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Sample records for australian rules footballers

  1. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  2. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  3. The game story space of professional sports: Australian Rules Football

    CERN Document Server

    Kiley, D P; Mitchell, L; Danforth, C M; Dodds, P S

    2015-01-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of `game stories', we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here, we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1,310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories and show how coarse-graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with a random walk null model, we show that AFL games are superdiffusive and deliver a much broader array of motifs, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  4. Sudden cardiac death while playing Australian Rules football: a retrospective 14 year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sarah; Lynch, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Australian Rules football is a sport which evolved from Gaelic football and which is played by a large number of predominantly male participants in a number of countries. The highest participation rates are in the southern states of Australia. A retrospective review over a period of 14 years identified 14 cases of sudden cardiac death that occurred in individuals while playing the sport. All were male and ranged in age from 13 to 36 years with a mean and median age of 23 years. A spectrum of cardiac causes was identified including coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocarditis, anomalous coronary artery anatomy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and healed Kawasaki disease. In 5 cases the heart was morphologically normal raising the possibility of a channelopathy. No traumatic deaths were identified. Some of the individuals had experienced symptoms prior to the fatal episode and the role of pre participation screening in reducing mortality is discussed.

  5. Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne T

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALLERS DURING MATCH-PLAY

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    James P. Veale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian Football (AF is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR, Blood Lactate (BLa, Core Temperature (Tcore, and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007. Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001 with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001. This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches.

  7. PLAYER MOVEMENT PATTERNS IN AN ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL TEAM: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

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    James P. Veale

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the physical movement patterns associated with an elite Under 18 Australian Football (AF team. Five field positions were selected with observations recording the number and relative per cent of "working" efforts (jogging, running, and sprinting, "resting" efforts (walking and the total distances associated with "working" or "resting" efforts. Intra-observer reliability, using test- retest method, showed correlations were r = 0.98 or greater. The Wing position covered 11,877 m, the greatest total distance during an entire game, whilst the HBF and Centre positions both recorded 11,545 m and 11,537 m respectively and the Ruck position covered 9,203 m. The HBF recorded the greatest frequency of 'working' and 'resting' efforts (180 and 182 respectively, whilst the Wing (166 and 158, Centre (162 and 149 and Ruck (161 and 166 showed similarities in their results. The Wing position recorded the longest average distance per 'working' effort (58 m whilst the Centre position recorded the longest average distance per 'resting' effort (17 m. Results also show the completion of less total efforts and smaller total distances, in Under 18 players, recorded compared to professional senior AF data. The results from this study suggest that further in-depth research is required into movement patterns and game activity demands in this AF playing group

  8. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard Henry; Hoskins Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and r...

  9. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer, Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls

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    McHardy Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. Methods A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form (MPQ-SF, along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17–39, 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16–46 and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18–39. Results Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42 and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40. A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p Conclusion Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition.

  10. Prevalence of headache in Australian footballers

    OpenAIRE

    McCrory, P; Heywood, J.; Coffey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Methods: A prospective questionnaire based survey was performed on elite Australian footballers participating in a national competition. The survey was designed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for headache using standardised International Headache Society (HIS) criteria. Headache prevalence was compared with that of an age and sex matched community control population.

  11. Bringing the Game into Disrepute": The Ben Cousins Saga, Sports Entertainment, Player Welfare and Surveillance in the Australian Football League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Hickey, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the elite Australian Rules footballer Ben Cousins was suspended by the Australian Football League for 12 months for "bringing the game into disrepute". Cousins was the first, and at the time of writing, the only player to be suspended by the AFL for actions and behaviors that were claimed to be damaging to the reputation of the game and…

  12. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

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    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-03

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League.

  13. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  14. Safer Heads Prevail with New High School Football Rule

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    ... html Safer Heads Prevail With New High School Football Rule When full-contact practices were limited, blows ... Concussions are a major risk for high school football players, but new research found that limiting tackling ...

  15. Movement Profiles, Match Events, and Performance in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Johnston, RJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, D, Pine, MJ, and Spurrs, RW. Movement profiles, match events, and performance in Australian football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2129-2137, 2016-This study examined the relationship between movement demands, match events, and match performance in professional Australian football. Data were collected from 19 players using global positioning system units during 2 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and instantaneous power measures were collected. The players were divided into high-caliber (HC, ≥17/20) and low-caliber (LC, ≤8/20) groups based on the rating score by their coaches. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups. The HC group had a significantly higher match duration (7.2%), higher total distance (9.6%), and covered more distance and spent more time high-speed running per minute (12.7 and 11.9%). Although not significant, the effect sizes revealed that the HC group tended to have a higher mean metabolic power output (2.6%) and spent more time at the high power zone (7.9%). For the match event data, the HC group had significantly more involvements with the football. The results demonstrated the higher physical demands placed on the HC group. The findings suggest that analyzing instantaneous power measures can provide valuable information about the physical demands placed on team sport athletes to coaches and conditioning staff.

  16. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

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    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  17. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brendan; Cook, Jill; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF) have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y) recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS) and internal (HR, Session-RPE) load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4)), total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4)), distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1)), high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2)), number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6)), mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1)), minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6)) and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1)) were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met. Key points Physical loads, including intensity, are typically lower in training compared to competition in junior elite Australian football. Monitoring of player loads in team sports should include both

  18. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

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    Monica Kelly, Paul B. Gastin, Daniel B Dwyer, Simon Sostaric, Rodney J. Snow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min, high intensity, interval training (HIIT in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1 and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc (n = 7 or Control (Con group (n = 7. The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH, whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH. Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% VO2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-], heart rate (HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05 during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007 after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited.

  19. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

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    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  20. Assessment of decision-making performance and in-game physical exertion of Australian football umpires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Paul; O'Brien, Brendan; Mesagno, Christopher; Berry, Jason; Harvey, Jack; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in-game physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires. Fifteen Australian football umpires (Mage = 36, s = 13.5 years; Mgames umpired = 235.2, s = 151.3) volunteered to participate in the study. During five competitive Australian football pre-season games, measures of in-game physical exertion (blood lactate levels, global positioning system [GPS]) and decision-making performance (video-based test) were obtained. There were no significant correlations between physical exertion in a particular quarter and decision-making performance in either the same quarter or any other quarter. Video-based decision-making performance was effected by time in game χ(2)(3) = 24.24, P = 0.001, with Quarter 4 performance significantly better than both Quarter 2 and Quarter 3. In-game physical exertion (blood lactate) significantly decreased over the course of the game χ(2)(3) = 11.58, P = 0.009. Results indicate no definable link between in-game physical exertion and decision-making performance. It is, however, presumed that decision-making performance may be affected by the time or context of the game. Future research is warranted to explore the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance to potentially inform Australian football umpire training programmes that replicate in-game physical and decision-making demands.

  1. In Pursuit of Becoming a Senior Coach: The Learning Culture for Australian Football League Coaches

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    Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…

  2. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results.

  3. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

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    Brendan Henderson, Jill Cook, Dawson J. Kidgell, Paul B. Gastin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS, heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS and internal (HR, Session-RPE load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4, total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4, distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1, high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2, number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6, mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1, minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6 and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1 were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met.

  4. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise. PMID:26957934

  5. Reliability and validity of a novel intermittent peak running speed test for Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mitchell G; Hunter, Jayden R; O'Brien, Brendan J; Berry, Jason T; Young, Warren B

    2011-04-01

    Australian football requires frequent intermittent sprinting close to peak running speed. However, tests assessing the capability to maintain intermittent peak running speed are not reported in scientific literature. Therefore, our objective is to report the reliability and validity of a novel intermittent peak running speed test. The intermittent peak running speed test required footballers to perform 10 repetitions on 25-second intervals. Each repetition required 15-m jogging, 20-m acceleration to peak speed, 10 m to sustain peak speed, 20-m deceleration, and finally a 15-m jog. Intermittent peak running speed was determined by portable global positioning system. To assess reliability, 26 footballers performed the intermittent peak running speed test on 2 occasions 3-5 days apart. Our results revealed that average peak speed had a coefficient of variation of 2.2% and an intraclass correlation of 0.91. To assess construct validity, average peak speed was compared between elite, sub-elite, and regional footballers. The average peak speed of the elite footballers (28.6 ± 1.7 km · h(-1)) was higher than that of the sub-elite (27.4 ± 1.7 km · h(-1)) and regional (27 ± 1.9 km · h(-1)) competitors (p intermittent peak running speed test possesses acceptable reliability and distinguishes between elite and sub-elite footballers.

  6. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate G; Opar, David A; Livingstone, Steuart G; Cordy, Justin T; Bird, Stephen R; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in elite junior, sub-elite senior, and elite senior Australian Football (AF) players. Nineteen experienced elite senior (≥4 years Australian Football League [AFL] experience), 27 inexperienced elite senior (Football players' FFSTM are different between playing levels, which are likely because of training and partly explain the observed differences in performance between playing levels highlighting the importance of optimizing FFSTM in young players.

  7. Mental toughness profiles and their relations with achievement goals and sport motivation in adolescent Australian footballers.

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    Gucciardi, Daniel F

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the mental toughness profiles of adolescent Australian footballers and to explore the relations between the mental toughness clusters and achievement goals and sport motivation. A total of 214 non-elite, male Australian footballers aged 16-18 years (mean = 16.8, s = 0.7) provided self-reports of mental toughness, achievement goals, and sport motivation. Cluster analysis supported the presence of two-groups in which players evidenced moderate and high levels of all four mental toughness subscales. Significant multivariate effects were observed for achievement goals and sport motivation with the high mental toughness group favouring both mastery- and performance-approach goals and self-determined as well as extrinsic motivational tendencies. The results suggest that adolescent Australian footballers' self-perceptions of mental toughness fall within two clusters involving high and moderate forms of all four components, and that these profiles show varying relations with achievement goals (particularly mastery-approach) and sport motivation.

  8. The effects of physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Kasey; Larkin, Paul; O'Connor, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Decision-making is a key component of an umpire's in-game performance, with each decision potentially having a direct impact on the result of the game. Additionally, umpires have to be physically fit to ensure they keep up with the gameplay. While research has identified the decision-making demands and running demands of umpires separately, few have explored the relationship between them. The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance of Australian football umpires at the sub-elite and junior levels. A total of 18 Australian football umpires (sub-elite, n = 10; junior n = 8) performed 10 × 300 m runs, with each repetition immediately followed by a video-based decision-making test, then 1 min of recovery. A Mann-Whitney U assessment indicated a significant difference between the sub-elite and junior level umpires for decision-making accuracy (U = 13.00, z = -2.43, P = 0.016, r = -0.5). However, there was no significant difference in response time (U = 28.00, z = -1.07, P = 0.315, r = -0.25). The sub-elite umpires completed the running efforts in significantly less time than the junior umpires (P decision-making performance and running times for either skill level (P > 0.05). This suggests decision-making performance may not be affected by physical exertion. Therefore, it may be suggested coaches of football umpires allocate more time to the decision-making development of their umpires instead of focusing largely on the physical fitness side, as is currently the trend.

  9. New Fantasy Football League Tests NCAA's Rules on Amateur Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The long-simmering debate over the commercialization of college sports reached a boiling point recently when CBS, the NCAA's key corporate partner, announced that it was creating a fantasy football league that uses college athletes' names. Not everyone however, is quite so enthusiastic. Some observers see it as part of a continuing assault on the…

  10. Perceptions of wellness to monitor adaptive responses to training and competition in elite Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean

    2013-09-01

    Perceptions of wellness are often used by athletes and coaches to assess adaptive responses to training. The purpose of this research was to describe how players were coping with the demands of elite level Australian football over a competitive season using subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness and to assess the ecological validity of such a monitoring approach. Twenty-seven players completed ratings for 9 items (fatigue, general muscle, hamstring, quadriceps, pain/stiffness, power, sleep quality, stress, well-being). Players subjectively rated each item as they arrived at the training or competition venue on a 1-5 visual analog scale, with 1 representing the positive end of the continuum. A total of 2,583 questionnaires were analyzed from completions on 183 days throughout the season (92 ± 24 per player, 103 ± 20 per week; mean ± SD). Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to understand how player ratings of wellness varied over the season and during the week leading into game day and whether selected player characteristics moderated these relationships. Results indicated that subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness were sensitive to weekly training manipulations (i.e., improve steadily throughout the week to a game day low, p wellness provide a useful tool for coaches and practitioners to monitor player responses to the rigorous demands of training, competition, and life as a professional athlete.

  11. Tackle and impact detection in elite Australian football using wearable microsensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; McLean, Owen C; Breed, Ray V P; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a wearable microsensor device (MinimaxX(TM) S4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, VIC, Australia) to automatically detect tackles and impact events in elite Australian football (AF) was assessed during four matches. Video observation was used as the criterion measure. A total of 352 tackles were observed, with 78% correctly detected as tackles by the manufacturer's software. Tackles against (i.e. tackled by an opponent) were more accurately detected than tackles made (90% v 66%). Of the 77 tackles that were not detected at all, the majority (74%) were categorised as low-intensity. In contrast, a total of 1510 "tackle" events were detected, with only 18% of these verified as tackles. A further 57% were from contested ball situations involving player contact. The remaining 25% were in general play where no contact was evident; these were significantly lower in peak Player Load™ than those involving player contact (P < 0.01). The tackle detection algorithm, developed primarily for rugby, was not suitable for tackle detection in AF. The underlying sensor data may have the potential to detect a range of events within contact sports such as AF, yet to do so is a complex task and requires sophisticated sport and event-specific algorithms.

  12. Hamstring strains in football. Prevention and rehabilitation rules. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATHANASIOU HADJIMICHAEL MICHALIS1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The strain on the hamstrings muscles is one of the most common sport related injury and football seems to hold the biggest percentage of all sports. The aim of this study was to push forward the best prevention and rehabilitation methods to be followed regarding football. Once the key words were identified, there was a randomized search of controlled trials on EBSCO Host, Proquest, Medline, SportDiscus, Cinahl Plus, health source, FreeMedicalJournals.com, PubMed, PubMed Central, SPORTDiscus database and on Google Scholar. In addition, the software H Publish or Perish helped in the process of searching. The particular studies were tested based on the criteria of admission and exclusion that were set and selected as the most appropriate ones for the review. The methodological process of the studies was assessed by Furlan et al (22 criteria and the classification for the level of the evidence of this systematic review was done using the 6 level table of Van Tulden et al (55. Twenty nine randomized controlled trials were selected, with a total of 10686 participants that were placed in the review. Twenty four out of these were related to preventing hamstring strain (6 eccentric exercises, 11 neuromuscular training programs, 7 stretching and 5 of these rehabilitation (1 eccentric exercise, 2 neuromuscular warm up training programs, 2 stretching. According to Furlan et al (22 all the studies were marked over 50%. Moreover, based on the classification for the level of evidence of Van Tulden et al (55 the eccentric exercises and the different types of neuromuscular warm up programs ( except FIFA 11 are classified in level 1 with positive findings within multiple randomized controlled trials, regarding prevention as well as rehabilitation. As far as prevention is concerned, stretching are classified in level 5, whereas, as far as rehabilitation is concerned they are classified in level 2, since there is an indication of the Slump test effectiveness

  13. The effect of neoprene shorts on leg proprioception in Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Matthew L; Adams, Roger D; Maher, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Our purpose was to assess the effect of wearing close-fitting neoprene shorts on swinging leg movement discrimination (MD) scores in elite level Australian Football players. Twenty players had their swinging leg MD assessed using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus (AMEDA), once wearing close-fitting neoprene and once wearing loose-fitting running shorts. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of the shorts conditions prior to repeating the test in the other condition. The AMEDA was used to assess the accuracy at which subjects judge the extent of a standing backward swinging leg movement corresponding to the late swing early stance phase of running. Each subject performed 40 movements made to one of five randomly set physical limits, and without the aid of vision made a judgment as to the perceived limit position. From the accuracy of these judgments, a movement discrimination (MD) score was calculated for each subject under each condition. Subjects were grouped as having low or high neuromuscular control, or ability to use proprioception when controlling active movements without vision, based on their loose-shorts MD score. Analysis was performed on the MD scores obtained for each limb from subjects in the two groups, under the two shorts-wearing conditions. There was no main effect of wearing close-fitting shorts when the cohort was treated as a whole. A significant interaction effect was obtained (F=17.027, p=0.0006) whereby the mean MD score of the low neuromuscular control ability group was improved when wearing neoprene shorts but was reduced for the high ability group. Wearing close-fitting neoprene shorts has a beneficial effect on leg swing judgment accuracy in subjects with low neuromuscular control ability. Conversely, leg swing judgment accuracy for subjects with high ability was reduced by wearing neoprene shorts.

  14. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T. Woods, Harry G. Banyard, Ian McKeown, Job Fransen, Sam Robertson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF. This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18 AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives. Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA, consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs, single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs, and a push up (six movement criterions. Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02. Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE = -0.89(0.44; p < 0.05, with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent

  15. The effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration performance and kinematics in soccer, rugby union, and Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Christopher D; Murphy, Aron J; Spinks, Warwick L; Lockie, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Acceleration is a significant feature of game-deciding situations in the various codes of football. However little is known about the acceleration characteristics of football players, the effects of acceleration training, or the effectiveness of different training modalities. This study examined the effects of resisted sprint (RS) training (weighted sled towing) on acceleration performance (0-15 m), leg power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 5-bound test [5BT], and 50-cm drop jump [50DJ]), gait (foot contact time, stride length, stride frequency, step length, and flight time), and joint (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee) kinematics in men (N = 30) currently playing soccer, rugby union, or Australian football. Gait and kinematic measurements were derived from the first and second strides of an acceleration effort. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (a) 8-week sprint training of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) plus RS training (RS group, n = 10), (b) 8-week nonresisted sprint training program of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) (NRS group, n = 10), or (c) control (n = 10). The results indicated that an 8-week RS training program (a) significantly improves acceleration and leg power (CMJ and 5BT) performance but is no more effective than an 8-week NRS training program, (b) significantly improves reactive strength (50DJ), and (c) has minimal impact on gait and upper- and lower-body kinematics during acceleration performance compared to an 8-week NRS training program. These findings suggest that RS training will not adversely affect acceleration kinematics and gait. Although apparently no more effective than NRS training, this training modality provides an overload stimulus to acceleration mechanics and recruitment of the hip and knee extensors, resulting in greater application of horizontal power.

  16. The Effects of the Clock and Kickoff Rule Changes on Actual and Market-Based Expected Scoring in NCAA Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Linna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clock rule changes were introduced in the 2006 season with the goal of reducing the average duration of the game; these changes were reversed in 2007. In addition, in 2007 the kickoff rule was changed to create more excitement and potentially more scoring. We examine what happened to actual and expected scoring during these National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA football seasons. The clock rule change in 2006 led to lower scoring which was not fully encompassed in the betting market, leading to significant returns to betting the under. Multiple rule changes in 2007 led to volatility in the betting market that subsided by season’s end.

  17. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    analysis the World Cup nations Brazil, Netherlands, Italy and England are analysed to illustrate different dialects within football. Danesi, M. (2003). Second Language Teaching: A View From the Right Side of the Brain. Berlin: Springer Schein, E. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...

  18. Justice White's Dissent from Court's Ruling on NCAA Control of Football Telecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Byron R.

    1984-01-01

    The text of Justice Byron R. White's dissent from the Supreme Court's decision striking down the National Collegiate Athletic Association's control of televised college football is presented. It is suggested that the Court errs in treating intercollegiate athletics under the NCAA's control as a purely commercial venture. (Author/MLW)

  19. Dietary Intake, Body Composition and Nutrition Knowledge of Australian Football and Soccer Players: Implications for Sports Nutrition Professionals in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina

    2016-10-06

    Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hour recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and sub-elite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, sub-elite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and sub-elite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > 0.05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r(2) = 0.051, p = 0.039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.

  20. The Anthropology of Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological interest in football has been on the rise since the beginning of the century, which can be attested to by the rising number of studies, papers, collective publications and scientific conferences on the topic. Seeing as anthropology is no longer the study of the culturally bizarre and exotic, it is clear that the first anthropological studies of football as a cultural phenomenon are linked to those environments in which football figures as an important cultural trait, which is the reason why this sub discipline thrived in Europe or in places where football was treated as an esoteric phenomenon and where there as a longer tradition of anthropological study of native cultures. From the first analogies between the game of football and its rules with rituals of so called primitive cultures, the anthropological study of football developed into a relatively encompassing approach which includes interest in all the actors who establish the game as a public, cultural good – players, experts, supporters, journalists, organizers etc. – as well as its various cultural manifestations, in the form of a tool for the construction of identity and cultural symbol, a leisure activity with ties to economy, to a specific apotheosis of the concepts of globalization and commodification of culture. Anthropological studies of football are present in Serbia as well, and their subject matter corresponds to the role and position held by football, as a cultural artefact, in Serbian society and other countries in the region.

  1. MONITORING OF LOWER LIMB COMFORT AND INJURY IN ELITE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day. A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union. The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77 and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18. The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury

  2. Rugby football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  3. Whip Rule Breaches in a Major Australian Racing Jurisdiction: Welfare and Regulatory Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Jennifer; McDonald, Carolyn; Wilson, Bethany; McManus, Phil; McGreevy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary An evidence-based analysis of whip rule breaches in horse racing is needed to address community expectations that racehorses are treated humanely. The study provides the first peer-reviewed characterisation of whip rule breaches and their regulatory outcomes in horseracing, and considers the relationship between rules affecting racing integrity and the welfare of racehorses in a major Australian racing jurisdiction. Abstract Whip use in horseracing is increasingly being questioned on ethical, animal welfare, social sustainability, and legal grounds. Despite this, there is weak evidence for whip use and its regulation by Stewards in Australia. To help address this, we characterised whip rule breaches recorded by Stewards using Stewards Reports and Race Diaries from 2013 and 2016 in New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). There were more recorded breaches at Metropolitan (M) than Country (C) or Provincial (P) locations, and by riders of horses that finished first, second, or third than by riders of horses that finished in other positions. The most commonly recorded breaches were forehand whip use on more than five occasions before the 100-metre (m) mark (44%), and whip use that raises the jockey’s arm above shoulder height (24%). It is recommended that racing compliance data be analysed annually to inform the evidence-base for policy, education, and regulatory change, and ensure the welfare of racehorses and racing integrity.

  4. Football Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢连香

    2000-01-01

    Do you know there are two kinds of football games? One is American football, the other is soccer. In China, many young people like playing soccer. It is very popular in China. But Chinese don't call it soccer, They call it football. There are eleven players in a team. And the ball is round.

  5. Whip Rule Breaches in a Major Australian Racing Jurisdiction: Welfare and Regulatory Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Jennifer; McDonald, Carolyn; Wilson, Bethany; McManus, Phil; McGreevy, Paul

    2017-01-16

    Whip use in horseracing is increasingly being questioned on ethical, animal welfare, social sustainability, and legal grounds. Despite this, there is weak evidence for whip use and its regulation by Stewards in Australia. To help address this, we characterised whip rule breaches recorded by Stewards using Stewards Reports and Race Diaries from 2013 and 2016 in New SouthWales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). There were more recorded breaches at Metropolitan (M) than Country (C) or Provincial (P) locations, and by riders of horses that finished first, second, or third than by riders of horses that finished in other positions. The most commonly recorded breaches were forehand whip use on more than five occasions before the 100-metre (m) mark (44%), and whip use that raises the jockey's arm above shoulder height (24%). It is recommended that racing compliance data be analysed annually to inform the evidence-base for policy, education, and regulatory change, and ensure the welfare of racehorses and racing integrity.

  6. Playing With "patriotic fire": women and football in the Antipodes during the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The revelation that women first played Australian Rules football during the period of the Great War is an important element in overall understandings of how both masculine and feminine ideals were challenged and redefined by sporting practices in a time of general social flux. This paper reveals that the genesis of the women's code was in Western Australia, where contests occurred as early as 1915. Three years later, with the war nearing its conclusion, the template of women's involvement in charity matches with strong military and patriotic overtones was adopted in the state of Victoria, the code's heartland. Investigations such as this one, indicative of the complex relationships between sport and gender during the First World War, offer scope for deeper comprehension of a much-studied military conflict, and point the way forward for those that bemoan the static agenda of research into women's football.

