberg, G

    2000-05-01

    In 1992 and 1993, Dutch military personnel were deployed in the peace operation UNTAC in Cambodia. Since returning, Cambodia veterans have reported health complaints which they perceive to be related to their service. Their symptoms strikingly resemble health problems reported by Gulf War veterans. Four years post-return, a cross-sectional survey on health symptoms in Cambodia veterans was initiated. Questionnaires were sent to all Cambodia veterans and four comparison groups. Forgetfulness, difficulty concentrating and fatigue were the symptoms most commonly endorsed. An operational case definition was constructed using a validated fatigue severity questionnaire. Cases were not uniquely found in Cambodia veterans (17%). In Rwanda and Bosnia veterans, respectively, 28% and 11% also met our case definition. Fatigue severity level was predicted by pre-mission, during-mission and post-mission variables, of which retrospective recollection of side-effects of vaccines and causal attributions also have been shown to be relevant in studies on Gulf-related illness.

  9. Caring for Vietnam Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Veterans of the Vietnam era are now the largest group of United States Veterans, and are at or approaching Social Security and Medicare eligibility. As a result, it is likely that home care clinicians will be caring for many patients who are Vietnam Veterans. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of the unique healthcare needs of Vietnam Veterans. Having an understanding of military and Veteran culture can help inform home healthcare clinicians in ways to manage the unique healthcare needs of Veterans and engage previously learned behaviors and attitudes from military service. In addition, knowing the types of exposures and health risks specific to this era could be beneficial in identifying potential problems that may have not yet been addressed.

  10. Improving Business Investment Confidence in Culture-Aligned Indigenous Economies in Remote Australian Communities: A Business Support Framework to Better Inform Government Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. Fleming

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that culture-aligned economies are more effective in engaging remote-living Indigenous Australians in work long-term. Despite this evidence, governments remain resistant to investing substantially in these economies, with the result that low employment rates persist. This article argues that governmental systems of organisation are not designed to support non-mainstream economies and this position is unlikely to change. Similarly, the commercial sector lacks confidence that investing in culture-aligned economies will generate financial returns. This article presents a localised, pragmatic approach to Indigenous business support that works within existing systems of government, business and culture. Most unsuccessful programs fail to recognise the full suite of critical factors for sustained market engagement by both business and Indigenous people. This article reports on work to bring all critical factors together into a business support framework to inform the design and implementation of an aquaculture development program in a remote Indigenous Australian community.

  11. Research protocol for a digital intervention to reduce stigma among males with a personal experience of suicide in the Australian farming community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Kennedy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian farming communities have up to twice the suicide rate of the general population. Men, particularly, demonstrate debilitating self- and perceived-stigma associated with an experience of suicide. The Ripple Effect is aimed to reduce suicide stigma within the social, cultural, geographical and psychological contexts in which it occurs. Methods A mixed-method design with multi-level evaluation will be effected following the development and delivery of a personalised website experience (combining shared stories, education, personal goal setting and links to resources to farming men, aged 30–64 years, with an experience of suicide. Pre- and post-surveys will be used to assess changes in self- and perceived-stigma and suicide literacy. Online feedback from participants and semi-structured interviews during follow-up will be thematically analysed. Discussion This project will provide information about increasingly accessible, innovative approaches to reducing the debilitating health and wellbeing effects of suicide stigma on a population of Australia’s farmers. Trial registration This research protocol was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR (ACTRN: ACTRN12616000289415 on 7th March, 2016.

  12. Effort-reward imbalance at work and driving anger in an Australian community sample: is there a link between work stress and road rage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggan, Benjamin L; Dollard, Maureen F

    2007-11-01

    Both workplace stress and road rage are reported to be on the increase. This study examined the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model of work stress and its relationship with general anger and driving anger in a community sample of 130 Australian workers. It also examined international differences in driving anger, with Australian motorists reporting lower levels of driving anger than American motorists but higher levels than British motorists. Hierarchical multiple regressions confirmed ERI increased driving anger via the mediating variables of general anger and overcommitment; individuals suffering ERI may develop increased general anger or overcommitment, in turn increasing propensity to experience driving anger. Regressions also showed that overcommitment (but not general anger) moderated the effect of ERI on driving anger; ERI has a greater influence on increasing driving anger in individuals with high overcommitment at work. The results have considerable implications for the safety and emotional health of individuals who perceive an imbalance between their efforts and rewards at work, and overcommitted individuals may be at greater risk. The wider implications of the relationship between work stress, emotional well-being and driving anger in employees, along with the potential of driver education interventions, are discussed as public health issues.

  13. Research protocol for a digital intervention to reduce stigma among males with a personal experience of suicide in the Australian farming community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alison J; Versace, Vincent Lawrence; Brumby, Susan A

    2016-11-29

    Australian farming communities have up to twice the suicide rate of the general population. Men, particularly, demonstrate debilitating self- and perceived-stigma associated with an experience of suicide. The Ripple Effect is aimed to reduce suicide stigma within the social, cultural, geographical and psychological contexts in which it occurs. A mixed-method design with multi-level evaluation will be effected following the development and delivery of a personalised website experience (combining shared stories, education, personal goal setting and links to resources) to farming men, aged 30-64 years, with an experience of suicide. Pre- and post-surveys will be used to assess changes in self- and perceived-stigma and suicide literacy. Online feedback from participants and semi-structured interviews during follow-up will be thematically analysed. This project will provide information about increasingly accessible, innovative approaches to reducing the debilitating health and wellbeing effects of suicide stigma on a population of Australia's farmers. This research protocol was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) (ACTRN: ACTRN12616000289415 ) on 7 th March, 2016.

  14. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  15. National Coalition for Homeless Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Continues Support of National Campaign to End Veteran Homelessness Nov. 14, 2017 This Veterans Day, Harbor Freight ... support of the national campaign to end veteran homelessness through generous contributions to the National Coalition for ...

  16. Women Veterans and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence (IPV) and women veterans More information on women veterans and mental health Recent research shows that about 25to 30 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of a mental disorder. Untreated mental ...

  17. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  18. 'I miss my family, it's been a while…' A qualitative study of clinicians who live and work in rural/remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Michelle; Short, Stephanie; Gwynne, Kylie; Tennant, Marc; Blinkhorn, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    Dental issues are more prevalent for Aboriginal Australians, especially those living in rural/remote locations, but distribution of clinicians is favoured towards metropolitan areas and are not always culturally competent. This study aimed to document the experiences of dental clinicians who relocated to rural/remote communities to provide dental services to Aboriginal communities in an effort to redress these gaps. Clinicians working in a new rural/remote dental service strategy to Aboriginal communities in Northern NSW. Qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews and reflective diaries were analysed qualitatively. Relocating dental clinicians and their support team. Three major themes emerged: Theme one: Mastering the clinical environment through professional experiences: Increasing professional capabilities, clinical environment, valuing team work and gaining community respect. Theme two: Development and growth of the individual through personal and social experiences: culture shock, developing cultural competence, social impact, economic cost and personal adjustments and growth. Theme three: An overarching sense of achievement and advice to new clinicians. Relocation to rural and remote communities to provide health services is a complex but rewarding process. Providing personal and professional support, to relocating clinicians resulted in an overall positive experience for the participants, where they increased their professional skills and developed personally. Living and working in the community increased their cultural competence. Barriers were overcome through effective communication, flexibility and teamwork. Funding for rural placements, such as these, is critical for rural and remote health services and should include long-term appropriate funding for mentoring and support. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  19. The association between C-reactive protein levels and the risk for chronic kidney disease hospitalizations in adults of a remote Indigenous Australian community - A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Luke W; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-01

    Indigenous Australians are significantly burdened by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with diabetes and cardiovascular incidence in previous studies. Elevated CRP has been associated with albuminuria and reduced eGFR in cross-sectional studies. This study investigated the long-term predictive association between CRP measured at a baseline exam and the incidence of a CKD-related hospitalization. Health screening examinations were conducted in individuals of a remote indigenous Australian community between 1992 and 1998. The risk of subsequent CKD hospitalisations, documented through Northern Territory hospital records up to 2010, was estimated with Cox proportional hazard models in people aged over 18 years at the baseline screen and who had albumin-creatinine ratios (ACRs) less than 34g/mol. 546 participants were eligible for our study. Individuals in the highest CRP tertile at baseline had increased levels of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. They also had almost 4 times the risk of a CKD-related hospitalisation compared with participants in the lowest CRP tertile (HR=3.91, 95%CI 1.01-15.20, P=0.049) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Participants with CRP concentrations greater than 3mg/L had almost 3 times the risk of CKD hospitalisations than those ≤3mg/L (HR=2.84, 95%CI 1.00-8.00, P=0.049). Furthermore, risk of CKD hospitalisations increased 34% per doubling of baseline CRP (HR=1.34, 95%CI 1.04-1.74, P=0.024). In individuals in this remote indigenous community without overt albuminuria at baseline the risk for incident CKD related hospitalisations was predicted by elevated C-reactive protein levels almost a decade earlier. Further research is needed to understand the roles that CRP and systemic inflammation play in CKD risk. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  20. Arthritis and Veterans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-09

    One in three veterans has arthritis. This podcast provides information on how veterans can improve their quality of life with physical activity and other arthritis management strategies.  Created: 11/9/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/9/2015.

  1. Feasibility of a novel participatory multi-sector continuous improvement approach to enhance food security in remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, J; Bailie, R; van den Boogaard, C; Wood, B; Liberato, S C; Ferguson, M; Coveney, J; Jaenke, R; Ritchie, J

    2017-12-01

    Food insecurity underlies and compounds many of the development issues faced by remote Indigenous communities in Australia. Multi-sector approaches offer promise to improve food security. We assessed the feasibility of a novel multi-sector approach to enhance community food security in remote Indigenous Australia. A longitudinal comparative multi-site case study, the Good Food Systems Good Food for All Project, was conducted (2009-2013) with four Aboriginal communities. Continuous improvement meetings were held in each community. Data from project documents and store sales were used to assess feasibility according to engagement, uptake and sustainability of action, and impact on community diet, as well as identifying conditions facilitating or hindering these. Engagement was established where: the community perceived a need for the approach; where trust was developed between the community and facilitators; where there was community stability; and where flexibility was applied in the timing of meetings. The approach enabled stakeholders in each community to collectively appraise the community food system and plan action. Actions that could be directly implemented within available resources resulted from developing collaborative capacity. Actions requiring advocacy, multi-sectoral involvement, commitment or further resources were less frequently used. Positive shifts in community diet were associated with key areas where actions were implemented. A multi-sector participatory approach seeking continuous improvement engaged committed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders and was shown to have potential to shift community diet. Provision of clear mechanisms to link this approach with higher level policy and decision-making structures, clarity of roles and responsibilities, and processes to prioritise and communicate actions across sectors should further strengthen capacity for food security improvement. Integrating this approach enabling local decision-making into

  2. Working towards More Effective Implementation, Dissemination and Scale-Up of Lower-Limb Injury-Prevention Programs: Insights from Community Australian Football Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs) with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs) and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF) coaches’ perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a ‘try before you buy approach’, presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs), forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective. PMID:29462913

  3. Working towards More Effective Implementation, Dissemination and Scale-Up of Lower-Limb Injury-Prevention Programs: Insights from Community Australian Football Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Angela; Verrinder, Glenda; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-02-16

    Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs) with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs) and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF) coaches' perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a 'try before you buy approach', presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs), forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective.

  4. Working towards More Effective Implementation, Dissemination and Scale-Up of Lower-Limb Injury-Prevention Programs: Insights from Community Australian Football Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela McGlashan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF coaches’ perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a ‘try before you buy approach’, presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs, forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective.

  5. Indigenous Australian food culture on cattle stations prior to the 1960s and food intake of older Aborigines in a community studied in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris-Blazos, A; Wahlqvist, M L

    2000-09-01

    Between 1988 and 1993 the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Committee 'Nutrition and Ageing' established the international 'Food Habits in Later Life' (FHILL) Program.1,2 The FHILL program documented current and distant past food habits of more than 2000 Caucasian and Asian elderly people, which also included 54 older Aboriginal Australians in a community called Junjuwa in the Fitzroy Valley, Kimberley region, Western Australia. The program primarily used a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to collect food intake data. However, in some communities this was neither practical nor feasible due to differences in cultural interpretation of questions relating to 'time', 'frequency' and 'quantity'. To overcome this hurdle, FHILL was coupled to a qualitative socioanthropological methodolgy known as RAP 'Rapid Assessment Procedures'. This paper reviews published qualitative data using RAP to describe distant past food intake on cattle stations prior to the 1960s 1 and food intake of Aborigines aged 50 years and over in 1988 in Junjuwa.4 Aboriginal food habits on cattle stations prior to the 1960s appeared to be more nutrient dense, due to greater food variety and higher intakes of lean fresh and salted buffalo meat (probably high in omega-3 fatty acids), offal, vegetables and bush foods; buffalo fat was rationed and used in meat stews. High intakes of tea and sugar appears to have remained unchanged. Food intake was more or less constant from day to day in contrast to the 'feast' and 'famine' days observed in the community studied in 1988, which was related to the pension cycle. In contrast to the more varied cattle station diet, the community-dwelling older Aborigines in 1988 consumed more than 50% of their total energy intake from three foods: sugar, fatty beef/lamb and white flour (damper). Exploring distant past food intake on cattle stations has helped explain desirable and undesirable food preferences of the older Aborigines in 1988. For example, the

  6. Phosphorus nutrition of phosphorus-sensitive Australian native plants: threats to plant communities in a global biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Hans; Ahmedi, Idriss; Berkowitz, Oliver; Dunne, Chris; Finnegan, Patrick M; Hardy, Giles E St J; Jost, Ricarda; Laliberté, Etienne; Pearse, Stuart J; Teste, François P

    2013-01-01

    South-western Australia harbours a global biodiversity hotspot on the world's most phosphorus (P)-impoverished soils. The greatest biodiversity occurs on the most severely nutrient-impoverished soils, where non-mycorrhizal species are a prominent component of the flora. Mycorrhizal species dominate where soils contain slightly more phosphorus. In addition to habitat loss and dryland salinity, a major threat to plant biodiversity in this region is eutrophication due to enrichment with P. Many plant species in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot are extremely sensitive to P, due to a low capability to down-regulate their phosphate-uptake capacity. Species from the most P-impoverished soils are also very poor competitors at higher P availability, giving way to more competitive species when soil P concentrations are increased. Sources of increased soil P concentrations include increased fire frequency, run-off from agricultural land, and urban activities. Another P source is the P-fertilizing effect of spraying natural environments on a landscape scale with phosphite to reduce the impacts of the introduced plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi, which itself is a serious threat to biodiversity. We argue that alternatives to phosphite for P. cinnamomi management are needed urgently, and propose a strategy to work towards such alternatives, based on a sound understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms of the action of phosphite in plants that are susceptible to P. cinnamomi. The threats we describe for the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot are likely to be very similar for other P-impoverished environments, including the fynbos in South Africa and the cerrado in Brazil.

  7. The Veterans Choice Act: A Qualitative Examination of Rapid Policy Implementation in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Mengeling, Michelle; Sadler, Anne; Baldor, Rebecca; Bastian, Lori

    2017-07-01

    Congress enacted the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 [Veterans Choice Act (VCA)] to improve access to timely, high-quality health care for Veterans. Although Congress mandated that VCA must begin within 90 days of passage of the legislation, no guidelines were provided in the legislation to ensure that Veterans had access to an adequate number of community providers across different specialties of care or distinct geographic areas, including rural areas of the country. To examine VCA policy implementation across a sampling of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Medical Centers. We conducted a qualitative study of 43 VHA staff and providers by conducting in-person interviews at 5 VA medical centers in the West, South, and Midwest United States. Interview questions focused on perceptions and experiences with VCA and challenges related to implementation for VHA staff and providers. We identified 3 major themes to guide description of choice implementation: (1) VCA implemented too rapidly with inadequate preparation; (2) community provider networks insufficiently developed; and (3) communication and scheduling problems with subcontractors may lead to further delays in care. Our evaluation suggests that VCA was implemented far too rapidly, with little consideration given to the adequacy of community provider networks available to provide care to Veterans. Given the challenges we have highlighted in VCA implementation, it is imperative that the VHA continue to develop care coordination systems that will allow the Veterans to receive seamless care in the community.

  8. The dominant Australian community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone ST93-IV [2B] is highly virulent and genetically distinct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra Y L Chua

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA USA300 has spread rapidly across North America, and CA-MRSA is also increasing in Australia. However, the dominant Australian CA-MRSA strain, ST93-IV [2B] appears distantly related to USA300 despite strikingly similar clinical and epidemiological profiles. Here, we compared the virulence of a recent Australian ST93 isolate (JKD6159 to other MRSA, including USA300, and found that JKD6159 was the most virulent in a mouse skin infection model. We fully sequenced the genome of JKD6159 and confirmed that JKD6159 is a distinct clone with 7616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distinguishing this strain from all other S. aureus genomes. Despite its high virulence there were surprisingly few virulence determinants. However, genes encoding α-hemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and α-type phenol soluble modulins were present. Genome comparisons revealed 32 additional CDS in JKD6159 but none appeared to encode new virulence factors, suggesting that this clone's enhanced pathogenicity could lie within subtler genome changes, such as SNPs within regulatory genes. To investigate the role of accessory genome elements in CA-MRSA epidemiology, we next sequenced three additional Australian non-ST93 CA-MRSA strains and compared them with JKD6159, 19 completed S. aureus genomes and 59 additional S. aureus genomes for which unassembled genome sequence data was publicly available (82 genomes in total. These comparisons showed that despite its distinctive genotype, JKD6159 and other CA-MRSA clones (including USA300 share a conserved repertoire of three notable accessory elements (SSCmecIV, PVL prophage, and pMW2. This study demonstrates that the genetically distinct ST93 CA-MRSA from Australia is highly virulent. Our comparisons of geographically and genetically diverse CA-MRSA genomes suggest that apparent convergent evolution in CA-MRSA may be better explained by the rapid

  9. How to be a fig wasp down under: The diversity and structure of an Australian fig wasp community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Simon T.; Dunn, Derek W.; Darwell, Clive T.; Cook, James M.

    2014-05-01

    Endophytic insects and their parasitoids provide valuable models for community ecology. The wasp communities in inflorescences of fig trees have great potential for comparative studies, but we must first describe individual communities. Here, we add to the few detailed studies of such communities by describing the one associated with Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. First, we describe community composition, using two different sampling procedures. Overall, we identified 14 species of non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) that fall into two size classes. Small wasps, including pollinators, gallers and their parasitoids, were more abundant than large wasps (both galler and parasitoid species). We show that in figs where wasps emerge naturally, the presence of large wasps may partly explain the low emergence of small wasps. During fig development, large gallers oviposit first, before and around the time of pollination, while parasitoids lay eggs after pollination. We further show that parasitoids in the subfamily Sycoryctinae, which comprise the majority of all individual NPFWs, segregate temporally by laying eggs at different stages of fig development. We discuss our results in terms of species co-existence and community structure and compare our findings to those from fig wasp communities on other continents.

  10. Relevance and completeness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) comprehensive breast cancer core set: the patient perspective in an Australian community cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Ng, Louisa; Demetrios, Marina; Pallant, Julie F

    2012-06-01

    To examine the relevance and completeness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) comprehensive core set for breast cancer using patient reported disability in an Australian cohort. Cross-sectional community survey of 85 women following definitive treatment for primary breast cancer. Everyday living problems reported by participants (using open ended questionnaires) were linked with ICF categories using 'linkage' rules. Participants rated 'Activities and Participation' and 'Environmental factors' components of ICF checklist using World Health Organisation qualifiers (0-4). The impact of breast cancer on health areas corresponding to 90 ICF categories in these two components was assessed; and compared with ICF categories within the comprehensive breast cancer core set. Participants identified 16 of 22 categories from 'Activities and Participation' and 11 of 23 categories (barriers) from 'Environmental factors' included in the comprehensive Core Set for BC, as relevant (≥ 10% of the participants). Median number of problems reported was 4 (IQR 1-9) and 1 (IQR 1-4) for 'Activities and Participation' and 'Environmental factors' categories', respectively. Thirteen additional relevant categories relating to mobility, major life areas, community civic life and societal attitudes currently not included in the breast cancer core set, were identified. The comprehensive breast cancer core set needs to incorporate issues important to survivors with breast cancer in post-acute settings, prior to its validation from a global perspective.

  11. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  12. Depression, psychological distress and Internet use among community-based Australian adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Milton, Karen; Foster, Charlie; Allender, Steven

    2017-04-27

    There has been rapid increase in time spent using Internet as a platform for entertainment, socialising and information sourcing. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between duration of time spent using Internet for leisure, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress among Australian adolescents. Depressive symptoms were indicated by the youth self-report module from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Version IV criteria, and psychological distress was measured by Kessler Psychological Distress scale. Internet use was self-reported based on use on an average weekday, and an average weekend day. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between Internet use and mental health outcomes. Models were adjusted for potential confounders: age; relative level of socio-economic disadvantage, and body mass index. Adolescents were aged 11-17 years (M = 14.5 years, SD = 2.04 years). Greatest time spent using internet (≥7 h a day) was significantly associated with experiencing depressive symptoms among females (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.16, 3.76, p Internet use may interact with mental health and therefore could be a modifiable risk factor to reach and improve mental health outcomes for this age group. Caution is advised in interpretation of findings, with some inconsistencies emerging from this evidence.

  13. Veterans Health Administration (VHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSNs and other identifying information for the Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA. DVA will use the information...

  14. Center for Women Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  15. Department of Veterans Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training – Exposure – Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  16. Veterans Health Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  17. Implementation of concussion guidelines in community Australian Football and Rugby League-The experiences and challenges faced by coaches and sports trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Joanne L; Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-04-01

    While guidelines outlining the appropriate management of sport-related concussion have been developed and adapted for use within community sport, it remains unknown how they are experienced by those responsible for implementing them. Longitudinal study. 111 coaches and sports trainers from community-level Australian Football and Rugby League teams completed pre- and post-season surveys assessing their attitudes towards using concussion guidelines. Participants also provided post-season feedback regarding their experiences in using the guidelines. 71% of participants reported using the guidelines in the preceding season. Post-season attitude was related to pre-season attitude (p=0.002), football code (p=0.015), and team role (p=0.045). An interaction between team role and guideline use (p=0.012) was also found, with coaches who had used the guidelines, and sports trainers who had not, reporting more positive post-season attitudes towards using the concussion guidelines. Implementation challenges included disputing of decisions about return-to-play by players, parents, and coaches, and a perceived lack of time. Recommendations for improved guideline materials included using larger fonts and providing for witnessing of advice given to players. This is the first study to examine the implementation of concussion guidelines in community sport. Training of coaches/sports trainers needs enhancement. In addition, new education should be developed for parents/players about the importance of the return-to-play advice given to them by those who follow these guidelines. Information provided by those who attempted to use the guidelines will assist the refinement of implementation and dissemination processes around concussion guidelines across sports. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and risk of homelessness among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison; Metraux, Stephen; Byrne, Thomas; Munley, Ellen; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Jones, Harlan; Sheldon, George; Kane, Vincent; Culhane, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the prevalence of and risk for homelessness among veterans is prerequisite to preventing and ending homelessness among this population. Homeless veterans are at higher risk for chronic disease; understanding the dynamics of homelessness among veterans can contribute to our understanding of their health needs. We obtained data on demographic characteristics and veteran status for 130,554 homeless people from 7 jurisdictions that provide homelessness services, and for the population living in poverty and the general population from the American Community Survey for those same jurisdictions. We calculated prevalence of veterans in the homeless, poverty, and general populations, and risk ratios (RR) for veteran status in these populations. Risk for homelessness, as a function of demographic characteristics and veteran status, was estimated by using multivariate regression models. Veterans were overrepresented in the homeless population, compared with both the general and poverty populations, among both men (RR, 1.3 and 2.1, respectively) and women (RR, 2.1 and 3.0, respectively). Veteran status and black race significantly increased the risk for homelessness for both men and women. Men in the 45- to 54-year-old age group and women in the 18- to 29-year-old age group were at higher risk compared with other ages. Our findings confirm previous research associating veteran status with higher risk for homelessness and imply that there will be specific health needs among the aging homeless population. This study is a basis for understanding variation in rates of, and risks for, homelessness in general population groups, and inclusion of health data from US Department of Veterans Affairs records can extend these results to identifying links between homelessness and health risks.

  19. Higher Education Military and Veteran Student Program Success: A Qualitative Study of Program Administration Best Practice Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Rose L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine how Southern California community colleges have implemented best practices based on the 8 Keys to Veterans' Success as identified by the U.S. Departments of Education, Defense, and Veterans Affairs to effectively support and retain military and veteran students in higher education programs. The…

  20. The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change: Part I—Conceptualising and measuring vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, R.; Kokic, P.; Crimp, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Howden, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability is a term frequently used to describe the potential threat to rural communities posed by climate variability and change. Despite growing use of the term, analytical measures of vulnerability that are useful for prioritising and evaluating policy responses are yet to evolve. Demand for

  1. Allowing Family to be Family: End-of-Life Care in Veterans Affairs Medical Foster Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Chelsea E; Haverhals, Leah M; Jones, Jacqueline; Levy, Cari R

    2016-01-01

    The Medical Foster Home program is a unique long-term care program coordinated by the Veterans Health Administration. The program pairs Veterans with private, 24-hour a day community-based caregivers who often care for Veterans until the end of life. This qualitative study explored the experiences of care coordination for Medical Foster Home Veterans at the end of life with eight Veterans' family members, five Medical Foster Home caregivers, and seven Veterans Health Administration Home-Based Primary Care team members. A case study, qualitative content analysis identified these themes addressing care coordination and impact of the Medical Foster Home model on those involved: (a) Medical Foster Home program supports Veterans' families; (b) Medical Foster Home program supports the caregiver as family; (c) Veterans' needs are met socially and culturally at the end of life; and (d) the changing needs of Veterans, families, and caregivers at Veterans' end of life are addressed. Insights into how to best support Medical Foster Home caregivers caring for Veterans at the end of life were gained including the need for more and better respite options and how caregivers are compensated in the month of the Veteran's death, as well as suggestions to navigate end-of-life care coordination with multiple stakeholders involved.

  2. Riding the rural radio wave: The impact of a community-led drug and alcohol radio advertising campaign in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Alice; Allan, Julaine; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Snijder, Mieke

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal people experience a higher burden of disease as a consequence of drug and alcohol (D&A) abuse. Although media campaigns can be a popular tool for disseminating health promotion messages, evidence of the extent to which they reduce the impact of substance abuse is limited, especially for rural Aboriginal communities. This paper is the first to examine the impact a locally designed D&A radio advertising campaign for Aboriginal people in a remote community in Western NSW. A post-intervention evaluation. The radio campaign was implemented in Bourke, (population 2465, 30% Aboriginal). Fifty-three community surveys were completed. The self-reported level of awareness of the campaign and the number of self-referrals to local D&A workers in the intervention period. Most respondents (79%) reported they listen to radio on a daily basis, with 75% reporting that they had heard one or more of the advertisements. The advertisement that was remembered best contained the voice of a respected, local person. There was one self-referral to local health services during the intervention timeframe. The community-led radio advertising campaign increased community awareness of substance abuse harms, but had limited impact on formal help-seeking. This paper highlights the value of radio as a commonly used, trusted and culturally relevant health promotion medium for rural communities, especially when engaging local respected Aboriginal presenters. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. Depression, psychological distress and Internet use among community-based Australian adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hoare

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been rapid increase in time spent using Internet as a platform for entertainment, socialising and information sourcing. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between duration of time spent using Internet for leisure, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress among Australian adolescents. Methods Depressive symptoms were indicated by the youth self-report module from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Version IV criteria, and psychological distress was measured by Kessler Psychological Distress scale. Internet use was self-reported based on use on an average weekday, and an average weekend day. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between Internet use and mental health outcomes. Models were adjusted for potential confounders: age; relative level of socio-economic disadvantage, and body mass index. Results Adolescents were aged 11–17 years (M = 14.5 years, SD = 2.04 years. Greatest time spent using internet (≥7 h a day was significantly associated with experiencing depressive symptoms among females (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.16, 3.76, p < 0.05, and high/very high levels of psychological distress for male (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.36, 3.65, p < 0.01 and female (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.55, 3.67, p < 0.01 adolescents. Conclusions With current initiatives to improve health behaviours among adolescents to improve physical health outcomes such as overweight or obesity, it is imperative that the reciprocal relationship with mental health is known and included in such public health developments. Internet use may interact with mental health and therefore could be a modifiable risk factor to reach and improve mental health outcomes for this age group. Caution is advised in interpretation of findings, with some inconsistencies emerging from this evidence.

  4. Implementing Information and Communication Technology to Support Community Aged Care Service Integration: Lessons from an Australian Aged Care Provider

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Heather E; Georgiou, Andrew; Tariq, Amina; Prgomet, Mirela; Warland, Andrew; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is limited evidence of the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT) to support integrated aged care services. Objectives: We undertook a case study to describe carelink+, a centralised client service management ICT system implemented by a large aged and community care service provider, Uniting. We sought to explicate the care-related information exchange processes associated with carelink+ and identify lessons for organisations attempting to use ICT to su...

  5. Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza community transmission was established in one Australian state when the virus was first identified in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath A Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mid-June 2009 the State of Victoria in Australia appeared to have the highest notification rate of pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza in the world. We hypothesise that this was because community transmission of pandemic influenza was already well established in Victoria at the time testing for the novel virus commenced. In contrast, this was not true for the pandemic in other parts of Australia, including Western Australia (WA. METHODS: We used data from detailed case follow-up of patients with confirmed infection in Victoria and WA to demonstrate the difference in the pandemic curve in two Australian states on opposite sides of the continent. We modelled the pandemic in both states, using a susceptible-infected-removed model with Bayesian inference accounting for imported cases. RESULTS: Epidemic transmission occurred earlier in Victoria and later in WA. Only 5% of the first 100 Victorian cases were not locally acquired and three of these were brothers in one family. By contrast, 53% of the first 102 cases in WA were associated with importation from Victoria. Using plausible model input data, estimation of the effective reproductive number for the Victorian epidemic required us to invoke an earlier date for commencement of transmission to explain the observed data. This was not required in modelling the epidemic in WA. CONCLUSION: Strong circumstantial evidence, supported by modelling, suggests community transmission of pandemic influenza was well established in Victoria, but not in WA, at the time testing for the novel virus commenced in Australia. The virus is likely to have entered Victoria and already become established around the time it was first identified in the US and Mexico.

  6. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza community transmission was established in one Australian state when the virus was first identified in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath A; Mercer, Geoff N; Fielding, James E; Dowse, Gary K; Glass, Kathryn; Carcione, Dale; Grant, Kristina A; Effler, Paul V; Lester, Rosemary A

    2010-06-28

    In mid-June 2009 the State of Victoria in Australia appeared to have the highest notification rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in the world. We hypothesise that this was because community transmission of pandemic influenza was already well established in Victoria at the time testing for the novel virus commenced. In contrast, this was not true for the pandemic in other parts of Australia, including Western Australia (WA). We used data from detailed case follow-up of patients with confirmed infection in Victoria and WA to demonstrate the difference in the pandemic curve in two Australian states on opposite sides of the continent. We modelled the pandemic in both states, using a susceptible-infected-removed model with Bayesian inference accounting for imported cases. Epidemic transmission occurred earlier in Victoria and later in WA. Only 5% of the first 100 Victorian cases were not locally acquired and three of these were brothers in one family. By contrast, 53% of the first 102 cases in WA were associated with importation from Victoria. Using plausible model input data, estimation of the effective reproductive number for the Victorian epidemic required us to invoke an earlier date for commencement of transmission to explain the observed data. This was not required in modelling the epidemic in WA. Strong circumstantial evidence, supported by modelling, suggests community transmission of pandemic influenza was well established in Victoria, but not in WA, at the time testing for the novel virus commenced in Australia. The virus is likely to have entered Victoria and already become established around the time it was first identified in the US and Mexico.

  7. Homeless veterans' satisfaction with residential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprow, W J; Frisman, L; Rosenheck, R A

    1999-04-01

    Because little is known about homeless individuals' satisfaction with mental health services or the association between satisfaction and measures of treatment outcome, the study examined those issues in a group of homeless veterans. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from intake assessments conducted before veterans' admission to residential treatment facilities under contract with the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care for Homeless Veterans program, a national outreach and case management program. Clients completed a satisfaction survey and the Community-Oriented Programs Environment Scale, which asks them to rate dimensions of the treatment environment. Outcome data came from discharge outcome summaries completed by VA case managers. Overall satisfaction with residential treatment services was high among the 1,048 veterans surveyed. Greater satisfaction was associated with more days of drug abuse and more days spent institutionalized in the month before intake and with an intake diagnosis of drug abuse. Regression analyses indicated that satisfaction was most strongly related to clients' perceptions of several factors in the treatment environment. Policy clarity, clients' involvement in the program, an emphasis on order, a practical orientation, and peer support were positively related to satisfaction; staff control and clients' expression of anger were negatively related. Satisfaction was significantly associated with case managers' discharge ratings of clinical improvement of drug problems and psychiatric problems. Homeless veterans are more satisfied in environments they perceive to be supportive, orderly, and focused on practical solutions. The results indicate that client satisfaction is not related to treatment outcomes strongly enough to serve as a substitute for other outcome measures.

  8. GEODESIGN AND SIMULATION OF TWO AUSTRALIAN COMMUNITIES 2016–2050: WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD ARE THEY SUSTAINABLE OR NOT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the ability of visualization and simulation techniques to aid, and simulate current and future directions in coastal planning. Two communities examined are the coastal city of Hobsons Bay on Port Phillip Bay within the Melbourne metropolitan region and the coastal rural town of Apollo Bay, in Australia, are interrogated through a progression of projections and simulated forecasts from 2014 to 2050. The purpose is to comprehend their growth risks as it relates to their coastal edges and land use planning mechanisms in addressing these changes. The analysis uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS associated with planning application software, and the paper offers recommendations in progressing this inquiry.

  9. Veteran Religious Affiliation by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset provide a count of Veteran by their religious affiliation and state of residence. The dataset set covers all 50 states, District of Columbia and other...

  10. The Veteran Population Projection 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VetPop2014 is an actuarial projection model developed by the Office of the Actuary (OACT) for Veteran population projection from Fiscal Year FY2014 to FY2043. Using...

  11. Suicide among male veterans: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mark S; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H; Newsom, Jason T

    2007-07-01

    To assess the risk of mortality from suicide among male veteran participants in a large population-based health survey. A prospective follow-up study in the US. Data were obtained from the US National Health Interview Surveys 1986-94 and linked to the Multiple Cause of Death file (1986-97) through the National Death Index. The sample comprised 320 890 men, aged >/=18 years at baseline. The participants were followed up with respect to mortality for 12 years. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that veterans who were white, those with >/=12 years of education and those with activity limitations (after adjusting for medical and psychiatric morbidity) were at a greater risk for completing suicide. Veterans were twice as likely (adjusted hazard ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.99) [corrected] to die of suicide compared with non-veterans in the general population. The risk of death from "natural" causes (diseases) and the risk of death from "external" causes did not differ between the veterans and the non-veterans. Interestingly, male veterans who were overweight had a significantly lower risk of completing suicide than those who were of normal weight. Veterans in the general US population, whether or not they are affiliated with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), are at an increased risk of suicide. With a projected rise in the incidence of functional impairment and psychiatric morbidity among veterans of the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, clinical and community interventions that are directed towards patients in both VA and non-VA healthcare facilities are needed.

  12. Suicide among male veterans: a prospective population‐based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mark S; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H; Newsom, Jason T

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess the risk of mortality from suicide among male veteran participants in a large population‐based health survey. Design and setting A prospective follow‐up study in the US. Data were obtained from the US National Health Interview Surveys 1986–94 and linked to the Multiple Cause of Death file (1986–97) through the National Death Index. Participants The sample comprised 320 890 men, aged ≥18 years at baseline. The participants were followed up with respect to mortality for 12 years. Results Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that veterans who were white, those with ≥12 years of education and those with activity limitations (after adjusting for medical and psychiatric morbidity) were at a greater risk for completing suicide. Veterans were twice as likely (adjusted hazard ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.80) to die of suicide compared with non‐veterans in the general population. The risk of death from “natural” causes (diseases) and the risk of death from “external” causes did not differ between the veterans and the non‐veterans. Interestingly, male veterans who were overweight had a significantly lower risk of completing suicide than those who were of normal weight. Conclusions Veterans in the general US population, whether or not they are affiliated with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), are at an increased risk of suicide. With a projected rise in the incidence of functional impairment and psychiatric morbidity among veterans of the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, clinical and community interventions that are directed towards patients in both VA and non‐VA healthcare facilities are needed. PMID:17568055

  13. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  14. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.

  15. Addressing the Challenges of Palliative Care for Homeless Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Evelyn; Albright, Karen; Dischinger, Hannah; Weber, Mary; Jones, Jacqueline; O'Toole, Thomas P

    2018-03-01

    Veterans who nearing the end of life (EOL) in unstable housing are not adequately served by current palliative care or homeless programs. Multidisciplinary focus groups, interviews with community and Veterans Affairs (VA) leaders and with 29 homeless veterans were conducted in five cities. A forum of national palliative and homelessness care leaders (n=5) and representatives from each focus group (n=10), then convened. The forum used Nominal Group Process to suggest improvements in EOL care for veterans without homes. Modified Delphi Process was used to consolidate and prioritize recommendations during two subsequent tele-video conferences. Qualitative content analysis drew on meeting transcripts and field notes. The Forum developed 12 recommendations to address the following barriers: (1) Declining health often makes independent living or plans to abstain impossible, but housing programs usually require functional independence and sobriety. (2) Managing symptoms within the homelessness context is challenging. (3) Discontinuities within and between systems restrict care. (4) VA regulations challenge collaboration with community providers. (5) Veterans with unstable housing who are at EOL and those who care for them must compete nationally for prioritization of their care. Care of veterans at EOL without homes may be substantially improved through policy changes to facilitate access to appropriate housing and care; better dissemination of existing policy; cross-discipline and cross-system education; facilitated communication among VA, community, homeless and EOL providers; and pilot testing of VA group homes or palliative care facilities that employ harm reduction strategies.

  16. ‘Making the invisible visible’ through alcohol screening and brief intervention in community pharmacies: an Australian feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laetitia Hattingh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol related problems have been shown to be effective in health settings such as general practice or emergency departments. Recent data from the United Kingdom and New Zealand suggest that SBI can be delivered through community pharmacies, but this approach has not been tested in Australia. This study assesses the feasibility of delivering alcohol SBI via community pharmacists. Method We recruited five pharmacies and developed an SBI training package to be delivered by pharmacy staff, who screened consumers and delivered the brief intervention where appropriate. Consumers also completed a questionnaire on the process. At three months consumers were telephoned to enable ‘retention’ to be quantified. After completing recruitment, a semi-structured interview was conducted with pharmacists on the process of delivering the intervention, potential improvements and sustainability. Results Fifty consumer participants were screened, ten from each pharmacy. There were 28 (57 % men and 21 (43 % women with one not responding. Most (67 % were aged 25–55 years. Their AUDIT scores had a range of 0 to 39 (mean 10.9, SD 9.8 with 11 categorised as ‘hazardous (8–15’, four as ‘harmful (16–19’ and eight as ‘probably dependent (20+’ consumers of alcohol. Reactions to the process of SBI were generally favourable: for example 75 % agreed that it was either appropriate or very appropriate being asked about their alcohol consumption. With respect to follow-up interviews, 23 (46 % agreed that they could be contacted, including five from the highest AUDIT category. Subsequently 11 (48 % were contactable at three months. Three of the five non-low risk drinkers had reduced their level of risk over the three months. Ten pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Overall these pharmacists were positive about the intervention and five main themes emerged from the

  17. Testing evidence routine practice: Using an implementation framework to embed a clinically proven asthma service in Australian community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joanne M; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Garcia Cardenas, Victoria; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Armour, Carol

    Community pharmacists are well placed and evidence clearly demonstrates that they can be suitably trained to deliver professional services that improve the management of asthma patients in clinical, economic and humanistic terms. However the gap between this evidence and practice reality remains wide. In this study we measure the implementation process as well as the service benefits of an asthma service model. Using an effectiveness-implementation hybrid design, a defined implementation process (progression from Exploration through Preparation and Testing to Operation stages) supporting an asthma service (promoting asthma control and inhaler technique) was tested in 17 community pharmacies across metropolitan Sydney. Seven pharmacies reached the Operation stage of implementation. Eight pharmacies reached the Testing stage of implementation and two pharmacies did not progress beyond the Preparation stage of implementation. A total of 128 patients were enrolled in the asthma service with 110 patients remaining enrolled at the close of the study. Asthma control showed a positive trend throughout the service with the overall proportion of patients with 'poor' asthma control at baseline decreasing from 72% to 57% at study close. There was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients with correct inhaler technique from 12% at Baseline (Visit 1) to 33% at Visit 2 and 57% at study close. Implementation of the asthma service varied across pharmacies. Different strategies specific to practice sites at different stages of the implementation model may result in greater uptake of professional services. The asthma service led to improved patient outcomes overall with a positive trend in asthma control and significant change in inhaler technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A local-community-level, physically-based model of end-use energy consumption by Australian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhengen; Paevere, Phillip; McNamara, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    We developed a physics based bottom-up model to estimate annual housing stock energy consumption at a local community level (Census Collection District—CCD) with an hourly resolution. Total energy consumption, including space heating and cooling, water heating, lighting and other household appliances, was simulated by considering building construction and materials, equipment and appliances, local climates and occupancy patterns. The model was used to analyse energy use by private dwellings in more than five thousand CCDs in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The predicted results focus on electricity consumption (natural gas and other fuel sources were excluded as the data are not available) and track the actual electricity consumption at CCD level with an error of 9.2% when summed to state level. For NSW and Victoria 2006, the predicted state electricity consumption is close to the published model (within 6%) and statistical data (within 10%). A key feature of the model is that it can be used to predict hourly electricity consumption and peak demand at fine geographic scales, which is important for grid planning and designing local energy efficiency or demand response strategies. - Highlights: ► We developed a physics-based model to estimate housing stock energy consumption. ► House type and vintage, family type and occupancy time were considered. ► The model results are close to actual energy consumption at local community level. ► Its’ results agree well with the published model and statistical data at state level. ► It shows the model could provide from hourly to annual residential energy consumption.

  19. Outcomes of social support programs in brain cancer survivors in an Australian community cohort: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan F

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of social support programs on improving cancer related disability, neuro-cognitive dysfunction and enhancing participation (quality of life (QoL, social reintegration in brain tumour (BT survivors. Participants (n=43 were recruited prospectively following definitive treatment in the community. Each BT survivor received an individualised social support program which comprised: face-to-face interview for education/counselling plus peer support program or community education/counselling sessions. The assessments were at baseline (T1, 6-week (T2 and 6-month (T3 post-intervention using validated questionnaires: depression anxiety stress scale (DASS, functional independence measure (FIM, perceived impact problem profile (PIPP, cancer rehabilitation evaluation system–short form (CARES-SF, a cancer survivor unmet needs measure (CaSUN, McGill quality of life questionnaire (MQOL and Brief COPE. Participants’ mean age was 53 years (range 31–72 years, the majority were female (72%; median time since BT diagnosis was 2.3 years and almost half (47% had high grade tumours. At T2, participants reported higher emotional well-being (DASS ‘anxiety’ and ‘stress’ subscales, p<0.05; FIM ‘cognition’ subscale, p<0.01, improved function (FIM ‘motor’ subscale, p<0.01 and higher QoL (CARES-SF ‘global’ score, p<0.05; MQOL ‘physical symptom’ subscale, p<0.05. At the T3 follow-up, most of these effects were maintained. The intervention effect for BT specific coping strategies emerged for the Brief COPE ‘self-distraction’ and ‘behavioural disengagement’ domains, (p<0.05 for both. There were no adverse effects reported. A post-treatment social support program can improve physical and cognitive function and enhancing overall QoL of BT survivors. Social support programs need further evaluation and should be encouraged by clinicians within cancer rehabilitative services.

  20. Are hygiene and public health interventions likely to improve outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies. In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59. There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies, as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is

  1. Getting beyond "Don't ask; don't tell": an evaluation of US Veterans Administration postdeployment mental health screening of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Karen H; Bertenthal, Daniel; Maguen, Shira; Gima, Kristian; Chu, Ann; Marmar, Charles R

    2008-04-01

    We sought to evaluate outcomes of the Veterans Administration (VA) Afghan and Iraq Post-Deployment Screen for mental health symptoms. Veterans Administration clinicians were encouraged to refer Iraq or Afghanistan veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or high-risk alcohol use to a VA mental health clinic. Multivariate methods were used to determine predictors of screening, the proportions who screened positive for particular mental health problems, and predictors of VA mental health clinic attendance. Among 750 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were referred to a VA medical center and 5 associated community clinics, 338 underwent postdeployment screening; 233 (69%) screened positive for mental health problems. Having been seen in primary care (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]=13.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.31, 21.3) and at a VA community clinic (AOR=3.28; 95% CI=2.03, 5.28) predicted screening. African American veterans were less likely to have been screened than were White veterans (AOR=0.45; 95% CI=0.22, 0.91). Of 233 veterans who screened positive, 170 (73%) completed a mental health follow-up visit. A substantial proportion of veterans met screening criteria for co-occurring mental health problems, suggesting that the VA screens may help overcome a "don't ask, don't tell" climate that surrounds stigmatized mental illness. Based on data from 1 VA facility, VA postdeployment screening increases mental health clinic attendance among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

  2. Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in diabetic patients from a multi-ethnic Australian community: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M; Zimmet, P; Davis, W A; Bruce, D G; Fida, S; Mackay, I R

    2000-09-01

    To investigate ethnic/racial differences in the prevalence of serum antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and ICA512/IA-2 in diabetic patients from a large, urban community. A cross-sectional sample of 1,381 diabetic patients aged 11-98 years, representing 61% of those identified in a postcode-defined population base of 120,097 people were studied. Diabetes was classified on clinical grounds. Serum GADA and anti-ICA512/IA-2 were measured by radioimmunoprecipitation assay. Anglo-Celts formed 62% of the sample, southern Europeans 18%, other Europeans 8% and Asians 3%. GADA prevalence in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus was 46.0% and 4.2%, respectively, amongst Anglo-Celts and 22.2% and 1.7% in southern Europeans. The prevalence of anti-ICA512/IA-2 in Type 1 diabetes was 17.4% and, in a sample of 233 patients with Type 2 diabetes, 0.8%. GADA-positive Type 2 patients had a lower body mass index and greater glycosylated haemoglobin, and were more likely to be taking insulin, than GADA-negative Type 2 diabetic subjects (P ethnicity has implications for clinical management and healthcare planning.

  3. Implementing Information and Communication Technology to Support Community Aged Care Service Integration: Lessons from an Australian Aged Care Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Tariq, Amina; Prgomet, Mirela; Warland, Andrew; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is limited evidence of the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT) to support integrated aged care services. Objectives: We undertook a case study to describe carelink+, a centralised client service management ICT system implemented by a large aged and community care service provider, Uniting. We sought to explicate the care-related information exchange processes associated with carelink+ and identify lessons for organisations attempting to use ICT to support service integration. Methods: Our case study included seventeen interviews and eleven observation sessions with a purposive sample of staff within the organisation. Inductive analysis was used to develop a model of ICT-supported information exchange. Results: Management staff described the integrated care model designed to underpin carelink+. Frontline staff described complex information exchange processes supporting coordination of client services. Mismatches between the data quality and the functions carelink+ was designed to support necessitated the evolution of new work processes associated with the system. Conclusions: There is value in explicitly modelling the work processes that emerge as a consequence of ICT. Continuous evaluation of the match between ICT and work processes will help aged care organisations to achieve higher levels of ICT maturity that support their efforts to provide integrated care to clients. PMID:29042851

  4. Reconceptualising water quality governance to incorporate knowledge and values: Case studies from Australian and Brazilian Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A. Berry

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the significance of knowledge and values for water quality and its governance. Modernist approaches to the governance of water quality in rivers and lakes need to be reconceptualised and overhauled. The problems include: perceiving water only as a physical and chemical liquid, defining quality in narrow terms, rendering water knowledge as invisible, boiling down water values to uses of presumed economic importance and limiting how and by whom objectives are set or actions taken. In addressing the need to reframe water quality governance, and as a counter to the objectification of water quality, we propose a framework that explicitly recognises the significance of knowledge and values relating to water. While our framework could apply to other contexts under the influence of modernist water-management regimes, here we pay particular attention to the relevance of the water knowledge, values and governance of water quality by Indigenous people. In the second half of the paper we address issues related to Indigenous water-quality governance in two countries, Brazil and Australia, showing some of the ways in which, despite enormous obstacles, Indigenous communities re-work governance structures through their engagements with water quality and pay attention to water knowledge and values.

  5. Implementing Information and Communication Technology to Support Community Aged Care Service Integration: Lessons from an Australian Aged Care Provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Heather E; Georgiou, Andrew; Tariq, Amina; Prgomet, Mirela; Warland, Andrew; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2017-04-10

    There is limited evidence of the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT) to support integrated aged care services. We undertook a case study to describe carelink+, a centralised client service management ICT system implemented by a large aged and community care service provider, Uniting. We sought to explicate the care-related information exchange processes associated with carelink+ and identify lessons for organisations attempting to use ICT to support service integration. Our case study included seventeen interviews and eleven observation sessions with a purposive sample of staff within the organisation. Inductive analysis was used to develop a model of ICT-supported information exchange. Management staff described the integrated care model designed to underpin carelink+. Frontline staff described complex information exchange processes supporting coordination of client services. Mismatches between the data quality and the functions carelink+ was designed to support necessitated the evolution of new work processes associated with the system. There is value in explicitly modelling the work processes that emerge as a consequence of ICT. Continuous evaluation of the match between ICT and work processes will help aged care organisations to achieve higher levels of ICT maturity that support their efforts to provide integrated care to clients.