  7. The influence of rules manipulation on offensive patterns during small-sided and conditioned games in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the influence of rules manipulation on offensive patterns in different Small-Sided and Conditioned Games (SSCGs. Fourteen young soccer players (13.82 ± 1.94 years performed two different SSCG formats (6v6+Gk: Maintenance of Ball Possession Game (MPG and Progression to the Target Game (PTG. Both games were played on a field 52 m long by 32 m wide. We used the Offensive Sequences Characterization System (OSCS and SoccerEye software to analyze offensive sequences. For statistical analysis, we used the Mann-Whitney test to compare variables that compose the OSCS between the two SSCGs, while the SDIS-GSEQ software allowed us to detect offensive patterns. We concluded that the rule manipulation of SSCGs influenced changes in teams' offensive patterns, in which they self-organized according to manipulation of key task constraints.

  8. A Comparison of Athletic Movement Among Talent-Identified Juniors From Different Football Codes in Australia: Implications for Talent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Keller, Brad S; McKeown, Ian; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Woods, CT, Keller, BS, McKeown, I, and Robertson, S. A comparison of athletic movement among talent-identified juniors from different football codes in Australia: implications for talent development. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2440-2445, 2016-This study aimed to compare the athletic movement skill of talent-identified (TID) junior Australian Rules football (ARF) and soccer players. The athletic movement skill of 17 TID junior ARF players (17.5-18.3 years) was compared against 17 TID junior soccer players (17.9-18.7 years). Players in both groups were members of an elite junior talent development program within their respective football codes. All players performed an athletic movement assessment that included an overhead squat, double lunge, single-leg Romanian deadlift (both movements performed on right and left legs), a push-up, and a chin-up. Each movement was scored across 3 essential assessment criteria using a 3-point scale. The total score for each movement (maximum of 9) and the overall total score (maximum of 63) were used as the criterion variables for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of football code (2 levels) on the criterion variables, whereas a 1-way analysis of variance identified where differences occurred. A significant effect was noted, with the TID junior ARF players outscoring their soccer counterparts when performing the overhead squat and push-up. No other criterions significantly differed according to the main effect. Practitioners should be aware that specific sporting requirements may incur slight differences in athletic movement skill among TID juniors from different football codes. However, given the low athletic movement skill noted in both football codes, developmental coaches should address the underlying movement skill capabilities of juniors when prescribing physical training in both codes.

  9. FINDING, PREPARING AND TRAINING FOOTBALL REFEREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gh.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Football has surpassed the status of being a social phenomenon at a national and international scale for a long time, as it is the new “religion of the 21st century” which brings together game practitioners under its scope regardless of religion, skin colour, geographical area, culture, philosophy, gender, age which has been proven by the number of members in more than 200 FIFA member national federations. As stated in the FIFA status, “each FIFA member shall organize football games by the Laws of the Game promulgated by the International Board which has complete and exclusive jurisdiction to modify them. Football game rules bring together a set of laws under which a game, game relations and player relations must take place, actually being the single criterion to assess players” behaviour as permissible or impermissible. Football game management is provided by referees. A referee guarantees that a competition shall take place according to the Laws of the Game. However, arbitration work in football is not a profession in every sense of the word, but a social function that a person with a specific training performs regularly at various football competitions for children, youth and pros. As in any purposeful and social value activity, football arbitration too requires the set-up of a scientifically based system of recruitment, selection, training, promotion. This system requires a certain way of combining and providing theoretical training, physical training, and psychological/mental training of referees. A referee plays an important role in modern football. Therefore, a referee must be trained, selected and protected from various influences (clubs, league, political field.

  10. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2017-01-01

    This essay aims to describe how actions in the football field relate to the different national teams’ and countries’ cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Inspired by Edgar Schein’s framework of culture, the Brazilian...... in 2010 and 2014. The cultural analysis showed some coherence between the national football cultures and the national teams, which suggested a national dialect with the language of the game. Each national dialect seemed to be based on different basic assumptions and to some extent specific symbolic...

  11. Football, My Favorite Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖江; 宗风昌

    2002-01-01

    Football is a game between two teams of eleven, and the game is played with a large ball. And the players try hard to kick the ball into the opposing team's goal. Modem football started in England,and soon became popular in Europe. Now it is played by people all over the world.

  12. Tackling in Youth Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk.

  13. VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Uniting Edson Arantes do Nascimento's (Pele's "the beautiful game" with David Beckham's "bending the ball" (talented players apply the laws of physics to the ball is the major motivation of the 6th.World Congress on Science and Football. From Chinese tsu chu to today's modern football games, science was and will be an important part of this excellent sport (http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0606/feature1/index.html.The congress encourages all scientific aspects of football including soccer (1848 including Australian rules (1866, Rugby (1845, American football (1876, Gaelic football (1884 and Canadian football (1882. Issues such as Biomechanics, Nutrition, Psychology, Academies, Talent identification, Medical aspects, Injuries, Special Population, Coaching, Physiology, Testing, Referee, Fair play, Hooliganism, Management, Economics and Skill learning will be discussed during this congress.Research is as significant as the coach, team and player in competition. Any player can aspire to become a superstar. Encouraging all participants and steak holders will take them to new places where no one has ever dreamt of. Are we close to these dreams? The answer to this question depends on what and how much we sacrifice for science and education. From science and education information should flow into the field. The decisive elements of the game are the referees, trainers, players and supporters. Their approach creates the "climate". They can end or start a war. Football is the sport that leads. It's no miracle but it promotes passion and love. If you are committed, you may even change the world. Football encompasses millions of players, coaches, scientists, administrators, physical education teachers, politicians and inevitably parents of young players. This "simple" game that requires a ball and a goal is not only the game of heroes but also of those who bear a childish enthusiasm that makes dreams come true. Skills include heading, tapping, passing

  14. Women’s football migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature....... The question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...

  15. Being a football kid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2016-01-01

    Media and mediatization must be seen as a prerequisite for children’s play today. Children’s fan cultures cover a wide range of topics; yet, football is a field with specific explanatory power due to its structural and cultural specificities. In this chapter, football is seen as a specific play...... practice, carried out both physically and through engagements with a diverse range of traditional and new media. The chapter draws on empirical fieldwork among Danish children aged 8 to 13, describing football kids as active users of media, active play practitioners, and active performers of identity...... projects in relation to friends and family. For these children, football as a mediatized play practice is their point of departure, forming the grounds of their everyday practices....

  16. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  17. Football Is a Big Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    At the just-concluded second ChinaInternational Football Exposition in Shanghai,many foreign clubs such as Lecce and Dortmundshowed great interest in China’s large potentialmarket. For them, football is business.

  18. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Wikman, Johan Michael; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second......-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport...... and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established...

  19. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  20. On the necessity of and ideas for the revision of football competition rules--Also a discussion with the author of The evolution of modern football competition rules as well as the necessity of and ideas for their revision as soon as possible%也论足球竞赛规则修改的必要性和思路--兼与《现代足球竞赛规则演变及尽快修改的必要性和思路》作者商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程一军; 杨新生

    2013-01-01

    The authors discussed with the author about issues raised in The evolution of modern football competi-tion rules as well as the necessity of and ideas for their revision as soon as possible, questioned the author’s ideas to use“existing referee rules violated the principle of fair competition”and“referee rules were controversial in pen-alty”as the fundamental grounds for arguing the necessity of rule revision as well as to introduce“eagle eye”,“net time” and “twin referee” etc. By analyzing the substantive characteristics of the rules and their evolution mecha-nism, the authors put forward the following opinions:“science”should not replace“human”in rule revision;foot-ball “genes” should not be ignored; rule conceptions should be followed; football “personalities” should be high-lighted, and made suggestions for the future trend of rule revision.%  对《现代足球竞赛规则演变及尽快修改的必要性和思路》中提出的问题与作者商榷,对该文将“现行裁判规则违背公平竞赛的原则”与“裁判规则在判罚中存在的争议焦点”作为规则修改必要性的立论基点,以及引入“鹰眼”、“净时间”、“双裁判”等的思路提出质疑。通过对规则本质特征和演变机制的梳理,认为规则修改不能以科技取代人,不能忽视足球“基因”,应遵循规则理念,彰显足球“个性”,并对规则修改的未来趋势提出建议。

  1. The Regional Appropriateness of Monetary Policy: An Application of Taylor’s Rule to Australian States and Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Hernandez; Allan Layton

    2002-01-01

    In recent years Taylor’s rule has become a widely used tool for assessing the stance of monetary policy. Not only has it been used to evaluate the U.S. Federal Reserve’s monetary policy, but also, for example, to evaluate the appropriateness of the European Central Bank’s monetary policy for each individual member nation of the European Monetary Union. This paper builds on this work and uses Taylor’s rule to evaluate the degree of appropriateness of Australia’s national monetary policy to eac...

  2. Statistics of football dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

  3. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip;

    2016-01-01

    observations between March 6th and May 9th 2016. The report provides a detailed, comprehensive, in depth and powerful review of the nature of the safety and security problems being confronted by Swedish top flight football and in so doing provides some critical analysis of existing practices, as well...... of evidence gathering in order to analyse, identify and develop good practice in the management of crowds attending Swedish Professional Football matches. This is the first full report from the second phase of the ENABLE project with a specific focus on policing and stewarding on the basis of five field...

  4. A Game Informatical Comparison of Chess and Association Football (Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizan Mat Diah

    Full Text Available Games which persist across cultures and eras are not static institutions; they evolve when they do not go extinct. Changes of rules, styles and strategies contribute to the evolution of games. Western chess and football continue to grow in popularity afte ...

  5. What a Football Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保安; 孙鹏

    2004-01-01

    While the football fan was thrilled to be at the Super Bowl, he was disappointed with the location of his seat. Peering across the stadium through his binoculars, he spied an empty seat on the 50-yard line and made his way there.

  6. A Football Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭硕

    2002-01-01

    It was a Saturday morning, our school football team was going to have a match with the No. 28 Middle Schooh They were really a strong team. But we weren't afraid of them. We had many mare good players on our team, so we were stronger than ever before.

  7. Changing the Culture: Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  8. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  9. English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Williams

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.

  10. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Hamish R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ≥ 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N to 202 N (p Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications.

  11. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    is based in new institutional theory, whereas this paper uses the theory of “path dependency” (Mahoney, 2000) and explores the theory of “first- and second-order change” (Watzlawick et al., 1974) to discuss organizational changes. Our research is based on both qualitative and quantitative methods...... organisations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these changes long-lasting. But the organisations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the DFA, and run by the clubs is one example...... in a Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency...

  12. The football laboratory: policing football supporters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Mastrogiannakis, D.; Dorville, C.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced security assemblage is now at the permanent disposal of authorities in their quest to pre-empt and manage risk at football matches. This chapter proposes the ‘football stadia-as-laboratories’ metaphor as an analytical lens through which to examine the security and risk management technol

  13. College Football Games and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  14. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  15. Concussions From Youth Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan A.; Buzas, David; Morawa, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Youth football programs across the United States represent an at-risk population of approximately 3.5 million athletes for sports-related concussions. The frequency of concussions in this population is not known. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Over an 11-year span from January 2002 to December 2012, the authors reviewed the concussions sustained by athletes aged 5 to 13 years while playing football, as evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) in the United States and captured by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results: There were 2028 (national estimate, 49,185) young football players evaluated in NEISS EDs with concussion from 2002 to 2012. There were 1987 (97.9%) males and 41 (2.1%) females, with a mean age of 11.2 years. The total number of concussions reported increased with age and by year. The majority of concussions were treated in the outpatient setting, with 1878 (91.7%) being treated and released. The total number of head-to-head injury mechanisms mirrored the total number of concussions by year, which increased throughout the 11-year span. The total number of players experiencing a loss of consciousness increased throughout the study period but did not match the total number of concussions over the 11-year time period. Fractures occurred in 11 (0.5%) patients, with 2 being severe (1 skull fracture and 1 thoracic compression fracture). Conclusion: Within the 5- to 13-year age range, there were a significant number of young athletes who presented to EDs with concussion as a result of playing organized football. Older children may be at greater risk for sustaining concussions, fractures, and catastrophic injuries while playing football when compared with younger children. Clinical Relevance: Younger children are more susceptible to long-term sequelae from head injuries, and thus, improved monitoring systems for these athletes are needed to

  16. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... sociological theories. The objective is, first, to develop new knowledge and understanding about the impact of football on gendered identity construction and negotiation – in both the performance and the consumption of football – and how these female fans contribute to a European dialogue, the gender......-specific experience and acting out of fandom, and the intersection between gender and national/European identity. The second objective is to study the role of gender in football and fan cultures with regard to gender-specific patterns of cross-cultural communication and identification. The third objective...

  17. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  18. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  19. Proton Football European Championship 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:

  20. Concussion and football: a review and editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Kalil G; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M

    2015-04-01

    The issue of concussion in football is of substantial interest to players, coaches, fans, and physicians. In this article, we review specific cultural hindrances to diagnosis and treatment of concussion in football. We review current trends in management and identify areas for improvement. We also discuss the obligations that physicians, particularly neurosurgeons and neurologists, have toward brain-injured football players and the larger societal role they may play in helping to minimize football-associated brain injury.

  1. REFEREE PERSONAL MEANING: PERCEPTION of FOOTBALL OFFICIALS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal meaning of refereeing for Portuguese football referees. Participants were 47 football referees from the 1st Portuguese Professional Football League evaluated through an open question: "Write down what refereeing means to you". The analysis was made according to Miles & Huberman (1994) procedures. The 5 categories are: relation with the football; costs of the practice; emotion for the arbitration; social interaction and way of life. The result...

  2. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for young football talents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2008-01-01

      Introduction The national football and sports elite unions in Denmark urge young football talents to complete upper secondary education while they are building football careers. The football culture has a magnetic attraction on young football players. Yet, attempting a professional career...... in professional football culture. One solution to these problems may be better individual counseling in regard to how to combine football training and education....

  3. Defining Football: Brand Confusion or a Matter of Semantics? An Exploratory Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Duarte Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of professional sport leagues, including football, also referred to as ‘soccer’ in some environments and in the media, is an occurring phenomenon in different nations, where interest and consumption of sport appear to be growing. Football’s establishment in the form of a professional league may however pose a dilemma to professional club marketers in the form of misunderstandings or confusion among consumers, particularly where there are more professional sports that have been traditionally known as “football”. This study investigates both the level of association with and consumption of professional football among residents in a large Australian city. An online questionnaire gathered both quantitative and qualitative data from 695 respondents. The findings illustrate the potential for ‘brand confusion’ when new leagues and teams enter the domestic and international sport marketplace. For instance, almost 30% of respondents associated football with at least one more sport, with no one sport positioning its form of football as exclusive and different from the others. The overall findings underline the need for sport marketers to increase their educational efforts to differentiate their product, their brand, and ultimately their form of football among professional sport consumers.

  4. Kicking the Football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  5. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Greenwald, Richard M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C; Broglio, Steven P; Schnebel, Brock; Anderson, Scott; Brolinson, P Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    Of all sports, football accounts for the highest incidence of concussion in the US due to the large number of athletes participating and the nature of the sport. While there is general agreement that concussion incidence can be reduced through rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. A retrospective analysis was performed of head impact data collected from 1833 collegiate football players who were instrumented with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays for games and practices. Data were collected between 2005 and 2010 from 8 collegiate football teams: Virginia Tech, University of North Carolina, University of Oklahoma, Dartmouth College, Brown University, University of Minnesota, Indiana University, and University of Illinois. Concussion rates were compared between players wearing Riddell VSR4 and Riddell Revolution helmets while controlling for the head impact exposure of each player. A total of 1,281,444 head impacts were recorded, from which 64 concussions were diagnosed. The relative risk of sustaining a concussion in a Revolution helmet compared with a VSR4 helmet was 46.1% (95% CI 28.1%-75.8%). When controlling for each player's exposure to head impact, a significant difference was found between concussion rates for players in VSR4 and Revolution helmets (χ(2) = 4.68, p = 0.0305). This study illustrates that differences in the ability to reduce concussion risk exist between helmet models in football. Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury.

  6. English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua M. Williams; Jody L. Langdon; James L. McMillan; Thomas A. Buckley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concussions are a common pathology in football and multiple misconceptions exist amongst the players and managers. To address these misconceptions, and potentially reduce concussion associated sequela, effective educational interventions need to be developed. However, the current knowledge and attitude status must be ascertained to appropriately develop these interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the concussion knowledge and attitude of English professional footballers. Methods: Twenty-six participants from one English Football League Championship club completed the study. A mixed methods approach included the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS) and a semi-structured interview. The RoCKAS contains separate knowledge (0–25) and attitude (15–75) scores and was followed by a semi-structured interview consisting of concussion knowledge, attitude, and behavior related questions. Results: The mean score on the RoCKAS knowledge was 16.4 ± 2.9 (range 11–22) and the attitude score was 59.6 ± 8.5 (range 41–71). The interview responses identified inconsistencies between the RoCKAS and the intended behaviors, endorsing multiple concussion misconceptions, and revealed barriers to concussion reporting. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.

  7. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  8. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies...... is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...

  9. THE ECONOMICS OF “BIG FIVE” EUROPEAN FOOTBALL LEAGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor DIMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available European football is a business with more and more attractive numbers for investors, shareholders or partners all over the planet. It has significantly changed especially over the last 20 years, following an intense procedure of acquisitions and marketing, a process that has brought important sums of money in this industry. This paper presents the overview of the “big five” European football leagues (England, Germany, Spain, Italy, France. The study is primarily focused on economics, but is also considering various social or cultural aspects (media, social media followers. The case-study on the five major leagues corroborates the theoretical underpinning. The paper investigates also the roots of financial regulation divergence in Europe and underlines the main issues regarding the UEFA financial fair-play rules.

  10. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2015-01-01

    While both the media and the academic literature focus primarily on male fans, in particular on violence and the prevention of hooliganism, little is known about female football supporters. This is also true of Denmark, a country that is known for its high degree of gender equality. This article...... "hypermasculinity" nor "emphasised femininity" in their gender performances. Female fans do not only comply with and reproduce the rules of conduct in the stadium but also apply different forms of resistance against sexism and the domination of men in the stadium – both on the field and in the stands. The founding...... aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  11. It's not football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, G

    1998-01-01

    Today I am as happy as I could ever be. I have created a lot out of very little, I have worked full time, played full time, got full-time friends, full-time independence, had full-time love and am lucky enough to be with my new full-time love who helps me a great deal both physically and mentally. It is definitely no fun coughing until your chest is sore in the morning, afternoon and evening. Having wringing night-sweats from cepacia. Wanting to sleep more than Mr Sleep from Sleepland. Taking tablets the size of which sunk the Belgrano. Finding time for physiotherapy, eating the right meals, playing on my Playstation. Depression has got through on previous occasions, but not for long, and it has never resulted in anything more than a 'wake up and smell the coffee' call from myself. Having CF is no ball game (otherwise it would be called football or something!), but I have had a lot of fun and will continue to do so for however long. Two years, five years, 20 years--who's to say, not me. We could all have the same left, I just hope that everyone has as much fun.

  12. Footballer's ankle: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Footballer' s ankle is anterior bony spur or anterior impingement symptom of the ankle with anterior ankle pain, limited and painful dorsiflexion. The cause is commonly seen in athletes and dancers, and is probably due to repetitive minor trauma. The condition was firstly described by Morris;1 McMurray2 reported good results from excision of the spurs, naming it footballer's ankle. Opening resection of osteophytes of the anterior tibial and superior talar is an effective treatment for anterior impingement of the ankle.

  13. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  14. Australian Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  15. Effects of expertise on football betting

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are bet...

  16. Spectator care in czech and slovak football

    OpenAIRE

    Petráš, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Main goal of this thesis is to analyze the environment of Czech and Slovak football in the area of spectators care. The theory part is focused on theories, which refer to this problem. These are: specifics of the football market, economics of football clubs, theory of marketing mix and fan definition. At the beginning of practice part, the thesis analyzes and compares attendance rate in top leagues of both countries. Next chapter deals with factors, which effect the attendance rate. Its goal ...

  17. Effects of expertise on football betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  18. Emergence of self-similarity in football dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kijima, Akifumi; Shima, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    The multiplayer dynamics of a football game is analyzed to unveil self-similarities in the time evolution of player and ball positioning. Temporal fluctuations in both the team-turf boundary and the ball location are uncovered to follow the rules of fractional Brownian motion with a Hurst exponent of H=0.7. The persistence time below which self-similarity holds is found to be several tens of seconds, implying a characteristic time scale that governs far-from-equilibrium motion on a playing field.

  19. Personality and Performance in Intercollegiate Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…

  20. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  1. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  2. ZOONYMS IN AMERICAN FOOTBALL TEAMS’ NAMES

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Using zoonyms is one of the main ways of naming American football teams. Implicit qualitative features of the zoonym’s meaning motivate to choose a name of this or that animal. Zoonyms in the teams’ names are a result of self-estimation act. With the help of zoonyms footballers try to present themselves as a strong, competitive and successful team

  3. Football Fitness - a new version of football? A concept for adult players in Danish football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennike, S; Wikman, J M; Ottesen, L S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities and parental environment.

  4. Speed, Strength and Endurance Training for Adolescent Footballers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Igendia, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis was speed, strength and endurance training for adolescent footballers in Kenya. The commissioner of this work was the Football Kenya Federation (FKF). Football is a popular sport in Kenya, but the development of football in Kenya has been ineffective due to poor coaching standards, lack of information and inadequate facilities. This has also resulted in Kenya being able to produce few world class footballers. The purpose of this thesis was to provide easily accessib...

  5. Comparison of injury incidences between football teams playing in different climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard JW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John W Orchard,1 Markus Waldén,2 Martin Hägglund,3 Jessica J Orchard,1 Ian Chivers,4 Hugh Seward,5 Jan Ekstrand21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Native Seeds, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Australian Football League Medical Officers Association, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Australian Football League (AFL teams in northern (warmer areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler areas. Conversely, in soccer (football in Europe, teams in northern (cooler areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999–2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10 with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58, knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74, and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.37 all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47–1.03. In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction that are

  6. The opinions concerning economic, social and cultural of the foreign footballers about playing football in the Turkish Professional Football Leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp Yıldırım

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the opinions concerning economic, social and cultural of foreign footballers about playing football in the Turkish professional football leagues.The population of the study consisted of 71 foreign players from 12 teams (Ç. Rize, Sivas Spor, Konya Spor, Kayseri Spor, Kayseri Erciyes Spor, G. Antep Spor, Antalya Spor, Denizli Spor, Sakarya Spor, Ankaragücü, Gençlerbirliği, Ankaraspor, in 2006-2007 football seasons in Turkcell Super League and Bank Asya 1st League category.Data had got from the questionnaire which has been done to the sample players by the researcher. Frequency, percent and arithmetic average was used for the description statistical analysis of the subjects’ personal info.As a result, it has been determined that the foreign footballers’ reason of selecting playing football in Turkey caused of economical reasons, they can create a friendship in and out of football field with native footballers, enjoying Turkish cuisine and Turkish music, telling positive opinions about Turkey when they return to their country, they want some special requests in their agreements.

  7. The opinions concerning economic, social and cultural of the foreign footballers about playing football in the Turkish Professional Football Leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp Yıldırım

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the opinions concerning economic, social and cultural of foreign footballers about playing football in the Turkish professional football leagues. The population of the study consisted of 71 foreign players from 12 teams (Ç. Rize, Sivas Spor, Konya Spor, Kayseri Spor, Kayseri Erciyes Spor, G. Antep Spor, Antalya Spor, Denizli Spor, Sakarya Spor, Ankaragücü, Gençlerbirliği, Ankaraspor, in 2006-2007 football seasons in Turkcell Super League and Bank Asya 1st League category. Data had got from the questionnaire which has been done to the sample players by the researcher. Frequency, percent and arithmetic average was used for the description statistical analysis of the subjects’ personal info. As a result, it has been determined that the foreign footballers’ reason of selecting playing football in Turkey caused of economical reasons, they can create a friendship in and out of football field with native footballers, enjoying Turkish cuisine and Turkish music, telling positive opinions about Turkey when they return to their country, they want some special requests in their agreements. 