  6. Implementing Information and Communication Technology to Support Community Aged Care Service Integration: Lessons from an Australian Aged Care Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E Douglas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is limited evidence of the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT to support integrated aged care services. Objectives: We undertook a case study to describe carelink+, a centralised client service management ICT system implemented by a large aged and community care service provider, Uniting. We sought to explicate the care-related information exchange processes associated with carelink+ and identify lessons for organisations attempting to use ICT to support service integration. Methods: Our case study included seventeen interviews and eleven observation sessions with a purposive sample of staff within the organisation. Inductive analysis was used to develop a model of ICT-supported information exchange. Results: Management staff described the integrated care model designed to underpin carelink+. Frontline staff described complex information exchange processes supporting coordination of client services. Mismatches between the data quality and the functions carelink+ was designed to support necessitated the evolution of new work processes associated with the system. Conclusions: There is value in explicitly modelling the work processes that emerge as a consequence of ICT. Continuous evaluation of the match between ICT and work processes will help aged care organisations to achieve higher levels of ICT maturity that support their efforts to provide integrated care to clients.

  7. Alcohol management plans in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous Australian communities in Queensland: community residents have experienced favourable impacts but also suffered unfavourable ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Clough

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, ‘Alcohol Management Plans’ (AMPs provide the policy infrastructure for State and Commonwealth Governments to address problematic alcohol use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We report community residents’ experiences of AMPs in 10 of Queensland’s 15 remote Indigenous communities. Methods This cross-sectional study used a two-stage sampling strategy: N = 1211; 588 (48% males, 623 (52% females aged ≥18 years in 10 communities. Seven propositions about ‘favourable’ impacts and seven about ‘unfavourable’ impacts were developed from semi-structured interviews. For each proposition, one-sample tests of proportions examined participant agreement and multivariable binary logistic regressions assessed influences of gender, age (18–24, 25–44, 45–64, ≥65 years, residence (≥6 years, current drinking and Indigenous status. Confirmatory factor analyses estimated scale reliability (ρ, item loadings and covariances. Results Slim majorities agreed that: AMPs reduced violence (53%, p = 0.024; community a better place to live (54%, 0.012; and children were safer (56%, p < 0.001. More agreed that: school attendance improved (66%, p < 0.001; and awareness of alcohol’s harms increased (71%, p < 0.001. Participants were equivocal about improved personal safety (53%, p = 0.097 and reduced violence against women (49%, p = 0.362. The seven ‘favourable’ items reliably summarized participants’ experiences of reduced violence and improved community amenity (ρ = 0.90. Stronger agreement was found for six ‘unfavourable’ items: alcohol availability not reduced (58%, p < 0.001; drinking not reduced (56%, p < 0.001; cannabis use increased (69%, p < 0.001; more binge drinking (73%, p < 0.001; discrimination experienced (77%, p < 0.001; increased fines, convictions and criminal records for breaching restrictions (90%, p < 0

  8. Australian synchrotron radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Radiation Program, ASRP, has been set up as a major national research facility to provide facilities for scientists and technologists in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science who need access to synchrotron radiation. Australia has a strong tradition in crystallography and structure determination covering small molecule crystallography, biological and protein crystallography, diffraction science and materials science and several strong groups are working in x-ray optics, soft x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet physics. A number of groups whose primary interest is in the structure and dynamics of surfaces, catalysts, polymer and surfactant science and colloid science are hoping to use scattering methods and, if experience in Europe, Japan and USA can be taken as a guide, many of these groups will need third generation synchrotron access. To provide for this growing community, the Australian National Beamline at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, has been established since 1990 through a generous collaboration with Japanese colleagues, the beamline equipment being largely produced in Australia. This will be supplemented in 1997 with access to the world's most powerful synchrotron x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Some recent experiments in surface science using neutrons as well as x-rays from the Australian National Beamline will be used to illustrate one of the challenges that synchrotron x-rays may meet

  9. The bidirectional relationship between quality of life and eating disorder symptoms: a 9-year community-based study of Australian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mitchison

    Full Text Available Studies that have investigated quality of life (QoL in eating disorders (EDs have been focussed on the impact of the ED on QoL and little is known regarding the possible reciprocal impact of QoL on EDs. The aim of this study was to provide a first-time investigation of possible bidirectional relationships between EDs and both health-related QoL (HRQoL and psychological distress (PD.Structural equation modeling was applied to longitudinal data collected from a community sample of Australian women (N = 828 surveyed at baseline, five annual follow-ups, and again after nine years. Participants reported height and weight (from which body mass index, BMI, was calculated and completed measures of ED symptoms (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, HRQoL (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form, and PD (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale.Overall, evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship, whereby ED symptoms predicted reduced HRQoL and greater PD over time, while lower levels of HRQoL and greater PD in turn predicted increased levels of ED symptoms. These relationships were stable, observable within 12 months, and remained observable over a time period of at least four years. However, also observed were some inconsistent findings where ED symptoms predicted a short term (one year improvement in mental HRQoL. This short term boost was not sustained at longer follow-ups.Not only do ED symptoms impact on HRQoL and PD, but perceived poor HRQoL and PD also contribute to ED symptom development or exacerbation. This supports a movement away from symptom-centric approaches whereby HRQoL is conceptualized as a passive outcome expected to be rectified by addressing ED symptoms. Improvement in QoL and PD might rather be viewed as targets to be pursued in their own right under broader approaches in the treatment of EDs.

  10. The carbon cycle in the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1) - Part 1: Model description and pre-industrial simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rachel M.; Ziehn, Tilo; Matear, Richard J.; Lenton, Andrew; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Stevens, Lauren E.; Wang, Ying-Ping; Srbinovsky, Jhan; Bi, Daohua; Yan, Hailin; Vohralik, Peter F.

    2017-07-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) that incorporate carbon-climate feedbacks represent the present state of the art in climate modelling. Here, we describe the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS)-ESM1, which comprises atmosphere (UM7.3), land (CABLE), ocean (MOM4p1), and sea-ice (CICE4.1) components with OASIS-MCT coupling, to which ocean and land carbon modules have been added. The land carbon model (as part of CABLE) can optionally include both nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the land carbon uptake. The ocean carbon model (WOMBAT, added to MOM) simulates the evolution of phosphate, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and iron with one class of phytoplankton and zooplankton. We perform multi-centennial pre-industrial simulations with a fixed atmospheric CO2 concentration and different land carbon model configurations (prescribed or prognostic leaf area index). We evaluate the equilibration of the carbon cycle and present the spatial and temporal variability in key carbon exchanges. Simulating leaf area index results in a slight warming of the atmosphere relative to the prescribed leaf area index case. Seasonal and interannual variations in land carbon exchange are sensitive to whether leaf area index is simulated, with interannual variations driven by variability in precipitation and temperature. We find that the response of the ocean carbon cycle shows reasonable agreement with observations. While our model overestimates surface phosphate values, the global primary productivity agrees well with observations. Our analysis highlights some deficiencies inherent in the carbon models and where the carbon simulation is negatively impacted by known biases in the underlying physical model and consequent limits on the applicability of this model version. We conclude the study with a brief discussion of key developments required to further improve the realism of our model simulation.

  11. The carbon cycle in the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1 – Part 1: Model description and pre-industrial simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Law

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth system models (ESMs that incorporate carbon–climate feedbacks represent the present state of the art in climate modelling. Here, we describe the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1, which comprises atmosphere (UM7.3, land (CABLE, ocean (MOM4p1, and sea-ice (CICE4.1 components with OASIS-MCT coupling, to which ocean and land carbon modules have been added. The land carbon model (as part of CABLE can optionally include both nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the land carbon uptake. The ocean carbon model (WOMBAT, added to MOM simulates the evolution of phosphate, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and iron with one class of phytoplankton and zooplankton. We perform multi-centennial pre-industrial simulations with a fixed atmospheric CO2 concentration and different land carbon model configurations (prescribed or prognostic leaf area index. We evaluate the equilibration of the carbon cycle and present the spatial and temporal variability in key carbon exchanges. Simulating leaf area index results in a slight warming of the atmosphere relative to the prescribed leaf area index case. Seasonal and interannual variations in land carbon exchange are sensitive to whether leaf area index is simulated, with interannual variations driven by variability in precipitation and temperature. We find that the response of the ocean carbon cycle shows reasonable agreement with observations. While our model overestimates surface phosphate values, the global primary productivity agrees well with observations. Our analysis highlights some deficiencies inherent in the carbon models and where the carbon simulation is negatively impacted by known biases in the underlying physical model and consequent limits on the applicability of this model version. We conclude the study with a brief discussion of key developments required to further improve the realism of our model simulation.

  12. Patients' Attitudes and Approaches to the Self-Management of Hypertension: Perspectives from an Australian Qualitative Study in Community Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate; Magin, Parker; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol

    2017-06-01

    In the management of hypertension, blood pressure (BP) monitoring and medication use are key strategies, but they are dependent on patients' motivation to practice self-care. To gauge patients' approaches to monitoring their blood pressure, as well as explore their attitudes toward, and actions relating to, high blood pressure readings, as the key components of their self-management of hypertension. This qualitative study, comprising individual telephone interviews, involved patients attending community pharmacies in Sydney (Australia). Patients' perspectives were elicited using a purpose-designed, semi-structured interview guide. The verbal responses were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Three key themes arose: (1) approaches to monitoring blood pressure, (2) attitudes to variability in BP, (3) responses to high BP readings. Many patients self-regulated the frequency of monitoring based on perceived need and/or opportunity. Most were indifferent toward their readings, regarding BP fluctuations as 'normal'. When a high BP was detected, the action taken was highly variable, with no clear action plans in place. Several patients recognised a high BP to be a consequence of not taking their antihypertensive medication, triggering the resumption of short-term adherence to their preferred management strategy, i.e., self-medication with antihypertensives (i.e., restarting their medication) and/or self-management via lifestyle strategies. This study highlights patients' inappropriate self-management of hypertension. Misperceptions about hypertension, e.g., accepting BP fluctuations as normal, can produce indifferent attitudes as well as influence patients' self-management actions. This lack of insight undermines long-term adherence to antihypertensive therapy.

  13. Health Care for Homeless Veterans program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its medical regulations concerning eligibility for the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program. The HCHV program provides per diem payments to non-VA community-based facilities that provide housing, outreach services, case management services, and rehabilitative services, and may provide care and/or treatment to homeless veterans who are enrolled in or eligible for VA health care. The rule modifies VA's HCHV regulations to conform to changes enacted in the Honoring America's Veterans and Caring for Camp Lejeune Families Act of 2012. Specifically, the rule removes the requirement that homeless veterans be diagnosed with a serious mental illness or substance use disorder to qualify for the HCHV program. This change makes the program available to all homeless veterans who are enrolled in or eligible for VA health care. The rule also updates the definition of homeless to match in part the one used by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The rule further clarifies that the services provided by the HCHV program through non-VA community-based providers must include case management services, including non-clinical case management, as appropriate.

  14. War veterans: Factor of instability or factor of peace (building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the characteristic of the entire region of the former Yugoslavia that veterans of regional wars 1991-1999 are marginalized social group. Besides negative consequences for veterans, the marginalization strongly affects the whole communities, as well as very sensitive regional post conflict relations. Still, negative consequences that veterans suffer nowadays can be transformed into precious, positive potential for building of a good and healthy post-conflict societies and good neighborhood relationships as well. This paper is focused on the position of war veterans from Serbia, which recently became the subject of public debate on the occasion of the publication of the book "Oh, where have you been, my blue-eyed son?".

  15. National Cemetery Administration Summary of Veteran and Non-Veteran Interments: FY2000 to FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Total Veteran and Non-Veteran Interments at National Cemetery, and shown by Interment Type of Casket or Cremain, FY2000 to FY2012. Non-Veteran includes dependents,...

  16. 78 FR 44600 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Veterans Retraining Assistance Program Participant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... September 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Andrew Ridgeway, Office of Workforce Investment... include the total number of eligible veterans who participated, the associates degrees or certificates... VA approved community college or technical school. VRAP provides the benefit to veterans who fulfill...

  17. 78 FR 8585 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Veterans Retraining Assistance Program Participant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Andrew Ridgeway, Office of Workforce Investment, Room S-4203, Employment and Training Administration, U.S... include the total number of eligible veterans who participated, the associates degrees or certificates... VA approved community college or technical school. The VRAP provides the benefit to veterans who...

  18. A Comparison of Homeless Male Veterans in Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas in Nebraska: A Methodological Caveat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Bhatia, Subhash C; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    This study explored differences between homeless male veterans in metropolitan and micropolitan cities in Nebraska on sociodemographic, housing, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics as well as health service use. A convenience sample of 151 homeless male veterans (112 metropolitan, 39 micropolitan) were recruited from Veterans Affairs facilities and area shelters in Omaha, Lincoln, Grand Island, and Hastings in Nebraska. Research staff conducted structured interviews with homeless veterans. Results showed that compared to homeless veterans in metropolitans, those in micropolitans were more likely to be White, unmarried, living in transitional settings, and were far more transient but reported greater social support and housing satisfaction. Veterans in micropolitans also reported more medical problems, diagnoses of anxiety and personality disorders, and unexpectedly, were more likely to report using various health services and less travel time for services. Together, these findings suggest access to homeless and health services for veterans in micropolitan areas may be facilitated through Veterans Affairs facilities and community providers that work in close proximity to one another. Many homeless veterans in these areas are transient, making them a difficult population to study and serve. Innovative ways to provide outreach to homeless veterans in micropolitan and more rural areas are needed.

  19. Pre-Implementation Strategies to Adapt and Implement a Veteran Peer Coaching Intervention to Improve Mental Health Treatment Engagement Among Rural Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Christopher J; Abraham, Traci; Zamora, Kara A; Hill, Coleen; Kelly, P Adam; Uddo, Madeline; Hamilton, Michelle; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Seal, Karen H

    2016-09-01

    Telephone motivational coaching has been shown to increase urban veteran mental health treatment initiation. However, no studies have tested telephone motivational coaching delivered by veteran peers to facilitate mental health treatment initiation and engagement. This study describes pre-implementation strategies with 8 Veterans Affairs (VA) community-based outpatient clinics in the West and Mid-South United States to adapt and implement a multisite pragmatic randomized controlled trial of telephone peer motivational coaching for rural veterans. We used 2 pre-implementation strategies, Formative Evaluation (FE) research and Evidence-Based Quality Improvement (EBQI) meetings to adapt the intervention to stakeholders' needs and cultural contexts. FE data were qualitative, semi-structured interviews with rural veterans and VA clinic staff. Results were rapidly analyzed and presented to stakeholders during EBQI meetings to optimize the intervention implementation. FE research results showed that VA clinic providers felt overwhelmed by veterans' mental health needs and acknowledged limited mental health services at VA clinics. Rural veteran interviews indicated geographical, logistical, and cultural barriers to VA mental health treatment initiation and a preference for self-care to cope with mental health symptoms. EBQI meetings resulted in several intervention adaptations, including veteran study recruitment, peer veteran coach training, and an expanded definition of mental health care outcomes. As the VA moves to cultivate community partnerships in order to personalize and expand access to care for rural veterans, pre-implementation processes with engaged stakeholders, such as those described here, can help guide other researchers and clinicians to achieve proactive and veteran-centered health care services. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  20. Putting Veterans to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    provide veteran benefits without sharing information or tying benefits usage to employment success. The VA does not provide benefits usage ...1965-1976) and Millennials (born 1977- 1994), the two generations heavily affected by rising unemployment, derive their information from print...second only to the internet .68 Mrs. Obama announced at the Chamber of Commerce event of December 2011 that the International Franchising Association

  1. 2001 National Survey of Veterans (NSV)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2001 National Survey of Veterans (NSV) is the fifth in a series of comprehensivenationwide surveys designed to help the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) plan...

  2. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  3. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Freeman, Michael A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans.

  4. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Freeman, Michael A.; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans. PMID:29290645

  5. Why Is Veteran Unemployment So High?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Population Survey (CPS), the difference between veteran and non-veteran youth unemployment increased substantially between 2008 and 2011, but then...the veteran youth unemployment rate averaged 10.7 percent compared to 8.0 percent among non-veteran youth. But the unemployment rates of older...one cannot reject at the 95-percent confidence level the hypothesis that the veteran and non-veteran youth unemployment rates are identical

  6. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide Spread the Word Videos Homeless Resources Additional Information ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide The Veterans Crisis Line text-messaging service does ...

  7. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos from Veterans Health Administration Veterans Crisis Line -- After the Call see more videos from Veterans Health ... videos from Veterans Health Administration Talking About It Matters see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Stand ...

  8. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, J.

    1987-01-01

    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  9. Radiation of the Australian flora: what can comparisons of molecular phylogenies across multiple taxa tell us about the evolution of diversity in present-day communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Mike; Cook, Lyn; Steane, Dorothy

    2004-10-29

    The Australian fossil record shows that from ca. 25 Myr ago, the aseasonal-wet biome (rainforest and wet heath) gave way to the unique Australian sclerophyll biomes dominated by eucalypts, acacias and casuarinas. This transition coincided with tectonic isolation of Australia, leading to cooler, drier, more seasonal climates. From 3 Myr ago, aridification caused rapid opening of the central Australian arid zone. Molecular phylogenies with dated nodes have provided new perspectives on how these events could have affected the evolution of the Australian flora. During the Mid-Cenozoic (25-10 Myr ago) period of climatic change, there were rapid radiations in sclerophyll taxa, such as Banksia, eucalypts, pea-flowered legumes and Allocasuarina. At the same time, taxa restricted to the aseasonal-wet biome (Nothofagus, Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae) did not radiate or were depleted by extinction. During the Pliocene aridification, two Eremean biome taxa (Lepidium and Chenopodiaceae) radiated rapidly after dispersing into Australia from overseas. It is clear that the biomes have different histories. Lineages in the aseasonal-wet biome are species poor, with sister taxa that are species rich, either outside Australia or in the sclerophyll biomes. In conjunction with the fossil record, this indicates depletion of the Australian aseasonal-wet biome from the Mid-Cenozoic. In the sclerophyll biomes, there have been multiple exchanges between the southwest and southeast, rather than single large endemic radiations after a vicariance event. There is need for rigorous molecular phylogenetic studies so that additional questions can be addressed, such as how interactions between biomes may have driven the speciation process during radiations. New studies should include the hitherto neglected monsoonal tropics.

  10. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Jared Denman

    2009-01-01

    The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintai...

  11. Student Veterans Survey, Winter 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Gary B.

    1975-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to obtain student veterans' attitudes and awareness of services available for them through the university. Two hundred forty-two (242), or 63 percent of a random sample drawn from every tenth veteran registered at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities, were contacted. Key findings of the survey include: Most…

  12. A Model of Interdisciplinary Ambulatory Geriatric Care in a Veterans Administration Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Andrea; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model of outpatient interdisciplinary geriatric care provided at a veteran's hospital. Compares characteristics of patients served in this program with those in community-based geriatrics outpatient clinics described in the literature. (Author/ABB)

  13. Completion of a Veteran-Focused Civic Service Program Improves Health and Psychosocial Outcomes in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans With a History of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Karen A; Matthieu, Monica M; Robertson-Blackmore, Emma

    2017-07-01

    Volunteering as a health promotion intervention is positively related to improved health and well-being in civilians and older adults. Yet, the impacts of participating in a community-based volunteering program on returning military veterans have not been studied, nor have the outcomes for veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This observational, pre-post survey examines health, psychological, and social outcomes from a cohort of post-9/11/01 veterans with (N = 67) and without a reported TBI history (N = 273) who completed a 6-month, 20-hour per week veteran-focused civic service program. This study was approved by the Saint Louis University Institutional Review Board. Veterans with a TBI history who completed the 6-month civic service program conducted by a veteran-focused national nonprofit organization showed significant pre-post improvement (p improved psychological and social outcomes documented here. Finally, pre-post change scores did not differ significantly between veterans with and without a TBI, indicating that TBI history did not hinder the ability to benefit from this program. Completion of this civic service program positively impacted veterans with TBI, especially on psychological and social outcomes important to recovery and life satisfaction after TBI. Civic service may provide an innovative approach to promoting wellness in returning veterans with a TBI. Results of this study provide preliminary evidence that civic service decreases social isolation and loneliness in veterans with a reported TBI history. Given our findings, volunteering may prevent against social isolation and be promotional of perceived social support in veterans with TBI. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Supporting Military Veteran Students: Early Lessons from Kohlberg Prize Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Klempin, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary education participation is critical for military-connected individuals as they transition back to civilian life. The Kisco Foundation's Kohlberg Prize, a competitive grant awarded in 2015 and 2016, is aimed at making community colleges more welcoming and better able to meet the needs of veteran students. This review details the early…

  15. Understanding Barriers to Mental Health Care for Recent War Veterans Through Photovoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Gala; Rigg, Khary K; Butler, Anneliese

    2015-10-01

    Despite an urgent need for mental health care among U.S. service members returning from deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan, many veterans do not receive timely or adequate treatment. We used photovoice methods to engage veterans in identifying barriers to utilizing mental health services. Veterans described how key aspects of military culture and identity, highly adaptive during deployment, can deter help-seeking behavior and hinder recovery. Veterans' photographs highlighted how mental health symptoms and self-coping strategies operated as barriers to care. Many veterans' photos and stories revealed how negative health care encounters contributed to avoidance and abandonment of treatment; some veterans described these experiences as re-traumatizing. Visual methods can be a powerful tool for engaging recent war veterans in research. In particular, community-based participatory research approaches, which have rarely been used with veterans, hold great promise for informing effective interventions to improve access and enhance provision of patient-centered care for veterans. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Health Correlates of Criminal Justice Involvement in 4,793 Transgender Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, George R; Jones, Kenneth T

    2015-12-01

    Transgender (TG) persons are overrepresented in prison settings and in the U.S. veteran population. Health disparities studies of large populations of transgender people involved with the criminal justice system have not been published to date. We studied a large cohort of TG veterans who received care in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities during 2007-2013 (n = 4,793) and a 3:1 matched control group of veterans without known TG identification (n = 13,625). Three hundred twenty six (n = 138 TG, 188 non-TG) had received VHA services in programs designed to address the needs of justice involved (JI) veterans. We linked patients in each of the three groups to their medical and administrative data. TG veterans were more likely to be justice involved than controls (2.88% vs. 1.38%; P suicidal ideation/attempts. These data suggest that TG veterans experience a number of health risks compared to non-TG veterans, including an increased likelihood of justice involvement. TG veterans involved with the criminal justice system are a particularly vulnerable group and services designed to address the health care needs of this population, both while incarcerated and when in the community, should take these findings into account in the development of health screenings and treatment plans.

  17. Benefits and challenges of using service dogs for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Stumbo, Scott P; Yarborough, Micah T; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Green, Carla A

    2018-04-26

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are increasingly seeking service dogs to help them manage trauma-related symptoms, yet literature describing service dog use in this population is scant. The goal of this study was to document the benefits and challenges experienced by veterans with service dogs trained to assist with PTSD-related needs. Participants were veterans (N = 41) with service dogs, and their caregivers (n = 8), recruited through community-based service dog training agencies. We conducted in-depth interviews and observed training sessions as part of a larger study, and used thematic analysis to characterize data. Veterans reported that service dogs reduced hypervigilance by alerting and creating boundaries, and disrupted nightmares, improving sleep quality and duration. Dogs also helped veterans turn their attention away from invasive trauma-related thoughts. Additional reported benefits included improved emotional connections with others, increased community participation and physical activity, and reduced suicidal impulses and medication use. Demands of training, adjustment to life with a service dog, and delayed benefits were challenging for many veterans and caregivers. Veterans report that service dogs help reduce PTSD symptoms and facilitate recovery and realization of meaningful goals. Service dogs may be a reasonable option for veterans who are reluctant to pursue or persist with traditional evidence-based treatments. Additional rigorous research on the effectiveness of service dogs for this population is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. 78 FR 59769 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran (VOV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran (VOV...) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-21), this notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA...-0782.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran...

  19. 76 FR 20823 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran (VOV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran (VOV... U.S.C. 3501-21), this notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department... INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran (VOV) Pilot Surveys. a...