  8. Legal aspects of the players’ agents licensing system in football.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIOS PAPALOUKAS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport entities have always tried to protect their autonomy from interventions. This status has been seriously put into question by the authorities of the European Communities and especially by the Court of the European Communities. One of the most recent cases where sport authorities were confronted with European competition law, was about the area of players’ agents licenses. In the present, the reader can find a summary of the famous «Piau Case» (C-171/2005 tackling problems such as whether private organisations like F.I.F.A., whose main statutory purpose is to promote football, have a rule-making power, concerning the issuance of these licenses, taking into consideration that these rules do not have a sport-related object but regulate an economic activity that is peripheral to the sporting activity in question and touch on fundamental freedoms.

  9. PUTTING FOOTBALL ON THE AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Football fans and TV stations seize their opportunities to indulge in World Cup mania In China, Huang Jianxiang is the king of sports commentators. His popularity is such that the affable but confident doyen of television broadcasting is mobbed when he goes out in public. He is a new breed of voice maestro, adopting a more professional and relaxed style to the commentators of the past. Those veterans come from an era of radio and are used to describing every detail of the play and the audience, despite v...

  10. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  11. Football Gets a Red Card

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Referees blow the whistle on their collaborations with officials in match-fixing scandals China’s trouble-plagued top soccer league,the Chinese Football Association Super League(CSL),kicked off its 2011 season on April 2 without a sponsor or a national TV deal.Days before the new season,three former league referees,who are awaiting trial,revealed the extent of match-fixing scandals that have led to the punishment of clubs,offi-cials,coaches and former players.

  12. Would You Let Your Child Play Football? Attitudes Toward Football Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion.

  13. THE ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION OF FOOTBALL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bacsne Baba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, professional football has undergone unprecedented economic uplift worldwide. From an economic point of view, this sport has evolved into an industry that beyond the football clubs participating in the championships that are organized by the various leagues also involves rather untransparent, complementary economic operations where companies increasingly perform their specific activities on the level of medium-sized enterprises – when they are measured against traditional industrial actors –, by following their unquestionable economic interests. Football is now a scene of structural changes worldwide that are embodied in the alteration of the legal forms of enterprises backing professional football, as well as the spreading application of modern controlling, planning, risk and financial management tools. From an economic perspective, with these recently emerging elements football clubs have started to build up a modern and complex, specialized sector where the most important requirement until the end of the championship season is the maintenance of licensing conditions. In our study we wish to rely primarily on the peculiarities of German professional football, since it shows most of all the presumable mainstream of the development of football. The outsourcing of significant branches of a football undertaking into the form of an incorporated firm should be deemed as a considerable step forward in comparison with the deficient regulations of the operations of associations, regarding the economic professionality of football clubs, partially from the side of commercial law and partially from the side of shareholding law. Through the introduction of organizational and legal structures that are necessary for the football clubs to be considered professional, there are further positive effects generated for football companies. In the event of the use of the form of the incorporated football firm, it is about the transformation and

  14. "All boys and men can play football"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, D M; Krustrup, Peter; Hornstrup, Therese

    2014-01-01

    . The two data sets were analyzed using framework analysis. The analysis produced 11 subthemes that were structured into three overarching themes: (a) motivational drivers; (b) united in sport; and (c) confirmation of own capacity. The findings indicated that participants regarded football as a welcome...... opportunity to regain control and acquire a sense of responsibility for own health without assuming the patient role, and football training legitimized and promoted mutual caring behavior in a male-oriented context. In conclusion, the study suggests that football, due to its cultural representation...

  15. Youth Football Injuries: A Prospective Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Andrew R.; Kruse, Adam J.; Meester, Scott M.; Olson, Tyler S.; Riedle, Benjamin N.; Slayman, Tyler G.; Domeyer, Todd J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Smoot, M. Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are approximately 2.8 million youth football players between the ages of 7 and 14 years in the United States. Rates of injury in this population are poorly described. Recent studies have reported injury rates between 2.3% and 30.4% per season and between 8.5 and 43 per 1000 exposures. Hypothesis: Youth flag football has a lower injury rate than youth tackle football. The concussion rates in flag football are lower than in tackle football. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three large youth (grades 2-7) football leagues with a total of 3794 players were enrolled. Research personnel partnered with the leagues to provide electronic attendance and injury reporting systems. Researchers had access to deidentified player data and injury information. Injury rates for both the tackle and flag leagues were calculated and compared using Poisson regression with a log link. The probability an injury was severe and an injury resulted in a concussion were modeled using logistic regression. For these 2 responses, best subset model selection was performed, and the model with the minimum Akaike information criterion value was chosen as best. Kaplan-Meier curves were examined to compare time loss due to injury for various subgroups of the population. Finally, time loss was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 46,416 exposures and 128 injuries were reported. The mean age at injury was 10.64 years. The hazard ratio for tackle football (compared with flag football) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0065). The rate of severe injuries per exposure for tackle football was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.33-3.4; P = .93) times that of the flag league. The rate for concussions in tackle football per exposure was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.16-1.7; P = .27) times that of the flag league. Conclusion: Injury is more likely to occur in youth flag football than in youth tackle football. Severe injuries and concussions were not significantly

  16. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  17. On the flight of an American Football

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the detailed theory of the American football in flight, with spin and air resistance included. We find the theory has much in common with the theory of a gyroscope and also rocket trajectory with a misaligned thruster. Unfortunately most of the air resistance data, for rocketry and ballistics, is for speeds of Mach 1 or higher, where the air resistance increases dramatically. We shall approximate a realistic air resistance, at the slower speeds of football flight, with a drag force proportional to cross sectional area and either $v$ or $v^2$, depending on speed, where $v$ is velocity of the football. We begin with a discussion of the motion, giving as much detail as possible without the use of complex analytic calculations. We point out the previous errors made with moments of inertia and make the necessary corrections for more accurate results. We show that the shape of an American football closely resembles a parabola of revolution.

  18. Pursuit and Evasion Strategies in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, James

    1995-01-01

    Explores strategies in the situation of a runner trying to evade a tackler on a football field. Enables the student to test intuitive strategies in a familiar situation using simple graphical and numerical methods or direct experimentation. (JRH)

  19. The Cheerleader and the Football Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Malati

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  20. Recreational football as a health promoting activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per; Nybo, L;

    2010-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological demands during recreational football training and the effects on central health variables that influence the risk of life-style diseases of young and middle-aged men. Recent studies have established that recreational football, carried out as small...... on muscles and bones. Recreational football training in untrained men results in marked improvements in maximum aerobic power, blood pressure, muscle capillarization and intermittent exercise performance, and those effects are similar to interval training and more pronounced than moderate......-intensity continuous running and strength training. Further, recreational football training enhances fat oxidation during exercise and results in a higher fat loss than interval training and strength training, and results in marked muscle hypertrophy and elevates bone mass, more than interval and continuous running...

  1. Football Fitness, a new concept in football clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila; Bennike, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The Danish welfare state place new demands on sports organizations and associations, which has lead to an increased focus on the third sector's role in health promotion purposes. A new research project at the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports will examine how these new claims...... aspect or the actual game. Currently the concept is in the implementation phase in more than 50 clubs, and is predominantly targeting inactive user groups, new to the club. A wide range of stakeholders engaged in health policy emphasize the need for knowledge about how to anchor health related...... opportunity to access the knowledge of how the concept “football fitness” is organized, implemented and adapted in the participating clubs. This knowledge will be of great importance in relation to welfare policy, where the project can contribute with knowledge of possible changes to the Danish voluntary...

  2. Le futsal: un autre monde du football?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gaubert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although far behind association football, futsal is the second most played variant of football in the world. Both sports have comparable global expansion strategies; but with different roots and outcomes. Futsal, which originated in South America, has experienced a more limited geographic expansion. Its recent integration into the FIFA is progressively changing its geographic presence. Consequently, futsal has become an increasingly global sport.

  3. ZOONYMS IN AMERICAN FOOTBALL TEAMS’ NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravij A. O.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using zoonyms is one of the main ways of naming American football teams. Implicit qualitative features of the zoonym’s meaning motivate to choose a name of this or that animal. Zoonyms in the teams’ names are a result of self-estimation act. With the help of zoonyms footballers try to present themselves as a strong, competitive and successful team

  4. Lords of the Square Ring: Future Capital and Career Transition Issues for Elite Indigenous Australian Boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Marie Stronach

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Australia a serious and widely documented statistical gap exists between the socio-economic circumstances of the country’s Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Areas of divergence include life expectancy, health, housing, income, and educational opportunity and employment. This has made career attainment problematic for most Aboriginal people. Among male Indigenous people, professional sport is portrayed as one of the few realms in which they can prosper. This is particularly true in the major football codes – Australian Rules and rugby league – and a feature of elite-level boxing, where Indigenous fighters are also statistically over-represented. However, while sport has provided opportunities for a small number of talented Indigenous athletes, it has rarely been a pathway to lifelong prosperity. This paper contends that as a result of over-reliance on an abundant bank of physical capital, Indigenous Australian boxers are particularly vulnerable to potential occupational obsolescence should their bodily assets erode more quickly than envisaged. Drawing on an Indigenous concept, Dadirri, to inform a wider interpretive phenomenological approach, the paper examines retirement experiences of fourteen elite male Indigenous Australian boxers; the goal of this research is to understand their post-sport career decision making. In this respect, Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, capital and field are utilised to frame and interpret the capacity of Indigenous boxers to develop sustainable career pathways – which we describe as future capital – during their time as elite athletes. For this group of athletes, being an Indigenous person was found to be a significant factor in their decision-making to enter the sport, which may then leave them open to exploitation within the field. Many boxers find their engagement with education and vocational training remains restricted to occupations that complement an Indigenous sense of cultural

  5. REFORMANDO REGLAS ELECTORALES: LA CÉDULA ÚNICA Y LOS PACTOS ELECTORALES EN CHILE (1958-1962 Changing Electoral Rules: The Australian Ballot and Electoral Pacts in Chile (1958-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO GAMBOA VALENZUELA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza cinco reformas electorales chilenas de 1958 y 1962, relativas a Ia regulación y supresión de los pactos electorales y el establecimiento de la Cédula Única. Utilizando un marco analítico elaborado a partir de la literatura comparada reciente, se estudia el quién y por qué de esas reformas, esto es, los incentivos que tuvieron los partidos para impulsarlas y los objetivos que persiguieron con ellas. Para ello, se estudia tanto el contexto político en que se realizaron, como el debate político y parlamentario a que dieron lugar. Se argumenta que las cinco reformas analizadas se vincularon a dos objetivos principales: favorecer y/o perjudicar los intereses de actores específicos y superar la creciente deslegitimación del sistema partidario.This article analyzes five electoral reforms that were enacted in Chile between 1958 and 1962. These reforms introduced the Australian Ballot, and also changing the rules about electoral pacts. By using an analyticalframe based on recent literature, the articlefocuses on the "who and why" of these reforms, chiefly which incentives did the political parties have in order to pursue these legal changes, and the objectives they tried to achieve through them. To analyze the aforementioned, the research concentrates on the political context of the reforms, their political and parliamentary discussion. The paper argues that these five reforms are related to two main objectives: the intention to improve and/or hurt the political interests ofspecific actors, and to overcome legitimacy problems of the party system.

  6. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  7. Brain Changes Seen in Kids After One Season of Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Changes Seen in Kids After One Season of Football Not yet clear if those changes are lasting ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Just one season of competitive football may cause changes in some young players' developing ...

  8. Young Football Players Tackle Greatest Concussion Risk At Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160579.html Young Football Players Tackle Greatest Concussion Risk at Practice But ... Children under the age of 14 who play football are at risk of concussions, and a small ...

  9. The Football Injuries Most Likely to End an NFL Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160854.html The Football Injuries Most Likely to End an NFL Career ... teams, the Carolina Panthers and the Denver Broncos, football fans will be focusing on which franchise claims ...

  10. Physiological responses and physical performance during football in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars; Grantham, Justin;

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play.......To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play....

  11. On Football Tactical Training and Football Team Formation of Vocational Colleges%高职院校足球战术训练与足球队组建的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀培

    2011-01-01

    The football class is one of the main option classes of sports in vocational colleges.Football tactical training plays an important role in teaching.In a football team which has rules and characteristics of football tactics and skills and has dynamic stability,students can learn and master different soccer tactics even better to improve constantly the level of football sports in vocational colleges through practical training.%足球选项课是高职体育主要的选项课之一,足球战术训练在教学中占有十分重要的位置。根据足球运动战术技能形成的规律和特点组建动态稳定的足球队,通过实战训练,才能让学生更好地学习和掌握不同的足球战术,不断提高高职院校足球运动水平。

  12. COMMERCIALIZATION OF EUROPEAN FOOTBALL : Different Aspects Leading to Commercialization

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Raju

    2016-01-01

    Basically, the main goal of this thesis is to make a clear picture of football business in Europe, which consists of many financial factors, relations between football and their supporters, rise of many competitions and leagues and most importantly about the players and their transfers. As, they are the vital aspects of football industry. The history of football business is shown when it came into exist in Europe. The small efforts from private companies and the media, TV broadcasting help...

  13. FREE Policy Brief No. 3 - Women's Football and Female Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Sonntag, Albrecht; Ranc, David

    2015-01-01

    Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE). This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football.......Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE). This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football....

  14. Research on European Model of Professional Football%欧洲职业足球发展模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 卢文云

    2015-01-01

    欧洲职业足球的金字塔组织管理模式,财政收入多元化和财政团结的模式,各利益主体协同治理的争端解决模式,维护体育公平、公正的规制和维护竞争均衡的商业模式及其开放式结构等各组成要素各司其职且相辅相成,是欧洲在足球成绩和足球经济上取得成功的重要原因。欧洲职业足球发展模式给我国职业足球的启示在于:(1)遵守职业体育的经济规则;(2)要遵守职业体育的竞技游戏规则。%The European professional football model contains the pyramid organization management model, the diversified fiscal revenue model, the financial solidarity model, the model of all the stakeholders collaboratively deal with dispute, the model of maintenance of sports fair and justice, the business model of maintenance of competitive balance and the open competition model, and all the models work properly and complement each other, that’s why European football can get a good achievements both on the football competition and the football economic. There are two revelations our country’s professional football can get from the European professional football model, the first one is abiding the economical rules of professional sports, the second one is abiding the competitive rules of professional sports.

  15. Football business: how markets are breaking the beautiful game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van der Tsjalle

    2014-01-01

    In Football business Tsjalle van der Burg shows how the economics of football have developed and been corrupted. In a series of engaging stories he uncovers the mysteries of football finance. Van der Burg explains why if the 2013 English Premiership champions, Manchester United, had played their 196

  16. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  17. 论体育行业自治与法治的反思性合作--以中国足球协会为中心%On Reflective Cooperation between Professional Self-regulation and Rule of Law in the Sport Industry-Taking Chinese Football Association as Key Target of Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦志明

    2016-01-01

    在法治与体育行业自治关系的研究上,“介入说”和“自治说”以及积极性合作式路径都缺少反思性思维,忽视了这些路径可能产生的负效应影响。反思性合作受启于反思法理论和“合作治理”理论,是对二者的吸收与超越。在中国语境下,法治与体育行业自治应该建立在一种反思性合作关系之上。据此,反思性思维将主导合作关系,间接性合作将成为主导的合作路向,在此基础上构建具体的反思性合作制度。既可通过自治来实现合作,还可以通过设定用尽内部救济原则、法院的有限度介入和内部救济司法化等方面的间接规制来实现合作。中国足球协会在机构建制和制度建制方面的努力在某种程度上实现了内部的分工自治,但存在与政府的依赖性合作、行业自治被压缩与变形、绝对拒斥与司法权的合作、内部救济司法化建制不力等问题。对此,问题的具体解决思路应以反思性合作思维来设计。%of the study on the relationship between professional self‐regulation and rule of law in the sport industry ,“Doctrine of Intervention” ,“Doctrine of Self‐regulation” and enthusiastic cooperative approaches all lack missing reflective thinking and ignore the negative effects which such approaches may bring about .Edified by reflection law theory and “cooperative govern‐ance” theory ,reflective cooperation absorbs and goes beyond the two .In the Chinese context , the rule of law and the professional self‐regulation in the sports industry should be established on the basis of reflective cooperation .Accordingly ,the reflective thinking will dominate the co‐operative relationship ,and the indirect cooperation will become the dominant route to coopera‐tion ;then the system of reflective cooperation will be built thereon .Thus cooperation can be realized both through professional self‐regulation and

  18. Fuzzy logic and its application in football team ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenyi; Li, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic are a highly suitable and applicable basis for developing knowledge-based systems in physical education for tasks such as the selection for athletes, the evaluation for different training approaches, the team ranking, and the real-time monitoring of sports data. In this paper, we use fuzzy set theory and apply fuzzy clustering analysis in football team ranking. Based on some certain rules, we propose four parameters to calculate fuzzy similar matrix, obtain fuzzy equivalence matrix and the ranking result for our numerical example, T 7, T 3, T 1, T 9, T 10, T 8, T 11, T 12, T 2, T 6, T 5, T 4, and investigate four parameters sensitivity analysis. The study shows that our fuzzy logic method is reliable and stable when the parameters change in certain range.

  19. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  20. An Examination of Concussion Injury Rates in Various Models of Football Helmets in NCAA Football Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan Moran; Tracey Covassin

    2015-01-01

    While newer, advanced helmet models have been designed with the intentions of decreasing concussions, very little research exists on injury rates in various football helmets at the collegiate level. The aim of this study was to examine concussion injury rates in various models of football helmets in collegiate football athletes. In addition, to compare injury rates of newer, advanced football helmets to older, traditional helmets among collegiate football athletes, a total of 209 concussions and 563,701 AEs (athlete-exposures) among 2,107 collegiate football athletes in seven helmet models were included in the analyses. Concussion injury rates revealed that the Riddell Revolution~ had the highest rate of 0.41 concussions per 1,000 AEs. The Schutt ION 4DTM helmet had the lowest rate of 0.25 concussions per 1,000 AEs. These newer helmet models did not significantly differ from one another (P = 0.74), however, all models significantly differed from the older, traditional helmet model (P 〈 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that concussion rates do not differ between newer and more advanced helmet models. More importantly, there are currently no helmets available to prevent concussions from occurring in football athletes.

  1. High-intensity training in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F Marcello; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (> 85% HR(max)) leads to VO2(max) enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (approximately 2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

  2. Mproving efficacy of sport selection in football.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulibskyy A.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern aspects of preparation of juvenile football players on pioneering stages of sports takeoff are considered. The brief analysis of state of a problem of training is given impellent operations from the point of view of demands of the modern pedagogical science. Innovational approaches of construction of process of training and preparation in a system of long-term sports takeoff of juvenile football players are illuminated. Questioning 323 trainers of youthful commands, 135 trainers of professional commands, 57 students and post-graduate students is conducted. It is established, that training and competitive activity of juvenile football players should be valued in continuous unity on adequate parameters and tests of efficiency.

  3. Football, alcohol and gambling: an unholy trinity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carwyn Jones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that football plays a questionable role in promoting two potentially problematic activities, namely drinking alcohol and gambling. Gambling and alcohol companies sponsor clubs and competitions and also pay to advertise their products at the stadia and during television coverage. Consequently millions of fans, including children, are exposed to the marketing of these restricted products. The latter are exposed despite regulations that prohibit such advertising and promotion in other contexts. The promotion of these activities to children and to adults increases levels of consumption which in turn increases the number of problem drinkers and gamblers in society. High-profile footballers play a further role in normalising drinking and gambling. They are role models whose actions influence others. Their excessive drinking and gambling activities provide poor examples for football fans, young and old.

  4. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  5. Home advantage in Greek football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  6. A physiological review of American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincivero, D M; Bompa, T O

    1997-04-01

    American football has been one of the most popular sports in North America within the past century and has recently received support and increased participation from European nations. Two of the biggest concerns regarding participation in American football are the high incidence of injury and the physical demand for preparation. A basic understanding of the physiological systems utilised in the sport of football is necessary in order to develop optimal training programmes geared specifically for preparation as well as the requirements of individual field positions. Previously, it has been assumed that football relies primarily on an anaerobic source of energy for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) resynthesis with approximately 90% coming from the phosphocreatine (PCr) energy system. In lieu of research conducted specifically with football players, it appears that the energy contribution from the anaerobic glycolytic pathway in this sport has been underestimated. The elevated blood lactate levels observed in football players following game participation cast doubt on this hypothesis. Identifying position specific characteristics may also enhance the development of training programmes based on the requirements of the different positions. It appears that offensive and defensive linemen are generally larger, have higher levels of percent body fat and have greater absolute strength scores than all other positions. Offensive backs, defensive backs and wide receivers tend to display the lowest percentages of body fat, lower absolute strength scores, fastest times over 5, 10, 40 and 300m and the highest relative VO2max values. Linebackers appeared to represent a transition group mid way between the backs and linemen for size, body composition, strength, speed and endurance as well as positional duties. Findings within the literature suggest that a lack of cardiovascular development of university and professional football players may prove to be a hindrance to performance with

  7. Facial Injuries and Football Before School

    OpenAIRE

    Ruff, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Sir Alex Ferguson may be grateful that David Beckham did not seek legal redress for the injury caused to his left eyebrow by a flying football boot. In Kearn-Price v. Kent County Council [2002] EWCA Civ.1539, a 14-year-old pupil suffered a serious eye injury when he was struck by a football while standing in the school playground. The Court of Appeal dismissed the local education authority’s appeal against the decision of the county court that the school had been negligent in failing to preve...

  8. Mechanical properties of the triceps surae: differences between football and non-football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Aurélio; Gabriel, Ronaldo; Abrantes, João; Wood, Paola; Moreira, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae between professional, junior, and non-football players. Fifty-nine men participated in this study. The mechanical properties of the right legs' triceps surae were measured in vivo using a free oscillation technique; no significant differences existed between the groups. The mean results for musculo-articular stiffness, damping coefficient, and damping ratio were as follows: professional football players (21523 N· m⁻¹, 330.8 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.201); junior football players (21063 N · m⁻¹, 274.4 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.173); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). When analysed according to position, the results were as follows: defender (21447 N · m⁻¹, 308.6 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.189); midfielder (20762 N · m⁻¹, 250.7 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.157); winger (21322 N · m⁻¹, 335.1 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.212); forward (22085 N · m⁻¹, 416.2 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.254); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). Thus, football training, football games, and the position played had no effect on triceps surae mechanical properties. These results may be attributed to opposing adaptations between different types of training that are usually implemented in football. Alternatively, the minimum strain amplitude and/or frequency threshold of the triceps surae required to trigger adaptations of mechanical properties might not be achieved by football players with football training and matches.

  9. Evaluation of team-doctor actions during football games in Japanese professional football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Shigeo; Nagano, Akira

    2009-11-01

    There have been many studies on football (soccer) match injuries both in national leagues and international tournaments, including the World Cup. However, no previous study on the number and types of actions taken by a team-doctor during a football season has been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate what actions and how much a team doctor acts during professional football matches in a typical season of the Japanese professional football league (J-League). Injuries were prospectively recorded by team doctors with a Japanese professional league club during the 2004 season. Data recorded by the attending doctor after each match included information relating to the injury, time of occurrence and actions taken by the doctor in response to the injuries. The activity of the doctor was graded into 6 categories (grade A to F). During the 42 official matches held throughout the 2004 season, a total of 67 doctor-actions were taken. The overall doctor-action frequency rate (DAFR) was 1.6 actions per match. This study demonstrated how the team doctor acts during an average football match, and provides some useful information for team-doctors who attend football matches.