  20. Boomerang - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.; Garrett, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was one of seven major national research facilities funded by the Federal Government in December 1995. The program provides guaranteed access and travel funds for Australian scientists to conduct synchrotron radiation-based research at two overseas facilities - the Photon Factory at Tsukuba in Japan and the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National Laboratory in the US. The Federal Government also provided funding of $100K to carry out a Feasibility Study for an Australian-based facility. This has been completed and included a mission to a number of laboratories overseas that were or had recently constructed a facility that could be considered for Australia. Following the mission, consensus was achieved within the community for the specifications of a proposed Australian facility. The proposed facility, Boomerang, has an energy of 3 GeV, an emittance of 16 nm rad and will be equipped in the first phase with 9 instrument stations. Boomerang will be competitive in performance with other facilities currently under construction overseas. A detailed proposal has been submitted to the Federal Government for funding. No site has been specified in the proposal. The proposal was prepared within the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) following extensive consultation with industrial and scientific groups in all Australian states. Valuable contributions have been made by members of all the committees of the ASRP, the Australian synchrotron research community that works through the ASRP and the National Synchrotron Steering Committee. Important contributions have also been made by many industrial groups including consortia in Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales. The input from the ANKA staff at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and, in particular. Professor Einfeld has been a critical component. The estimated capital cost of a no frills laboratory has been estimated to be $100M in 1999 dollars. The

  1. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Adult Veterans: Online Mental Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. Objective In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Methods Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. Results We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more

  2. Using facebook to recruit young adult veterans: online mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Helmuth, Eric D; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; PunKay, Marc; Kurz, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more than half screening positive for

  3. Male Veteran Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The prominence and incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) with male military veterans vary, but generally there is consensus that screening and intervention does help reduce IPV. Intervention is generally provided in the community via Batterer Intervention Programs. However, at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) intervention is provided via the Domestic Relations Clinic. Nationally the VA has limited treatment for male IPV. An aggregate sample (n = 178) of participants was assessed using the Domestic Violence/Abuse Screen to measure covariate pre-test and post-test outcomes, program failure, and recidivism. The treatment approach is psycho-educationally based to meet the challenging and unique needs of the military veteran population. The results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of IPV and highlight the need for more intervention and prevention approaches.

  4. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Administration Commitments PSA see more videos from Veterans Health Administration The Veterans Crisis Line: Gun Safety see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Talking ...

  5. In-vivo job development training among peer providers of homeless veterans supported employment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ni; Dolce, Joni; Rio, John; Heitzmann, Carma; Loving, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    This column describes a goal-oriented, time-limited in vivo coaching/training approach for skills building among peer veterans vocational rehabilitation specialists of the Homeless Veteran Supported Employment Program (HVSEP). Planning, implementing, and evaluating the training approach for peer providers was intended, ultimately, to support veterans in their goal of returning to community competitive employment. The description draws from the training experience that aimed to improve the ability of peer providers to increase both rates of employment and wages of the homeless veterans using their services. Training peers using an in vivo training approach provided a unique opportunity for the veterans to improve their job development skills with a focus to support employment outcomes for the service users. Peers who received training also expressed that learning skills through an in vivo training approach was more engaging than typical classroom trainings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Financial well-being and postdeployment adjustment among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Wagner, H Ryan; Newton, Virginia M; Beckham, Jean C

    2012-06-01

    Research has yet to examine the relationship between financial well-being and community reintegration of veterans. To address this, we analyzed data from n = 1,388 Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans who completed a national survey on postdeployment adjustment. The results indicated that probable major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury were associated with financial difficulties. However, regardless of diagnosis, veterans who reported having money to cover basic needs were significantly less likely to have postdeployment adjustment problems such as criminal arrest, homelessness, substance abuse, suicidal behavior, and aggression. Statistical analyses also indicated that poor money management (e.g., incurring significant debt or writing bad checks) was related to maladjustment, even among veterans at higher income levels. Given these findings, efforts aimed at enhancing financial literacy and promoting meaningful employment may have promise to enhance outcomes and improve quality of life among returning veterans.

  7. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  8. Getting Beyond “Don’t Ask; Don’t Tell”: an Evaluation of US Veterans Administration Postdeployment Mental Health Screening of Veterans Returning From Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Karen H.; Bertenthal, Daniel; Maguen, Shira; Gima, Kristian; Chu, Ann; Marmar, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to evaluate outcomes of the Veterans Administration (VA) Afghan and Iraq Post-Deployment Screen for mental health symptoms. Methods. Veterans Administration clinicians were encouraged to refer Iraq or Afghanistan veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or high-risk alcohol use to a VA mental health clinic. Multivariate methods were used to determine predictors of screening, the proportions who screened positive for particular mental health problems, and predictors of VA mental health clinic attendance. Results. Among 750 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were referred to a VA medical center and 5 associated community clinics, 338 underwent postdeployment screening; 233 (69%) screened positive for mental health problems. Having been seen in primary care (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]=13.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.31, 21.3) and at a VA community clinic (AOR=3.28; 95% CI=2.03, 5.28) predicted screening. African American veterans were less likely to have been screened than were White veterans (AOR=0.45; 95% CI=0.22, 0.91). Of 233 veterans who screened positive, 170 (73%) completed a mental health follow-up visit. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of veterans met screening criteria for co-occurring mental health problems, suggesting that the VA screens may help overcome a “don’t ask, don’t tell” climate that surrounds stigmatized mental illness. Based on data from 1 VA facility, VA postdeployment screening increases mental health clinic attendance among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:18309130

  9. Veterans' Employment and Training Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Engage Facebook Twitter Instagram RSS Email Share Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS) Menu About VETS Who ... Tweets about from:@VETS_DOL Tweets by @USDOL Employment Initiatives Contact your local American Job Center for ...

  10. VeteranOtherInformationService

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This service is used to create, read, delete and update additional information captured during the EVSS Disability Compensation interview in an effort to align with...

  11. 76 FR 36955 - West Los Angeles VA Medical Center Veterans Programs Enhancement Act of 1998; Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... over the next 50 years.'' This is a land use plan that guides the physical development of the campus to... Development (HUD) Section 8 permanent housing vouchers (940), and community residential beds for veterans with... homeless veterans, especially those coping with mental health problems such as PTSD. The WLA campus is a...

  12. The Mass Termination of Black Veteran Teachers in New Orleans: Cultural Politics, the Education Market, and Its Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    This article chronicles the mass firing of veteran teachers in New Orleans, most of them African American, following Hurricane Katrina. The role of Teach for America in providing inexperienced White teacher recruits from outside the community is critiqued. Countering the ahistorical discourse that blames Black veteran teachers for the shortcomings…

  13. Residential treatment for dually diagnosed homeless veterans: a comparison of program types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprow, W J; Rosenheck, R; Frisman, L; DiLella, D

    1999-01-01

    This study compared two types of residential programs that treat dually diagnosed homeless veterans. Programs specializing in the treatment of substance abuse disorders (SA) and those programs addressing both psychiatric disorders and substance abuse problems within the same setting (DDX) were compared on (1) program characteristics, (2) clients' perceived environment, and (3) outcomes of treatment. The study was based on surveys and discharge reports from residential treatment facilities that were under contract to the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care for Homeless Veterans program, a national outreach and case management program operating at 71 sites across the nation. Program characteristics surveys were completed by program administrators, perceived environment surveys were completed by veterans in treatment, and discharge reports were completed by VA case managers. DDX programs were characterized by lower expectations for functioning, more acceptance of problem behavior, and more accommodation for choice and privacy, relative to SA programs after adjusting for baseline differences. Dually diagnosed veterans in DDX programs perceived these programs as less controlling than SA programs, but also as having lower involvement and less practical and personal problem orientations. At discharge, a lower percentage of veterans from DDX than SA programs left without staff consultation. A higher percentage of veterans from DDX than SA programs were discharged to community housing rather than to further institutional treatment. Program effects were not different for psychotic and non-psychotic veterans. Although differences were modest, integration of substance abuse and psychiatric treatment may promote a faster return to community living for dually diagnosed homeless veterans. Such integration did not differentially benefit dually diagnosed veterans whose psychiatric problems included a psychotic disorder.

  14. Networking strategies of the microscopy community for improved utilization of advanced instruments: (1) The Australian Microscopy and Microanalysis Research Facility (AMMRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, S.P.; Apperley, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the strategy underpinning the formation and operation of the Australian Microscopy and Microanalysis Research Facility (AMMRF). AMMRF is a formal collaboration that links eight Australian Universities together to create a user-focused national capability in microscopy and microanalysis. The AMMRF flagship capabilities include: Cameca IMS-1280 and NanoSIMS-50 ion microprobes (University of Western Australia); High-throughput, high-resolution cryoTEM (University of Queensland); Atom Probe Microscopy (University of Sydney); High-resolution Focussed Ion-Beam and SEM (Universities of Adelaide and NSW); High-resolution SEM microanalysis facility (University of New South Wales); and PHI TRIFT V nanoToF ToF-SIMS (University of South Australia). Secondly, a network of peer support and expert training has been established amongst facility professional support staff. The governance and funding of the organisation are described and the advantages and achievements of a nationally coordinated facility for microscopy and microanalysis are set out. Selected data are presented that benchmark the performance of the facility, describe the economic impact and demonstrate the impact on the quality of research outcomes as a result of operating national collaborative research infrastructure for microscopy and microanalysis

  15. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Live Chat Veterans Text Homeless Veterans Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard of Hearing Contact Us ... Live Chat Veterans Text Homeless Veterans Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard of Hearing Contact Us ...

  16. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... listen? see more videos from Veterans Health Administration 1 Act see more videos from Veterans Health Administration ... videos from Veterans Health Administration The Power of 1 PSA see more videos from Veterans Health Administration ...

  17. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Make the Connection Get Help When To Call What To Expect Resource Locator Veterans Live Chat Veterans ... Make the Connection Get Help When To Call What To Expect Resource Locator Veterans Live Chat Veterans ...

  18. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Veterans Health Administration Be There: Help Save a Life see more videos from Veterans Health Administration ... more videos from Veterans Health Administration I am A Veteran Family/Friend Active Duty/Reserve and Guard ...

  19. Patterns of hospice care among military veterans and non-veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachterman, Melissa W; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Simon, Steven R; Lorenz, Karl A; Keating, Nancy L

    2014-07-01

    Historically, hospice use by veterans has lagged behind that of non-veterans. Little is known about hospice use by veterans at a population level. To determine whether veteran and non-veteran hospice users differ by demographics, primary diagnosis, location of care, and service utilization. Using the 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey, we identified 483 veteran and 932 non-veteran male hospice users representing 287,620 hospice enrollees nationally. We used chi-square and t-tests to compare veterans and non-veterans by demographic characteristics, primary diagnosis, and location of hospice care. We used multivariate regression to assess for differences in hospice diagnosis and location of care, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. We also compared length of stay and number of visits by hospice personnel between veterans and non-veterans using multivariate regression. Veteran hospice users were older than non-veterans (77.0 vs. 74.3 years, P = 0.02) but did not differ by other demographics. In adjusted analyses, cancer was a more common primary diagnosis among veterans than non-veterans (56.4% vs. 48.4%; P = 0.02), and veteran hospice users were more likely than non-veterans to receive hospice at home (68.4% vs. 57.6%; P = 0.007). The median adjusted length of stay and number of nurse or social worker visits did not differ by veteran status (all P > 0.10), but veterans received fewer home health aide visits than non-veterans (one every 5.3 days vs. one every 3.7 days; P = 0.002). Although veteran and non-veteran hospice users were similar on most demographic measures, important differences in hospice referral patterns and utilization exist. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Challenges of Afghanistan and Iraq Veterans' Transition from Military to Civilian Life and Approaches to Reconnection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ahern

    Full Text Available Afghanistan and Iraq veterans experienced traumas during deployment, and disrupted connections with friends and family. In this context, it is critical to understand the nature of veterans' transition to civilian life, the challenges navigated, and approaches to reconnection. We investigated these issues in a qualitative study, framed by homecoming theory, that comprised in-depth interviews with 24 veterans. Using an inductive thematic analysis approach, we developed three overarching themes. Military as family explored how many veterans experienced the military environment as a "family" that took care of them and provided structure. Normal is alien encompassed many veterans experiences of disconnection from people at home, lack of support from institutions, lack of structure, and loss of purpose upon return to civilian life. Searching for a new normal included strategies and supports veterans found to reconnect in the face of these challenges. A veteran who had successfully transitioned and provided support and advice as a peer navigator was frequently discussed as a key resource. A minority of respondents-those who were mistreated by the military system, women veterans, and veterans recovering from substance abuse problems-were less able to access peer support. Other reconnection strategies included becoming an ambassador to the military experience, and knowing transition challenges would ease with time. Results were consistent with and are discussed in the context of homecoming theory and social climate theory. Social support is known to be protective for veterans, but our findings add the nuance of substantial obstacles veterans face in locating and accessing support, due to disconnection and unsupportive institutions. Larger scale work is needed to better understand how to foster peer connection, build reconnection with family, and engage the broader community to understand and support veterans; interventions to support reconnection for

  1. 77 FR 73312 - Technical Revisions-State Veterans Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Veterans Homes. These regulations must be updated because of recent changes to the Veterans Health... Medical Care Benefits; 64.010, Veterans Nursing Home Care; 64.014, Veterans State Domiciliary Care; 64.015, Veterans State Nursing Home Care; 64.016, Veterans State Hospital Care; 64.018, Sharing Specialized Medical...

  2. VA Is Here for the People Who Support Our Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expect Resource Locator Veterans Live Chat Veterans Text Homeless Veterans Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard of Hearing Contact Us About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide VA is here for the people who support our Veterans. Whether you’re a ...

  3. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  4. World war II veterans, social support, and veterans' associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, N; Robbins, I

    2001-05-01

    People use many different coping strategies to deal with their traumatic recollections. Twenty-five British World War II veterans were interviewed regarding the ways they used social support both during the war and in the years afterwards. The findings demonstrate that social support is used in fundamentally different ways. During the war comradeship was particularly important and even fifty years after the war comrades are still a valuable resource for discussing war experiences, and dealing with the emotional content of traumatic recollections. Veterans rely on wives and families to help deal with the more physical and practical elements of coping, but tend not to discuss their traumatic memories with them. The findings show that social support is an important lifelong coping strategy for World War II veterans.

  5. Employment of Veterans in Executive Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This quick facts summarizes the Veteran new hires into the Federal government by disabled and by 30 percent and higher disabled groups for 2008 to 2015. It shows the...

  6. Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Search form Search Basket Contact Us DVBIC Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center About DVBIC Leadership ... link is external) Read more DCoE news articles » Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Crisis Intervention (24/ ...

  7. Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) receives and stores information on cancer diagnosis and treatment constraints compiled and sent in by the local...

  8. The development of a culturally appropriate school based intervention for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities: A formative evaluation of the Alert Program®intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bree; Fitzpatrick, James; Symons, Martyn; Jirikowic, Tracy; Cross, Donna; Latimer, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the benefits of targeting self-regulation in non-Aboriginal children, it is unclear whether such programs would be effective for Aboriginal children attending school in remote communities. Some of these children have been diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) impairing their ability to self-regulate. The aim of this article is to describe a three phase formative process to develop and pilot a curriculum version of the Alert Program ® , a promising intervention for improving self-regulation that could be used in remote community schools. This modified version of the program will be subsequently tested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. A mixed methods approach was used. Modifications to the Alert Program ® , its delivery and evaluation were made after community and stakeholder consultation facilitated by a senior Aboriginal community researcher. Changes to lesson plans and program resources were made to reflect the remote community context, classroom environment and the challenging behaviours of children. Standardised study outcome measures were modified by removing several questions that had little relevance to the lives of children in remote communities. Program training for school staff was reduced in length to reduce staff burden. This study identified aspects of the Alert Program ® training, delivery and measures for evaluation that need modification before their use in assessing the efficacy of the Alert Program ® in remote Aboriginal community primary schools. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  10. 77 FR 21089 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Application for Grants Under the Veterans Upward Bound Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ...: The Veterans Upward Bound (VUB) program provides grants to institutions of higher education, public and private agencies and organizations, community-based organization with experience in serving disadvantaged youth, combinations of such institutions, agencies and organizations, and secondary schools. The...

  11. Career Development for Transitioning Veterans. Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Carmen Stein; Osborn, Debra S.; Hayden, Seth C. W.; Van Hoose, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to increase career practitioners' awareness of the transition issues and resources specific to veterans and to provide several examples of how a practitioner might walk a veteran through the career planning process. Case studies based on interviews with real veterans by the authors and military consultants (Thomas…

  12. 38 CFR 52.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 38 U.S.C. 1710(e); (j) Veterans who agree to pay to the United States the applicable co-payment... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 52.50 Eligible veterans. A...

  13. 38 CFR 51.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in 38 U.S.C. 1710(e); (j) Veterans who agree to pay to the United States the applicable co-payment... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 51.50 Eligible veterans. A...

  14. Early Australian Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John S.

    Comparative research indicates that almost without exception, late eighteenth century non-standard English pronunciation was very close to what is called Broad Australian. Present Australian English is closely akin to the blended, popular colloquial London English, spoken by the largest group of Australia's first settlers. This pronunciation…

  15. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  16. Coordinating Care Across Health Care Systems for Veterans With Gynecologic Malignancies: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchowski, Jessica L; Chrystal, Joya G; Hamilton, Alison B; Patton, Elizabeth W; Zephyrin, Laurie C; Yano, Elizabeth M; Cordasco, Kristina M

    2017-07-01

    Veterans concurrently using both Veterans Affairs (VA) and community providers and facilities have increased coordination needs related to bridging their care across health care settings. Women Veterans commonly require a combination of VA and community care if they have women-specific specialty care needs, such as gynecologic malignancies. We assessed VA women's health providers' and administrators' perceptions of coordination challenges for Veterans' gynecologic cancer care, and potential approaches for addressing these challenges. We carried out semistructured qualitative interviews with field-based key informants (VA gynecologists, women's health medical directors, and other staff directly involved in women's health care coordination) at 15 VA facilities. Transcripts were summarized in a template to capture key points. Themes were identified and iteratively revised (inductively/deductively) via a collaborative decision-making process utilizing matrices to compare content across interviews. Key informants (n=23) noted that services for patients with gynecologic cancers are provided through a combination of VA and community care with wide variation in care arrangements by facility. Care coordination challenges included care fragmentation, lack of role clarity and care tracking, and difficulties associated with VA and community provider communication, patient communication, patient records exchange, and authorizations. Care coordination roles suggested for addressing challenges included: care tracker, provider point-of-contact, patient liaison, and records administrator. Experiences in coordinating care for women Veterans with gynecologic malignancies receiving concurrent VA and community cancer care reveal challenges inherent in delivering care across health care systems, as well as potential approaches for addressing them.

  17. Women service members, veterans, and their families: What we know now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Mariann; Everett, Joyce E

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight what we know now about female service members, veterans, and their families. The experiences of U.S. female service members and veterans are more complex than previous eras and significant demographic changes have taken place. U.S. female veterans are more likely to be younger, come from ethnic and racial minority groups, have children, and combat exposure. U.S. female service members report high rates of sexual violence and they are more vulnerable to homelessness and unemployment when compared to previous female military cohorts. U.S. female service members and veterans are also at higher risk for significant mental and health issues. Children and adolescents of women service members and veterans may also carry a heavy burden as a result of lengthy deployments. A majority of female service members and veterans will utilize community based healthcare and social services, therefore, it is essential that all healthcare providers understand the unique needs of this cohort of women. Practice implications at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels are discussed. Qualitative and quantitative studies that expand our understanding of women's experience in the military and as veterans are encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The genetics of tea and coffee drinking and preference for source of caffeine in a large community sample of Australian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Kirk, Katherine M; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the genetic and environmental influences on tea consumption and their commonalities with coffee consumption; and to further examine the genetic and environmental aetiology of preference for tea/coffee. A classical twin design was used in which the similarity of identical and non-identical twins is compared, enabling estimates of genetic, common environmental and unique environmental influence on the trait. An Australian population-based sample of 1796 identical (i.e. monozygotic) and 2013 non-identical (i.e. dizygotic) twin pairs aged 16-87 years was studied, roughly three-fifths of whom were female. The sample represented approximately 70% of those approached for study participation. As part of a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire, respondents were asked how many cups of each tea and coffee they consumed per day. Additional measures of 'total tea and coffee consumption' and 'preference for coffee' were calculated. Age was positively associated with tea consumption but negatively associated with coffee preference; women consumed more beverages than men, but showed a lower preference for coffee. An inverse relation between tea and coffee consumption--larger in females (-0.41) than males (-0.34)--was supported. This association was mediated entirely by the unique environment in males, and by both the unique environment (68.3%) and genes (31.7%) in females. Tea and coffee drinking were shown to have similar heritabilities (0.46) in males, but tea consumption was influenced by common environmental factors whereas coffee consumption was not. Coffee preference was shown to be influenced by genes (0.42) and the unique environment (0.58). As the patterns of genetic and environmental variation were shown to differ for tea and coffee consumption it may be more informative to retain them as separate measures of caffeine intake in future studies of stimulant use and taste perception.

  19. Factors Concerning Veterans With Dementia, Their Caregivers, and Coordination of Care: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileski, Michael; Scott Kruse, Clemens; Brooks, Matthew; Haynes, Christine; Collingwood, Ying; Rodriguez, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    Military veterans diagnosed with dementia compose a large portion of our population. Often ignored are their caregivers and their plight as well as the availability, quality, and accessibility of health care for this demographic. The purpose of this systematic literature review is three fold: to identify opportunities available to increase public awareness on the subject; to identify areas of improvement in the level of care and quality of life for our nation's veterans; and to identify if adequate resources are available to veterans with dementia and their caregivers. The authors conducted systematic searches of three databases: PubMed via The National Center for Biotechnology Information, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Complete via Ebson B. Stephens Company (EBSCO Host), and Google. Data were collected regarding providing care to veterans who are suffering from dementia or Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers between 2008 and June 2016. Search results were filtered by date range, full text, English language, Boolean operators, and academic journals (n = 14). The review confirmed there are many facilitators and barriers in the coordination of care offered to veterans with dementia. Facilitators of quality care include veteran's expectations, family support, program development, and the availability of services. These positive aspects are aided by several community-based support services, new technology, and preventative care. Barriers are caregiver expectations, coordination of care, providers, and informal and formal costs. These negative facets are due to lack of educational resources, an increased veteran population diagnosed with dementia, limited knowledge of resources, and limited medical service in rural areas. Overall, there are a number of community programs that want to, and can, help veterans with dementia. There are also a number of ways to help veterans with dementia cope with their issues, which include

  20. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  1. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  2. Knowledge Distribution and Power Relations in HIV-Related Education and Prevention for Gay Men: An Application of Bernstein to Australian Community-Based Pedagogical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, David; Murphy, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to make a theoretical and analytic intervention into the field of HIV-related education and prevention by applying the pedagogy framework of Basil Bernstein to a series of pedagogical devices developed and used in community-based programmes targeting gay men in Australia. The paper begins by outlining why it is such an…

  3. How experiential learning in an informal setting promotes class equity and social and economic justice for children from "communities at promise": An Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyngier, David

    2017-02-01

    Educational research often portrays culturally, linguistically and economically disenfranchised (CLED) children's disengagement from school learning as individual behaviour, ignoring the contribution of race, gender, socio-cultural, ethnic and social class factors. This paper analyses a specific community engagement programme in Australia which uses experiential learning in an informal setting. The programme, which has been running for seven years, partners pre-service teachers, volunteer high school students and volunteers from a national bank with primary schools where many pupils are experiencing learning difficulties and school engagement problems as a result of their socio-economic status, their poverty, and their ethnic and cultural diversity. Drawing on the perspectives of the children and volunteers participating in the pilot study, and privileging their voices, this paper illustrates how community partnerships may be developed and sustained. The programme's conceptual framework of Connecting-Owning-Responding-Empowering (CORE) pedagogy is explored for its potential to enhance student engagement, achievement and empowerment through focused community involvement. The findings show that when students feel connected to and involved in their community, all participants are empowered in their learning and teaching.

  4. Potential for Australian involvement in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D. J.; Collins, G. A.; Hole, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Fusion, the process that powers the sun and stars, offers a solution to the world's long-term energy needs: providing large scale energy production with zero greenhouse gas emissions, short-lived radio-active waste compared to conventional nuclear fission cycles, and a virtually limitless supply of fuel. Almost three decades of fusion research has produced spectacular progress. Present-day experiments have a power gain ratio of approximately 1 (ratio of power out to power in), with a power output in the 10's of megawatts. The world's next major fusion experiment, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will be a pre-prototype power plant. Since announcement of the ITER site in June 2005, the ITER project, has gained momentum and political support. Despite Australia's foundation role in the field of fusion science, through the pioneering work of Sir Mark Oliphant, and significant contributions to the international fusion program over the succeeding years, Australia is not involved in the ITER project. In this talk, the activities of a recently formed consortium of scientists and engineers, the Australian ITER Forum will be outlined. The Forum is drawn from five Universities, ANSTO (the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) and AINSE (the Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering), and seeks to promote fusion energy in the Australian community and negotiate a role for Australia in the ITER project. As part of this activity, the Australian government recently funded a workshop that discussed the ways and means of engaging Australia in ITER. The workshop brought the research, industrial, government and general public communities, together with the ITER partners, and forged an opportunity for ITER engagement; with scientific, industrial, and energy security rewards for Australia. We will report on the emerging scope for Australian involvement

  5. Neighborhood Resources to Support Healthy Diets and Physical Activity Among US Military Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Matthews, Stephen A.; Powell, Lisa M.; Jones, Kelly K.; Slater, Sandy; Wing, Coady

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Among the nearly 21 million military veterans living in the United States, 64.0% of women and 76.1% of men are overweight or obese, higher rates than in the civilian population (56.9% of women and 69.9% of men). Attributes of the residential environment are linked to obesity. The objective of this study was to characterize the residential environments of the US veteran population with respect to availability of food and recreational venues. Methods We used American Community Survey data to determine the concentration of veterans (the percentage of veterans among the adult population) in all continental US census tracts in 2013, and we used proprietary data to construct measures of availability of food and recreational venues per census tract. Using descriptive statistics and ordinary least-squares regression, we examined associations between the concentration of veterans per census tract and those residential environmental features. Results In census tracts with high concentrations of veterans, residents had, on average, 0.5 (interquartile range, 0–0.8) supermarkets within a 1-mile radius, while residents in census tracts with low concentrations of veterans had 3.2 (interquartile range, 0.6–3.7) supermarkets. Patterns were similar for grocery and convenience stores, fast food restaurants, parks, and commercial fitness facilities. In adjusted analyses controlling for census-tract–level covariates, veteran concentration remained strongly negatively associated with availability of those food and recreational venues. In nonmetropolitan tracts, adjusted associations were greatly attenuated and even positive. Conclusion Where veterans live is strongly associated with availability of food outlets providing healthy (and unhealthy) foods and with recreational venues, raising questions about the contributions of veterans’ residential environments to their high obesity rates. Additional research is needed to address those questions. PMID:29120701

  6. "Homelessness and trauma go hand-in-hand": pathways to homelessness among women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison B; Poza, Ines; Washington, Donna L

    2011-01-01

    Veterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans' pathways into homelessness. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. Five predominant "roots" (precipitating experiences) initiated pathways toward homelessness: 1) childhood adversity, 2) trauma and/or substance abuse during military service, 3) post-military abuse, adversity, and/or relationship termination, 4) post-military mental health, substance abuse, and/or medical problems, and 5) unemployment. Contextual factors, which promoted development of homelessness in the setting of primary roots, included women veterans' "survivor instinct," lack of social support and resources, sense of isolation, pronounced sense of independence, and barriers to care. These contextual factors also reinforced persistence of the roots of post-military adversity and mental health and substance abuse problems, serving to maintain cycles of chronic homelessness. Collectively, these multiple, interacting roots and contextual factors form a "web of vulnerability" that is a target for action. Multiple points along the pathways to homelessness represent critical junctures for VA and community-based organizations to engage in prevention or intervention efforts on behalf of women veterans. Considering the multiple, interconnected challenges that these women veterans described, solutions to homelessness should address multiple risk factors, include trauma-informed care that acknowledges women veterans' traumatic experiences, and incorporate holistic responses that can contribute to healing and recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Utilization of Mental Health Services by Veterans Living in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Judith; Ali, Mir M; Lynch, Sean; Mutter, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    There is concern that veterans living in rural areas may not be receiving the mental health (MH) treatment they need. This study uses recent national survey data to examine the utilization of MH treatment among military veterans with a MH condition living in rural areas, providing comparisons with estimates of veterans living in urban areas. Multivariable logistic regression is utilized to examine differences in MH service use by urban/rural residence, controlling for other factors. Rates of utilization of inpatient and outpatient treatment, psychotropic medication, any MH treatment, and perceived unmet need for MH care are examined. There were significant differences in MH treatment utilization among veterans by rural/urban residence. Multivariate estimates indicate that compared to veterans with a MH condition living in urban areas, veterans in rural areas had 70% lower odds of receiving any MH treatment. Veterans with a MH condition in rural areas have approximately 52% and 64% lower odds of receiving outpatient treatment and prescription medications, respectively, compared to those living in urban areas. Differences in perceived unmet need for mental health treatment were not statistically significant. While research indicates that recent efforts to improve MH service delivery have resulted in improved access to services, this study found that veterans' rates of MH treatment are lower in rural areas, compared to urban areas. Continued efforts to support the provision of behavioral health services to rural veterans are needed. Telemedicine, using rural providers to their maximum potential, and engagement with community stakeholder groups are promising approaches. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Developing cessation interventions for the social and community service setting: A qualitative study of barriers to quitting among disadvantaged Australian smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Jon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates remain unacceptably high among individuals who are socially disadvantaged. Social and community service organisations (SCSO are increasingly interested in providing smoking cessation support to clients, however little is known about the best way to assist disadvantaged smokers to quit in this setting. This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to quitting within the conceptual framework of the PRECEDE model to identify possible interventions appropriate to the social and community service setting. Methods Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with clients attending five community welfare organisations located in New South Wales, Australia. Thirty-two clients participated in six focus groups. A discussion guide was used to explore the barriers and facilitators to smoking and smoking cessation including: current smoking behaviour, motivation to quit, past quit attempts, barriers to quitting and preferences for cessation support. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis techniques. Results Participants were current smokers and most expressed a desire to quit. Factors predisposing continued smoking included perceived benefits of smoking for stress relief, doubting of ability to quit, fear of gaining weight, and poor knowledge and scepticism about available quit support. The high cost of nicotine replacement therapy was a barrier to its use. Continual exposure to smoking in personal relationships and in the community reinforced smoking. Participants expressed a strong preference for personalised quit support. Conclusions Disadvantaged smokers in Australia express a desire to quit smoking, but find quitting difficult for a number of reasons. SCSOs may have a role in providing information about the availability of quit support, engaging disadvantaged smokers with available quit support, and providing personalised, ongoing support.

  9. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  10. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues such ......-go’ principle at times conceptually overlaps with cosmopolitan ethics. However, it also bears the potential to hinder cosmopolitan practices. Ultimately national and cosmopolitan ethical frameworks have to be interrogated simultaneously when applied to micro-level interactions.......This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues...

  11. 77 FR 18307 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The GWVI-TF published its first annual report in September... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established the Gulf War Veterans...

  12. 38 CFR 3.454 - Veterans disability pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Veterans disability pension. 3.454 Section 3.454 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.454 Veterans...

  13. Mortality of Air Force veterans exposed to herbicides during the Vietnam War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchum, N.; Michalek, J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The long-term effects of herbicide exposure on human health are not fully known and remain controversial. Herbicides were used by US forces for defoliation and crop destruction during the Vietnam War. The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), the contaminant found in Agent Orange and other herbicides sprayed during the war, continue to be of concern more than thirty years after the war. Studies of the post-service mortality experience of Vietnam veterans have given mixed results. The US Army Chemical Corps Study1 reported an increased risk of death due to digestive diseases and a non-significant increase in the risk of death from cancer. A study of Australian Army veterans reported an increased risk of death due to digestive diseases but no increases due to cancer. However, a study of women veterans3 found an increased risk of death due to pancreatic cancer and a study of Vietnam veterans from Michigan6 reported an excess of deaths due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The Air Force Health Study is a prospective epidemiological study of the health, mortality and reproductive outcomes of veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerially spraying herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. The study, now in its 22{sup nd} year, began in 1982 and will conclude in 2006. Here we update our second report by summarizing current all-cause and cause-specific post-service mortality in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.

  14. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  15. 48 CFR 852.215-70 - Service-disabled veteran-owned and veteran-owned small business evaluation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service-disabled veteran... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.215-70 Service-disabled veteran-owned and veteran...: Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Evaluation Factors (DEC 2009) (a) In an...

  16. Find Cancer Early: Evaluation of a Community Education Campaign to Increase Awareness of Cancer Signs and Symptoms in People in Regional Western Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Jane Croager

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCancer outcomes for people living in rural and remote areas are worse than for those living in urban areas. Although access to and quality of cancer treatment are important determinants of outcomes, delayed presentation has been observed in rural patients.MethodsFormative research with people from rural Western Australia (WA led to the Find Cancer Early campaign. Find Cancer Early was delivered in three regions of WA, with two other regions acting as controls. Staff delivered the campaign using a community engagement approach, including promotion in local media. Television communications were not used to minimize contamination in the control regions. The campaign evaluation was undertaken at 20 months via a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI survey comparing campaign and control regions. The primary outcome variable was knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms.ResultsRecognition and recall of Find Cancer Early and symptom knowledge were higher in the campaign regions. More than a quarter of those who were aware of the campaign reported seeing the GP as a result of their exposure.ConclusionDespite limited use of mass media, Find Cancer Early successfully improved knowledge of cancer symptoms and possibly led to changes in behavior. Social marketing campaigns using community development can raise awareness and knowledge of a health issue in the absence of television advertising.

  17. Find Cancer Early: Evaluation of a Community Education Campaign to Increase Awareness of Cancer Signs and Symptoms in People in Regional Western Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croager, Emma Jane; Gray, Victoria; Pratt, Iain Stephen; Slevin, Terry; Pettigrew, Simone; Holman, C D'arcy; Bulsara, Max; Emery, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Cancer outcomes for people living in rural and remote areas are worse than for those living in urban areas. Although access to and quality of cancer treatment are important determinants of outcomes, delayed presentation has been observed in rural patients. Formative research with people from rural Western Australia (WA) led to the Find Cancer Early campaign. Find Cancer Early was delivered in three regions of WA, with two other regions acting as controls. Staff delivered the campaign using a community engagement approach, including promotion in local media. Television communications were not used to minimize contamination in the control regions. The campaign evaluation was undertaken at 20 months via a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey comparing campaign and control regions. The primary outcome variable was knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms. Recognition and recall of Find Cancer Early and symptom knowledge were higher in the campaign regions. More than a quarter of those who were aware of the campaign reported seeing the GP as a result of their exposure. Despite limited use of mass media, Find Cancer Early successfully improved knowledge of cancer symptoms and possibly led to changes in behavior. Social marketing campaigns using community development can raise awareness and knowledge of a health issue in the absence of television advertising.

  18. Improving risk assessment of violence among military Veterans: An evidence-based approach for clinical decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Fuller, Sara; Johnson, Sally C.; Brooks, Stephanie; Kinneer, Patricia; Calhoun, Patrick; Beckham, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased media attention on violent acts against others committed by military Veterans, few models have been developed to systematically guide violence risk assessment among Veterans. Ideally, a model would identify which Veterans are most at risk for violence and increased attention could then be turned to determining what could be done to prevent violent behavior. This article suggests how empirical approaches to risk assessment used successfully in civilian populations can be applied to Veterans. A review was conducted of the scientific literature on Veteran populations regarding factors related to interpersonal violence generally and to domestic violence specifically. A list was then generated of empirically-supported risk factors for clinicians to consider in practice. To conceptualize how these known risk factors relate to a Veteran’s violence potential, risk assessment scholarship was utilized to develop an evidence-based method to guide mental health professionals. The goals of this approach are to integrate science into practice, overcome logistical barriers, and permit more effective assessment, monitoring, and management of violence risk for clinicians working with Veterans, both in Veteran Administration settings and in the broader community. It is likely that the use of a systematic, empirical framework could lead to improved clinical decision-making in the area of risk assessment, and help reduce violence among Veterans. PMID:20627387

  19. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  20. Risk factors for homelessness among women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Yano, Elizabeth M; McGuire, James; Hines, Vivian; Lee, Martin; Gelberg, Lillian

    2010-02-01

    Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate exact standard errors of the model coefficients and p-values. Characteristics associated with homelessness were sexual assault during military service, being unemployed, being disabled, having worse overall health, and screening positive for an anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective factors were being a college graduate or married. Efforts to assess housed women veterans' risk factors for homelessness should be integrated into clinical care programs within and outside the Veterans Administration. Programs that work to ameliorate risk factors may prevent these women's living situations from deteriorating over time.

  1. The Use of Emergency Medication Kits in Community Palliative Care: An Exploratory Survey of Views of Current Practice in Australian Home-Based Palliative Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Tracey; Rosenberg, John P; Smith, Bradley; Maher, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Improving symptom management for palliative care patients has obvious benefits for patients and advantages for the clinicians, as workload demands and work-related stress can be reduced when the emergent symptoms of patients are managed in a timely manner. The use of emergency medication kits (EMKs) can provide such timely symptom relief. The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey of a local service to examine views on medication management before and after the implementation of an EMK and to conduct a nationwide prevalence survey examining the use of EMKs in Australia. Most respondents from community palliative care services indicated that EMKs were not being supplied to palliative care patients but believed such an intervention could improve patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... After the Call see more videos from Veterans Health Administration I'm Good. But are you ready to listen? see more videos from Veterans Health Administration 1 Act see more videos from Veterans ...

  3. Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — These quick facts use data from the 2011 Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch to compare Veteran employment in the Federal Government by agency,...

  4. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... listen? see more videos from Veterans Health Administration 1 Act see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Lost: The Power of One Connection see more videos from Veterans Health Administration ...

  5. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... additional videos about getting help. Behind the Scenes see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Be There: Help Save a Life see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Veterans Crisis ...

  6. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more videos from Veterans Health Administration Lost: The Power of One Connection see more videos from Veterans Health Administration The Power of 1 PSA see more videos from Veterans ...

  7. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Veterans Health Administration The Power of 1 PSA see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Commitments PSA see more videos from Veterans Health Administration The ...

  8. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Self-Check Quiz Resources Spread the Word Videos Homeless Resources Additional Information Make the Connection Get Help ... Expect Resource Locator Veterans Live Chat Veterans Text Homeless Veterans Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard ...

  9. Heroes or Health Victims?: Exploring How the Elite Media Frames Veterans on Veterans Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhidenour, Kayla B; Barrett, Ashley K; Blackburn, Kate G

    2017-11-27

    We examine the frames the elite news media uses to portray veterans on and surrounding Veterans Day 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. We use mental health illness and media framing literature to explore how, why, and to what extent Veterans Day news coverage uses different media frames across the four consecutive years. We compiled a Media Coverage Corpora for each year, which contains the quotes and paraphrased remarks used in all veterans news stories for that year. In our primary study, we applied the meaning extraction method (MEM) to extract emergent media frames for Veterans Day 2014 and compiled a word frequency list, which captures the words most commonly used within the corpora. In post hoc analyses, we collected news stories and compiled word frequency lists for Veterans Day 2012, 2013, and 2015. Our findings reveal dissenting frames across 2012, 2013, and 2014 Veterans Day media coverage. Word frequency results suggest the 2012 and 2013 media frames largely celebrate Veterans as heroes, but the 2014 coverage depicts veterans as victimized by their wartime experiences. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how the prevailing 2015 media frames could be a reaction to 2014 frames that portrayed veterans as health victims. We consider the ramifications of this binary portrayal of veterans as either health victims or heroes and discuss the implications of these dueling frames for veterans' access to healthcare resources.

  10. Pet ownership and health in older adults: findings from a survey of 2,551 community-based Australians aged 60-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen; Rodgers, Bryan; Jacomb, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that owning a pet provides older residents in the community with health benefits including improved physical health and psychological well-being. It has also been reported that pet owners are lower on neuroticism and higher on extraversion compared with those without pets. However, findings of research on this topic have been mixed with a number of researchers reporting that, for older people, there is little or no health benefit associated with pet ownership. To identify health benefits associated with pet ownership and pet caring responsibilities in a large sample of older community-based residents. Using survey information provided by 2,551 individuals aged between 60 and 64 years, we compared the sociodemographic attributes, mental and physical health measures, and personality traits of pet owners and non-owners. For 78.8% of these participants, we were also able to compare the health services used, based on information obtained from the national insurer on the number of general practitioner (GP) visits they made over a 12-month period. Compared with non-owners, those with pets reported more depressive symptoms while female pet owners who were married also had poorer physical health. We found that caring for a pet was associated with negative health outcomes including more symptoms of depression, poorer physical health and higher rates of use of pain relief medication. No relationship was found between pet ownership and use of GP services. When we examined the personality traits of pet owners and carers, we found that men who cared for pets had higher extraversion scores. Our principal and unexpected finding, however, was that pet owners and carers reported higher levels of psychoticism as measured by the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. We conclude that pet ownership confers no health benefits for this age group. Instead, those with pets have poorer mental and physical health and use more pain relief medication. Further, our

  11. Notwithstanding High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Smoking Remains the Most Important Factor in Poor Self-rated Health and Hospital Use in an Australian Regional Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mary Haines

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.

  12. Implementing and Evaluating a Telephone-Based Centralized Maternity Care Coordination Program for Pregnant Veterans in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Kuzdeba, Judy; Baldor, Rebecca; Casares, Jose; Lombardini, Lisa; Gerber, Megan R

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a comprehensive, telephonic maternity care coordination (MCC) program for all pregnant veterans enrolled for care at New England Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities that comprise the Veterans Integrated Service Network 1. Telephone interviews were conducted with postpartum women veterans who had participated in the MCC program during their pregnancies. The program evaluation instrument assessed satisfaction and use of MCC services, prenatal education classes, and infant and maternal outcomes (e.g., newborn birthweight, insurance status, maternal depression) using both closed-ended and open-ended questions. A substantial majority (95%) of women enrolled in the MCC program expressed satisfaction with the services they received in the program. Women were most satisfied with help understanding VA maternity benefits and acquiring VA services and equipment, such as breast pumps and pregnancy-related medications. More than one-third of women noted their infants had experienced health problems since delivery, including neonatal intensive care unit hospitalizations. A majority of women planned to return to VA care in the future. Our findings suggest that MCC services play an important role for women veterans as they navigate both VA and non-VA care systems. MCC staff members coordinated maternity, medical, and mental health care services for women veterans. Additionally, by maintaining contact with the veteran during the postpartum period, MCC staff were able to assess the health of the mother and the infant, and refer women and their infants to medical and psychosocial services in the community as needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Results of an Innovative Education, Training and Quality Assurance Program for Point-of-Care HbA1c Testing using the Bayer DCA 2000 in Australian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark D; Gill, Janice P

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the development, implementation and management of a multi-faceted quality assurance program called Quality Assurance for Aboriginal Medical Services (QAAMS) to support point-of-care HbA1c testing on the Bayer DCA 2000 in Aboriginal people with diabetes from 45 Australian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. The quality assurance program comprised four elements: production of culturally appropriate education resources, formal training for Aboriginal Health Workers conducting HbA1c testing, an external quality assurance program and on-going quality management support services including a help hotline and an annual workshop. Aboriginal Health Workers were required to test two quality assurance (QAAMS) samples in a blind sense every month since July 1999. Samples were linearly related and comprised six paired levels of HbA1c. The short and long term performance of each service’s DCA 2000 was reviewed monthly and at the end of each six month testing cycle. The average participation rate over 7 six-monthly QAAMS testing cycles was 88%. 84% of 3100 quality assurance tests performed were within preset limits of acceptability. The median precision (CV%) for HbA1c testing has averaged 3.8% across the past 5 cycles (range 3.4 to 4.0%) and is continuing to improve. The introduction of a medical rebate for HbA1c testing has ensured the program’s sustainability. Through continuing education and training, Aboriginal Health Workers have achieved consistent analytical performance for HbA1c testing on the DCA 2000, equivalent to that of laboratory scientists using the same instrument. This unique quality assurance model can be readily adapted to other Indigenous health settings and other point-of-care tests and instruments. PMID:18568052

  14. Chiropractors` experience and readiness to work in Indigenous Australian Communities: a preliminary cross-sectional survey to explore preparedness, perceived barriers and facilitators for chiropractors practising cross-culturally

    OpenAIRE

    Vindigni, Dein; Polus, Barbara I.; Cleary, Sonja; Doyle, Aunty Kerrie

    2017-01-01

    Background Indigenous people make up approximately 3% of the total Australian population and score poorer on all health indices, including back pain. Chiropractors are well placed to alleviate back pain, yet there is no research that considers chiropractors? readiness to treat Indigenous patients. This study explores chiropractors` experience working with Indigenous Australians, describes perceived barriers and facilitators to chiropractors? participation in Indigenous Healthcare and their wi...

  15. A comparison of Australian men with psychotic disorders remanded for criminal offences and a community group of psychotic men who have not offended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul; Chant, David; Whiteford, Harvey

    2006-03-01

    People remanded into custody by the courts have a substantially higher rate of severe mental disorder than other prisoners and the general population. Knowledge of their prevalence, needs and characteristics and an analysis of pathways to care may be necessary to provide mental health care effectively and efficiently. Previous prison studies focusing on psychotic offenders have suffered from the use of instruments not validated in a forensic setting and lack of a relevant comparison group. The Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis (DP) is a composite semi-structured standardized interview schedule. It combines social and demographic descriptors with measures of functioning adapted from the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS). The remand centre surveyed had 466 cells and is the main remand and reception centre for males for the southern region of the state of Queensland, Australia. Of the 621 men screened, 65 answered yes to at least one question in the DP and were interviewed. Six hundred and twenty-one remandees were screened and of these 61 were interviewed as screened positive for psychotic disorder. Thirty-five per cent had been homeless for an average of 32 weeks during the previous year. Most had had little contact with families or close friends. Eighty-one per cent were receiving no treatment at the time of offence. Seventy-eight per cent were unemployed and in receipt of a pension. Eighty per cent were dependent on alcohol, cannabis or amphetamines. Statistical issues of power are detailed in the text. The simplistic 'prison, hospital or community treatment' debate is misleading. Instead, the development of flexible preventative, management and accommodation services for people with severe mental disorder who have committed offences is a priority.

  16. Interventions to encourage smoke-free homes in remote indigenous Australian communities: a study protocol to evaluate the effects of a community-inspired awareness-raising and motivational enhancement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Grant, Kristy; Robertson, Jan; Wrigley, Matthew; Nichols, Nina; Fitzgibbon, Tracey

    2018-03-02

    Rates of secondhand smoke exposure are currently significantly higher among remote indigenous communities in the top end of Australia. By implementing a 'smoke-free home' rule, secondhand smoke exposure can be reduced. Smoke-free homes encourage quit attempts and improve the health of children. The prevalence of indigenous smoking rates in remote, discrete communities in Australia is elevated compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. The primary aim of this project is to examine the feasibility of conducting a health-driven intervention to encourage community members to make their homes a smoke-free zone. This study uses mixed-methods exploratory evaluation design to obtain data from key informants and community householders to assess their willingness to implement a 'smoke-free' rule in their homes. Initial focus groups will provide guidance on intervention content and deliver evaluation procedures and community requirements. A rapid survey will be conducted to ascertain interest from community members in having the project team visit to discuss study objectives further and to have a particle meter (with consent) placed in the house. Focus groups recordings will be transcribed and analysed thematically. Rapid surveys will be analysed using frequency distributions and tabulations of responses. The National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines on ethical research approaches to indigenous studies will be adhered to. The James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee has provided ethics approval. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Denman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.

  18. Long-term Disability Associated With War-related Experience Among Vietnam Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. Objectives: To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. Participants: A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Outcome Measures: Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. Results: The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20–30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32–1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%–70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9–24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4–1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7–3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2–2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served war-related disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent

  19. Long-term disability associated with war-related experience among Vietnam veterans: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip M; Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A

    2015-05-01

    Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20-30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%-70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9-24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4-1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7-3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2-2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent conflicts, significant additional resources will be needed to prevent and treat long-term health

  20. Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hassam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

  1. Evaluation of brief treatment of symptoms of psychological trauma among veterans residing in a homeless shelter by use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Kevin E; D'Aoust, Rita F; Hernandez, Diego F; Girling, Sue Ann; Cuttino, Barrett; Long, Mary Kathryn; Rojas, Paola; Wittenberg, Trudy; Abhayakumar, Alisha; Rosenzweig, Laney

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in both homeless and nonhomeless veterans. To examine unique characteristics of being homeless that may influence PTSD treatment completion and clinical success. Twenty-three veterans who were homeless and residing in a homeless shelter, along with 94 veterans from the community, were enrolled to receive one to five sessions of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART), an emerging trauma-focused therapy for symptoms of PTSD. Rates of treatment completion with ART and acute and 6-month change in symptoms of PTSD were compared in an observational (nonrandomized) manner by housing status. Compared to veterans recruited from the community, veterans residing in the homeless shelter were older and presented with more extensive psychopathology yet had less combat exposure while being more likely to have experienced sexual assault. Rates of treatment completion were 52.2% (12 of 23) among homeless veterans compared to 81.9% (77 of 94) among veterans from the community (p = .005). Among treatment completers, both groups received an average of four sessions of ART. Reduction of symptoms of PTSD was substantial and nonsignificantly greater among homeless veterans vs. those treated from the community (p = .14), as were comorbidity reductions in depression, anxiety, sleep quality, pain, and improved quality of life. Results at 6-month posttreatment follow-up were similar. Although limited by small sample size and a nonrandomized design, ART appears to be an effective, brief treatment for symptoms of PTSD among veterans residing in a homeless shelter. However, development of effective strategies to maximize treatment completion among homeless veterans is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Grievink, L.; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schram-Bijkerk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of

  3. 76 FR 69081 - Veterans Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... war and peace alike, our veterans have served with courage and distinction in the face of tremendous... Proclamation Today, our Nation comes together to honor our veterans and commemorate the legacy of profound... principles still shine, and nations around the world know the blessings of freedom. As we offer our sincere...