  10. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  11. Language interpretation and generation for football commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Akker, op den H.J.A.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Miyares, L. R.; Alvarez, C. E.; Silva Alvarez, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Our interest in the computer processing of football commentary was at first given in by the EU/IST funded project MUMIS (Multimedia Indexing and Searching) that started in 2000 [11, 18, 19]. This project's objective is to develop technology for automatic indexing of multimedia programme material (te

  12. Recognizing team formation in american football

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2014-01-01

    Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takesmanyman hours per week. These two statistics are the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this chapter, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67%accuracy in classifying the offensive team’s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison.

  13. Footballs, Conical Singularities and the Liouville Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Redi, M

    2004-01-01

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints.

  14. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J P

    1985-06-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries.

  15. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  16. Winners and Losers of Danish Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    This paper deals with European and Danish soccer and its commercialization focusing on the Danish male first tier clubs. Based on the systems theoretical argument that sport serves as a mirror system in (late-) modern society, the Danish football clubs are measured against a simple matrix of main...

  17. Music as Narrative in American College Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, John Michael

    2016-01-01

    American college football features an enormous amount of music woven into the fabric of the event, with selections accompanying approximately two-thirds of a game's plays. Musical selections are controlled by a number of forces, including audio and video technicians, university marketing departments, financial sponsors, and wind bands. These blend…

  18. Youth sports & public health: framing risks of mild traumatic brain injury in american football and ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachynski, Kathleen E; Goldberg, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    The framing of the risks of experiencing mild traumatic brain injury in American football and ice hockey has an enormous impact in defining the scope of the problem and the remedies that are prioritized. According to the prevailing risk frame, an acceptable level of safety can be maintained in these contact sports through the application of technology, rule changes, and laws. An alternative frame acknowledging that these sports carry significant risks would produce very different ethical, political, and social debates.

  19. The existing state of material support of football clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Demenkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the current state of material support of football clubs at schools of the Sumy region. Material & Methods: we used a complex of complementary methods for the achievement of the purpose of the research among which: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature; analysis of normative documents, official sites of Internet; analysis of documentary materials; questioning. Results: the question of the current state of material support of football clubs at schools of the Sumy region is considered. Questions of fullness of material support of football clubs are revealed. Conclusions: the state of material support of football clubs at schools of the Sumy region is determined on the basis of the analysis of biographical particulars. The problematic issues regarding the process of preservation and development of material support of football club classes are defined for the purpose of the improvement of quality of football club classes.

  20. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girls....... This Focus draws on academic research, media reports and interviews with national team players to highlight the struggles and victories of South African women footballers over the last 40 years. Despite numerous challenges and setbacks, womenB football has experienced immense growth over the past 15 years....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  1. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  2. Training processes in under 6s football competition: The transition from ingenuity to institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Merino Orozco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under 6s football competition is a school sport that has inherent educational implications. Moreover, it is a booming non-formal socio-educational framework where families and children lay training expectations and dreams. The aim is to comprehend the emerging learning processes promoted in this environment for 6 years-old children, when the child starts the institutionalization process in the ruled sport. The research uses a case study design, the ethnographic mode, through participant observation. It uses the narrative and image data to understand the scenario from the perspective of its builder. The results show that the institutionalization process starts from the ingenuity and lack of understanding of the child, who develops training processes in a prescriptive environment, where the competitive performance of the team is pursued. Promoting certain types of learning which the participant himself consciously considers inappropriate undertakes the presence of different kinds of behaviour, which go against the positive values usually attributed to football. The study claims for the necessity of taking advantage of the training opportunities which football offers to children such as the enhancing of creativity, self-efficacy and self-esteem.

  3. Special Characteristics of Football%足球运动的专项特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭必明

    2012-01-01

    The mastering of movement characteristics and training rules in sports training,and accurate knowledge of the project is a prerequisite for exercise training,while awareness of the project features to improve the level of sports training is the key process,understanding and mastering the specialized training of law level to improve the efficiency of training,to maintain high quality training is basic conditions.The paper based on Characteristics of football,and soccer system in China,focuses on scientific and effective training to explore the special characteristics of football and provide the basis for the revitalization of our football.%对竞技运动训练来说,准确掌握项目的运动特征和训练规律是进行运动训练的前提条件,对项目特征的认知程度是提高运动训练水平的关键环节,对专项训练规律的了解和掌握水平是提高训练效率、保持高质量训练的基础条件。针对足球运动特性,结合我国足球体制,注重科学有效的训练,探寻足球运动的专项特征,为振兴我国足球事业提供依据。

  4. FOOTBALL PLAYERS’ LEGS BIOMECHANICS DURING THE GAME AND THE REQUIREMENTS FOR FOOTBALL SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Ionescu Luca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Football players, during the game, find themselves in both static and dynamic positions. Movement may be accomplished through walking, marching, running and jumping. While walking, the step may be simple, if referred to a single leg or double when talking about both legs. The simple steps have different phases for the bare-foot, the impact phase, supported foot and oscillating shank-bone and propulsion. Football shoes for walking make contact with the support surface through cleats. The back cleats have the same role as the heel, causing on impact the foot to swivel in the tibia-astragalian joint, which makes the shank bone translate by sliding. The load that is placed on the heel begins to be progressively be trickled down to the front of the leg. During the football game, shoes are involved in all the specific technical procedures, with both positive and negative effects, depending on their characteristics. The general requirements are: provide a high degree of mobility; avoiding good impulse on the ball when kicked. This paper, we will summarize the results of study about the requirements that football shoes have to meet as a result of the stress that football players’ legs are subjected to during the game in both static and dynamic positions.

  5. Gambling and football: Epidemiological research on gambling participation and problem gambling among adult football players in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    There is not much known about the gambling behaviour of Icelandic football players. Aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of total gambling participation and problem gambling among Icelandic football players, to examine if Icelandic football players have been involved in behaviour that could possibly be related to game fixing and to examine players attitudes towards banning coaches and players to gamble on games the Icelandic championship. Participants were 725, of which 75...

  6. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for individuals transitioning across age groups.

  7. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes.

  8. Developing Youth Football Academies in Greece: Managing Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Trikalis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five academies in voluntary sector. Goals and objectives in each youth football academy were recorded in three different theoretical areas: a administrative, b coaching, and c supportive services. Data were collected through interviews via open and closed question formats from fourteen administrative and fourteen coaching staff of the corresponding teams. Qualitative analysis was applied. The results of the study indicated significant differences in operation of youth football academies according to the different sector they operated: a the commercial sector academies attempted to improve rapidly the technical skills of child footballers, using their good facilities / services, b the public sector academies aimed primarily to improve the number of children, and c the voluntary sector academies aimed mainly to identify footballers talent and excellent skills. The above results, conducted the following proposals for the overall development of youth football academies in Greece: a a new management philosophy should require to adopted by football stakeholders, b scientific methods of training and cooperation with scientific institutions should be applied, and c any action should be taken in mind the recent economic crisis in Greece. In conclusion, youth football academies in the region of Thessaly _ in which this study was conducted_ could be under development if new management strategies be adopted by football shareholders.

  9. Football, alcohol and gambling: an unholy trinity?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I argue that football plays a questionable role in promoting two potentially problematic activities, namely drinking alcohol and gambling. Gambling and alcohol companies sponsor clubs and competitions and also pay to advertise their products at the stadia and during television coverage. Consequently millions of fans, including children, are exposed to the marketing of these restricted products. The latter are exposed despite regulations that prohibit such advertising and promoti...

  10. Sport injuries in Donegal Gaelic footballers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Gohary, Y

    2012-01-31

    We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.

  11. Posterior sternoclavicular dislocation: an American football injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, L B; Klareskov, B

    1996-01-01

    Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is uncommon, accounting for less than 0.1% of all dislocations. Since 1824 a little more than 100 cases have been reported, and the majority in the past 20 years. A review of published reports suggests that this injury is seen particularly in co...... in connection with American football. A typical case is described. The importance of this injury is that there is often a delay in diagnosis with potentially serious complications....

  12. Sprint vs. interval training in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari Bravo, D; Impellizzeri, F M; Rampinini, E; Castagna, C; Bishop, D; Wisloff, U

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) training on aerobic and anaerobic physiological variables in male football players. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to either the interval training group (ITG, 4 x 4 min running at 90 - 95 % of HRmax; n = 21) or repeated-sprint training group (RSG, 3 x 6 maximal shuttle sprints of 40 m; n = 21). The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 7 weeks of training: maximum oxygen uptake, respiratory compensation point, football-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, YYIRT), 10-m sprint time, jump height and power, and RSA. Significant group x time interaction was found for YYIRT (p = 0.003) with RSG showing greater improvement (from 1917 +/- 439 to 2455 +/- 488 m) than ITG (from 1846 +/- 329 to 2077 +/- 300 m). Similarly, a significant interaction was found in RSA mean time (p = 0.006) with only the RSG group showing an improvement after training (from 7.53 +/- 0.21 to 7.37 +/- 0.17 s). No other group x time interactions were found. Significant pre-post changes were found for absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point (p RSA training protocol used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing aerobic and football-specific training adaptations.

  13. Chinese Youngsters Realize A Football Dream——Visit to Germany by Chinese Youth Football Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; Jing

    2014-01-01

    <正>It was a bright and beautiful spring day on March 29,2014 in Berlin,and the grass of the Olympic football stadium resembled a green carpet in the brilliant sunshine.A group of junior football players from Hong’an County of Hubei Province and Zhidan County of Shaanxi Province were having a training session together with young players of the VfL Wolfsburg(Verein fur Leibesubungen Wolfsburg e.v.)under the guidance of German coaches.

  14. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  15. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Rikkert, J.; Haes, V.D.; Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Theelen, T.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a v

  16. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  17. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  18. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  19. Asserting the Right to Play. Women’s Football in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brus, Anne Birgitte; Trangbæk, Else

    2004-01-01

    In 1970 the Danish Football club Boldklubben Femina (BK Femina) became unofficial world champions. The success of BK Femina women's football team was not a coincidence and should be placed in the context of a ten-year struggle to have football accepted as a sport for women in Denmark. This essay...... examines three consecutive periods in Danish women's football: the establishment of women's football in Denmark before 1970; the time of women's admission to the Danish Football Association (DBU) in 1970–72; and finally, the development of women's football in the DBU from 1972 to 2002....

  20. Psychological features of personality and perspective of young footballers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova L.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research - the identification of a person's psychological, define promising young players. The study involved 56 players aged 13-17 years, enrolled in training groups of at the stage of basic training specialist. The necessity of study of personality's structure in young footballers at prognostication of perspective of young footballers has confirmed. The degree of expression of personality qualities in footballers on the stage of the specialized base preparation was determined. The search of distinctions of indexes of personality qualities of sportsmen perspective and unpromising is conducted. Intercommunication between activity of footballers intellectual and sporting is exposed. Information about psychological features can be instrumental in prognostication of development of the special capabilities of footballers in the sporting activity.

  1. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri;

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised...... controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications...... in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence...

  2. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried...

  3. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  4. Determinants of Demand for Televised Live Football: Features of the German National Football Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Rott, Armin

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes all 216 broadcasts of the German national football team from January 1993 to June 2008 to identify which factors ensure the success of televised sport broadcasts. The results reveal that demand depends mostly on the type of match and its importance in a tournament context. Vie...... rights agencies, advertisers, and media planners in determining the value of a particular broadcast....

  5. Analysis of the implementation of uefa financial fair play: a case study on Arsenal and Machester United football club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sendy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the implementation of UEFA Financial Fair Play (FFP against European football clubs. Research is conducted based on Arsenal and Manchester United football clubs financial statements for 2010-2012. The study uses financial simulation to test whether the two England-based club are able to meet the UEFA FFP rules. Analyses were also conducted on the financial performance ratios of both clubs and their effects on the implementation of the UEFA FFP. The result is the two clubs can meet the standard provisions for the implementation of UEFA FFP. In the assessment of financial performance, Arsenal have a slightly better financial ratios than Manchester United. Performance aspects of profitability and solvency became an issue in the implementation of UEFA's FFP, related with debt holdings and high salaries that owned by both clubs.

  6. Analysis of The Implementation of UEFA Financial Fair Play: A Case Study on Arsenal and Machester United Football Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendy Sendy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the implementation of UEFA Financial Fair Play (FFP to European football clubs. Research is conducted based on Arsenal and Manchester United football clubs financial statements for 2010-2012. The study uses financial simulation to test whether the two England-based club are able to meet the UEFA FFP rules. Analyses were also conducted on the financial performance ratios of both clubs and their effects on the implementation of the UEFA FFP. The result is the two clubs can meet the standard provisions for the implementation of UEFA FFP. In the assessment of financial performance, Arsenal have a slightly better financial ratios than Manchester United. Performance aspects of profitability and solvency became an issue in the implementation of UEFA's FFP, related with debt holdings and high salaries that owned by both clubs.

  7. Locomotor activity of professional football referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manilo Y.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the structure of the motor activity of foreign (European football referees qualifications and Ukrainian arbitrators (Premier League, the first, second league. The objectives of the study was to determine the amount and direction of the motor activity of soccer referees. Also perform a comparative analysis of the motor activity of football referees of different qualifications in Europe and Ukraine. Material : The study involved 38 referees - soccer referees first, second, of the Premier League with the different regions of Ukraine, as well as foreign arbitrators FIFA. Results : It was found that in the period of the motor activity of the arbitrator was walking - 13.0% of the total distance when moving, running at a moderate pace - 67.4%, accelerating - 16.7%, jumps - 2.9%. Average per match referee overcomes distance 8970.2 m: foreign arbitrators - 12,030.0 m., Arbitrators Premier League - 9292.5 m., 1 league - 7530.0 m., 2 leagues - 7028.3 m. Ukrainian Premier League referees are inferior to move moderate jogging foreign arbitrators FIFA respectively - 6,425.0 m (69.1% and 9615.3 m (79.9%. Conclusions : The results of the research showed that the magnitude of motor activity during football matches in professional arbitrators may be different. It depends on their physical fitness Championship (competition, the league, the level of the teams playing, the nature of the intensity of the match. The arbitrator must remain near the gaming moments to control them and prevent possible confrontation.

  8. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions.

  9. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits and growing debts among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, the clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the question: Why do only very few...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  10. Technology of physical training young footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Nikolaenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the technology of physical training of young players. Material and Methods: pedagogical observation and analysis of literature, both in the field of football, sports physiology and in the use of technologies that protect the health of the process of physical training of young athletes. Results: notes the need to review approaches to the organization of long-term preparation of sportsmen. It established the contradiction between the increasing demand for training of young sportsmen and features of the growing organism. Conclusion: the ways of rational construction of training process on the basis of the strategy of preparation of sports reserve and health at talented youth

  11. Croatian fan scene: Football in television beer commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biti Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper attention is given to the mutual synergy between sports, commercials and alcohol. Therefore, we approach the research topic specified in the title with regards to the cultural history of football and beer, the functioning of the commercial industry within consumer culture and the structural practices of consuming football and beer trough which, at specific places and in special occasions, masculinity is performed. This research relies primarily on discourse analysis of football-beer commercials. For the purpose of enriching the insights gained by this method, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a market expert specialized in branding and an autoethnographic approach is present. The central part of the study is based on a corpus of advertisements that were broadcast on national television programs in the last ten years and that have emerged as part of a market designed advertising campaigns for major breweries during the World and European football championships. For the most of them, the common denominator is putting football fans in the forefront, whether in stadiums, bars, town squares or at home. Also, in most cases, they exclusively present male protagonists during their leisure time, united by their passion for football and beer, as well as their desire for relaxed socialization and fun. Apart from gender, the national context is essential, since these commercials usually visually, audibly and textually refer to the national football team of Croatia.

  12. The Financial Performance of the Greek Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Dimitropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial performance of the football clubs participating within the first division of the Greek football league for a period of 14 years (1993-2006 and to propose specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs. We perform financial analysis of key accounting ratios extracted from the football club’s annual financial statements in order to explain the particular causes of the recent financial crisis which characterizes the Greek professional football league. The analysis of the clubs’ annual financial statements revealed that the Greek football clubs are highly leveraged, have intense liquidity and profitability problems and face an increased danger of financial distress, despite the increased amounts that football clubs invested during 2005. The above mentioned crisis can be attributed to aggregate financial mismanagement and political inefficiencies during the last fifteen years. The paper proposes specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs and the overall competitiveness of the Greek football league.

  13. 职业足球市场秩序的内涵和理想状态%The Definition and Ideal State of Market Order of Professional Football

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯会生; 李向葡

    2012-01-01

    为了建立和维护我国职业足球良好的市场秩序,实现对我国职业足球市场的规范管理,对职业足球市场秩序内涵和理想状态进行了深入分析和探讨。研究表明:职业足球市场秩序是指职业足球各利益主体在职业足球市场活动中所共同遵守的规则,以及由此而形成的职业足球市场运行状态和格局,主要包含三个方面的内容;职业足球市场秩序的理想状态主要体现为界定明晰的产权、规范的行为准则、完善的约束体系和较高的总体效率四个方面。%In order to create and maintain an orderly market of professional football in China, the author carries out a careful and deep discussion of the definition and ideal state of market order, especially the order of professional football market. It is showed in this paper that market order of professional football refers to a set of rules with which main players of the market comply in activities of professionul football and also includes the operational state and patterns formed accordingly in football market. It mainly contains three aspects. The author also indicates that the ideal state of market order of professional football can be featured by clearly defined property rights, specification for conduct, well-designed regulatory system and relatively high efficiency.

  14. Nutrition and Gaelic football: review, recommendations, and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted.

  15. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2016-01-01

    the multitude of – sometimes conflicting – objectives in managing these relations. The empirical base of the study is founded in a case study of Malmö FF, one of the dominant clubs in Sweden, with a qualitative single case research approach. Data are collected by means of semi-structured interviews......Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOBBING (PSYCHOLOGICAL VIOLENCE AND LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FOOTBALL TRAINERS IN TURKISH FOOTBALL CLUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep CENGİZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the relationship between Mobbing and Level of Job Satisfaction among football trainers in football clubs. In this research the data was gathered randomly from Turkish football trainers who had participated in Turkish trainer development seminar 2010-2011 which was organized jointly by Football Federation of Turkey and Turkey Football Coaches Association. Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ which was developed by Einarsen, Raknes, Matthiesen and Hellesoy and adopted by Cemaloglu into Turkish version and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ were applied to all participants. 524 of them answered the questionnaire and 515 out of 524 were evaluated. The answers from the questionnaire were analyzed by Reliability analysis and Correlation analysis. Sub dimensions of NAQ are positively correlated with moderate level. The highest positive correlation was found between organizational communication and duty. On the other hand the lowest correlation was found between organizational communication and social relationships. It is easily seen that from the analysis, level of Job satisfaction of football trainers who was exposed to mobbing is lower than who was not exposed. As a result of this survey there is a relationship between level of job satisfaction and mobbing especially in younger football trainers.

  17. Football Coaches' Practical Sense of Talent. A Qualitative Study of Talent Identification in Danish National Youth Team Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    are used to explore the focus area. The results are grouped in three major themes, which characterize core elements of the coaches' practical sense: 1) visual experience and pattern recognition, 2) recognition of individual paths and personal styles, and 3) a model of top-level football coaches......' classificatory schemes. Conclusively, the study supports the theory that talent identification in top-level football is strongly connected to the coach's practical sense of the game and taste for football talents. Furthermore, the study points at the importance of being aware of the person "behind" the coach...

  18. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    In a recent paper in TPT, DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of an NFL football. We focus on the rate of pressure recovery that occurs when a cold football (either wet or dry) is returned to the warm locker room environment where the pressure was initially measured. Both studies stem from the so-called NFL "Deflategate" controversy in which footballs that initially met a minimum internal pressure requirement were rechecked at halftime of the AFC Championship game, and in some cases were reported to have fallen below the minimum pressure requirement. The question is whether the pressure changes were due to environmental exposure or rather to some air being released from the balls, or both.

  19. Established – outsider relations in youth football tournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa; Agergaard, Sine; Maguire, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This article examines Scandinavian constructions and readings of potential football migrants from the African continent by providing an investigation of the dynamics and narratives surrounding African football teams’ participation in three youth football tournaments. Drawing on Elias and Scotson’...... of the tournament organizers, as being providers of ‘development’ and gender equity programmes to African teams, is fundamental in maintaining the established-outsider power relations between Scandinavian and African football teams.......’s (1965/1994) theory of established-outsider relations, we explore the transnational power relations and processes of inclusion and exclusion in group relationships. The data were collected between July and August 2012, as part of a wider study examining transnational migration and mobility...

  20. A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football penalties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Curtis Craig; Randy W. Overbeek; Miles V. Condon; Shannon B. Rinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased ambient temperature has been implicated in increased physical aggression, which has important practical consequences. The present study investigates this established relationship between aggressive behavior and ambient temperature in the highly aggressive context of professional football in the National Football League (NFL). Methods: Using a publicly available dataset, authors conducted multiple hierarchical regression analyses on game-level data (2326 games). Results: The analysis revealed that temperature positively predicted aggressive penalties in football, and that this relationship was significant for teams playing at home but not for visiting teams. Conclusion: These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.

  1. Observational methodology in football: Development of an instrument to study the offensive game in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sarmento

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper introduces a new approach to the analysis of offensive game in football. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to create an instrument for collecting information for the analysis of offensive action and interactions game. The observation instrument that was used to accomplish the main objective of this work consists of a combination of format fields (FC and systems of categories (SC. This methodology is a particular strategy of the scientific method that has as an objective to analyse the perceptible behaviour that occurs in habitual contexts, allowing them to be formally recorded and quantified and using an ad hoc instrument in order to obtain a behaviour systematic registration that, since they have been transformed in quantitative data with the necessary reliability and validity determined level, will allow analysis of the relations between these behaviours. The codifications undertaken to date in various games of football have shown that it serves the purposes for which it was developed, allowing more research into the offensive game methods in football.

  2. Observational methodology in football: Development of an instrument to study the offensive game in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sarmento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper introduces a new approach to the analysis of offensive game in football. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to create an instrument for collecting information for the analysis of offensive action and interactions game. The observation instrument that was used to accomplish the main objective of this work consists of a combination of format fields (FC and systems of categories (SC. This methodology is a particular strategy of the scientific method that has as an objective to analyse the perceptible behaviour that occurs in habitual contexts, allowing them to be formally recorded and quantified and using an ad hoc instrument in order to obtain a behaviour systematic registration that, since they have been transformed in quantitative data with the necessary reliability and validity determined level, will allow analysis of the relations between these behaviours. The codifications undertaken to date in various games of football have shown that it serves the purposes for which it was developed, allowing more research into the offensive game methods in football.

  3. Nutritional Habits & Knowledge in the Division I Collegiate Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...

  4. Possible recipe for building a "football" with boron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ If you look carefully at a football,you will notice that its surface is composed of hexagons and pentagons. Hexagons lie side by side while any pentagon is surrounded by five hexagons. How many corners and edges are there? Football players do not have to know that as long as they do pass and shoot right; an architect or structural physicist,however, could readily give the answer.

  5. Managing brazilian football clubs: Alternative sources of income.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vicente Di Gioia Ferreira Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Football as a business is a chance of socio economic leverage. Football organizations need to become modern since the Brazilian society is unhappy with the quality of service provide and clubs, mostly emerged on debts, end up devaluating their brands associated with an inefficient administration. In 1998, a new factor came to influence this scenario: it was sanctioned the Law no. 9.615, know as “Lei Pelé”, which extinguished the pass of football players. Before that, football clubs have as their major income source the transfer of players. After this regulatory change, clubs were obligated to develop alternative sources of income. The current article intends to analyze this new scenario and to propose options to the clubs not only related to the players transfer market. To do that, it will be shown a comparative study between the Brazilian football and the European Football, identifying the strategies and the results. In this context, public support and the relation between clubs and their clients appeared as the major items.