  4. Nursing advocacy for women veterans and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Patricia L; Armstrong, Myrna L; Young, Cathy; Hogan, La Micha

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about suicide variables in women Veterans. The authors reviewed numerous applicable health care and military literary sources regarding suicide in this population. The current article describes the surrounding circumstances, military war/conflict culture, and potential effects on women Veterans, including major collection problems with current Veteran data. Women Veterans are increasingly reporting more behavioral health issues (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder) and attempting suicide upon civilian reintegration. Outcomes from this literature review suggest the importance of nursing advocacy to create better rapport and communication with women Veterans from Vietnam, Gulf I, Iraq, and Afghanistan wars seeking care at civilian health facilities, as some may present with suicidal ideologies. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Joint replacement surgery in homeless veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase G. Bennett, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Total joint arthroplasty (TJA in a homeless patient is generally considered contraindicated. Here, we report our known medical and social (housing and employment results of homeless veterans who had TJA. Thirty-seven TJAs were performed on 33 homeless patients (31 men at our hospital between November 2000 and March 2014. This was 1.2% of all TJAs. Average age was 54 years. Average hospital stay was 4.1 days. There were no major inpatient complications. Thirty-four cases had at least 1-year follow-up in any clinic within the Veterans Affairs health care system. There were no known surgery-related reoperations or readmissions. At final follow-up, 24 patients had stable housing and 9 were employed. The extensive and coordinated medical and social services that were provided to veterans from the Department of Veterans Affairs contributed to our positive results. Keywords: Homeless, Veteran, Joint replacement, Total hip, Total knee, Employment

  6. Military Service Members and Veterans: In the Classroom and on the Police Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dustin; Gabriel-Olson, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    With the troop levels in Iraq decreasing and more service members being discharged, the number of veterans on campuses is steadily increasing. On average, these warriors-turning-college-students will be 24 or older, ethnic minorities, and first-generation college students. It is important to make sure that departments, campuses and communities are…

  7. "Learning Shock" and Student Veterans: Bridging the Learning Environments of the Military and the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw-Hara, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I provide an overview of student veterans' experiences learning in the military, from the ways the armed forces operate as a community of practice to how they build the competence of their service-members through application of andragogical principles. I then contrast the learning environment of the military to that of college,…

  8. Echocardiogram Utilization Among Rural and Urban Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrah, Kingston; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare echocardiography use among urban and rural veterans and whether differences could be accounted for by distance. Methods We used Veterans Administration (VA) administrative data from 1999 to 2007 to identify regular users of the VA Healthcare System (VA users) who did and did not receive echocardiography. Each veteran was categorized as residing in urban, rural or highly rural areas using RUCA codes. Poisson regression was used to compare echocardiography utilization rates among veterans residing in each area after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, clustering of patients within VA networks and distance to the nearest VA medical center offering echocardiography. Findings Our study included 22.7 million veterans of whom 1.3 million (5.7%) received at least one echocardiogram. Of echocardiography recipients, 69.2% lived in urban, 22.0% in rural and 8.8% in highly rural areas. In analyses adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities, and clustering, utilization of echocardiography was modestly lower for highly rural and rural veterans compared with urban veterans (42.0 vs 40.1 vs 43.1 echocardiograms per 1,000 VA users per year for highly rural, rural and urban, respectively; P rural and rural areas than it was for urban areas (44.9 vs 41.8 vs 40.8 for highly rural, rural and urban, respectively; P rural and highly rural veterans was marginally lower than for urban veterans, but these differences can be accounted for by the greater distance of more rural veterans from facilities offering echocardiograms. PMID:22236338

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Antipsychotic Use and Risk of Dementia in Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughead, Elizabeth E; Pratt, Nicole L; Kalisch Ellett, Lisa M; Ramsay, Emmae N; Barratt, John D; Morris, Philip; Killer, Graeme

    2017-07-01

    To examine the risk of dementia associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the contribution of antipsychotic use to this risk. Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Australia. Administrative claims data from the Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs were used. Male Vietnam veterans aged 55 to 65 at baseline (2001-02) with no preexisting dementia diagnosis (N = 15,612). The association between PTSD and dementia was assessed over 12 years of follow-up. Dementia was identified as a hospital diagnosis, dementia record in service disability data, or dispensing of medicines for dementia. Cox-proportional hazards models were used, with age as the time-scale. Results were stratified according to baseline antipsychotic use. No greater risk of dementia was observed with PTSD. In veterans who received antipsychotics, dementia risk was significantly higher than in those who did not (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-3.3). Dementia risk was significantly greater in veterans hospitalized for PTSD who received antipsychotics (HR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.6) and veterans without PTSD who received antipsychotics (HR = 4.3, 95% CI = 2.1-8.6) than in those without PTSD with no antipsychotic use. Antipsychotic use may be a contributor to dementia risk. These findings should be interpreted with caution because the study design was observational. Further research using prospective study designs in settings where diagnostic data, cognitive function, and disease severity are available are required. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Australian uranium today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: Australia's resources; Northern Territory uranium in perspective; the government's decision [on August 25, 1977, that there should be further development of uranium under strictly controlled conditions]; Government legislation; outlook [for the Australian uranium mining industry]. (U.K.)

  11. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  12. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and

  13. The Australian Register of Antiepileptic Drugs in Pregnancy : The first 1002 pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajda, Frank J. E.; Hitchcock, Alison; Graham, Janet; O'Brien, Terence; Lander, Cecilie; Eadie, Mervyn

    2007-01-01

    Prospective studies are needed to assess the maternal and fetal hazards of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy in pregnancy. To make the Australian Register of AEDs in Pregnancy better known to the Australian obstetric community by presenting results derived from it. Analysis of data collected by the

  14. Supporting the education goals of post-9/11 veterans with self-reported PTSD symptoms: a needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marsha Langer; Mueller, Lisa; Smelson, David; Corrigan, Patrick W; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Najavits, Lisa M; Vessella, Jennifer M; Drebing, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The influx of young adult veterans with mental health challenges from recent wars combined with newly expanded veteran education benefits has highlighted the need for a supported education service within the Veterans Administration. However, it is unknown how such a service should be designed to best respond to these needs. This study undertook a qualitative needs assessment for education supports among veterans with post-9/11 service with self-reported PTSD symptoms. Focus groups were held with 31 veterans, 54% of whom were under age 30. Transcripts were analyzed and interpreted using a thematic approach and a Participatory Action Research team. Findings indicate a need for age relevant services that assist with: education planning and access, counseling for the G.I. Bill, accommodations for PTSD symptoms, community and family re-integration, and outreach and support. The veterans recommended that supported education be integrated with the delivery of mental health services, that services have varied intensity, and there be linkages between colleges and the Veterans Health Administration.

  15. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The second Gulf... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION...

  16. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  18. KAWASAN PEMUKIMAN VETERAN MAKASSAR PENEKANAN ARSITEKTUR KOLONIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fadhilah SM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak—Veteran 45 merupakan mantan pejuang Republik Indonesia yang di masa mudanya berjuang dengan segenap jiwa dan raga demi mempertahankan kemerdekaan bangsa Indonesia. Mereka adalah saksi berjalannya sejarah panjang Indonesia hingga saat ini, namun kurangnya perhatian pemerintah membuat hamper tidak adanya jejak tentang mereka. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mewujudkan kawasan yang menyatukan seluruh aktivitas para veteran menjadi satu kawasan pemukiman dengan penekanan arsitektur kolonial Belanda serta simbol penghargaan kepada para anggota veteran di Makassar berdasarkan dengan elemen perancangan kota. Kata kunci : Veteran, Kawasan Pemukiman, Arsitektur Kolonial Belanda Abstract— Veteran 45 is a former fighter of the Republic of Indonesia in his youth struggling with body and soul in order to maintain the independence of Indonesia . They are witness to the passage of a long history of Indonesia today , but the lack of attention the government makes almost no trace of them . This paper attempts to realize the region that brings together all the activities of veterans into a residential area with an emphasis Dutch colonial architecture as well as a symbol of appreciation to the members of veterans in Makassar based with elements of urban design Key Word: Settlement area, Dutch Colonial Architecture

  19. The carbon cycle in the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1 – Part 2: Historical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziehn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade many climate models have evolved into Earth system models (ESMs, which are able to simulate both physical and biogeochemical processes through the inclusion of additional components such as the carbon cycle. The Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS has been recently extended to include land and ocean carbon cycle components in its ACCESS-ESM1 version. A detailed description of ACCESS-ESM1 components including results from pre-industrial simulations is provided in Part 1. Here, we focus on the evaluation of ACCESS-ESM1 over the historical period (1850–2005 in terms of its capability to reproduce climate and carbon-related variables. Comparisons are performed with observations, if available, but also with other ESMs to highlight common weaknesses. We find that climate variables controlling the exchange of carbon are well reproduced. However, the aerosol forcing in ACCESS-ESM1 is somewhat larger than in other models, which leads to an overly strong cooling response in the land from about 1960 onwards. The land carbon cycle is evaluated for two scenarios: running with a prescribed leaf area index (LAI and running with a prognostic LAI. We overestimate the seasonal mean (1.7 vs. 1.4 and peak amplitude (2.0 vs. 1.8 of the prognostic LAI at the global scale, which is common amongst CMIP5 ESMs. However, the prognostic LAI is our preferred choice, because it allows for the vegetation feedback through the coupling between LAI and the leaf carbon pool. Our globally integrated land–atmosphere flux over the historical period is 98 PgC for prescribed LAI and 137 PgC for prognostic LAI, which is in line with estimates of land use emissions (ACCESS-ESM1 does not include land use change. The integrated ocean–atmosphere flux is 83 PgC, which is in agreement with a recent estimate of 82 PgC from the Global Carbon Project for the period 1959–2005. The seasonal cycle of simulated atmospheric CO2 is

  20. Readjustment of Urban Veterans: A Mental Health and Substance Use Profile of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Ross D.; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence of substance use and mental health problems among veterans and student service members/veterans (SSM/V) returning from Iraq and Afghanistan to New York City's low-income neighborhoods. Participants: A sample of 122 veterans attending college and 116 veterans not enrolled recruited using respondent-driven…

  1. Variation in Veteran Identity as a Factor in Veteran-Targeted Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Samantha M; DeForge, Bruce R; Lucksted, Alicia

    2017-07-01

    The sociocultural identities that people self-assign or accept influence their interpersonal interactions and decision making. Identity-based interventions attempt to influence individuals by associating healthy behaviors with in-group membership. Outreach and educational efforts aimed at veterans may rely on "typical" veteran identity stereotypes. However, as discussed in this Open Forum, there is evidence that veteran identity is not monolithic but rather fluctuates on the basis of personal characteristics and individual military service experiences. Overall, the impact of veteran identity on veterans' health behaviors and use of health care is not known and has been understudied. A major limiting factor is the lack of a standardized measure of veteran identity that can assess variations in salience, prominence, and emotional valence.

  2. Construction of the Chinese Veteran Clinical Research (CVCR) platform for the assessment of non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiping; Li, Nan; Gao, Jing; Guo, Yuhe; Hu, Wei; Yang, Jinsheng; Yu, Baocheng; Yu, Jianmin; Du, Wei; Zhang, Wenjun; Cui, Lianqi; Wang, Qingsong; Xia, Xiangnan; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Peiyi; Zhang, Baohe; Liu, Zhiying; Zhang, Shaogang; Sun, Lanying; Liu, Nan; Deng, Ruixiang; Dai, Wenguang; Yi, Fang; Chen, Wenjun; Zhang, Yongqing; Xue, Shenwu; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Yiming; Wang, Luning

    2014-01-01

    Based on the excellent medical care and management system for Chinese veterans, as well as the detailed medical documentation available, we aim to construct a Chinese Veteran Clinical Research (CVCR) platform on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and carry out studies of the primary disabling NCDs. The Geriatric Neurology Department of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital and veterans' hospitals serve as the leading and participating units in the platform construction. The fundamental constituents of the platform are veteran communities. Stratified typical cluster sampling is adopted to recruit veteran communities. A cross-sectional study of mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders are performed in two stages using screening scale such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal cognitive assessment, followed by systematic neuropsychological assessments to make clinical diagnoses, evaluated disease awareness and care situation. A total of 9 676 among 277 veteran communities from 18 cities are recruited into this platform, yielding a response rate of 83.86%. 8 812 subjects complete the MNS subproject screening and total response rate is 91.70%. The average participant age is (82.01±4.61) years, 69.47% of veterans are 80 years or older. Most participants are male (94.01%), 83.36% of subjects have at least a junior high school degree. The overall health status of veterans is good and stable. The most common NCD are cardiovascular disorders (86.44%), urinary and genital diseases (73.14%), eye and ear problems (66.25%), endocrine (56.56%) and neuro-psychiatric disturbances (50.78%). We first construct a veterans' comprehensive clinical research platform for the study of NCDs that is primarily composed of highly educated Chinese males of advanced age and utilize this platform to complete a cross-sectional national investigation of MNS disorders among veterans. The good and stable health condition of the veterans could facilitate the long

  3. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  4. Patterns and predictors of engagement in peer support among homeless veterans with mental health conditions and substance use histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marsha Langer; Schutt, Russell K; Glickman, Mark E; Schultz, Mark R; Chinman, Matthew; Jensen, Kristina; Mitchell-Miland, Chantele; Smelson, David; Eisen, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Patterns and predictors of engagement in peer support services were examined among 50 previously homeless veterans with co-occurring mental health conditions and substance use histories receiving services from the Veterans Health Administration supported housing program. Veteran peer specialists were trained to deliver sessions focusing on mental health and substance use recovery to veterans for an intended 1-hr weekly contact over 9 months. Trajectories of peer engagement over the study's duration are summarized. A mixed-effects log-linear model of the rate of peer engagement is tested with three sets of covariates representing characteristics of the veterans. These sets were demographics, mental health and substance use status, and indicators of community participation and support. Data indicate that veterans engaged with peers about once per month rather than the intended once per week. However, frequency of contacts varied greatly. The best predictor of engagement was time, with most contacts occurring within the first 6 months. No other veteran characteristic was a statistically significant predictor of engagement. Older veterans tended to have higher rates of engagement with peer supporters. Planners of peer support services could consider yardsticks of monthly services up to 6 months. Peer support services need a flexible strategy with varying levels of intensity according to need. Peer support services will need to be tailored to better engage younger veterans. Future research should consider other sources of variation in engagement with peer support such as characteristics of the peer supporters and service content and setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Developing a Leadership Development Program for the Veterans Benefits Administration within the Department of Veterans Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    from diverse locations, rural and urban. VBA is no exception, and understands that 12 a Veteran might have to traverse quite a distance to reach its...highest priorities: Veteran homelessness , “VBA access” to allow improved awareness of available VA services and benefits, and the backlog of benefits...claims pending within VBA for unacceptable periods of time. Veteran homelessness refers to the Department’s initiative to eliminate homelessness in

  6. Veterans Integrated Services Networks (VISN), Markets, Submarkets, Sectors and Counties by Geographic Location

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides healthcare services to its veterans across the USA including territories and possessions. Healthcare services are...

  7. Børn af veteraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe; Lausten, Mette

    Siden starten af 1990’erne har Danmark sendt over 30.000 soldater og andet personel på internationale missioner – langt de fleste til Eks-Jugoslavien, Afghanistan og Irak. Denne undersøgelse handler om de børn, hvis fædre har været udsendt på militære missioner i udlandet. For hvordan håndterer...... spørgsmål er fokus for undersøgelsen. Undersøgelsen bygger på en spørgeskemaundersøgelse blandt børn af veteraner på henholdsvis 7, 11 og 15 år. Undersøgelsen er gennemført for og i samarbejde med Veterancentrets Videncenter, som er en del af Forsvarsministeriets Personalestyrelse....

  8. Re-entry: online virtual worlds as a healing space for veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morie, Jacquelyn Ford

    2009-02-01

    We describe a project designed to use the power of online virtual worlds as a place of camaraderie and healing for returning United States military veterans-a virtual space that can help them deal with problems related to their time of service and also assist in their reintegration into society. This veterans' space is being built in Second Life®, a popular immersive world, under consultation with medical experts and psychologists, with several types of both social and healing activities planned. In addition, we address several barrier issues with virtual worlds, including lack of guides or helpers to ensure the participants have a quality experience. To solve some of these issues, we are porting the advanced intelligence of the ICT's virtual human characters to avatars in Second Life®, so they will be able to greet the veterans, converse with them, guide them to relevant activities, and serve as informational agents for healing options. In this way such "avatar agents" will serve as autonomous intelligent characters that bring maximum engagement and functionality to the veterans' space. This part of the effort expands online worlds beyond their existing capabilities, as currently a human being must operate each avatar in the virtual world; few autonomous characters exist. As this project progresses we will engage in an iterative design process with veteran participants who will be able to advise us, along with the medical community, on what efforts are well suited to, and most effective within, the virtual world.

  9. Effectiveness of Expanded Implementation of STAR-VA for Managing Dementia-Related Behaviors Among Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, Michele J; Teri, Linda; McConnell, Eleanor; Visnic, Stephanie; Karlin, Bradley E

    2016-02-01

    Nonpharmacological, psychosocial approaches are first-line treatments for managing behavioral symptoms in dementia, but they can be challenging to implement in long-term care settings. The Veterans Health Administration implemented STAR-VA, an interdisciplinary behavioral approach for managing challenging dementia-related behaviors in its Community Living Center (CLCs, nursing home care) settings. This study describes how the program was implemented and provides an evaluation of Veteran clinical outcomes and staff feedback on the intervention. One mental health professional and registered nurse team from 17 CLCs completed STAR-VA training, which entailed an experiential workshop followed by 6 months of expert consultation as they worked with their teams to implement STAR-VA with Veterans identified to have challenging dementia-related behaviors. The frequency and severity of target behaviors and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and agitation were evaluated at baseline and at intervention completion. Staff provided feedback regarding STAR-VA feasibility and impact. Seventy-one Veterans completed the intervention. Behaviors clustered into 6 types: care refusal or resistance, agitation, aggression, vocalization, wandering, and other. Frequency and severity of target behaviors and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and agitation all significantly decreased, with overall effect sizes of 1 or greater. Staff rated both benefits for Veterans and program feasibility favorably. This evaluation supports the feasibility and effectiveness of STAR-VA, an interdisciplinary, behavioral intervention for managing challenging behaviors among residents with dementia in CLCs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2015.

  10. PTSD symptoms and suicide risk in veterans: Serial indirect effects via depression and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Jessica M; Hirsch, Jameson K; Britton, Peter C

    2017-05-01

    Suicide rates are higher in veterans compared to the general population, perhaps due to trauma exposure. Previous literature highlights depressive symptoms and anger as contributors to suicide risk. PTSD symptoms may indirectly affect suicide risk by increasing the severity of such cognitive-emotional factors. A sample of community dwelling veterans (N=545) completed online surveys, including the PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Multidimensional Health Profile-Psychosocial Functioning, and Differential Emotions Scale -IV. Bivariate and serial mediation analyses were conducted to test for direct and indirect effects of PTSD symptoms on suicide risk. In bivariate analyses, PTSD symptoms, depression, anger, and internal hostility were positively related to suicide risk. In serial mediation analyses, there was a significant total effect of PTSD symptoms on suicide risk in both models. PTSD symptoms were also indirectly related to suicidal behavior via depression and internal hostility, and via internal hostility alone. Anger was not a significant mediator. Our cross-sectional sample was predominantly White and male; prospective studies with diverse veterans are needed. Our findings may have implications for veteran suicide prevention. The effects of PTSD and depression on anger, particularly internal hostility, are related to suicide risk, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for the PTSD-suicide linkage. A multi-faceted therapeutic approach, targeting depression and internal hostility, via cognitive-behavioral techniques such as behavioral activation and cognitive restructuring, may reduce suicide risk in veterans who have experienced trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Travel time and attrition from VHA care among women veterans: how far is too far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sarah A; Frayne, Susan M; Berg, Eric; Hamilton, Alison B; Washington, Donna L; Saechao, Fay; Maisel, Natalya C; Lin, Julia Y; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Phibbs, Ciaran S

    2015-04-01

    Travel time, an access barrier, may contribute to attrition of women veterans from Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care. We examined whether travel time influences attrition: (a) among women veterans overall, (b) among new versus established patients, and (c) among rural versus urban patients. This retrospective cohort study used logistic regression to estimate the association between drive time and attrition, overall and for new/established and rural/urban patients. In total, 266,301 women veteran VHA outpatients in the Fiscal year 2009. An "attriter" did not return for VHA care during the second through third years after her first 2009 visit (T0). Drive time (log minutes) was between the patient's residence and her regular source of VHA care. "New" patients had no VHA visits within 3 years before T0. Models included age, service-connected disability, health status, and utilization as covariates. Overall, longer drive times were associated with higher odds of attrition: drive time adjusted odds ratio=1.11 (99% confidence interval, 1.09-1.14). The relationship between drive time and attrition was stronger among new patients but was not modified by rurality. Attrition among women veterans is sensitive to longer drive time. Linking new patients to VHA services designed to reduce distance barriers (telemedicine, community-based clinics, mobile clinics) may reduce attrition among women new to VHA.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Interpersonal Process in Homeless Veterans Participating in a Peer Mentoring Intervention: Associations With Program Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Resnik, Linda; Johnson, Erin; O'Toole, Thomas

    2018-01-25

    Homelessness among veterans has dropped dramatically since the expansion of services for homeless veterans in 2009, and now engaging homeless veterans in existing programs will be important to continuing to make progress. While one promising approach for engaging homeless veterans in care is involving peer mentors in integrated services, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may diminish the effects of peer mentorship. This mixed methods study examined how interpersonal and emotional processes in homeless veterans with and without PTSD impacted their capacity to engage in relationships with peer mentors. Four focus groups of 5-8 homeless male veterans (N = 22) were drawn from a larger multisite randomized trial. Qualitative analysis identified five primary themes: disconnectedness; anger, hostility, or resentment; connecting with others; positive view of self; and feeling like an outsider. Thematic comparisons between participants with and without a self-reported PTSD diagnosis, and between those who did and did not benefit from the peer mentor program, were validated by using quantitative methods. Disconnectedness was associated with self-reported PTSD diagnosis and with lack of program benefit; feeling like an outsider was associated with program benefit. Results suggest that disruption to the capacity to develop and maintain social bonds in PTSD may interfere with the capacity to benefit from peer mentorship. Social rules and basic strategies for navigating interpersonal relationships may differ somewhat within the homeless community and outside of it; for veterans who feel disconnected from the domiciled community, a formerly homeless veteran peer may serve as a critical "bridge" between the two social worlds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  14. Interdisciplinary Transgender Veteran Care: Development of a Core Curriculum for VHA Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipherd, Jillian C.; Kauth, Michael R.; Firek, Anthony F.; Garcia, Ranya; Mejia, Susan; Laski, Sandra; Walden, Brent; Perez-Padilla, Sonia; Lindsay, Jan A.; Brown, George; Roybal, Lisa; Keo-Meier, Colton L.; Knapp, Herschel; Johnson, Laura; Reese, Rebecca L.; Byne, William

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) has created a training program for interdisciplinary teams of providers on the unique treatment needs of transgender veterans. An overview of this program's structure and content is described along with an evaluation of each session and the program overall. Methods: A specialty care team delivered 14 didactic courses supplemented with case consultation twice per month over the course of 7 months through video teleconferencing to 16 teams of learners. Each team, consisting of at least one mental health provider (e.g., social worker, psychologist, or psychiatrist) and one medical provider (e.g., physician, nurse, physician assistant, advanced practice nurse, or pharmacist), received training and consultation on transgender veteran care. Results: In the first three waves of learners, 111 providers across a variety of disciplines attended the sessions and received training. Didactic topics included hormone therapy initiation and adjustments, primary care issues, advocacy within the system, and psychotherapy issues. Responses were provided to 39 veteran-specific consult questions to augment learning. Learners reported an increase in knowledge plus an increase in team cohesion and functioning. As a result, learners anticipated treating more transgender veterans in the future. Conclusion: VHA providers are learning about the unique healthcare needs of transgender veterans and benefitting from the training opportunity offered through the Transgender Specialty Care Access Network–Extension of Community Healthcare Outcomes program. The success of this program in training interdisciplinary teams of providers suggests that it might serve as a model for other large healthcare systems. In addition, it provides a path forward for individual learners (both within VHA and in the community) who wish to increase their knowledge. PMID:29159298

  15. The mortality and cancer experience of New Zealand Vietnam war veterans: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, David; Cox, Brian; Broughton, John; Tong, Darryl

    2013-09-03

    The aim was to observe the patterns of mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand Vietnam veterans. The objectives were to assess whether the patterns of disease observed were consistent with those associated with military service in Vietnam, and similar to the patterns identified in other groups of Vietnam veterans. A historical cohort study. Veterans, identified from service records, with Vietnam service between 1964 and 1972. Of the 3322 survivors of Vietnam service, we followed up 2783 (84%). Standardised mortality and incidence ratios (SMRs and SIRs, respectively) were calculated based on the number of deaths and cancer registrations observed, those expected being based on New Zealand national rates. All cause mortality was significantly reduced (SMR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.94) and cancer incidence non-significantly increased (SIR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.16). The risk of mortality from cancers of the head and neck (SMR 2.20, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.93); oral cavity pharynx and larynx (SMR 2.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.81) and the incidence of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) (SIR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.20) were, however, significantly increased. Other lymphohaematopoietic disorders, specifically multiple myeloma and Hodgkin disease, showed non-significant mortality excesses, reflected by a similar increase in incidence. Service in the Vietnam war was associated with defoliant herbicide exposure, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, picloram and cacodylic acid. Subsequent reviews of mechanistic, animal and epidemiological evidence led to certain conditions being deemed compensable. The pattern of mortality and cancer incidence is not at odds with the list of compensable conditions and consistent with that found in Australian veterans serving in the same area of Vietnam, but also consistent with smoking and the healthy soldier effect. In common with the Australian experience, this is the only veterans group to show a significant

  16. 77 FR 20849 - Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... and literacy and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless veterans into the labor... Labor/VETS. Applications submitted through www.grants.gov or hard copy will be accepted. If you need to...

  17. Veterans and agent orange: update 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Staff; Institute of Medicine, Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides

    2001-01-01

    Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 examines the state of the scientific evidence regarding associations between diseases and exposure to dioxin and other chemical compounds in herbicides used in Vietnam...

  18. Women Veterans Health Care: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  19. Aging Veterans and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  20. Sexual Trauma: Women Veterans Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  1. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  2. The use of data to assist in the design of a new service system for homeless veterans in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; Bainbridge, Jay; Keaton, Kim; Kenton, Martha; Guz, Meghan; Kanis, Becky

    2008-03-01

    Operation Home is an agreement between the City of New York and the US Department of Veterans Affairs to design a new service system to help end veteran homelessness in New York City. The authors' task was to obtain data to inform the design of this new system. A variety of methods were used. The group reviewed relevant literature and data from street homeless survey samples, analyzed shelter data, and consulted with VA homeless program staff on the findings. We then surveyed case managers at a veterans' shelter regarding their clients and determined their housing eligibility using a standardized logic model, and led two focus groups of veterans at this shelter regarding their views of the current shelter system and services for homeless veterans and how these might be improved. Among those resident in shelters during 2006, 37.2% of self-identified veterans compared to 0.9% of others reported their prior residence as supported housing, suggesting the need for more intensive case management at veterans' supported housing sites to help them sustain their tenure. The lack of interconnectedness among the various information systems made it more difficult to collect and analyze pertinent data. To begin to address this, a data match was undertaken to estimate the proportion of veterans resident in the veterans' shelter who were not in receipt of VA benefits to which they may be entitled. The data obtained through collaboration between staff from NYC's Department of Homelessness Services, US Department of Veterans Affairs facilities in the New York/New Jersey region and Common Ground Community led to information that informed the evaluation design of the new system. The identification of gaps in available data on homeless veterans will lead to projects both to improve and share data.

  3. The Veterans Choice Program (VCP): Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    2014, President Obama signed the bill into law. 2 Since the VCAA was enacted, Congress has amended the act several times: P.L. 113-175, P.L. 113-235...VA staff may place the veteran on an electronic waiting list until an alternate appointment becomes available. At any time, the veteran (based on the...center. 22 They also oversee VCP providers, medical services reporting and billing processes, and the coordination of care with private health

  4. Long-Term Care Services for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    MH RRTPs) (http://www.va.gov/ homeless /dchv.asp). Further discussion and analysis of the domiciliary care programs is beyond the scope of this report...number of veterans with a service- connected disability, defined as a disability caused by injury or disease incurred or aggravated during active...veterans who are taking medications that may cause side effects, and who could benefit from a simplified medication regimen); and  frequent

  5. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  6. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  7. Language Core Values in a Multicultural Setting: An Australian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews European Community and Australian language policies. Considers cultural-economic interface in Australia with respect to current interest in teaching Asian languages for trade purposes. Discusses Australia's growing acceptance of languages other than English and its affect on Aboriginal people. Urges the better utilization of the country's…

  8. "They Call Me Headmaster": Malawian and Australian Women Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay; Andretzke, Elaine; Binali, Valesi

    2018-01-01

    This article explores commonalities in the lives and work of women head teachers in Malawian secondary schools and women principals in Australian Lutheran schools. In both Australia and Malawi women are under-represented in school leadership and often appointed to complex schools and communities. We commence with a brief discussion of Malawi and…

  9. Rural Telework: Case Studies from the Australian Outback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lyn; Daws, Leonie; Pini, Barbara; Wood, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of rural teleworking in an Australian government department and a community organization found that a key constraint is lack of telecommunications and services infrastructure. Teleworkers had differing views of working in isolation, depending on the nature of work roles, attitudes toward technology, and personal life experiences.…

  10. Conditions for Australian consent to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This article contains the text of the statement by the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the House of Representatives, Noember 1980, on conditions for Australian consent to the reprocessing of nuclear material of Australian origin

  11. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Grischa R.; Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M.; Bond, Charles S.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Androulakis, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community

  12. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) is a joint venture between the Australian mining industry through the Australian Mineral Industries Research Association Ltd. (AMIRA) and three of the organizations working most actively in this area in Australia: CSIRO Minesite Rehabilitation Research Program; University of Queensland Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation; and Curtin University Mulga Research Centre. The ACMRR was established in July 1993 to provide a national framework to conduct Strategic Research into minesite rehabilitation. It is an industry led and funded initiative. The Goals of the Centre include: to conduct strategic research into minesite rehabilitation to provide sustainable environmental solutions which are acceptable to industry, government and the community; to be recognized as a center of excellence undertaking commissioned research on minesite rehabilitation in an independent and thorough manner; to provide scientific and technological foundations to facilitate industry and government in setting acceptable standards; to act as networking and communications focus; and to enhance education and training in minesite rehabilitation. Strategic Research Programs in: Water Systems--downstream surface and groundwater quality; Land--the long-term behavior and stability of constructed landforms; Ecosystems--the long-term sustainability of constructed landforms; Waste--the long-term treatment and disposal of waste products; will allow the ACMRR to achieve these goals through specific research projects in these areas, developed with industry sponsors. This paper will discuss their progress to date, research projects underway, and plans for the future

  13. Recent Changes in Health Insurance Coverage for Urban and Rural Veterans: Evidence from the First Year of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Michel; Barath, Deanna; Blewett, Lynn A

    2018-04-25

    Prior to the Affordable Care Act, as many as 1.3 million veterans lacked health insurance. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, veterans now have new pathways to coverage through Medicaid expansion in those states that chose to expand Medicaid and through private coverage options offered through the Health Insurance Marketplace. We examined the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for veterans in expansion and non-expansion states and for urban and rural veterans. We examined changes in veterans' health insurance coverage following the first year of the ACA, focusing on whether they lived in an urban or rural area and whether they live in a Medicaid expansion state. We used data on approximately 200,000 non-elderly community-dwelling veterans, obtained from the 2013-2014 American Community Survey and estimated differences in the adjusted probability of being uninsured between 2013 and 2014 for both urban and rural areas. Adjusted probabilities were computed by fitting logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, race, marital status, poverty status, education, and employment. There were an estimated 10.1 million U.S. non-elderly veterans in 2013; 82% lived in predominantly urban areas (8.3 million), and the remaining 18% (1.8 million) lived in predominately rural areas. Most veterans lived in the South (43.6%), and rural veterans were more likely to be Southerners than their urban counterparts. On every marker of economic well-being, rural veterans fared worse than urban veterans. They had a statistically significant higher chance of having incomes below 138% of FPG (20.0% versus 17.0%), of being out of the labor force (29.1% versus 23.0%), and of having no more than a high school education (39.6% versus 28.8%). Rural veterans were also more likely to experience at least one functional limitation. Overall, veterans in Medicaid expansion states experienced a significantly larger increase in insurance compared to veterans living in non

  14. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  15. 75 FR 68040 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance...

  16. 75 FR 68039 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans... INFORMATION: Title: Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance, (SRH) Life Insurance, VA... applying for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance. VA uses the information collected to...

  17. 78 FR 55777 - Proposed Information Collection (VA, National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events, Event...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ..., National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events, Event Registration Applications); Comment Request AGENCY: Office of National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events (NVSP...

  18. Accessibility and acceptability of the Department of Veteran Affairs health care: diverse veterans' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; White-Kazemipour, Whitney; Washington, Donna; Villa, Valentine M; Dhanani, Shawkat; Harada, Nancy D

    2004-03-01

    Diverse veteran's perspectives on the accessibility and acceptability of the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) health services are presented. The qualitative methodology uses 16 focus groups (N = 178) stratified by war cohort (World War II and Korean Conflict versus Vietnam War and Persian Gulf War) and four ethnic/racial categories (African American, Asian American, European American, Hispanic American). Five themes emerged regarding veterans' health care expectations: (1) better information regarding available services, (2) sense of deserved benefits, (3) concern about welfare stigma, (4) importance of physician attentiveness, and (5) staff respect for patients as veterans. Although veterans' ethnic/racial backgrounds differentiated their military experiences, it was the informants' veteran identity that framed what they expected of VA health services. Accessibility and acceptability of VA health care is related to veterans' perspectives of the nature of their entitlement to service. Provider education and customer service strategies should consider the identified factors to increase access to VA as well as improve veterans' acceptance of the care.

  19. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological

  20. Use of Opioid Analgesics in Older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, Felicity C; Bereznicki, Luke R E; Thompson, Angus J; Peterson, Gregory M

    2015-08-01

    To identify potential medication management issues associated with opioid use in older Australians. Retrospective cross-sectional review of the utilization of analgesics in 19,581 people who underwent a medication review in Australia between 2010 and 2012. Australian residents living in the community deemed at risk for adverse medication outcomes or any resident living fulltime in an aged care facility. Patient characteristics in those taking regularly dosed opioids and not and those taking opioid doses >120 mg and ≤120 mg MEQ/day were compared. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between regular opioid and high dose opioid usage and key variables. Additionally, medication management issues associated with opioids were identified. Opioids were taken by 31.8% of patients, with 22.1% taking them regularly. Several major medication management issues were identified. There was suboptimal use of multimodal analgesia, particularly a low use of non-opioid analgesics, in patients taking regular opioids. There was extensive use (45%) of concurrent anxiolytics/hypnotics among those taking regular opioid analgesics. Laxative use in those prescribed opioids regularly was low (60%). Additionally, almost 12% of patients were taking doses of opioid that exceeded Australian recommendations. A significant evidence to practice gap exists regarding the use of opioids amongst older Australians. These findings highlight the need for a quick reference guide to support prescribers in making appropriate decisions regarding pain management in older patients with persistent pain. This should also be combined with patient and caregiver education about the importance of regular acetaminophen to manage persistent pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Veterans with PTSD report more weight loss barriers than Veterans with no mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Hoerster, Katherine D; Aakre, Jennifer M; Viverito, Kristen M; Medoff, Deborah R; Goldberg, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized and compared Veterans of the United States Armed Forces with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to Veterans with no mental health disorders on self-reported measures of factors that influence success in weight management programs. We examined the relation of PTSD diagnosis with weight loss plan, reasons for overweight/obesity and barriers to dieting and physical exercise among 171,884 Veterans. Statistically significant variables in chi-square tests (Peating and physical habits. The results of this study help to explain the lower rates of success of Veterans with PTSD in weight loss programs. Results suggest that a comprehensive, integrated approach to promoting weight loss in Veterans with PTSD is needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Distance to Veterans Administration Medical Centers as a Barrier to Specialty Care for Homeless Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Lori M; Pettey, Warren B P; Redd, Andrew M; Suo, Ying; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2017-01-01

    Homeless women Veterans have a high prevalence of chronic mental and physical conditions that necessitate frequent healthcare visits, but travel burdens to specialty services may be overwhelming to navigate for this population, especially for those in rural settings. Access to specialty care is a key priority in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and understanding the geographic distribution and rural designation of this population in relation to medical centers (VAMC) can assist in care coordination. We identified 41,747 women Veterans age 18-44y with administrative evidence of homelessness in the VHA anytime during 2002-2015. We found 7% live in rural settings and 29% live >40miles from a VAMC. The mean travel distance for homeless women Veterans with a rural designation to a VAMC specialty center was 107 miles. Developing interventions to overcome this travel burden and engage vulnerable Veterans in necessary care can improve overall health outcomes for this high-risk population.

  3. Enhancing User Access to Australian marine data - the Australian Ocean Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Mancini, S.; Blain, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a national project funded by the Australian government established to deliver ocean observations to the marine and climate science community. Now in its 10th year its mission is to undertake systematic and sustained observations and to turn them into data, products and analyses that can be freely used and reused for broad societal benefits. As IMOS has matured as an observing system the expectation of the system's availability and reliability has also increased and IMOS is now seen as delivering `operational' information; it does this through the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN). The AODN runs its services in the commercial cloud service Amazon Web Services. This has enabled the AODN to improve the system architecture, utilizing more advanced features like object storage (S3 - Simple Storage Service) and autoscaling features, and introducing new checking and logging procedures in a pipeline approach. This has improved data availability and resilience while protecting against human errors in data handling and providing a more efficient ingestion process. Many of these features are available through AODN to the wider Australian marine and science community enabling the `family' of AODN to grow, thereby enabling rapid access to an increasing collection of ocean observations.

  4. Dengue surveillance in Veterans Affairs healthcare facilities, 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Schirmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although dengue is endemic in Puerto Rico (PR, 2007 and 2010 were recognized as epidemic years. In the continental United States (US, outside of the Texas-Mexico border, there had not been a dengue outbreak since 1946 until dengue re-emerged in Key West, Florida (FL, in 2009-2010. The objective of this study was to use electronic and manual surveillance systems to identify dengue cases in Veterans Affairs (VA healthcare facilities and then to clinically compare dengue cases in Veterans presenting for care in PR and in FL. METHODOLOGY: Outpatient encounters from 1/2007-12/2010 and inpatient admissions (only available from 10/2009-12/2010 with dengue diagnostic codes at all VA facilities were identified using VA's Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE. Additional case sources included VA data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention BioSense and VA infection preventionists. Case reviews were performed. Categorical data was compared using Mantel-Haenszel or Fisher Exact tests and continuous variables using t-tests. Dengue case residence was mapped. FINDINGS: Two hundred eighty-eight and 21 PR and FL dengue cases respectively were identified. Of 21 FL cases, 12 were exposed in Key West and 9 were imported. During epidemic years, FL cases had significantly increased dengue testing and intensive care admissions, but lower hospitalization rates and headache or eye pain symptoms compared to PR cases. There were no significant differences in clinical symptoms, laboratory abnormalities or outcomes between epidemic and non-epidemic year cases in FL and PR. Confirmed/probable cases were significantly more likely to be hospitalized and have thrombocytopenia or leukopenia compared to suspected cases. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue re-introduction in the continental US warrants increased dengue surveillance and education in VA. Throughout VA, under-testing of suspected cases highlights the need to

  5. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  6. War veterans as peace builders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Novica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 1991. to 1999. over 1500000 people in former Yugoslavia were members of dozens military formations that participated in the war in different manners and with various motives. These persons have actively contributed to the tragedy caused by war, that was and for some time will be the most important factor of social and personal relationships between individuals and the nations in the member states of former Yugoslavia. They are now left on their own and exposed to manipulation by nationalist centers and certain politicians. Because of their wartime past, they are usually depicted as the carriers of nationalistic and warmongering ideas on the 'other' side. However, viewed from the aspect of peace-building, ex-soldiers represent a significant potential, because many of them, in fact, have a need to contribute to building a more just society and feel responsible for what happened. In this paper it is discussed how some war veterans decided to join forces and contribute to the reconciliation in the former Yugoslavia by their joint activities.

  7. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  8. Mortality and Cause of Death in Younger Homeless Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, John A; Leventhal, Katherine C; Lapcevic, William A; Casey, Roger

    Increased mortality has been documented in older homeless veterans. This retrospective study examined mortality and cause of death in a cohort of young and middle-aged homeless veterans. We examined US Department of Veterans Affairs records on homelessness and health care for 2000-2003 and identified 23 898 homeless living veterans and 65 198 non-homeless living veterans aged 30-54. We used National Death Index records to determine survival status. We compared survival rates and causes of death for the 2 groups during a 10-year follow-up period. A greater percentage of homeless veterans (3905/23 898, 16.3%) than non-homeless veterans (4143/65 198, 6.1%) died during the follow-up period, with a hazard ratio for risk of death of 2.9. The mean age at death (52.3 years) for homeless veterans was approximately 1 year younger than that of non-homeless veterans (53.2 years). Most deaths among homeless veterans (3431/3905, 87.9%) and non-homeless veterans (3725/4143, 89.9%) were attributed to 7 cause-of-death categories in the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (cardiovascular system; neoplasm; external cause; digestive system; respiratory system; infectious disease; and endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases). Death by violence was rare but was associated with a significantly higher risk among homeless veterans than among non-homeless veterans (suicide hazard ratio = 2.7; homicide hazard ratio = 7.6). Younger and middle-aged homeless veterans had higher mortality rates than those of their non-homeless veteran peers. Our results indicate that homelessness substantially increases mortality risk in veterans throughout the adult age range. Health assessment would be valuable for assessing the mortality risk among homeless veterans regardless of age.

  9. Effects of a 12-month exercise program on cardiorespiratory health indicators of Vietnam War veterans resident in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rebecca M; Leicht, Anthony S; Spinks, Warwick L

    2008-06-01

    To measure the effect of a combined aerobic and resistance exercise program on key cardiovascular disease risk factors (i.e. body composition or anthropometry and cardiorespiratory function) of Australian male, Vietnam War veterans living in the tropics. Twelve-month exercise program with assessments at commencement, 3, 6 and 12 months. North Queensland regional centre. Australian male, Vietnam War veterans (n = 164) resident in north Queensland. Measurement of heart rate, blood pressure, skinfold and girth measurements, exercise heart rate response and estimated aerobic capacity to determine whether the implementation of a simple aerobic and resistance exercise program could positively change selected cardiovascular disease risk factors in Vietnam Veterans. Significant improvements were reported for systolic blood pressure (131.1 (SD 15.7) reduced to 122.7 (12.4) mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (82.7 (9.1) reduced to 76.3 (10.3) mmHg), resting heart rate (73 (11) reduced to 69 (11) bpm), sum of skinfolds (127.5 (40.3) reduced to 99.5 (32.1) mm), waist girth (103.2 (12.0) reduced to 100.5 (12.1) cm), hip girth (105.3 (9.6) reduced to 103.7 (10.4) cm) and aerobic capacity (2.17 (0.39) increased to 2.36 (0.34) L min(-1)). Participation in a combined aerobic and resistance training program elicited significant anthropometric and cardiorespiratory benefits that might lead to a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease for male Vietnam War veterans resident in rural and regional areas.

  10. Injury careers after blast exposure among combat veterans deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Rachel P; McMahon, Shannon A; Winch, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    During the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, blasts were the most common cause of combat injuries, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prior to 2007, service members were not systematically screened for TBI, and estimates suggest that tens of thousands of mild TBIs went undiagnosed. This study sought to understand post-acute "injury careers," documenting the life- and health-related narratives of veterans who were at high risk of undocumented TBI due to being blast-exposed before 2007. Researchers conducted 38 in-depth interviews between May 2013 and August 2014 with Army veterans who served in combat-intense settings (n = 16) and their family members (n = 10). Respondents detailed a series of experiences in the months and years following blast exposure. We present this series as a model that draws upon the vernacular of participants who described veterans "downplaying" their injuries and later "detaching" themselves from friends, family, and communities, and "denying" or being "oblivious" to their circumstances until a "wake-up call" pushed them to "get help." Looking to the future, veterans grapple with uncertainties related to personal identity and professional or social expectations. This model is presented within a member-checked metaphor of an individual being hurled into--and emerging from--a canyon. Policies and programs addressing veteran health, particularly among those exposed to multiple blasts prior to systematic TBI documentation, must consider the personal, social, and health system challenges faced by veterans and their families throughout their injury careers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 38 CFR 17.60 - Extensions of community nursing home care beyond six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nursing home care beyond six months. 17.60 Section 17.60 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Community Nursing Home Care Facilities § 17.60 Extensions of community nursing home care beyond six months. Directors of health care facilities may authorize, for any...

  12. Deployed Women Veterans: Important Culturally Sensitive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Patricia L; Armstrong, Myrna L

    2017-10-01

    Today, with almost 23 million veterans in the nation, and currently only about 10 million, or less, of them seeking active services associated with the Veterans Administration (VA) health facilities, these men and women veterans will be seeking some, more, or even all of their health care over their life time in civilian-based facilities. Pertinent literary sources were reviewed to gather applicable data about the problem. Every patient that enters your health facility should be asked an essential assessment question: "Have you served in the military?" Importantly, to gain effective rapport when they present, civilian nurses will need to anticipate their health needs and provide culturally sensitive care. Specific issues of deployed women veterans are provided in a series of two articles. This article provides a snapshot of the uniquely entrenched military culture, as well as women service member experiences in wartime, including the Global War on Terror (Iraq and Afghanistan). The next article discusses the various healthcare differences (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder and military sexual trauma), difficulties (e.g., reproductive, gynecologic, urinary, employment, homelessness issues), and gender disparities (varied treatment patterns) so the civilian nurse can better advocate for women veterans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text Homeless Veterans Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard of Hearing Contact Us About About the ... Text Homeless Veterans Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard of Hearing Contact Us About About the ...

  14. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... facility near you. Spread the Word Download logos, Web ads, and materials and help get the word ... Veteran Suicide The Veterans Crisis Line text-messaging service does not store mobile phone numbers of users ...

  15. 75 FR 60249 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Equal Opportunity for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... employment, and otherwise treat qualified individuals, including qualified disabled veterans, without... otherwise treat qualified individuals, including qualified disabled veterans, without discrimination based... obtained in a variety of ways, including an invitation to applicants to self-identify (in accordance with...

  16. Service Utilization of Veterans Dually Eligible for VA...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Service Utilization of Veterans Dually Eligible for VA and Medicare Fee-For-Service, 1999-2004 According to findings in Service Utilization of Veterans Dually...

  17. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out for help. Bittersweet More Videos from Veterans Health Administration Embedded YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/ ... Behind the Scenes see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Be There: Help Save a Life see ...

  18. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for help. Bittersweet More Videos from Veterans Health Administration Embedded YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/v/ ... the Scenes see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Be There: Help Save a Life see more ...

  19. Tau and Beta-Amyloid Deposition, Micro-Hemorrhage and Brain Function after Traumatic Brain Injury in War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    tau PET imaging and 7T-MRI to the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle - Veterans study (AIBL-VETS) of post-traumatic stress disorder and...TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8- 98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Nothing listed 17 Award No: W81XWH-14-1-0418 PI...associated lifestyle factors account for this observation. Award No: W81XWH-14-1-0418 PI: Professor Chris Rowe Document: Annual report

  20. Correlates of housing affordability stress among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of housing affordability stress among community-dwelling older Australians. The 2002 ABS General Social Survey was used to measure the prevalence of housing affordability stress. Rare event logistic regression was used to measure the potential correlates of housing affordability stress. Almost 5% of Australians aged 55 years and older, and 20% of those younger than 55 years, are estimated to experience housing affordability stress. Men and women living alone are more likely to experience affordability stress when compared to couples. Low-income earners, those with a consumer debt or who do not hold assets, are at a heightened risk of such stress. Home ownership, regardless of income, is the strongest buffer against housing affordability problems in old age. Although the prevalence of housing affordability stress is low among older Australians when compared to the younger population, a definite social gradient exists in those at risk.

  1. A tale of two veterans: homeless vs domiciled veterans presenting to a psychiatric urgent care clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haoyu; Iglewicz, Alana; Golshan, Shah; Zisook, Sidney

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between homelessness among veterans and mental illness and suicidality has not been clearly defined. To further examine this relationship, we compared rates of mental illness and suicidality among homeless and domiciled veterans seeking urgent psychiatric care at a US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facility. Information was collected by survey from 482 consecutive veterans seeking care at the Psychiatric Emergency Clinic (PEC) at the VA San Diego Healthcare System. A total of 73 homeless veterans were designated the homeless group and 73 domiciled veterans were randomly selected as the domiciled group. Suicidality and mental illnesses were assessed by self-assessment questionnaires and chart review of diagnoses. The homeless group had significantly higher rates of past suicide attempts (47% vs 27%) and recent reckless or self-harming behavior (33% vs 18%) compared with the domiciled group but significantly lower rates of depressive disorder (25% vs 44%), as diagnosed by a PEC physician. There were no differences between groups on the questionnaires for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, or alcohol abuse. Nor were there differences in diagnoses of bipolar disorder, PTSD, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, or alcohol abuse. Veterans seeking help from a VA-based urgent psychiatric care clinic often are burdened by substantial depression, alcohol use disorders, PTSD, and both past and present suicide risk.

  2. Prevalence and Risk of Homelessness Among US Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Fargo, Jamison; Metraux, Stephen; Byrne, Thomas; Munley, Ellen; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Jones, Harlan; Sheldon, George; Kane, Vincent; Culhane, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the prevalence of and risk for homelessness among veterans is prerequisite to preventing and ending homelessness among this population. Homeless veterans are at higher risk for chronic disease; understanding the dynamics of homelessness among veterans can contribute to our understanding of their health needs. Methods We obtained data on demographic characteristics and veteran status for 130,554 homeless people from 7 jurisdictions that provide homelessness services,...