  6. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke W Hogarth

    Full Text Available This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2 and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98 and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18 than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR distance/min (ES = 0.67 and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95 during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15 and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56. Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80 for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  7. The major traumas in youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, P; Pozzoni, R; Galli, M

    2003-11-01

    For 4 years we followed a group of football players in the youth division of a professional club, ranging in age from 9 to 19 years, and analyzed the major injuries, i.e., those which required them to be sidelined for at least 4 weeks. We observed 23 sprains, 16 fractures, 16 cases of osteochondrosis, 7 muscle lesions, 6 cases of groin pain (athletic pubalgia), and 4 tendonopathies. The most frequent sites were the knee (n=30) and the ankle (n=11); the trauma factor was predominant (65.2%) with respect to overuse; noncontact traumas were more numerous (63.8%) than those resulting from contrast. Of a total 72 cases 8 regarded goalkeepers, and the remaining 64 cases were distributed among the other positions. As regards the age categories we detected a prevalence of osteochondrosis, traumatic detachments, and some fractures in the younger players, while in the older athletes we observed more sprains, muscle lesions, and tendonopathies.

  8. A network theory analysis of football strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Javier López

    2012-01-01

    We showcase in this paper the use of some tools from network theory to describe the strategy of football teams. Using passing data made available by FIFA during the 2010 World Cup, we construct for each team a weighted and directed network in which nodes correspond to players and arrows to passes. The resulting network or graph provides a direct visual inspection of a team's strategy, from which we can identify play pattern, determine hot-spots on the play and localize potential weaknesses. Using different centrality measures, we can also determine the relative importance of each player in the game, the `popularity' of a player, and the effect of removing players from the game.

  9. First Days of Preseason Practice Pose Big Heat Risks for College Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preseason Practice Pose Big Heat Risks for College Football Players Coaches, trainers need to be aware of ... FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As college football players trade in their beach towels for helmets ...

  10. It May Be Time to Punt on Your Favorite Football Fare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May Be Time to Punt on Your Favorite Football Fare Nutrition expert says tailgating standards aren't ... flowing beer may be the norm at many football or tailgate parties, but the American Heart Association ( ...

  11. Brain Harm May Last Long After College Football Players' Final Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to growing evidence about the potential long-term brain effects of playing college football, according to the authors. The study was published online Nov. 30 in the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine . "Larger studies following these football players as ...

  12. The Professionalisation and Commercialisation of Football in China (1993–2013)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The professionalisation and commercialisation of football in China began in 1993, followed in 1994 by the launch of a league system that was modelled on the systems of Western countries. With the support of the market, football began to become self-sufficient and no longer reliant on government support. State-owned football clubs were replaced by an increasing number of privately owned and collectively owned clubs. Athletes started to play football for their own sakes, pursuing fortune, honou...

  13. Can schools buy success in college football? Coach compensation, expenditures and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mirabile, McDonald; Witte, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Using unique data of Football Bowl Subdivision college football games, we examine the determinants of coach compensation, football expenses and performance. We find that coach compensation is highly related to the coach’s past success. Additionally, coach pay is higher when the institution has a larger fan base and the program has achieved a higher profit in the previous year. Football expenses are likewise determined by institutional characteristics such as the fan base, past profitability...

  14. 恒大模式对我国职业足球发展的理性思考%Rational thinking on the occupational football development in China by the mode of Hengda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家忠; 李刚

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料法、数理统计法,分析恒大模式对我国职业足球发展的积极影响和消极影响,旨在实现我国职业足球的可持续发展。%By using the methods of literature data method,mathematical statistics,the paper analyzes the Hengda mode for the development of the Chinese professional football positive and negative influence ,in the hope of our country professional football development present situation to improve the professional management mode , combative oneself is actual circumstance reasonable signings,to carry out the rules and regulations and rewards and punishment mechanism,formulate a long-term development strategy,scientific and reasonable attention to the cultivation of reserve football talents suitable professional football in China,such as development strategy, finally realizes the sustainable development of Chinese professional football.

  15. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  16. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for talented young Danish football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    with eight of the footballers. The elite football culture have an almost magnetic attraction for the young footballer in the study. Even if the espoused value (Schein, 1990) of a good set of academic qualifications does not entirely measure up to this, the insistence from the outside world on the importance...

  17. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for talented young Danish football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

      Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young...

  18. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  19. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  20. Artificial turf football fields: environmental and mutagenicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilirò, Tiziana; Traversi, Deborah; Degan, Raffaella; Pignata, Cristina; Alessandria, Luca; Scozia, Dario; Bono, Roberto; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The public has recently raised concerns regarding potential human health and environmental risks associated with tire crumb constituents in the artificial turf of football fields. The aim of the present study was to develop an environmental analysis drawing a comparison between artificial turf football fields and urban areas relative to concentrations of particles (PM10 and PM2.5) and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic hydrocarbons (BTXs), and mutagenicity of organic extracts from PM10 and PM2.5. No significant differences were found between PM10 concentrations at an urban site and on a turf football field, both during warm and in cold seasons, either with or without on-field activity. PM2.5 concentrations were significantly greater at the urban site in the cold season as was the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10. BTXs were significantly greater at urban sites than on turf football fields on both on warm and cold days. The ratio of toluene to benzene (T/B ratio) was always comparable with that of normal urban conditions. The concentration of PAHs on the monitored football fields was comparable with urban levels during the two different sampling periods, and the contribution of PAHs released from the granular material was negligible. PM10 organic extract mutagenicity for artificial turf football fields was greater, whereas PM2.5 organic extract mutagenicity was lower, compared with the urban site studied. However, both organic extract mutagenicity values were comparable with the organic extract mutagenicity reported in the literature for urban sites. On the basis of environmental monitoring, artificial turf football fields present no more exposure risks than the rest of the city.

  1. Football Cheerings on the Content of Music and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Ozan ÇAKIR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Music as a fact which surrounds human being in all fields of life has been used as a tool for healing, communication, entertainment and also used in production wi th focusing function, in warfare with encouraging function and in sports with motivating function. (Colombe, 2006:34; Aydoğan, 2001:23. Shortly it can be claimed that music that is always in previous of movement is in relation with sports which is compose d by moving. The cheerings in sports culture are initially considered as very easy and si mple. However it can be claimed that they provide a deep and complex structure on behalf of the social events of their era. Cheerings as a part of intangible sports legacy provide the contiunity of tradition and incentive of creativity as an oral traditional form. The emotions are coming around and the memories are remembered through stimulating by music. Football always keep the attention alive therefore it gets a place in the society as a tool which entertains masses and unifies them through the same goal. The industralised structure of football is accepted as a tool of social engineering with the help of media which provides the power to create and change the agendum. In this meaning it is mentioned that football indicates the life styles, be liefs and values. In our study we will search the cheerings of spectators on the content of their relations with social conditions since 20th century in which modern football has been initially played in organised forms. In this context it is purposed to contribute into sociological analysis of modern football throughout the social meanings of football matches in different eras and socio - economic conditions and the relations between societies and football. There will be performed a theoretical research based on literature search.

  2. Statistical properties for direction alignment and chasing of players in football games

    CERN Document Server

    Narizuka, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on motion of two interacting players in football games, two velocity vectors for the pair of one player and the nearest opponent player exhibit strong alignment. Especially, we find that there exists a characteristic interpersonal distance $ r\\simeq 500 $ cm below which the circular variance for their alignment decreases rapidly. By introducing the order parameter $ \\phi $ in order to measure degree of alignment of players' velocity vectors, we also find that the angle distribution between the above nearest players' velocity vectors changes from the wrapped Cauchy to the mixture of von Mises and wrapped Cauchy distributions at $ \\phi\\simeq 0.7 $. To understand these findings, we construct a simple model with the following two rules: chasing between two players and the reset of the chasing. We numerically show that our model successfully reproduce the results obtained from the actual data. Moreover, from the numerical study, we find that there is another characteristic distance $ r\\simeq 1000 $ cm bel...

  3. Win-stay lose-shift strategy in formation changes in football

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Managerial decision making is likely to be a dominant determinant of performance of teams in team sports. Here we use Japanese and German football data to investigate correlates between temporal patterns of formation changes across matches and match results. We found that individual teams and managers both showed win-stay lose-shift behavior, a type of reinforcement learning. In other words, they tended to stick to the current formation after a win and switch to a different formation after a loss. In addition, formation changes did not affect the results of succeeding matches in most cases. The results indicate that a swift implementation of a new formation in the win-stay lose-shift manner may not be a successful managerial rule of thumb.

  4. The Australian National University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2007-01-01

    The Australian National University was established by Federal Parliament in 1946 with a mission to bring credit to the nation and to be one of the world’s great universities.It was the country’s only full-time research university at the time,and had no undergraduate teaching responsibilities.

  5. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  6. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    such as fairness, openness and egalitarianism effectively enhances cosmopolitan outlooks. It identifies the mechanisms through which these same virtues are mobilized to rationalize the failure to actualize cosmopolitanism in everyday practice. We argue that Australianness understood as the popular ‘fair...

  7. Hardening: Australian for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    defence.gov.au 38 ibid: no page no. 39 ibid: no page no. 40 Aldo Borgu , The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Australian Strategic...Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2002. Borgu Aldo, The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Canberra

  8. MORAL AND ACTION UNIT TRAINING IN A FOOTBALL TEAM GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor VASILE LIVIU ANDREI, Phd.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The popular and beautiful game of football is practised in over 200 countries, being the most played and well-known game of the humanity history. It is good to know that football is not anymore a game that answers the pleasure or need to move. In the performance sport, trai- nings and football matches are very complex and a lot more deman- ding, both mentally and physically, for the players.In modern ages, football came to be a total commitment of the play- ers. In order to accomplish the game goals at very high levels, football uses flexible techniques, and starting playing it at very early ages is esential and really useful. The development of this game determined the usage of some general and specific strategies. These strategies rec- ommend methods and means that increase the children’s and teenagers’ training and also focus on organisation aspects of the game, develop- ment of playing capacity and of concepts and techniques used to build and support the unity of a team.

  9. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis; Oliveira, Jose; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Rebelo, Antonio; Brito, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22) and a control group (CG; n = 25). The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results: The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05). However, the FG performed better (P football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest. PMID:26448848

  10. Historical Patterns and Variation in Treatment of Injuries in NFL (National Football League) Players and NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M

    We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P football players.

  11. Using Appreciative Inquiry to Explore Australian Football Coaches' Experience with Game Sense Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a project framed as a strengths-based case study in the field of sport coaching. The aim of this research was twofold. First, the project trialled. Appreciate Inquiry (AI) for sport pedagogy research and explain how AI can be used in sport coaching research. Second, using an appreciative perspective, the aim of the research…

  12. Sport and Children's Nutrition: What Can We Learn from the Junior Australian Football Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sam; Velardo, Stefania; Drummond, Murray; Drummond, Claire

    2016-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that sport participation inherently enhances health among youth. Such a perception often motivates parents to encourage children's initial and ongoing involvement in organised sport and physical activity. While sport certainly comprises an important vehicle for accruing physical activity, the sport environment may not…

  13. A European Football Family? German and British Television Broadcasts of the 2010 Football World Cup and the Representation of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Lichtenstein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Football World Cup tournament ranks amongst the largest international sports events, captivating vast live and television audiences. A key characteristic of football can be seen in its community-building function. Football provides opportunities for identification, strengthening local and national bonds. But does this also apply to the still vague category of Europe? Does the televised coverage of the Football World Cup hold the potential to foster a European identity? This paper employs a quantitative content analysis of the German and British live-commentaries of the 2010 World Cup matches between European and non-European teams. It analyzes and compares the description and evaluation of European and non-European participants. TV-commentaries have proven an ability to influence the audiences´ perception of the match. It is therefore assumed that the commentaries contribute to a feeling of European identity and unity – if they make the European category salient. The analysis reveals some differences in the portrayal of European and non-European participants with the commentators paying more attention to participants from European countries. Whereas the evaluation of the European and non-European teams differs, the evaluation of the individual football players is well-balanced. In regard to the analyzed criteria, British and German commentaries tend to be very similar.

  14. A Topic Model Approach to Representing and Classifying Football Plays

    KAUST Repository

    Varadarajan, Jagannadan

    2013-09-09

    We address the problem of modeling and classifying American Football offense teams’ plays in video, a challenging example of group activity analysis. Automatic play classification will allow coaches to infer patterns and tendencies of opponents more ef- ficiently, resulting in better strategy planning in a game. We define a football play as a unique combination of player trajectories. To this end, we develop a framework that uses player trajectories as inputs to MedLDA, a supervised topic model. The joint maximiza- tion of both likelihood and inter-class margins of MedLDA in learning the topics allows us to learn semantically meaningful play type templates, as well as, classify different play types with 70% average accuracy. Furthermore, this method is extended to analyze individual player roles in classifying each play type. We validate our method on a large dataset comprising 271 play clips from real-world football games, which will be made publicly available for future comparisons.

  15. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...... with other field tests the Yo-Yo IR2 has become an important tool for monitoring the physical fitness of football players. However, the burden of testing, for players (physically and mentally) and the coaching staff (time consuming), is large and there is a probability that the tests may contain overlapping...... on the Yo-Yo IR2 test and other field- and laboratory tests of intermittent interval training performed as anaerobic speed-endurance production training is very limited for football players. Hence, this latter question is examined in Study IV.In Study I we find no differences in anthropometric...

  16. Stretching and injury prevention in football: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2011-04-01

    Stretching exercises are regularly recommended as a part of football-training sessions and in preparation for competition. There is little sound empirical evidence, however, to substantiate the role of stretching exercises and consequently increased flexibility on injury prevention in football. Furthermore, in the last decade or so, fundamental research has shed some light on the biomechanical adaptation of the muscle-tendon unit following different stretching protocols, improving knowledge about the topic and enabling better understanding of the stretching-injury relationship. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on the role of stretching and/or increased flexibility on injury prevention in football, with presented results analyzed in the context of the up-to-date basic science research evidence.

  17. Rigler’s sign and the football sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Daya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rigler’s sign was first described in 1941 by L G Rigler as a new radiological sign for recognising free air in the peritoneal cavity on supine radiograph. The presence of pneumoperitoneum allows free intraperitoneal air to be contrasted with intraluminal gas, accentuating the wall of gas-containing viscera. It is observed in infants and very ill patients where only limited radiographs of the abdomen are possible. The football sign was first described by R E Miller in the 1960s. Seen on supine abdominal radiographs, this describes an oval radiolucency resembling an American football. It is important for the radiologist to recognise the supporting signs of pneumoperitoneum, such as Rigler’s sign and the football sign, on supine abdominal radiographs, especially in neonates and infants, where erect chest/abdominal radiographs are not always possible.

  18. Football and Film: Comrade President – Center-Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the first in the planned series of texts on football in films and TV programmes in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Croatia. The film Comrade President – Center-Forward (1960, directed by Žorž Skrigin, labelled as the genre of “film humoresque”, presents a ramifying and intertwined story about a small provincial town. The narrative is structured around a celebration of the agricultural cooperative and an important football match played by the local team. Through these two narrative lines the film speaks about the invention of traditions, modernization and industrialization, clothes, arts, popular music, and the elements of romantic comedy and the events surrounding the football match present the media through which the messages are conveyed about the phenomena in a small Serbian town and wider, in the society of the 1950s.

  19. Physical preparation of sportsmen specialized in mini-football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumetz E.A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of different facilities and methods of education is investigational speed-power qualities of sportsmen. In an experiment 50 sportsmen took part in age of 18-20 years. The scientifically grounded recommendations are given, on development of speed and power qualities of young sportsmen. Forming possibilities are certain for the footballers of ability to be oriented in the conditions of difficult motive activity. Character and volume is exposed speed-power works of footballers in the process of game. The complex of proof-testing is developed.

  20. Reading Ronaldo: contingent whiteness in the football media

    OpenAIRE

    Hylton, K; Lawrence, S

    2014-01-01

    Ever since his introduction to the first-­-team at Manchester United FC, Cristiano Ronaldo Dos Santos Aveiro has been recognised as one of the footballing world’s most stand-­-out football players. In turn, Ronaldo has drawn the attention of scholars working across a number of disciplines. While sports economists and sociologists of sport, amongst others, have contributed to a growing literature about Ronaldo and the social implications of his on and off-­-field behaviour, few critical analys...

  1. Managing the delivery of iconic football stadiums in England

    OpenAIRE

    Aritua, B.; Bower, D.A.; Turner, M., Beckett, J. and Afton, B.

    2008-01-01

    The English football premier league has become the most\\ud popular sports league in the world; with ardent fans and\\ud audiences all over the world. The potential business\\ud opportunities that this growth holds have therefore\\ud attracted investors who are keen to buy shares in the\\ud clubs and sign up the best footballers that money can buy.\\ud Underpinning the growth in all of the premier league clubs\\ud is a desire to make a distinct statement of identity as part\\ud of a competitive strat...

  2. La diffusion du football de haut niveau en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc RAVENEL

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available La pratique du football de haut niveau s'est diffusée sur le territoire français selon deux modèles complémentaires: une diffusion hiérarchique privilégiant les plus grandes villes du pays; une diffusion de proximité soucieuse d'imitation et indispensable à la création des compétitions. Les dirigeants du football ont valorisé le processus par l'intégration de nouvelles aires géographiques, évitant ainsi la saturation du système.

  3. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  4. What’s in a game? A systems approach to enhancing performance analysis in football

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Performance analysis (PA) in football is considered to be an integral component of understanding the requirements for optimal performance. Despite vast amounts of research in this area key gaps remain, including what comprises PA in football, and methods to minimise research-practitioner gaps. The aim of this study was to develop a model of the football match system in order to better describe and understand the components of football performance. Such a model could inform the design of new PA methods. Method Eight elite level football Subject Method Experts (SME’s) participated in two workshops to develop a systems model of the football match system. The model was developed using a first-of-its-kind application of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) in football. CWA has been used in many other non-sporting domains to analyse and understand complex systems. Result Using CWA, a model of the football match ‘system’ was developed. The model enabled identification of several PA measures not currently utilised, including communication between team members, adaptability of teams, playing at the appropriate tempo, as well as attacking and defending related measures. Conclusion The results indicate that football is characteristic of a complex sociotechnical system, and revealed potential new and unique PA measures regarded as important by SME’s, yet not currently measured. Importantly, these results have identified a gap between the current PA research and the information that is meaningful to football coaches and practitioners. PMID:28212392

  5. Fiscal Responsibility and Australian Commonwealth , State and Territory Government Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Wines

    2006-01-01

    The government sector in Australia has seen the introduction of accrual accounting principles in recent years. However, this process has been complicated by the presence of two alternative financial reporting frameworks in the form of a) the Government Finance Statistics (GFS) uniform framework and b) the accrual accounting rules specified in Australian professional accounting standards, principally AAS 31. While a variety of cash and accrual based measurements are available pursuant to these...

  6. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index,…

  7. Football Pools and the Reactivity Series of Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heselden, Russ

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity which presents the reactivity of metals series as a football pool with more reactive metals at the top of the table and unreactive metals at the bottom. Describes how the activity can be applied in different ways for different ability groups. (Author/MM)

  8. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  9. Body size and composition of National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Torine, Jon C; Silvestre, Ricardo; French, Duncan N; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a profile of body size and composition of National Football League (NFL) players prior to the start of the regular season. Fifty-three members of the Indianapolis Colts professional football team were measured for height, body mass, and percentage body fat using the BOD POD air-displacement plethysmography system during summer camp of the 2003 football season. These data were categorized by position for comparison with previous studies of NFL football players. The relationships observed were as follows (= represents nonsignificant; > represents p Linebackers > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Body Mass: Offensive Line = Defensive Line > Tight Ends = Linebackers > Running Backs = Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters > Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Percentage Body Fat: Offensive Line > Defensive Line > Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters = Linebackers = Tight Ends > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Comparisons to teams in the 1970s indicate that body mass has increased only for offensive and defensive linemen; however, height and body fat among player positions have not dramatically changed. Furthermore, the body mass index is not an accurate measure or representation of body fat or obesity in NFL players. These data provide a basic template for size profiles and differences among various positions and allow comparisons with other studies for changes in the NFL over the past 3 decades.

  10. A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Craig

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.

  11. Sideline concussion testing in high school football on Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Duenas

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The feasibility of SCT use in Guam high school football was established and our pilot study identified areas for improvement. Established definitions of concussion and RTP guidelines were lacking. Therefore, an opportunity exists through public health efforts that involve the entire community to increase concussion awareness and reduce injuries in high school sports on Guam.

  12. Automatic recognition of offensive team formation in american football plays

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2013-06-01

    Compared to security surveillance and military applications, where automated action analysis is prevalent, the sports domain is extremely under-served. Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. American football is the most popular sport in the United States, however most game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takes many man hours per week. These two statistics are also the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67% accuracy in classifying the offensive team\\'s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Designing Experiences to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  14. Collapse of the roof of a football stadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, H.; Renier, B.; Burggraaf, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2011 the Dutch football club FC Twente was building an extension of their stadium De Grolsch Veste, to increase the capacity of the stadium. On july 7th 2011, during construction, the roof of the partially finished extension collapsed. As a result of this accident two workers were k

  15. The Comparison of Some Physical and Physiological Parameters of Footballers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Ezgi Samar; Beyleroglu, Malik; Ulukan, Hasan; Konuklar, Ercan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Erbay, Adem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it's to aim for comparison of some physical and physiological parameters of footballers at "The Erenler Sport Team" and "Didim Municipality Sport Team". Thirty volunteers sportsman from each two teams joined to this research. It measured the values of age, weight, length, flexibility, balance, power of left-right…

  16. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers' Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...

  17. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers’ Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...

  18. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index, "t"(244)…

  19. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  20. Modifying Flag Football for Gender Equitable Engagement in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Flag or touch football is a popular activity unit in American secondary physical education curricula. However, unlike other sports its stigmatization as a masculine-typed activity and frequent inequitable distribution of game play opportunities at the skill positions (e.g., receiver, quarterback) results in the marginalization of female…

  1. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  2. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (pfootball players compared with patients without a history of TBI.

  3. Football on television: technological evolution and entertainment language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor José Siquieri Savenhago

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first broadcast of a World Cup footballon television, to Brazil was in 1970, via Embratel. Before that, the people followed the games of the Brazilian team on the radio. Gradually, the owners of television networks realized that football could generate good financial results, with the exposing of advertisements during the broadcasts, similar to what was already done on the radio. Thus, the television, focused on the growth of audience and number of advertisers, covered football with a language of entertainment. The narration of the matches, in which the figure of the narrator is more like that of an entertainer, and improvement of the transmission technologies that improve the image quality every day, take away from football the characteristic of being just a sport to occupy the place of an entertainment. In this context, the sport becomes an article of purchase and sale. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how this entertainment language was made up on Brazilian television, based on the broadcast sports, especially football, and like the television, which represented a technological leapin the country over the radio, assumed of the sport, country’s most popular as a commodity, interfering with the dynamics of Brazilian society. Finally, an attempt to understand how the researches that allow a technological development change behaviors and vice versa, that is, how the demands of society lead to a race to develop new technologies.

  4. Women's football: Player characteristics and demands of the game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Martínez-Lagunas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of scientific investigations on women's football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game has considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women's game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men's football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women's football was still in its infancy and there were only a few studies to report on. The other review was more recent. Nonetheless, its main focus was on the game and training demands of senior elite female players. Thus, information on female footballers of lower competitive levels and younger age groups was not included. Consequently, an updated review is needed in this area. The present article therefore aims to provide an overview of a series of studies that have been published so far on the specific characteristics of female football players and the demands of match-play. Mean values reported in the literature for age (12–27 years, body height (155–174 cm, body mass (48–72 kg, percent body fat (13%–29%, maximal oxygen uptake (45.1–55.5 mL/kg/min, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (780–1379 m, maximum heart rate (189–202 bpm, 30 m sprint times (4.34–4.96 s, and counter-movement jump or vertical jump (28–50 cm vary mostly according to the players' competitive level and positional role. There are also some special considerations that coaches and other practitioners should be aware of when working with female athletes such as the menstrual cycle, potential pregnancy and lactation, common injury risks (particularly knee and head injuries and health concerns (e.g., female athlete triad, iron deficiency, and anemia that may affect players' football performance, health or return to play. Reported mean values for total distance

  5. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Cary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  6. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p football match play.