  3. Major traumatic limb loss among women veterans and servicemembers

    OpenAIRE

    Jodie G. Katon, PhD; Gayle E. Reiber, PhD

    2013-01-01

    The number of women veterans is rapidly growing, and little is known regarding the health and healthcare needs of women veterans with traumatic limb loss. The objective of this study was to summarize physical and mental health conditions and rates of prosthetic prescriptions among women servicemembers and veterans with major traumatic limb loss. Researchers and clinicians who administered the Survey for Prosthetic Use contacted and enrolled 283 servicemembers and veterans of Operation Iraqi F...

  4. The Australian synchrotron research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was established in 1996 under a 5 year grant from the Australian Government, and is managed by ANSTO on behalf of a consortium of Australian universities and research organisations. It has taken over the operation of the Australian National Beamline Facility (ANBF) at the Photon Factory, and has joined two CATS at the Advanced Photon Source: the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation CAT (SRI-CAT) and the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). The ASRP thus manages a comprehensive range of synchrotron radiation research facilities for Australian science. The ANBF is a general purpose hard X-ray beamline which has been in operation at the Photon Factory since 1993. It currently caters for about 35 Australian research teams per year. The facilities available at the ANBF will be presented and the research program will be summarised. The ASRP facilities at the APS comprise the 5 sectors operated by SRI-CAT, BioCARS and ChemMatCARS. A brief description will be given of the ASRP research programs at the APS, which will considerably broaden the scope of Australian synchrotron science

  5. Academic Detailing with Provider Audit and Feedback Improve Prescribing Quality for Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Ann E; Echt, Katharina V; Kemp, Lawanda; McGwin, Gerald; Perkins, Molly M; Mirk, Anna K

    2018-03-01

    Suboptimal prescribing persists as a driver of poor quality care of older veterans and is associated with risk of hospitalization and emergency department visits. We adapted a successful medication management model, Integrated Management and Polypharmacy Review of Vulnerable Elders (IMPROVE), from an urban geriatric specialty clinic to rural community-based clinics that deliver primary care. The goals were to promote prescribing quality and safety for older adults, including reduced prescribing of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). We augmented the original model, which involved a pharmacist-led, one-on-one medication review with high-risk older veterans, to provide rural primary care providers (PCPs) and pharmacists with educational outreach through academic detailing and tools to support safe geriatric prescribing practices, as well as individual audit and feedback on prescribing practice and confidential peer benchmarking. Twenty PCPs and 4 pharmacists at 4 rural Georgia community-based outpatient clinics participated. More than 7,000 older veterans were seen in more than 20,000 PCP encounters during the 14-month intervention period. Implementation of the IMPROVE intervention reduced PIM prescribing incidence from 9.6 new medications per 100 encounters during baseline to 8.7 after the intervention (P = .009). IMPROVE reduced PIM prevalence (proportion of encounters involving veterans who were taking at least 1 PIM) from 22.6% to 16.7% (P < .001). These approaches were effective in reducing PIMs prescribed to older veterans in a rural setting and constitute a feasible model for disseminating geriatric best practices to the primary care setting. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. War time experiences of triage and resuscitation: Australian Army nurses in the Vietnam War, 1967-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, N E; Harvey, N R

    2001-07-01

    The experiences of nurses in war is prolifically described in the North American scholarly literature, and in the Australian nursing literature to a lesser extent. The literature describes the plights and achievements of nurses caring for soldiers and civilians often under the most undesirable of circumstances. A central focus of war time nursing is the resuscitation of critically wounded soldiers. This paper addresses the experiences of the Australian Army nurses who were involved in the triage and resuscitation of critically wounded allied and enemy soldiers in the Vietnam War between 1967 and 1971. As part of a research study to explore and analyse the nature of nursing work in the Vietnam War, seventeen Vietnam veteran nurses were interviewed about their experiences. This paper explores the progression of the triage department in the Australian military hospital in Vung Tau, and it highlights that the majority of the nurses who took part in this study were clinically unprepared, particularly as emergency nurses.

  7. Military Veterans' Midlife Career Transition and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather C.; Brott, Pamelia E.

    2014-01-01

    Many military veterans face the challenging transition to civilian employment. Military veteran members of a national program, Troops to Teachers, were surveyed regarding life satisfaction and related internal/external career transition variables. Participants included military veterans who were currently or had previously transitioned to K-12…

  8. 32 CFR 644.405 - Transfers to Veterans Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Transfers to Veterans Administration. 38 U.S.C. 5003 authorizes the Secretaries of the military departments to transfer, without reimbursement, to the Veterans Administration, facilities, supplies, equipment... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transfers to Veterans Administration. 644.405...

  9. Leadership Tenets of Military Veterans Working as School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolles, Elliot; Patrizio, Kami

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the leadership tenets informing veterans' work as school leaders. Drawing on 15 interviews and surveys with military veterans working as educational leaders, the study relies on Stake's (2006) case study method to substantiate assertions that veterans: 1) come into education without the support of a transitional program, 2)…

  10. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and other organizations about reaching out for help. Bittersweet More Videos ... from Veterans Health Administration I am A Veteran Family/Friend Active Duty/Reserve and Guard Signs of ...

  11. Australian coal industry continues expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent saleable Australian black coal production figures are given along with trends in development of new operations and new technology aiming to provide a sound basis for the continuing expansion of the Australian coal industry. Export prices from 1982 to 1991 to Japan (Australia's major export market) are provided, together with Australian dollar return to exporters at the exchange rate prevailing at the start of each contract year. An increased demand for steaming coal is expected, thus maintaining Australia's position as the world's larger exporter. 4 tabs

  12. 76 FR 16354 - Per Diem Payments for the Care Provided to Eligible Veterans Evacuated From a State Home as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... temporary relocation of veterans in many situations, including the case of a natural disaster or in which... to provide nursing home care under section 1720. We would place the rule in the body of regulations... paragraph (c)(1) of this section: (i) VA Community Living Centers; (ii) VA contract nursing homes; (iii...

  13. Veterans Group Exercise: A randomized pilot trial of an Integrative Exercise program for veterans with posttraumatic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, LA; Mehling, WE; Metzler, TJ; Cohen, BE; Barnes, DE; Choucroun, GJ; Silver, A; Talbot, LS; Maguen, S; Hlavin, JA; Chesney, MA; Neylan, TC

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent among military veterans and is associated with significant negative health outcomes. However, stigma and other barriers to care prevent many veterans from pursuing traditional mental health treatment. We developed a group-based Integrative Exercise (IE) program combining aerobic and resistance exercise, which is familiar to veterans, with mindfulness-based practices suited to veterans with PTSD. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of IE o...

  14. Resources and Capabilities of the Department of Veterans Affairs to Provide Timely and Accessible Care to Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Hussey, Peter S.; Ringel, Jeanne S.; Ahluwalia, Sangeeta; Price, Rebecca Anhang; Buttorff, Christine; Concannon, Thomas W.; Lovejoy, Susan L.; Martsolf, Grant R.; Rudin, Robert S.; Schultz, Dana; Sloss, Elizabeth M.; Watkins, Katherine E.; Waxman, Daniel; Bauman, Melissa; Briscombe, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 addressed the need for access to timely, high-quality health care for veterans. Section 201 of the legislation called for an independent assessment of various aspects of veterans' health care. The RAND Corporation was tasked with an assessment of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) current and projected health care capabilities and resources. An examination of data from a variety of sources, along with a survey of VA medical faci...

  15. History of guide dog use by veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeier, Mark

    2010-08-01

    The first guide dog school was established in Germany during World War I to care for German soldiers blinded in that war. Other schools in Germany followed. Observation by an American at one of the schools led to the creation of the first guide dog school in the United States in 1929, "The Seeing Eye." Additional U.S. schools were opened during and after World War II. This article discusses the history of guide dog use by veterans, including the formation of the first guide dog schools in response to aiding blinded servicemen, and the involvement of federal agencies and guide dog schools in providing assistance to blinded veterans.

  16. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage pa...

  17. A requirement for Australian research: access to 'big science' facilities, a report by the Australian National Committee for crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    Two types of 'Big Science' research facility - synchrotron radiation sources and intense neutron beams - are now recognised as essential resources for a wide range of research activities in chemistry, physics and biology. The cost of such facilities and the lack of a sufficiently large user base will probably preclude their construction in Australia in the foreseeable future. The needs of Australian crystallographers for access to such facilities are assessed. In relation to synchrotron radiation sources, the Committee considered only the question of access to such facilities overseas. In relation to neutron beam sources, the Committee's inquiries included not only the question of access to powerful facilities overseas but also the special problems which confront Australian crystallographers as a result of the obsolescence of the HIFAR reactor. The arguments about, and options for, funding Australian use of facilities overseas are presented. The Committee concluded there is a strong case for the purchase of a beam-line at an overseas synchrotron radiation facility and a strong, though less urgent, case for substantial Australian involvement in an overseas neutron beam facility. The Committee recommended that the Australian HIFAR reactor be refurbished in its present shell, retaining the present flux and power levels, and that in the upgrading of the neutron scattering instrumentation at HIFAR special consideration be given to including items which are sufficiently specialised to attract the international neutron scattering community

  18. Targeting relational aggression in veterans: the Strength at Home Friends and Family intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maureen A; Gallagher, Matthew W; Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Creech, Suzannah K; DeCandia, Carmela J; Beach, Corey A; Taft, Casey T

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of Strength at Home Friends and Families (SAH-F), a dyadic group intervention to prevent relational aggression and its negative consequences, in a community-based sample of service members/veterans and significant others who reported relational difficulties. Participants included 70 veterans and their loved ones. Recruitment was conducted from October 2010 through March 2012. Participants completed an initial assessment that included measures of relational aggression and functioning, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were enrolled in the 10-week SAH-F targeting social information-processing mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the relationship between trauma and aggression and were reassessed at program completion and 3 months after intervention. Significant reductions in psychological aggression were seen both at program completion and at 3-month follow-up for both veterans (standardized mean gain effect size [ESsg] = -0.45, P aggression remained low after pretreatment and did not increase. Relationship adjustment reported by significant others, but not veterans, indicated a significant improvement from pretreatment to program completion (ESsg = 0.33, P relational aggression in military member/significant other dyads and enhancing relationship quality and mental health. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Health Differences Among Lesbian, Gay, and Transgender Veterans by Rural/Small Town and Suburban/Urban Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauth, Michael R; Barrera, Terri L; Denton, F Nicholas; Latini, David M

    2017-06-01

    We explored the relationship between geographic location and health indicators for lesbian, gay, and transgender veterans. We solicited participation in an online survey through national and city LGBT organizations and personal contacts to examine differences in depression, anxiety, alcohol and tobacco use, and body mass index among lesbian, gay, and transgender veterans (n = 252) in suburban/urban and rural/small town locations. Bisexual participants were too few to include in the analyses. As expected, rural/small town lesbian, gay, and transgender veterans spent more time traveling to their primary care provider. Travel time was also positively related to depressive and anxiety symptoms. However, only suburban/urban and rural/small town gay men differed in measures of depression and anxiety and tobacco use. That is, rural/small town gay men reported greater depressive and anxiety symptoms and greater tobacco use than their suburban/urban counterparts. Consistent with this finding, rural/small town gay men reported less community-related identity than suburban/urban men. Suburban/urban lesbian women showed a nonsignificant trend for community identity compared with rural/small town women. Similar to civilian studies, suburban/urban and rural/small town lesbian, gay, and transgender veterans evidenced few health differences, with the exception of suburban/urban gay men. Although rural/small town gay male veterans evidenced more depression and anxiety and less community identity than suburban/urban men, social networks likely differ for lesbian, gay, and transgender subgroups. Lesbian, gay, and transgender veterans may also differ from their civilian counterparts in ways that we do not yet understand.

  20. 77 FR 27252 - Veterans' Employment and Training; Veterans Workforce Investment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ...; and (c) to increase the skills and competency level of veteran participants through longer-term....gov or hard copy will be accepted. If you need to speak to a person concerning these grants, you may...

  1. Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector's responsiveness to environmental sustainability issues: suggestions from Australian healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2013-05-01

    Identify strategies to implement change across the Australian healthcare sector to better support social and natural environments. Methods. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Australian healthcare professionals. Interviewees described multiple barriers to implementing change and numerous strategies to overcome these barriers. They argued that action must be taken at the individual and systemic levels to produce substantial and effective change. The strategies recommended fall into four main categories: altering workplace cultures and professional identities, community engagement, political activity, and change from within. The overarching goals of these strategies are to reduce negative impacts on the natural environment, and increase social equity within and across generations. By implementing the strategies described, a more cohesive effort to address sustainability issues across the sector can be made. This may improve local and global health, within current and future generations. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Healthcare has a significant impact on the natural and social environments, which in turn have a significant impact upon health and healthcare. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper describes strategies to alter healthcare to better support environmental sustainability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Collective implementation of the described strategies may allow a more cohesive and effective response across the Australian healthcare sector, to enhance local and global health for current and future generations.

  2. Cancer Incidence in Korean Vietnam Veterans During 1992-2003: The Korean Veterans Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Sang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Vietnam experience including exposure to military herbicides and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam War veterans. Methods The cancer cases of 185 265 Vietnam veterans from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 2003 were confirmed from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database. The age-adjusted incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using the male population during 1992 to 2003 as a standard po...

  3. Use of psychotherapy by rural and urban veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A; Jameson, John P; Phillips, Laura L; Kunik, Mark E; Fortney, John C

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether differences exist between rural and urban veterans in terms of initiation of psychotherapy, delay in time from diagnosis to treatment, and dose of psychotherapy sessions. Using a longitudinal cohort of veterans obtained from national Veterans Affairs databases (October 2003 through September 2004), we extracted veterans with a new diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n = 410,923). Veterans were classified as rural (categories 6-9; n = 65,044) or urban (category 1; n = 149,747), using the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban Continuum Codes. Psychotherapy encounters were identified using Current Procedural Terminology codes for the 12 months following patients' initial diagnosis. Newly diagnosed rural veterans were significantly less likely (P Urban veterans were roughly twice as likely as rural veterans to receive 4 or more (9.46% vs 5.08%) and 8 or more (5.59% vs 2.35%) psychotherapy sessions (P Rural veterans are significantly less likely to receive psychotherapy services, and the dose of the psychotherapy services provided for rural veterans is limited relative to their urban counterparts. Focused efforts are needed to increase access to psychotherapy services provided to rural veterans with depression, anxiety, and PTSD.

  4. Rural Veterans' dental utilization, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Shen, Chan; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Findley, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    Rural residents are overrepresented in the military; however, access to Veteran services is limited in rural areas. There is a need to identify rural Veteran healthcare utilization. This study addresses that need and has two purposes: a) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and Veteran utilization of dental services; and b) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and the oral health outcome of missing teeth. Data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey were used in this study. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Rural Veterans were less likely to have a dental visit during the previous year as compared with metropolitan Veterans in unadjusted analysis (Odds ratio = 0.71, 95% Confidence Interval, 0.64, 0.77) and in adjusted analysis [0.87 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.78, 0.96)]. In cases in which all teeth were missing, rural Veterans had an unadjusted odds ratio of 1.79 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.55, 2.08] and an adjusted odds ratio of 1.37 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.17, 1.62] as compared with metropolitan Veterans. The Veterans Health Administration develops policies for establishing centers for care for Veterans. The policy development should take into consideration that rural Veterans have not been as likely as urban Veterans to utilize dental services and have poorer oral health outcomes. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Spiritual distress of military veterans at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bei-Hung; Stein, Nathan R; Skarf, Lara M

    2015-06-01

    Although combat experiences can have a profound impact on individuals' spirituality, there is a dearth of research in this area. Our recent study indicates that one unique spiritual need of veterans who are at the end of life is to resolve distress caused by combat-related events that conflict with their personal beliefs. This study sought to gain an understanding of chaplains' perspectives on this type of spiritual need, as well as the spiritual care that chaplains provide to help veterans ease this distress. We individually interviewed five chaplains who have provided spiritual care to veterans at the end of life in a Veterans Administration hospital. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed based on "grounded theory." Chaplains reported that they frequently encounter veterans at the end of life who are still suffering from thoughts or images of events that occurred during their military career. Although some veterans are hesitant to discuss their experiences, chaplains reported that they have had some success with helping the veterans to open up. Additionally, chaplains reported using both religious (e.g., confessing sins) and nonreligious approaches (e.g., recording military experience) to help veterans to heal. Our pilot study provides some insight into the spiritual distress that many military veterans may be experiencing, as well as methods that a chaplain can employ to help these veterans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to examine the value of integrating the chaplain service into mental health care for veterans.

  6. Research Battles: Survival Tips From a Veteran

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of nonorthodox medical treatments may go awry because of inherent flaws in designs that are better suited for trials of pharmaceutical products. Unintended consequences may follow from efforts at randomization, the lack of lead-in periods, required visits for medical assessment, inadequate screening, and a lack of trial publicity. A veteran of a mismanaged trial shares her experiences.

  7. Veterans' fall risk profile: a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Patricia A; Palacios, Polly; Spehar, Andrea M

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) serves the health care needs of an adult, predominantly male, and aging population. The aging profile of VHA patients is 25% greater than the civilian sector (DVA 2001). Aged patients are at higher risk for falls. In February 2002, 6 VHA medical centers profiled their inpatients' fall risk profile as one aspect of program initiatives targeted at reducing veterans' fall risk and fall-related injuries, participating in a one-day collection of fall risk measurement using the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) for all inpatients (n = 1819), acute and long-term care units. Data results are reported for age, MFS score, and the relationship between age and score, and by type of ward/unit, ie, predominately acute and critical care or long-term care. The results of this prevalence study documented that the veteran inpatient population are at high-risk for anticipated physiological falls. This Veteran Integrated Services Network-wide Deployment of an Evidence-based Program to Prevent Patient Falls study was completed as part of a nationally funded clinical initiative, National Program Initiative 20-006-1.

  8. Predictors of Mortality in Older Homeless Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, John A; Curtiss, Glenn; Leventhal, Katherine; Bossarte, Robert M; Lapcevic, William; Casey, Roger

    2017-10-01

    In this analysis of a cohort of older homeless veterans, we examined psychosocial, health, housing, and employment characteristics to identify predictors of mortality. Our sample of 3,620 older veterans entered Veteran Affairs homeless programs in years 2000-2003. Fifteen variables from a structured interview described this sample and served as predictors. National Death Index data for years 2000-2011 were used to ascertain death. Survival table analyses were conducted to estimate and plot cumulative survival functions. To determine predictors and estimate hazard functions, Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted. Five variables (presence of a serious health issue, hospitalization for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependency, unemployment for 3 years, and age 60+) were associated with increased risk of death; three (non-White, drug dependency, and dental problems) were associated with reduced risk. A risk score, based on total unit-weighted risk for all eight predictors, was used to identify three groups that were found to differ significantly in mortality. These analyses underline the jeopardy faced by older homeless veterans in terms of early death. We were able to identify several variables associated with mortality; more importantly, we were able to show that a risk score based on status for these variables was significantly related to survival. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Why helping war veterans, at all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beara Vladan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available "The society for the protection of mental health of the war veterans and victims of the 1991 - 1999 wars" was founded in 1999, as a non-governmental non-partite and non-profit association of citizens whose basic aim is the preservation of mental health of refugees and displaced persons, war veterans (persons who have undergone the experience of war, usually against their will, members of their families and all persons who have been traumatized by the wars in the area of the former SFRY in the period between 1991 and 1999. The current projects involve: 1. The Trauma Center in Novi Sad, which provides psychological and legal assistance to war veterans and all citizens who were endangered by war operations; 2. Counseling services for trauma in Leskovac, Vranje and Bujanovac, whose primary aims are remobilization and treatment of the traumatized participants and casualties of the wars, as well as the decrease of social, political and interethnic tensions; 3. Education of war veterans for the leaders of self-help peer groups and 4. Educational experience seminars for REBT psychotherapeutic work with psychological trauma with the aim to educate experts for more efficient work with traumatized clients.

  10. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  11. 38 CFR 3.501 - Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...); Pub. L. 87-825; § 3.700(a)). Day preceding entrance on active duty. See § 3.654. (b) Aid and... treatment. (n) Section 3.853. Incompetents; estate over $25,000. Incompetent veteran receiving compensation, without spouse, child, or dependent parent, whose estate exceeds $25,000: Last day of the first month in...

  12. MINDFULNESS BEHANDLING AF DANSKE VETERANER - ET PILOTSTUDIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjorback, Lone

    2015-01-01

    I foråret 2014 mødtes en gruppe på 12 danske veteraner en gang om ugen i 9 uger for at deltage i programmet Mindfulness Baseret Stress Reduktion (MBSR). Deltagerne havde meldt sig frivilligt, og gruppen var blandet mht. alder, køn, antal udsendelser og diagnoser. Det, de havde til fælles, var...

  13. Adapted Sport Programs for Veterans with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    The Paralympic games began as a way for World War II veterans to take part in elite-level competition. Thanks to various disability-sport organizations, men and women who have served in the military are still using sport as a form of rehabilitation and a way to transition into their new life.

  14. 77 FR 67533 - Veterans Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ..., our veterans are part of an unbroken chain of men and women who have served our country with honor and... operations in Afghanistan. These milestones remind us that, though much has changed since Americans first... has defined each generation of our service members. Our men and women in uniform have taught us about...

  15. Understanding the Role of Chaplains in Veteran Suicide Prevention Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek S. Kopacz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, identifying ways to mitigate the risk of suicidal behavior in Veteran populations has become a major public health challenge of special significance. This has included identifying support options that can be used by Veterans in times of distress or crisis. For example, Veterans at increased risk of suicide will sometimes voice complaints indicative of a need for spiritual and pastoral care support. At U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, such support is provided to Veterans by clinical chaplains. This discussion paper aims to present the contextual framework in which chaplaincy services are provided to Veterans at increased risk of suicide, better conceptualize the spiritual and pastoral care needs of at-risk Veterans who request chaplaincy services, and offer practical suggestions for framing the provision of spiritual and pastoral care services.

  16. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vicente Stanton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the United States and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.

  17. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael V; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Bayley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.

  18. Characteristics and Likelihood of Ongoing Homelessness Among Unsheltered Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Byrne, Thomas H; Treglia, Daniel; Culhane, Dennis P

    2016-01-01

    Unsheltered homelessness is an important phenomenon yet difficult to study due to lack of data. The Veterans Health Administration administers a universal homelessness screener, which identifies housing status for Veterans screening positive for homelessness. This study compared unsheltered and sheltered Veterans, assessed differences in rates of ongoing homelessness, and estimated a mixed-effect logistic regression model to examine the relationship between housing status and ongoing homelessness. Eleven percent of Veterans who screened positive for homelessness were unsheltered; 40% of those who rescreened were homeless six months later, compared with less than 20% of sheltered Veterans. Unsheltered Veterans were 2.7 times as likely to experience ongoing homelessness. Unsheltered Veterans differ from their sheltered counterparts-they are older, more likely to be male, less likely to have income-and may be good candidates for an intensive housing intervention. Future research will assess clinical characteristics and services utilization among this population.

  19. Race and vitamin D status and monitoring in male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Alan N; Bailey, Beth A; Peiris, Prith; Copeland, Rebecca J; Manning, Todd

    2011-06-01

    African Americans have lower vitamin D levels and reduced health outcomes compared to white Americans. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to adverse health outcomes in African Americans. We hypothesized that race would be associated with vitamin D status and testing in African Americans veterans, and that vitamin D status is a major contributor to health care costs in African American veterans compared to white veterans. A retrospective analysis of the medical data in the Veterans Integrated Service Network 9 (southeastern United States) was performed, and 14148 male veterans were identified. Race was designated by the patient and its relationship to vitamin D levels/status and costs was assessed. Vitamin D levels were significantly lower and the percent of patients with vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in African American veterans. This difference was independent of latitude and seasonality. Vitamin D testing was done significantly more in white veterans compared to African American veterans (5.4% vs 3.8%). While follow-up testing was 42% more likely if a patient was found to be vitamin D deficient, white veterans were 34% more likely than African American veterans to have at least 1 follow-up 25-hydroxyvitamin D performed. African American veterans had significantly higher health care costs, which were linked to lower vitamin D levels; however, the cost differential persisted even after adjusting for vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in African American veterans and needs improved management within the Veteran Administration system. Vitamin D status appears not to be the sole contributor to increased health care costs in African American veterans.

  20. Expanding Worldview: Australian Nursing Students' Experience of Cultural Immersion in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Loretta; Maltby, Hendrika; Abrams, Sarah; Shea, Jeanne; Brand, Gabrielle; Nicol, Pamela

    2014-06-27

    Abstract Increasing cultural diversity and a sense of global community has necessitated the introduction of cultural competence in the education of health care providers. Some institutions have utilized cultural immersion programs to address this need of cultural competence. Studies have not yet described what this experience is for Australian nursing students. The purpose of this study is to describe the immersion experience of a group of senior Australian nursing students who participated in a five week cultural immersion program in India.