  7. Australian University International Student Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  8. A Study about Problem Solving Skill Variable in Terms of Some Variables of Footballers Who Play Football Professionally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Selahattin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the problem solving skill levels of sportsmen who play football professionally, and to determine whether problem solving skill levels differ according to sportsmen's, sports club, age, marital status, parents' educational status, father's occupation, occupation in the game, year of playing football…

  9. Effect of specific exercise-based football injury prevention programmes on the overall injury rate in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    or sham intervention) among football players. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. RESULTS: 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA...

  10. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.

  11. Creating a Supportive Environment among Youth Football Players: A Qualitative Study of French and Norwegian Youth Grassroots Football Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Torill; Van Hoye, Aurelie; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Samdal, Oddrun; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The health promoting benefits of sport participation are under-utilized and should be further developed, particularly at the grassroots level. The purpose of this paper is to examine how grassroots coaches in youth football perceive their coaching practices after participating in a community-based coach education program aimed at…

  12. The Australian Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Howe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients recently became the target of an unprecedented internet campaign by an individual who disagrees with the content and conclusions of a paper published in the journal last year, viz. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased” by Alan W. Barclay and Jennie Brand-Miller, Nutrients 2011, 3, 491–504. Regrettably, his criticism has extended to the journal and its peer review processes for permitting publication of the article. [...

  13. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise......, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing...... walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective...

  14. Evaluating a nationwide recreational football intervention: Recruitment, attendance, adherence, exercise intensity, and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preinterven......-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.......The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population...

  15. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Nielsen, André Bjørn; Elbe, A.-M.;

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011–2012 and a comparison...... sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level...... in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km2), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely...

  16. How does interorganisational implementation behaviour challenge the success of Football Fitness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the role of the interorganisational implementation behaviour of the relevant actors in the implementation of Football Fitness, a Danish football-based, health-related activity. Football Fitness was designed by the Danish Football Association in 2010 and introduced in several...... volunteer football clubs in 2011. Today, around 200 of ∼1,600 potential clubs are involved. The analysis deployed a qualitative approach, including document analysis, individual interviews and focus group interviews. The theoretical framework is rooted in policy implementation theory. The findings reveal...... three crucial interconnected factors influencing interorganisational implementation behaviour and representing complications for the successful implementation of Football Fitness: (1) The implementation is being carried out by multiple actors with different implementation tasks. These actors operate...

  17. Emerging data on the incidence of concussion in football practice at all levels of amateur play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    There has been increasing concern, particularly in the US, about potential long-term neurological deterioration syndromes seen in the US football players. Recurrent concussions are a potential area of concern. The authors of this paper have used data bases from three levels of amateur US football to identify the rate and risk of concussion injury in both football games and practice at the youth, high school, and college levels. This information is very important initial data around concussion rates at these levels.

  18. Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Mohr, Magni

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO...... adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women....

  19. ‘Re-branding’ women’s football by means of a new sports product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    . This article investigates how a new sports product, i.e. a new football (soccer ball) labelled ‘Sensational 1’, and its interaction with positive participation numbers concerning women’s football in Denmark can enhance the brand equity of women’s football in Denmark and exploit the associated commercial...... opportunities. In doing so, the article discusses how this development relates to factors like winning and success, passion and the business of sports, accountability and role models, brand articulation and marketability in the context of women’s football in Denmark....

  20. Understanding the effect of seams on the aerodynamics of an association football

    OpenAIRE

    Carrè, M. J.; Goodwill, S. R.; Haake, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    The aerodynamic properties of an association football were measured using a wind tunnel arrangement. A third scale model of a generic football (with seams) was used in addition to a 'mini-football'. As the wind speed was increased, the drag coefficient decreased from 0.5 to 0.2, suggesting a transition from laminar to turbulent behaviour in the boundary layer. For spinning footballs, the Magnus effect was observed and it was found that reverse Magnus effects were possible at low Reynolds numb...

  1. Effect of football or strength training on functional ability and physical performance in untrained old men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T R; Schmidt, J F; Nielsen, J J;

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 16 weeks of football or strength training on performance and functional ability were investigated in 26 (68.2 ± 3.2 years) untrained men randomized into a football (FG; n = 9), a strength training (ST; n = 9), or a control group (CO; n = 8). FG and ST trained 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0......% lower (P football and strength training for old men improves functional ability and physiological response to submaximal exercise, while football...

  2. Estimating Contact Exposure in Football Using the Head Impact Exposure Estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Littleton, Ashley C; Cox, Leah M; DeFreese, J D; Varangis, Eleanna; Lynall, Robert C; Schmidt, Julianne D; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2015-07-15

    Over the past decade, there has been significant debate regarding the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts on short and long-term neurological impairment. This debate remains unresolved, because valid epidemiological estimates of athletes' total contact exposure are lacking. We present a measure to estimate the total hours of contact exposure in football over the majority of an athlete's lifespan. Through a structured oral interview, former football players provided information related to primary position played and participation in games and practice contacts during the pre-season, regular season, and post-season of each year of their high school, college, and professional football careers. Spring football for college was also included. We calculated contact exposure estimates for 64 former football players (n = 32 college football only, n = 32 professional and college football). The head impact exposure estimate (HIEE) discriminated between individuals who stopped after college football, and individuals who played professional football (p < 0.001). The HIEE measure was independent of concussion history (p = 0.82). Estimating total hours of contact exposure may allow for the detection of differences between individuals with variation in subconcussive impacts, regardless of concussion history. This measure is valuable for the surveillance of subconcussive impacts and their associated potential negative effects.

  3. EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OCCUPATIONAL BURNOUT AND JOB SATISFACTION OF PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between occupational burnout and job satisfaction levels of professional football players. Data was collected in 2011–2012 football seasons. 79 players from Turkey's Super League, 90 players from first, 135 football players from second and 112 football players from third division; totally 416 football players participated. “Burnout Inventory" with 22 items, developed by Maslach (1981 and adapted to Turkish by Ergin (1992 was used. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire 20 "- Short Form” developed by Weiss et al (1967 and adapted to Turkish by Baycan (1985 was used. SPSS was used for the analysis of the data. Super League football players general job satisfaction levels were significantly higher than 2nd and 3rd division football players. The burnout levels of Super League football players were significantly lower than the others. The occupation burnout and job satisfaction levels of football players have a negative relationship mutually ; while job satisfaction level increased, burnout levels of players reduced. Most remarkable part is that Midfielders have lower external satisfaction than goalkeepers.

  4. Discussion of Tactical Consciousness of Teenager Football Player%青少年足球运动员战术意识培养初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计国涛

    2015-01-01

    在对足球战术意识的理解基础上,详细阐明青少年足球运动员战术意识训练与培养的方法。足球意识是影响运动员运动技术水平的重要因素,足球意识表现为运动员对比赛现实情景的观察感知、瞬时的思维判断与决策意向以及准确合理的行动应答。影响运动员足球意识的心理因素主要是记忆与思维、行动与反馈以及无意识控制机能对个人技术打法运用的控制能力。足球意识的培养途径有:学习足球理论知识;掌握足球运动的规律和方法;在平时训练中提出要求;发展专门性知觉;增加对抗和配合体验等。%Based on the understanding of the football tactical consciousness, the article illustrates the training and cultivating methods for the football tactical consciousness of the teens. Football tactical consciousness is the key factor influencing the athletes' skills, which reflects on the observation of the situation, instant judgment and solution, and accurate action response. The influencing psychological factors are memory and thinking, action and response, and the controlling mechanism under sub consciousness for the operating skills. The cultivation methods are learning the theoretical football knowledge, mastering the rules and methods, raising the requirements in the common training courses, developing specializing consciousness and add contact and cooperating experience.

  5. Environment and morphology in Australian Aborigines: a re-analysis of the Birdsell database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Ian; Bulbeck, David

    2007-09-01

    Pursuant to his major research interest in the cultural ecology of hunter-gatherers, Birdsell collected an unparalleled body of phenotypic data on Aboriginal Australians during the mid twentieth century. Birdsell did not explicitly relate the geographic patterning in his data to Australia's climatic variation, instead arguing that the observable differences between groups reflect multiple origins of Australian Aborigines. In this article, bivariate correlation and multivariate analyses demonstrate statistically significant associations between climatic variables and the body build of Australians that are consistent with the theoretical expectations of Bergmann's and Allen's rules. While Australian Aborigines in comparison to Eurasian and New World populations can be generally described as long-headed, linear in build, and characterized by elongated distal limbs, the variation in this morphological pattern across the continent evidently reflects biological adaptation to local Holocene climates. These results add to a growing body of evidence for the role of environmental selection in the development of modern human variation.

  6. VIOLENCE MANAGEMENT IN FOOTBALL?: CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ENGLAND AND BELGIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Segura M. Trejo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article arises from the need to review and think approaches of regulation and management of violence in football spectacle regarding the installed complaining standpoint of heavy-hand. Taking into consideration the Mexican and the Argetinian contexts, it is possible to observe how media as well as other actors involved in the business quote time and again England´s success regarding their hooligans. In opposition to this vision that has been translated into security arrangements. Two management approaches are here compared: the commercial transformation of the British football and the Belgic experience of sanctions combined with social prevention schemas. The objective aims at generating public policy discussion in order to find useful and discernible tools for other contexts.

  7. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  8. Technical Analysis on Mechanical Model Based Football Curveball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, from the angles the physics and biomechanics, in the case of the curveball generated by the rotation problem analysis and exposition, considering the speed, rotation, the wall, the goalkeeper, goaltender factors and football running track and the theory trajectory deviation factor, making the model as much as possible to simulate the actual effect and using the MATLAB software to draw the flight of the ball trajectory simulation. Reference designed for teaching, training and competition as well as to further deepen the awareness and understanding of football curveball. It can improve the free kick guidance and not only help the shooter to select the best shooting methods, but also for the goalkeeper has targeted to fighting with reference.

  9. Strategic Development of the Manchester United Football Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad ROSCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The entry in an informational society which is developing day by day has increased the importance of economics on the professional sports market. The ways of economy and sport have aways met, but they were never so interdependent as in our days. In order to resist on the market, but especially in order to be competitive and to obtain sporting succes, a modern football club must consider managerial practices which to permit a good economic development. Manchester United is one of the most diversified football clubs in the world, earning income from various markets, such as the gambling, clothing, hospitality and alimentation or entertainment markets. The research presents some of the diversification forms Manchester United has used in order to grow its financial incomes.

  10. Biomechanical performance of leather and modern football helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Daniel, Ray W; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-09-01

    With the increased national concern about concussions in football, recent research has focused on evaluating the impact performance of modern football helmets. Specifically, this technical note offers a biomechanical analysis of classic leather helmets compared with modern helmets. Furthermore, modern helmets were examined to illustrate the performance differences between the better- and worse-performing ones. A total of 1224 drop tests were performed from a range of drop heights and impact locations on 11 different helmet types (10 modern and 1 leather helmet model). The resulting head acceleration was used to assess the risk of concussion for each drop test. The results of this analysis demonstrate that modern helmets are significantly and substantially superior to leather helmets in all impact scenarios, and that notable differences exist among modern helmets.

  11. Exploring Biographical Learning in Danish Elite Football Coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Exploring Biographical Learning In Danish Elite Football Coaching Mette Krogh Christensen Abstract for EASS 2011(300 words) Background: There is a growing body of studies in sports coaching cultures, comprising research focusing on the individual learning processes and life histories of elite...... coaches. Even if high performance sport has become increasingly professionalized, the role of the elite coach and the developmental pathways of the coaches differ widely in both areas of experience and amount of experience. Objectives: This paper draws on theories on biographical learning...... football coaches (n=8) about their pathways in elite sport. Using Kvale’s recommendations, thematic analysis was conducted by the use of meaning coding. In addition, a theoretical reading of the interview was conducted on the background of Alheit’s concept of biographicity and Werthner and Trudel...

  12. A network-based ranking system for American college football

    CERN Document Server

    Park, J; Park, Juyong

    2005-01-01

    American college football faces a conflict created by the desire to stage national championship games between the best teams of a season when there is no conventional playoff system to decide which those teams are. Instead, ranking of teams is based on their record of wins and losses during the season, but each team plays only a small fraction of eligible opponents, making the system underdetermined or contradictory or both. It is an interesting challenge to create a ranking system that at once is mathematically well-founded, gives results in general accord with received wisdom concerning the relative strengths of the teams, and is based upon intuitive principles, allowing it to be accepted readily by fans and experts alike. Here we introduce a one-parameter ranking method that satisfies all of these requirements and is based on a network representation of college football schedules.

  13. Racial athletic stereotype confirmation in college football recruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.

  14. «EURO 2008» - EUROPEAN FOOTBALL CHAMPIONSHIPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland wishes to alert CERN to the potential impact of the three football matches to be staged at Geneva’s La Praille Stadium on 7, 11 and 15 June 2008 as part of the "Euro 2008" European Football Championships: hotel capacity and air, rail and road infrastructures will be heavily in demand, special security and transportation measures commensurate with the exceptional nature of this event will be put in place by the relevant authorities. The Mission recommends that these circumstances should be taken into account in the planning of meetings or other events which may take place over this period, and in particular that necessary hotel bookings be made as far in advance as possible. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.geneve.ch/euro2008/ Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  15. «EURO 2008» - European Football Championships

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland wishes to alert CERN to the potential impact of the three football matches to be staged at Geneva’s La Praille Stadium on 7, 11 and 15 June 2008 as part of the "Euro 2008" European Football Championships: hotel capacity and air, rail and road infrastructures will be heavily in demand, special security and transportation measures commensurate with the exceptional nature of this event will be put in place by the relevant authorities. The Mission recommends that these circumstances should be taken into account in the planning of meetings or other events which may take place over this period, and in particular that necessary hotel bookings be made as far in advance as possible. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.geneve.ch/euro2008/ Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.chhttp://www.cern.ch/relations

  16. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Rikkert, Joris; Haes, Vincent De; Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D; Theelen, Thomas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a video set-up (study 1) and a retrospective study on professional football clubs' performances dependent on their outfit colours (study 2). The studies were conducted with 18 human volunteers aged 15-18 years (study 1) and league results from 10 professional European football teams over 17 years (1995-2013) (study 2). We analysed the number of correct assessments of the positions of virtual football players with different outfit colours (study 1) and analysed the relationship between match results and outfits' colours (study 2). Study 1 showed that the position of players wearing white outfits was better assessed in 5.2% of the trials compared to players wearing green outfits (P = 0.007). Study 2 showed that Manchester City conceded less goals against in away games in highly visible kits (r = 0.62; P = 0.024), while Newcastle United conceded less goals and won more points while playing in kits associated with low visibility (r = 0.63; P = 0.007; r = 0.50; P = 0.040, respectively). We conclude that the colour of football outfits affects evaluations of football players' positions on the field, with white tricots resulting in the best location assessment. The outfit colour may indirectly influence football match results, warranting more attention to the home and away shirts by team managers and football scientists.

  17. Left wind forward in football (soccer). Khinanthropometry and footprint analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero de Lucas, A.; Cabañas Armesilla, M.D.; Maestre López, I.

    2004-01-01

    Kinanthropometry is the study of size, shape, proportionality, body composition, biological maturation and body function with the objective of understanding the process of growth, exercise, sport performance and nutrition. It has been accepted measurements in the right side of the subject as equivalent of the overall sportsman. Right and left side variations therefore have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in left handed football players. Materials and Methods: Analysis ...

  18. Determinants of group cohesion on the football team.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Sarhan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is shown analysis of the determinants of cohesion and their manifestation in athletes - football players. We consider personal factors and their relationship to credible group cohesion among players. Established that the determinants of group cohesion are a factor with "emotional instability - emotional stability," the experience of the team, normative behavior (factor G, the factor Q2: «conformism - non-conformism," resistance to conflict, factor A "closed - sociability" and the factor F: «restraint - expressiveness."

  19. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-02-15

    Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE. Future research is needed to investigate the pathomechanism underlying the development of CSP after repetitive head impacts, and its potential association with neuropathologically confirmed CTE.

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Violent Behavior and Participation in Football during Adolescence: Findings From a Sample of Sibling Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…

  1. 76 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and... Lake Erie during the BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks. This temporary safety..., Bowling Green State University will hold its BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks,...

  2. BCS or Just BS: How College Football Could Crown the Wrong National Champion? Just Do the Math--Correctly!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, C.E. Wynn; Hornyak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 college football season is here, but there has been a continuing controversy swirling over how the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) selects its national champion. College football uses a multi-criterion decision matrix (MCDM) evaluation technique to determine which two teams will play for the national championship. We analyzed the BCS…

  3. Cervical stenosis in a professional rugby league football player: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon the athlete restricting himself from further trauma during games, which is a challenge for a professional athlete. Case presentation A 30-year old male front row Australian rugby league player presented complaining of neck pain after a hyperflexion and compressive injury during a game. Repeated trauma over a four month period resulted in radicular pain. Radiographs revealed decreased disc height at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels and mild calcification within the anterior longitudinal ligament at the C6-C7 level. MRI revealed a right postero-lateral disc protrusion at the C6-C7 level causing a C7 nerve root compression. Conclusion Recommendations from the available literature at the present time suggest that conservative management of cervical discogenic pain and disc protrusion, including chiropractic manipulation and ancillary therapies, can be successful in the absence of progressive neurological deficit. The current case highlights the initial successful management of a football athlete, and the later unsuccessful management. This case highlights the issues involvement in the management of a collision sport athlete with a serious neck injury.

  4. Compression and texture in socks enhance football kicking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hosni; Davids, Keith; Chow, Jia Yi; Kerr, Graham

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe effects of wearing textured insoles and clinical compression socks on organisation of lower limb interceptive actions in developing athletes of different skill levels in association football. Six advanced learners and six completely novice football players (15.4±0.9years) performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity, in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI) and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI). Reflective markers were placed on key anatomical locations and the ball to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) movement recording and analysis. Data on 3D kinematic variables and initial ball velocity were analysed using one-way mixed model ANOVAs. Results revealed that wearing textured and compression materials enhanced performance in key variables, such as the maximum velocity of the instep kick and increased initial ball velocity, among advanced learners compared to the use of non-textured and compression materials. Adding texture to football boot insoles appeared to interact with compression materials to improve kicking performance, captured by these important measures. This improvement in kicking performance is likely to have occurred through enhanced somatosensory system feedback utilised for foot placement and movement organisation of the lower limbs. Data suggested that advanced learners were better at harnessing the augmented feedback information from compression and texture to regulate emerging movement patterns compared to novices.

  5. Home advantage and referee bias in European football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumas, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage is well documented in a wide range of team sports including association football (soccer). Home team crowd support has been shown to be a likely causal factor and its influence on referee decision-making appears to play a significant role. Match data from the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League and Europa League were used to investigate referee bias in terms of the association between match location (home vs. away) and disciplinary sanctions used by football referees. The adjusted mean number of yellow cards received by home and away teams and the ratios of these means were estimated from Poisson regression models. After controlling for within-match measures of attacking dominance referees in the Champions League and Europa League issued 25% (pteams than to home teams. The higher level of home team bias in the Champions League appeared to be mainly due to higher crowd densities. In a combined analysis of both UEFA leagues the magnitude of referee bias increased with increasing crowd density (pteam performance may over-estimate the extent of referee bias in terms of the number of disciplinary sanctions used.

  6. The Open Sore of Football: Aggressive Violent Behavior and Hooliganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumusgul Osman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggression and violence have been a customary part of life that mankind has had to live with from the beginning of time; it has been accepted by society even though it expresses endless negativity. Aggression and violence can find a place in sports events and football games because of the social problems of the audience watching the competitions or games, which sometimes fall into the category of hooliganism. Turkey is one of the countries that should consider this problem to be a serious social problem. Even during 2014 and 2015, a relatively short period of time, there were significant hazardous acts committed by hooligans. In February 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Liverpool and Arsenal in England; in March 2014, a game between Trabzonspor and Fenerbahce was left half-finished because of violent acts in the stadium that caused players in the pitch to believe that they could not leave stadium alive, although they finally left after a few hours; in another incident in March 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Helsingborg and Djugarden in Sweden; in November 2014, one supporter was killed and 14 supporters were injured before the game between Atletico Madrid and Deportivo in Spain. These are all examples of aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football. This paper aims to discuss aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football, especially in recent years, and investigate what can be done to prevent these acts from occurring again in the future by examining them in hindsight.

  7. "Score in French": Motivating Boys with Football in Key Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses "Score in French," an innovative football-related languages project designed by the University of Southampton to motivate boys in French at Key Stage 3 (ages 11-14). The article starts by explaining the rationale for the choice of football as the topic for a project aimed at motivating boys. It considers the main reasons why…

  8. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  9. In-season head-coach dismissals and the performance of professional football teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the causes and consequences of in-season changes of the head-coach of association football teams. We exploit data from the highest level of Dutch professional football during 14 successive seasons. An in-season change of the head-coach depends on recent match results and the diffe

  10. In-Season Head-Coach Dismissals and the Performance of Professional Football Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; van Tuijl, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the causes and consequences of in-season changes of the headcoach of association football teams. We exploit data from the highest level of Dutch professional football during 14 successive seasons. An in-season change of the head-coach depends on recent match results and the differ

  11. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term recreational football training on blood pressure (BP), fat mass, and fitness in sedentary, 35-50-year-old premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Forty-one untrained, hypertensive women were randomized into a football training group (n = 21...

  12. How to win a football match in Cameroon : an anthropological study of Africa's most popular sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannenborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Footballers Essomba and Ashu, team manager Kalla and spiritual adviser Zé are the key characters in this anthropological study of football in Cameroon, which is based on research carried out in 2003. It might seem that a well-organized club with professional executives, a team of talented players an

  13. Interactive football training based on rebounders with hit position sensing and audio/light feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård;

    A Danish football club has established a (24/7/365) football training facility, where the authors developed an interactive training installation (http://vimeo.com/28446312). The training installation consist of a 12*12 m square with 4 M­Station Pro rebounders equipped with sensors that enable hit...

  14. Fan relationship management in football - going beyond traditional product offerings to win the hearts of fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The management and control of fan relations should go beyond a football club’s traditional product and service offerings and touch the important experiential side of the football economy. This will create a stronger platform to optimize ROI, ROE and ROO relating to different fan segments....

  15. Application of four different football match analysis systems: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Mujika, Inigo; Hewitt, Adam;

    2010-01-01

    Using a video-based time-motion analysis system, a semi-automatic multiple-camera system, and two commercially available GPS systems (GPS-1; 5 Hz and GPS-2; 1 Hz), we compared activity pattern and fatigue development in the same football match. Twenty football players competing in the Spanish sec...

  16. The Economic Efficiency of European Football Clubs--Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatunin, Aleksey V.; Vishnyakova, Angelina B.; Sherstneva, Natalia L.; Mironova, Svetlana P.; Dneprov, Sergey A.; Grabozdin, Yuriy P.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper lies in the fact that football business has grown significantly in the past 20 years and football clubs have become large companies, which in an effort to be profitable and successful on the field need to improve the efficiency of their business. The aim of this article is to measure economic efficiency of 48 big…

  17. Project NFFL: The Niagara Fantasy Football League and Sport Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dexter J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates are that 32 million people currently play fantasy football every year. Project Based Learning (PBL) is one method of engaging students in the educational process. This paper outlines a semester long project undertaken by undergraduate sport management students that uses fantasy football as a vehicle to enhance student knowledge of basic…

  18. "Why Can't Girls Play Football?" Gender Dynamics and the Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheryl; Paechter, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the involvement of boys and girls in playground football. It is based on research conducted with 10- to 11-year-old pupils at two state primary schools in London. Boys and girls were found to draw on gender constructs that impacted variously on their involvement in playground football. The performance of masculinity through…

  19. Affordances shape pass kick behavior in association football : effects of distance and social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Heijmerikx, Johan; de Poel, Harjo J.

    2011-01-01

    A prerequisite for accurate passing in association football is that a player perceives the affordances, that is, the opportunities for action, of a given situation. The present study examined how affordances shape passing in association football by comparing the performance of pass-kicks in two task

  20. Self-Esteem Profile among the Female Futsal-Football Players at Jordanian Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Aman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of physical and body self-esteem among the female futsal - football players at Jordanian clubs. The sample of the study was composed of (38) female players among the Jordanian clubs' players of futsal-football who were chosen randomly out of the study community, and the self-esteem scale was used,…

  1. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P fitness...

  2. The Dilemma: Career Transition of African American Male Football Players at Division I Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcutt, Kellen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and understand perceptions of African American male football athletes at Division I institutions that also played professional football, regarding their collegiate experiences and transition from athletics to post-playing careers. The study examined issues of race and social…

  3. The Heritage Fallacy: Race, Loyalty, and the First Grambling-Southern Football Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    On Armistice Day 1932, the Southern University Bushmen football team left Baton Rouge and traveled to Monroe, Louisiana to play the Tigers of Louisiana Negro Normal and Industrial Institute for the first time. Normal was far younger than Southern. It was a two-year junior college in the northeast cotton town of Grambling, and its football team was…

  4. Comparison of Speed, Agility, Anaerobic Strength and Anthropometric Characteristics in Male Football and Futsal Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Resat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare speed, agility, anaerobic strength and some anthropometric characteristics in male football and futsal players. The sample of the study is composed of male futsal team players of Aydin Adnan Menderes University (19-24 aged) (n = 12) and Aydin Merkez Yeniköy Football Club players (19-24 aged) (n = 12). Within…

  5. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  6. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  7. High School Football Players and Their Coaches: A Qualitative Study of Their Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaza, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…

  8. Reading the Defense: Conceptualizations of Literacy by Male Football Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how college football student-athletes conceptualize the academic and athletic literacies they experience inside and outside the classroom. Participants included sophomore, junior, and senior football student-athletes who all attended a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic area. Three distinct research tools…

  9. Behavioral Intervention for Teaching Tackling Skills to High School Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…

  10. Athletics, Applications, & Yields: The Relationship between Successful College Football and Institutional Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fielding a successful college football team on institutional popularity using a dependent variable (admissions yield) and an independent variable (bowl game television rating) which have been unexamined in previous research on this topic. The findings suggest that college football success is correlated with a…

  11. Plantar flexor neuromuscular adjustments following match-play football in hot and cool conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, O; Nybo, Lars; Mohr, Magni;

    2015-01-01

    We assessed neuromuscular fatigue and recovery of the plantar flexors after playing football with or without severe heat stress. Neuromuscular characteristics of the plantar flexors were assessed in 17 male players at baseline and ∼30 min, 24, and 48 h after two 90-min football matches in tempera...

  12. Drill-specific head impact exposure in youth football practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolettano, Eamon T; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Although 70% of football players in the United States are youth players (6-14 years old), most research on head impacts in football has focused on high school, collegiate, or professional populations. The objective of this study was to identify the specific activities associated with high-magnitude (acceleration > 40g) head impacts in youth football practices. METHODS A total of 34 players (mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years) on 2 youth teams were equipped with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays that recorded head accelerations associated with impacts in practices and games. Videos of practices and games were used to verify all head impacts and identify specific drills associated with each head impact. RESULTS A total of 6813 impacts were recorded, of which 408 had accelerations exceeding 40g (6.0%). For each type of practice drill, impact rates were computed that accounted for the length of time that teams spent on each drill. The tackling drill King of the Circle had the highest impact rate (95% CI 25.6-68.3 impacts/hr). Impact rates for tackling drills (those conducted without a blocker [95% CI 14.7-21.9 impacts/hr] and those with a blocker [95% CI 10.5-23.1 impacts/hr]) did not differ from game impact rates (95% CI 14.2-21.6 impacts/hr). Tackling drills were observed to have a greater proportion (between 40% and 50%) of impacts exceeding 60g than games (25%). The teams in this study participated in tackling or blocking drills for only 22% of their overall practice times, but these drills were responsible for 86% of all practice impacts exceeding 40g. CONCLUSIONS In youth football, high-magnitude impacts occur more often in practices than games, and some practice drills are associated with higher impact rates and accelerations than others. To mitigate high-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football, practices should be modified to decrease the time spent in drills with high impact rates, potentially eliminating a drill such as King of the Circle

  13. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22 and a control group (CG; n = 25. The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05. The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05. However, the FG performed better (P < 0.05 in Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (1394 ± 558 vs. 778 ± 408 m and 15-m sprint test (3.06 ± 0.17 vs. 3.20 ± 0.23 s. Also, the FG presented enhanced autonomic function. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05 between groups for low frequency normalized units (38.0 ± 15.2 vs. 47.3 ± 14.2 n.u (normalized units, high frequency normalized units (62.1 ± 15.2 vs. 52.8 ± 14.2 n.u., and LF:HF ratio (0.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 ms2. Conclusions Children engaged with regular football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest.

  14. Structural and functional cardiac adaptations to 6 months of football training in untrained hypertensive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. J.; Randers, M. B.; Hansen, P. R.;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 3 and 6 months of regular football training on cardiac structure and function in hypertensive men. Thirty-one untrained males with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomized 2:1 to a football training group (n = 20) and a control group receiving traditional...... recommendations on healthy lifestyle (n = 11). Cardiac measures were evaluated by echocardiography. The football group exhibited significant (P ... function improved with respect to tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (21.8 ± 3.2 to 24.5 ± 3.7 mm). Arterial blood pressure decreased in both groups, but significantly more in the football training group. No significant changes were observed in the control group. In conclusion, short-term football...

  15. Footy Rules in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMY; BAINBRIDGE

    2008-01-01

    One glance across the sports ground, and you could be mistaken for thinking you were watching any old football team training in Australia. The differ- ence is, the ground is at Nankai University in central Tianjin, all the players are Chinese, and the result from this training session is more important than a regular, relaxed kick and laugh.

  16. Is "football for all" safe for all? Cross-sectional study of disparities as determinants of 1-year injury prevalence in youth football programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Dahlström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Football (soccer is endorsed as a health-promoting physical activity worldwide. When football programs are introduced as part of general health promotion programs, equal access and limitation of pre-participation disparities with regard to injury risk are important. The aim of this study was to explore if disparity with regard to parents' educational level, player body mass index (BMI, and self-reported health are determinants of football injury in community-based football programs, separately or in interaction with age or gender. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four community football clubs with 1230 youth players agreed to participate in the cross-sectional study during the 2006 season. The study constructs (parents' educational level, player BMI, and self-reported health were operationalized into questionnaire items. The 1-year prevalence of football injury was defined as the primary outcome measure. Data were collected via a postal survey and analyzed using a series of hierarchical statistical computations investigating associations with the primary outcome measure and interactions between the study variables. The survey was returned by 827 (67.2% youth players. The 1-year injury prevalence increased with age. For youths with parents with higher formal education, boys reported more injuries and girls reported fewer injuries than expected; for youths with lower educated parents there was a tendency towards the opposite pattern. Youths reporting injuries had higher standardized BMI compared with youths not reporting injuries. Children not reporting full health were slightly overrepresented among those reporting injuries and underrepresented for those reporting no injury. CONCLUSION: Pre-participation disparities in terms of parents' educational level, through interaction with gender, BMI, and self-reported general health are associated with increased injury risk in community-based youth football. When introduced as a general health

  17. Intergenerational transmission of dietary behaviours: A qualitative study of Anglo-Australian, Chinese-Australian and Italian-Australian three-generation families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kate; Chan, Flora; Prichard, Ivanka; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Wilson, Carlene

    2016-08-01

    Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others' food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families.

  18. Finale furioso: referee-biased injury times and their effects on home advantage in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Dennis; Strauss, Bernd; Heuer, Andreas; Rubner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The role of referees has become a central issue in the investigation of home advantage. The main aim of this study was a thorough examination of the referee bias concerning injury time in football, which is currently seen as an important example for the assertion that referees contribute to home advantage. First, we use archival data from the German Bundesliga (seasons 2000/2001-2010/2011) to confirm the existence of an asymmetry in the allocation of injury time. We show this asymmetry to be a bias by ruling out hitherto remaining alternative explanations (effect = 18 s, P team leads in the game compared to a draw (effect = 21 s, P = 0.004, R2(adj) = 0.06). Third, the quantitative benefit of home or away teams in goals and points due to these biases is assessed. Overall, referee decisions on injury time indeed reveal biases, but they do not contribute to the home advantage, that is, there is no significant effect on goals scored by the teams. The qualitative findings (a new bias on injury time) as well as the quantitative findings (no overall effect) shed new light on the role of referees for home advantage.

  19. Rule, Britannia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    Thomas Arne’s The Masque of Alfred (1740) with a libretto by James Thomson and David Mallet was written and performed in the historical context of George II’s reign where a kind of constitutional monarchy based on the Bill of Rights from 1689 was granting civil rights to the early bourgeoisie...... of the Proms, and this article considers it as a global real-time media event. “Rule, Britannia!” is placed in the contexts of political history, cultural history and experience economy....

  20. Football fever: self-affirmation model for goal distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Janke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of football games, as well as matches of most other popular team sports, depends on a combination of the skills of players and coaches and a number of external factors which, due to their complex nature, are presumably best viewed as random. Such parameters include the unpredictabilities of playing the ball, the players' shape of the day or environmental conditions such as the weather and the behavior of the audience. Under such circumstances, it appears worthwhile to analyze football score data with the toolbox of mathematical statistics in order to separate deterministic from stochastic effects and see what impact the cooperative and social nature of the "agents" of the system has on the resulting stochastic observables. Considering the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams, it turns out that especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. On the contrary, some more specific probability densities such as those discussed in the context of extreme-value statistics or the so-called negative binomial distribution fit these data rather well. There seemed to be no good argument to date, however, why the simplest Poissonian model fails and, instead, the latter distributions should be observed. To fill this gap, we introduced a number of microscopic models for the scoring behavior, resulting in a Bernoulli random process with a simple component of self-affirmation. These models allow us to represent the observed probability distributions surprisingly well, and the phenomenological distributions used earlier can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the "FIFA World Cup" series, and found the proposed models to be applicable in

  1. HOW STRONG IS POLISH FOOTBALL? "HOST PARADOX" IN FIFA'S RANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek M. Kamiński

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes unintiutive properties (paradoxes of the FIFA's ranking of national football teams. The most surprising phenomenon is underrating the teams of the main championship tournament hosts. This "host effect" follows the absence of hosts in preliminaries and the resulting restriction of hosts' pre-tournament matches to friendlies that enter the FIFA system with low weights. Various models built with the FIFA data allow to estimate that the place of the Polish team as a host of Euro 2012 was lowered from 16 to 35 positions.

  2. Football and Memories of Croatian Fascism on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tea Sindbæk

    2016-01-01

    . By late November 2013, a facebook page set up in defense of Šimunić had received 150000 ‘likes’ and many lengthy comments. Moreover, the page promoted an online petition, soon signed by more than 30000, which aimed to convince FIFA that Šimunić was misunderstood. Both the facebook page and the petition...... of memory negotiation that took place on the Facebook page supporting Šimunić and on the petition webpage. Indeed, the Facebook page and its users vehemently contested both the official Croatian interpretation and that of the international football organization, trying instead to construct from below...

  3. Effective Factors on Reducing the Number of Spectators in Iran Football Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Khadem Azghadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of reducing the number of spectators of football premier league, this study is seeking for identifying factors put the most impact on this decline. The statistical population consisted of all spectators in Iran football premier league in 2015-16, out of which 395 spectators were randomly selected as the research samples. The data were collected via a researcher-made questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire included demographic information and the second part, at 6 aspects, includes 35 questions analyzing the reasons for reducing the number of spectators in Iran's football Premier League. For analyzing data, it was used from first and second order confirmatory factor analysis based on structural equations through using SPSS 20 and LISREL 8.8 software. The results of first order confirmatory factor analysis showed that the measurement model of factors affecting on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league is an appropriate model and model parameters are significant. All factors are approved as effective variables on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league. The results also showed that the second order measurement model of effective factors on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league are also appropriate, and economic, facilitative, administrative, technical, cultural-social, and personal-family respectively put the most effects on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league. It is suggested for the sport marketers to analyze identified factors in this research and develop applicable strategies and guidelines for them.

  4. The Relationship between Human Resource Empowerment and Organizational Performance in Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkistis Papaioannou

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which empowerment is applied to Greek professional football clubs, and the relationship between empowerment and organizational performance. Empowerment, on the one hand, has been described as a means to enable employees to make decisions and accomplish their work in meaningful ways, and on the other hand, as a personal phenomenon where individuals take responsibility for their own actions. For analytical purposes the participatory football clubs were divided into two groups based on their budget: (a wealthy football clubs, and (b less wealthy football clubs. The results of the study indicated that empowerment is being used similarly in wealthy football clubs as well as in less wealthy football clubs. The basic difference between them was in the managerial styles they used. In particular, in less wealthy football clubs there was a strong and positive relationship between average of revenues in five years and two key factors of empowerment such as: the “management information /communication system skills” and the “total of all managerial functions”. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for further research are presented.

  5. Nonzero Solubility Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉志武; 周蕊; 刘芸

    2002-01-01

    A solubility-related rule, nonzero solubility rule, is introduced in this paper. It is complementary to the existing rules such as the "like dissolves like" rule and can be understood on the basis of classical chemical thermodynamics.

  6. Practice and play in the development of German top-level professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Manuel; Aust, Friedhelm; Güllich, Arne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the developmental sporting activities of 52 German football first Bundesliga professionals (including 18 senior national team members) and 50 fourth to sixth league amateur players. They reported their volumes of organised football practice/training, including its "microstructure" (proportions of physical conditioning, skill exercises and playing forms), non-organised leisure football play and engagement in other sports through their career, respectively. Analyses revealed that the Bundesliga professionals performed moderate amounts of organised football practice/training throughout their career. They accumulated 4264 (mean value) hours over ~16 years before debuting in 1st Bundesliga; senior National Team debut was preceded by 4532 hours (mean) over ~17 years. Within the "microstructure" of organised practice/training, the proportion of playing forms developed from ~52% (childhood) to ~45% (adolescence) and ~40% (adulthood) and physical conditioning from ~13% to ~14% and ~23%. Outside organised involvement, these players engaged in extensive non-organised leisure football play making ~68%, ~54% and ~9% of all football involvement. Subsuming organised and non-organised football, ~86% (childhood), ~73% (adolescence) and ~43% (adulthood) of all activity was game play (exclusive matchplay). National Team differed from amateurs in more non-organised leisure football in childhood, more engagement in other sports in adolescence, later specialisation, and in more organised football only at age 22+ years. Relative to numerous other studies, these players performed less organised practice, particularly less physical conditioning, but greater proportions of playing activities. The findings are discussed relative to the significance of playing forms and variable involvements and are reflected against the deliberate practice and Developmental Model of Sport Participation (DMSP) frameworks.

  7. Comparative analysis of indexes of physical preparedness of footballers of professional commands of different level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalenko V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with results of the research of physical preparedness of professional teams of footballers of different level. The pedagogical testing program of the physical skills level includes control exercised recommended by the scientific-methodical committee of Ukrainian Federation of Football. The article presents indices of physical preparedness of footballers of different playing roles of the top league teams of Ukrainian championship and first league of Ukrainian team championship. Differences of physical preparedness structure of goalkeepers, defenders, halfbacks and forwards are revealed.

  8. Social Talent Scouting: A New Opportunity for the Identification of Football Players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radicchi Elena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the diffusion of digital technologies within the football talent scouting process. A qualitative exploration based on open discussions and unstructured interviews with professionals involved in the football system (coaches, scouts, players’ agents, etc. provides insights about how new technologies are used for recruiting athletes. The findings, which are mainly in the context of Italian football, indicate a cultural and generational gap in the use of new digital tools that creates a mismatch between young promising athletes (demand side and “senior” team professionals (supply side.

  9. Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, J; Nielsen, J J; Mohr, M; Randers, M B; Krustrup, B R; Brito, J; Nybo, L; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (Pmuscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women.

  10. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P R; Randers, M B;

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group...... and compared with a control group with no physical training (CO, n=15). Training was performed for 1 h twice a week. After 16 weeks, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced (P..., regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  11. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  12. Amateur and professional football player to investigate of nutritional habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Saygın

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to investigate the nutritional habits level of footballers, considering the different league categories. From Turkey Super League, 2. League category A, 2.League category B, 3.League, 1.Amateur League, 2.Amateur League teams 360 active football players participated in the survey. To determine their the survey form developed by the researcher, benefiting previous scientific studies, consisting of 13 personal information questions, 20 nutritional habits questions; in all 33 questions was applied during the resting time of the athletes after giving explanation by the pollster.In statistical calculations SPSS (version 14.0 was applied. Data frequency and the percent values were calculated and chi-square test was applied to find out the differences among the teams in different categories. When P value was lower than 0.05, differences among the groups were accepted as significant.When the questions were asked about their educational background, levels of income, experts preparing their nutrition programs, the relations between nutrition and achievment, CHO loading, meal-skip, smoking and drinking alcohol, fluid intake before the match, the food consumed before the match, taking supplements regularly, the food containing carbohydrate, last meal preferences before the match; among the groups there were siginificant differences at level of p

  13. CERN Club Football wins 40 year old tradition cup

    CERN Multimedia

    Dave Underhill

    2016-01-01

    Already two weeks since the CERN football team, representing the Dave Underhill XI in the annual match with the Geneva Scottish Football Club, made a late, late rally to win the Jean Pierre Fillettaz Trophy. They started well with some good passing movements, but the Scots were also playing well and began to take control towards the end of the first half. Then, following a series of poor finishing and good goalkeeping by the CERN keeper, they finally found the back of the net, and the lads in white trooped off for well-earned oranges and water, just 1-0 down at half time. The second half was again evenly matched, but while we were not making the goal chances the Scots were squandering theirs. THEN with just 10 minutes to go a sudden resurgence of energy and aggression, the CERNites made the chances which counted, and in the space 5 minutes turned the score around and were happy to hear the final whistle and celebrate a famous 2-1 victory. Victory and commiserations were celebrated in the "Club Ho...

  14. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jingjing; Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.

  15. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; Jingjing; Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.……

  16. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  17. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  18. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  19. Football Management System of the Gap between China and Japan%中日足球管理体制差距审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云广; 于滢

    2015-01-01

    To provide a theoretical basis for the scientific management of the reform China Football Association,the football professionalization management system of the difference and gap between China and Japan are ana-lyzed,by the methods of literature material, expert inter-view method, comparative analysis. The results show that management cannot effectively play the functions of foot-ball association because the efficiency is low. Gap for fair competition mechanism is not established effectively. Pro-fessional football clubs lack of rights and interests protec-tion,fair competition could not form,and football environ-ment is bad. Decision-making mechanism is not scientific. The Chinese football association management authority is too large,binding is not enough,supervision mechanism is not sound. System inside and outside cooperation mecha-nism is not existed. The target on juvenile football reserve talent cultivation goal between China football association and the department of education is not unified,difficult to form “force”. The efficiency of soccer association internal coordination mechanism is low,and executive ability is in-sufficient. The process of the Chinese football association management is impotency,rules and regulations were not rigorous,etc. China Football Association need to conform the trend of the internationalization, learn from advanced management experience, fully implemented“de-adminis-tration”management model,exert football association inde-pendent legal nature of the community function, change the old management thinking, get rid of the shackles of administrative intervention, improve the management and operation mechanism.%为体制改革后中国足球协会科学管理提供理论依据,采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、比较分析法,对中日足球职业化管理体制差异及差距进行分析。研究结果表明:中国足球管理体制与日本相比差距明显,管理效能低下,不能有效发挥足球

  20. Comparison of somatotype values of football players in two professional league football teams according to the positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic.

  1. A comparison of Gaelic football injuries in males and females in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, J

    2011-10-01

    The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries\\/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men\\'s Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports.

  2. Iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Deli, Chariklia K; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Mohr, Magni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, Jose C; Margonis, Konstantinos; Mavropalias, Georgios; Stampoulis, Theodoros; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal variation of iron's status markers during a 60 h period following a football game. Thirty-four male football players were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, N = 14, participated only in measurements and training) or an experimental group (EG, N = 20, took part in a football game one week after the completion of the competitive season). All participants trained regularly for two consecutive days after the game. Training and game load was monitored with high time-resolution global positioning system (GPS) devices. Blood samples were collected and muscle damage markers and repeated sprint ability (RSA) were assessed pre-game and at 2 h, 12 h 36 h and 60 h post-game. No changes were noted in CG. Iron concentration decreased (P RSA declined (P football game.

  3. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women......) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  4. Discussion on Relationship in Occupational Football, Mass Football and Campus Soccer%职业足球、社会足球和校园足球的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲲; 翟玉欣

    2016-01-01

    采用文献资料法、逻辑分析法讨论职业足球、社会足球和校园足球的关系。认为:校园足球不仅可以为职业足球培养后备人才,还能丰富社会足球的人员组成结构;职业足球可以为社会足球和校园足球提供相应的指导;社会足球可以营造“足球热”气氛,使更多的人参与进来,扩大足球人口;促进足球产业发展,繁荣足球市场,为职业足球更好的发展提供了基础,并扩展校园足球的发展空间。%By the methods of literature, logic analysis, this paper discusses the relationship of occupational football, campus soccer and mass football. Not only can campus soccer culture reserve talented person for occupational football, but also it can enrich the mass football team structure. Occupational football can mass football and campus soccer provide guidance for the society. Mass football can create an atmosphere of“football fever”, make more people involved, expanding population of football. Promoting the development of the football industry and football market’s prosperity provide the basis for the development of occupational football better, and expand development space of campus soccer.

  5. 足球中的国民性%The National Character of Football

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路云亭

    2015-01-01

    The modern football originated in England and has created the different styles in the world .The football styles have deeply rooted in the natures of the human race .The composed mentality and harmony values of the German football players stem from the national character .The Dutchman has the temperament of modest and the Argentine soccer players worship the individualism .English football players are famous for their iron spirit .The attitude of Chinese football players respecting authority just like German football players and the rambling lifestyle of the Chinese football players is more approximate Brazilian .It is very difficult to completely imi‐tate samba football by the football players who come from China or other countries .The modern football is a combination from logos design of Europe and the spirit of great maritime curiosity as well as rationalism of the big data age .The beauty of football come from the different styles of the national characteristics .%现代足球源于英格兰,而传播到世界各地后形成了不同的风格与流派。足球的风格深刻地植根于人类的种族本性。德国足球人所展示出来的沉稳心态源自其民族性格,整体和谐性也是德国人信奉的一种价值观。荷兰人具有文静而谦逊的气质,阿根廷足球更推崇个人英雄主义精神,英格兰足球则以其铁血性见长。中国球员的刻苦、耐劳、尊重权威的态度近似德国人,而中国足球人悠闲、散漫、崇尚杂耍式、炫技式生活方式的风习又和巴西人极为接近,桑巴足球因此很难为中国以及欧美其他国家完全效法。现代足球是欧洲逻各斯主义设计理念、大航海精神的好奇心以及大数据时代的理性主义的融合体。足球中的国民性带给足坛更多的流派、风格的差异之美。

  6. Social networks, football fans, fantasy and reality: how corporate and media interests are invading our lifeworld

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Rachel; Wainwright, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose\\ud The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the digital culture on football supporters through analysis of official and unofficial websites and media reports. At first glance it would appear that technology has brought about greater opportunities to communicate, to share views which previously could not be widely published, and to organise against the commercial power of the large football clubs. However, surveillance, censorship and control continue to impact on supporte...

  7. PICNIC - FANS, ULTRAS AND HOOLIGANS - INTERNAL DIFFERENTIATE OF SUBCULTURE GROUP FOOTBALL FANS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Solinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a main part of "Internal differentiate of subculture group of football fans in Poland" project. Author has tried to show how the subculture of football fans can be differentiate. Author ha presented three different subgroups of Polish fans. It is very important to divide this subculture, because each subgroup has different mentality and style. That is why I have paid the most attention on this element.

  8. Sympathetic enhancement in futsal players but not in football players after repeated sprint ability test

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Liao, Chih-Jung; Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) can disclose the specific adaptation of sympathovagal modulation to exercise. This study investigated the change in HRV measures after anaerobic and aerobic intermittent exercises in university football and futsal players. Method 36 male university students with physically active lifestyle (n=14), football (n=12), and futsal (n=10) participated in this study. The participants completed the repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo (YY) intermittent r...

  9. EFFECT OF MUSIC THERAPY ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION, PHYSICAL SELF EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mamta Sharma; Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is increasingly used in sports for enhancing sport performance. It provides a mean of improving mental strength among sportspersons. The purpose of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation, physical self-efficacy and performance of female football players through music therapy. For this purpose, twenty two female football players, in the age group of 21-26 were screened on the basis of their scores on Sport Motivation Scale and Physical Self-Efficacy Scale. Then, they were ...

  10. Women, football and the desire of the dispute when sports must become political

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bautista Branz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks a cultural analysis of women and their participation in the space of football. Proposes a reflective journey on the complex institutionalization of male and female within the sports field, and tries to point out the historical continuity of relationships and unbalanced to be crystallized as natural and are constructed from the places of domination (and therefore dominated in the constitution of hegemony within the football: female subordinate to the male

  11. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  12. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, E W; Andersen, T R; Schmidt, J F;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  13. The Season After: A Football Coach Moves on after 27 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience of being a football coach for 27 years and describes how he moves on after these years. For the first time in 27 years, he is not on the field with boys for two-a-days and scrimmages. And he is not going to be there for the games. So, there is no more football. This is after four years of walk-on…

  14. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  15. CORRELATING THE PURDUE SPATIAL VISUALIZATION TEST WITH THE WONDERLIC PERSONNEL TEST FOR AMERICAN FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    This research study aims to find the relationship between the scores for the Purdue Spatial Visualization test (PSVT) and the Wonderlic Personnel test (WPT) for American collegiate football players. Fifty-five collegiate football players took part in the study by attempting the PSVT and the WPT. The scores on these tests were compared to find if there existed a correlation between the scores on both these tests. The results showed that the scores on both these tests had a significant correlat...

  16. Static Stretching of the Hamstring Muscle for Injury Prevention in Football Codes: a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rogan, Slavko; Wüst, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane’s ‘risk of ...

  17. Challenges to Professional Football Companies and their Answers with Particular Regard to Organisational Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bács Éva Bába Ms

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Professional football has been going through a period of unprecedented economic growth since the ’90s. Football ventures are increasingly becoming medium-sized companies. There have also been organizational changes, reflected in changes in the legal forms of professional football clubs, and in the use of modern controlling, planning, risk and financial management. Important questions remain unanswered with regard to the financing of football clubs, such as the impact of risks or the market value of capital costs. In addition to liquidity and the above, the acceptance of the determinational dependence of certain capital funds on sports results and the development of a strategy suitable for the optimal target system are also important requirements. In this article, we would like to present the answers football companies have given to the challenges they have been facing which affect their organisational system. In the light of international comparison, we examine the status of Hungarian football, which was once world famous and enjoyed better times in the past.

  18. Chinese football soft power%我国足球软实力建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁航; 谭现花; 田珂; 赵勇; 董冬; 赵艳娜

    2015-01-01

    The football soft power has held up the modern China's "football dream".The develop-ment of football soft power is an inevitable choice to realize the Chinese football dream.In order to provide reference for the related research on decision,the authors analyzed the Chinese football de-velopment path and football soft power system construction with the method of literature review.%足球软实力托起了近现代中国的“足球梦”,发展足球软实力是实现当代中国“足球梦”的必然选择。采用文献资料法研究了加强我国足球软实力建设的必然性和提升我国足球软实力的发展路径,以期为我国足球运动的可持续发展提供参考。

  19. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, N N; Nielsen, A B; Elbe, A-M; Karbing, D S

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011-2012 and a comparison sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km(2)), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely populated communities (100 to <250 pop./km(2)). Furthermore, there seems to be a relation between representation of elite and talent clubs in different communities and the probability of becoming an elite player in both sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies.

  20. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  1. Player Selection Bias in National Football League Draftees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Redd, Michael J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2016-11-01

    Beyer, KS, Fukuda, DH, Redd, MJ, Stout, JR, and Hoffman, JR. Player selection bias in National Football League draftees. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2965-2971, 2016-Relative age effects (RAEs) have been studied as a potential factor associated with player selection bias in numerous sports. However, little research has examined the role of RAEs among National Football League (NFL) draftees. The purpose of the current study was to determine the existence of RAEs in NFL draftees from the last 10 NFL drafts. Draftee birth dates were collected and divided into calendar and scholastic quarters (SQ1-SQ4). To determine the presence of RAEs in specific subsets, NFL draftees were grouped according to round drafted, position, level of conference play, and age at the time of the draft. Significant χ tests (p ≤ 0.05) comparing observed birth-date distributions vs. the expected birth-date distribution from the general population were followed up by calculating the standardized residual for each quarter (z > ±2.0 indicating significance). Overall, no RAEs were seen when birth-date distribution was assessed using calendar quarters (p = 0.47), but more draftees were born in SQ2 (December-February) than expected (p < 0.01; z = +2.2). Significantly more draftees were born in SQ2 than expected for middle-round draftees (p = 0.01; z = +2.4), skill positions (p = 0.03; z = +2.3), Power Five college draftees (p < 0.01; z = +2.6), and early draftees (p < 0.01; z = +3.1). However, reverse RAEs were seen among late draftees, with fewer draftees being born in SQ2 (z = -3.6) and more being born in SQ4 (June-August; z = +2.6) than expected. In contrast to previous research, the current study observed significant RAEs in NFL draftees from the last 10 years. This player selection bias should be considered when evaluating long-term athlete development models in American football.

  2. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  3. The research of functional state of the systems of providing of motion for footballers on the preparatory stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitko S.M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The features of neurodynamic reactions are presented on the different stages of playing activity of footballers. In research took part 18 footballers at the age of 18-22. Research was conducted in the first part of day (9-11 hours on each of the stages. Changeability of neurodynamic indexes is certain in time of the high functional state of organism and after his fatigue. The most informing indexes of neurodynamic reactions of footballers are exposed. The most informing indexes of the state of footballers are offered.

  4. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne Hamish R; Quinlan John F; Allison Garry T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...

  5. Australian network of magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.

    Six magnetic observatories are presently operated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), with assistance from various other organizations. Variometer recordings are made of three or more elements of the field at minute intervals, and absolute measurements are made weekly. There are four observatories on the continent (Canberra, Gnangara, Charters Towers, and Learmonth), one on Macquarie Island, and one at Mawson Station in eastern Antarctica (Figure 1). In addition, semiweekly absolute observations of the field (D, H, and F) are made at the other two permanent Australian Antarctic bases (Casey and Davis). A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (EDA Electronics, Toronto , Canada) is operated independently by the Upper Atmosphere Physics group at Davis. Monthly mean values, K indices, and information about magnetic disturbances are published monthly in the BMR Geophysical Observatory Report.

  6. Random Walker Ranking for NCAA Division I-A Football

    CERN Document Server

    Callaghan, T; Mucha, P J; Callaghan, Thomas; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a one-parameter family of ranking systems for NCAA Division I-A football teams based on a collection of voters, each with a single vote, executing independent random walks on a network defined by the teams (vertices) and the games played (edges). The virtue of this class of ranking systems lies in the simplicity of its explanation. We discuss the statistical properties of the randomly walking voters and relate them to the community structure of the underlying network. We compare the results of these rankings for recent seasons with Bowl Championship Series standings and component rankings. To better understand this ranking system, we also examine the asymptotic behaviors of the aggregate of walkers. Finally, we consider possible generalizations to this ranking algorithm.

  7. Sidestepping the Cosmological Constant with Football-Shaped Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, S M; Carroll, Sean M.; Guica, Monica M.

    2003-01-01

    We present an exact solution for a factorizable brane-world spacetime with two extra dimensions and explicit brane sources. The compactification manifold has the topology of a two-sphere, and is stabilized by a bulk cosmological constant and magnetic flux. The geometry of the sphere is locally round except for conical singularities at the locations of two antipodal branes, deforming the sphere into an American-style football. The bulk magnetic flux needs to be fine-tuned to obtain flat geometry on the branes. Once this is done, the brane geometry is insensitive to the brane vacuum energy, which only affects the conical deficit angle of the extra dimensions. Solutions of this form provide a new arena in which to explore brane-world phenomenology and the effects of extra dimensions on the cosmological constant problem.

  8. Football fever: goal distributions and non-Gaussian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, E; Janke, W; Weigel, M; Bittner, Elmar; Nussbaumer, Andreas; Janke, Wolfhard; Weigel, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Analyzing football score data with statistical techniques, we investigate how the not purely random, but highly co-operative nature of the game is reflected in averaged properties such as the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams. As it turns out, especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. Instead, a good effective description of the data is provided by less basic distributions such as the negative binomial one or the probability densities of extreme value statistics. To understand this behavior from a microscopical point of view, however, no waiting time problem or extremal process need be invoked. Instead, modifying the Bernoulli random process underlying the Poissonian model to include a simple component of self-affirmation seems to describe the data surprisingly well and allows to understand the observed deviation from Gaussian statistics. The phenomenologi...

  9. Competition and Cooperation in European Professional Club Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassay Lili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to highlight the theoretical assumption that the relative competitive disadvantage between markets with different maximum sizes can be partially counteracted with strategic thinking and business-like operations. The research question presented in this article is whether there are any management tools available for clubs which they can use to improve their business competitiveness above and beyond the limitations of their maximum market size. According to the research hypothesis, there is such a tool available for clubs: the management and operation of a football club in a well-organized and business-like manner. The method of analysis is the so-called Grounded Theory (Glaser, & Strauss, 1967; Locke, 2001, which is an abstract analytical schema with a systematic data analysis process. The data collection incorporates desk research, comparative analysis, organizational review, and in-depth interviews. The results are presented according to the following dimensions: a relevance of the research question; b specification of groups of relevant management tools; c the role of the national football association in the process of market development; d the role of the owners in this process; and e how the structure of the sector and its operating processes can guarantee the efficient utilization of all the material resources which have been plowed into the sector over the last four to five years. According to the conclusions, the creation of an operating system and club model that allows for the utilization of resources - maximized market revenues and governmental sources - in the most effective way is an unavoidable challenge. The formation of the sustainable operations of clubs is fundamentally influenced by club owners. An inspection of the interaction between club owners, head coaches, and players is a key task in the process of creating a new club model.

  10. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Tatar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™ and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1 A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2 An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3 A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™ (p = 0.000. Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000. In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards.

  11. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.

  12. Contemporary Australian writers and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to see just how much travel writing, writing which does not exclusively belong to the travel sub-genre of "creative non-fiction", and also how many non-Australian locales, with emphasis on European and Asian ones, there are in the recent contemporary Australian writing since the 1960s. This perhaps speaks about a certain preoccupation or downright trait in the Australian national character. Perhaps, it is a reflection of a particular condition of being "down under", itself derived from "a tradition of colonialism and post-colonialism; from geographical location, both a deterrent and a spur; from post-Romantic literary tradition, coinciding with the early years of white settlement; and from the universal lure of ideas of travel, never more flourishing than at the present" (Hergenhan, Petersson xiii. Tourism is an increasingly global phenomenon to some extent shaping the physical reality as well as the spiritual world of the people involved in it. Within this globalization process, with the prospect of "cyber" travel, there is, however, always an individual "national" experience of the country of destination that a literary traveller puts into words, an experience which is typical and conditioned by specific socio-political and cultural circumstances.

  13. SIMULATION-BASED METHODOLOGY FOR PREDICTING FOOTBALL MATCH OUTCOMES CONSIDERING EXPERTS' OPINIONS: THE 2010 AND 2014 FOOTBALL WORLD CUP CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Louzada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper we propose a simulation-based method for predicting the 2010 and 2014Football World Cup. Adopting a bayesian perspective, we modeled the number of goals of two opposing teams as a Poisson distribution whose mean is proportional to the relative technical level of opponents. FIFA ratings were taken as the measure of technical level of teams and experts' opinions about scores of matches were taken to construct prior distribution of parameters. Just before each round, tournament simulations were performed in order to estimate probabilities of events of main interest for audience and bettors such as qualifying to the knockout stage, reaching semi-finals, reaching the final match, winningthe tournament, among others.

  14. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2013-01-01

    (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...... (TAPSE) and peak transmitral flow in early diastole divided by peak transmitral flow velocity in late diastole during atrial contraction (E/A-ratio) being 13, 19, 27 and 41%, respectively, greater in ET than UT (PYo-Yo IE2 performance was 7-fold higher in ET than UT (1772 ± 508 vs. 234...... ± 66 m, PYo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16...

  15. A Country Specific Approach To IFRS Accounting Policy Choice In The European, Australian And Turkish Context

    OpenAIRE

    Nalan Akdogan; Can Ozturk

    2015-01-01

    IAS 8 defines the concept of accounting policy as "the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements". Within the framework of this concept, this research that is derived from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) contributes to the accounting literature by focusing on the alternative accounting policies' debate related to presentation and recognition issues in the European, Australian and Turkis...

  16. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a healthpromoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised con...... linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men....

  17. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln Football: A Metaphorical, Symbolic and Ritualistic Community Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Satterfield

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the social dynamics surrounding the University of Nebraska-Lincoln football program on the community at large. The following research questions helped guide the research study: 1. What are the sociological effects of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln football on the community? and 2. How is commitment displayed to University of Nebraska football by members of the community? Six focus group interviews were conducted, each with five to seven participants. Through phenomenological analysis, it became clear that the sociological nature of University of Nebraska-Lincoln football is steeped in tradition, and the ritualistic nature that surrounds this phenomenon extends well into communities. This study illuminates three themes that emerged through data collection and analysis: 1. Harvest, 2. United we stand, and 3. Farm values. The Harvest theme represents the similarities of the agricultural lifestyle to a football season and how the entire year is dedicated towards performance. United we stand emerged as a visual, social and emotional sense of pride for the state of Nebraska residents towards the University and Nebraska and its football team. The connection between the university and the state begins early in life and grows as the years pass to become a social symbol of pride and togetherness as small towns shut down to gather and watch football games. Farm values emerged as the final theme and represented the importance of the farming value structure on the many small communities and towns in the state of Nebraska. For many small towns, a great sense of pride was generated when a local athlete was able to play for the University of Nebraska. This pride served as a means of legitimacy and hope in many struggling families that create Nebraska's farming communities. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110134

  18. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p football players and render the NFL-225 test less effective in predicting the change in 1RM bench press strength after short-term training.

  19. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the philosophy

  20. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  1. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  2. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  3. Determination of the Footballers' Anger Expression Styles in Terms of Some Variable at Different Universities and High Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at revealing whether or not footballers' anger expression styles show an alteration in terms of different variables. The descriptive method which is one of the quantitative research methods was adopted as the research model. Research group consists of 154 footballers who play in 8 teams from 12 teams in fifth-group in the…

  4. A Case Analysis of the Turkish Football in Regard to the UEFA's 10-Point Action Plan against Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrahoglu, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Football is enjoyable and meaningful together with the fans. However, the hate crimes (racism, discrimination, humiliation, xenophobia and Islamophobia) are social diseases of some fan groups, and threaten public safety and the social life. UEFA has been determined to fight against hate crimes in football by creating a network called FARE, and by…

  5. Concept Map for Environmental Education Planning: Capacitation of Volunteers for the FIFA Football World Cup in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Sports organized a system of volunteers to receive the visitors during the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Football World Cup. The instructional material to capacitate these volunteers focused on environment and sustainability issues and it was developed in an integrative systemic framework…

  6. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Robert; Mezo, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N = 425…

  7. High-Level Football and Appropriations to Universities: Are Sports-Crazed Representatives Responsive to NCAA Divisional Affiliation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2015-01-01

    Does fielding a Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) program help an institution of higher education obtain aid in the form of state appropriations? Two published studies have found some evidence of a positive correlation between having an FBS-level football program and the amount of appropriations received by public universities. This study looked to…

  8. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  9. Cool contemplation of campus football heat%校园足球热的冷思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强

    2015-01-01

    在中国足球整体陷入困局的当下,校园足球被社会寄予厚望。面对校园足球快速发展的现实情况以及各方面提供的利好条件,理性分析影响校园足球健康发展的几个基本问题。研究认为,校园足球作为学校体育和现代教育的组成部分,应当回归育人本源。将发展中国足球的重任压在校园足球身上,并以此作为主要目标任务是角色和功能的错位。摆脱激进式的发展思维和发展模式,净化中国足球大环境,形成良好的学校体育氛围,消除功利主义和应试教育观念影响,拓展校园足球的生存发展空间,最终实现其健康发展。%When Chinese football is in a dilemma nowadays, campus football is given a lot of hope by society. Fac-ing the realistic circumstances of and favorable conditions provided by various aspects for the rapid development of campus football, the author rationally analyzed several basic issues about the healthy development of campus foot-ball, and put forward the following opinions:as a constituent part of school physical education and modern educa-tion, campus football should return to the origin of student education;it is a role and function misplacement to place the heavy responsibility for developing Chinese football on campus football and consider it as the main objective task;China should get rid of radical development thinking and development mode, purify the grand environment of Chinese football, form a nice atmosphere for school physical education, eliminate utilitarianism and the influence of utilitarianism and examination-oriented education view, expand the survival and development space of campus football, and ultimately realize its healthy development.

  10. THE PROMOTION AND ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE EUROPEAN FOOTBALL CHAMPIONSHIP IN POLAND AND UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato-Gabriel PETREA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 the UEFA Executive Committee chose the host nations for the European Football Championship of2012. From the three files which remained in the contest, Poland and Ukraine were chosen to organize the competition.During this championship, 31 matches were played, 16 of them in Poland and 15 in Ukraine. Starting from thisinformation, the present study aims to identify the 2012 Football EC (European Championship level of popularityamongst the Romanian population. Also, the study presents an inquiry on the degree of attractiveness of the Polandand Ukraine European Football Championship in the context of the Romanian national team not qualifying, andconsidering the fact that the TV transmission of the matches is brought by the TVR(National Romanian Televisionpublic television for the Romanian supporters. Also, we have tried to establish a ranking of the best made mascot (topthree in the history of the European Football Championship and of the most „visible” sponsors (commercial partnersof the final tournament of Euro 2012. In order to reach this purpose, we applied a questionnaire on a populationformed by the students of the state universities in Iasi. It was found that the latest European football championship hada significant influence on Romanian supporters.

  11. Health-technology in the classroom with the girls playing football of secondary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko S.N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : carry out a theoretical analysis of the problem of health-use technology on football lessons in secondary schools. Material: processed more than 100 literary sources. Results : the article presents the main ways of implementation of maintaining health technology on football lessons. The basic attention approaches to the concept of «maintaining health». An author analyses the classifications of maintaining health technology and basic principles of their application of the lessons of football in secondary schools. The author summarized the current views on the problem of implementation the maintaining health technology in the school system, including such as monitoring the causes of injuries on football lessons and ways to prevent them, the creation of healthy environments. Conclusion : It is proved that the use of maintaining health technology on football lessons aims not only development of pupil’s skills, healthy lifestyles, but also the creation of educational institution necessary conditions for preserving the health of the younger generation.

  12. Football fan aggression: the importance of low Basal cortisol and a fair referee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Klauke, Fabian; Moore, Hannah L; Ludwig, Yannick S; Almela, Mercedes; van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants' favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result.

  13. Football fan aggression: the importance of low Basal cortisol and a fair referee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leander van der Meij

    Full Text Available Fan aggression in football (soccer is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74 saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants' favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result.

  14. Football: a catalyst for insecurity? Analysis of this social phenomenon and its incidence in security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Briceño Rodriguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the time of its origins, football has been directly linked with the theme of security from different angles, inherently, reciprocal and even complementary. Nevertheless, due to its popularity, and its capacity to appeal to large audiences, its role has been misinterpreted in today´s societies. One can ask whether football plays as a catalyst to the increase of insecurity and violence. Having evidenced the vulnerabilities and sensibilities that surround this particular nexus, the following essay aims to analyze its similarities and externalities. For this, it is necessary to study the main prevarications of security and later on, compare it with the personal insights of professional football players that belong to the top European leagues (more specifically the Spanish, German, Italian and Portugal leagues. These operate as an open market for the export of national footballers, which brings a variety of benefits for both the athlete and our country as it enables Colombia to have a more relevant position in this sport´s agenda as a Soft Power. Also, it is important to take in consideration the time and money invested by footballers to contribute for the betterment of their communities.

  15. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion.

  16. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p football players.

  17. Europe’s Elite Football: Financial Growth, Sporting Success, Transfer Investment, and Private Majority Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rohde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s elite football clubs are a small group of about 30 clubs mostly originating from the Big Five leagues in England, Italy, Spain, Germany, and France. These clubs top Deloitte’s Football Money League ranking Europe’s top football clubs by revenues. They also win the vast majority of national and European football competitions, and account for the major share of FIFA World Cup appearances. Nevertheless, empirical analyses studying the antecedents of financial success of this peculiar sample are rare. This paper extends previous research by building an empirical model of financial performance and applying it to a unique, high-quality dataset of the top 30 EU football clubs by club revenues analyzed over ten consecutive seasons from 2004 to 2013. Fixed effects models are performed to account for time trends and club fixed effects. The results show that financial success is driven by national and international sporting success, as well as brand value; sporting success is driven by team investments, and team investments tend to be driven by (foreign private majority investors.

  18. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  19. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  20. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  1. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  2. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  3. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K;

    2015-01-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study...... was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15–18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS...... questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (

  4. Refletindo sobre a tematização do futebol na Educação Física escolar Thinking about the football theme on school Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Moreira de Souza Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Educação Física deve propiciar ao aluno o exercício da cidadania, possibilitando a conquista da autonomia, por meio da reflexão-crítica sobre os conhecimentos da cultura corporal de movimento. Contudo, a área carece de subsídios para uma melhor organização de seus conteúdos dentro do currículo escolar. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente estudo consiste em apontar um conjunto de temas relevantes do conteúdo futebol que possam servir de subsídios para propostas de sistematização para o componente curricular Educação Física escolar. São apresentados nove temas que discutem aspectos relevantes do futebol, tais como suas relações com a arte, sua história e o contexto do futebol feminino. Por fim, o tema relativo aos jogos da cultura popular relacionados ao futebol foi aprofundado por meio do futebol de tampinhas e do futebol de botão, incluindo aprendizagens como a construção de regras, a interpretação de competições e a valorização da cultura popular.Physical Education should provide students the means to enable them the exercise of their citizenship, which will allow them to acquire autonomy through critical reflection on the knowledge of practicing body movement. Nevertheless, in the school curriculum the subject still lacks support in order to organize its contents. As such, the target of this study is to highlight a number of relevant issues on the contents of football practice, which may be used in an attempt to codify Physical Education as a school subject. Nine issues are here presented, which discuss relevant aspects of football, as well as its correlation with art, its history, and the female football background. Fin ally, we get into a deeper study of the games used in popular culture and its link to football, through games such as "button football", including learning processes such as rule system, the interpretation of competitions, and the appraisal of popular culture.

  5. 78 FR 3489 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... been received as part of a merger, consolidation, corporate combination, or other event. Rather than... multiple foreign currency and U.S. Treasury sectors (e.g., Australian dollar, U.S. Treasury Notes), each... deter and detect violations of Exchange rules and applicable federal securities laws. The Exchange...

  6. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  7. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  8. Effects of youth football on selected clinical measures of neurologic function: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Odney, Tryg O; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2014-12-01

    We assessed 10 youth football players (13.4 ± 0.7 y) immediately before and after their season to explore the effects of football participation on selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Postseason postural stability in a closed-eye condition was improved compared to preseason (P = .017). Neurocognitive testing with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery revealed that reaction time was significantly faster at postseason (P = .015). There were no significant preseason versus postseason differences in verbal memory (P = .507), visual memory (P = .750), or visual motor speed (P = .087). Oculomotor performance assessed by the King-Devick test was moderately to significantly improved (P = .047-.115). A 12-week season of youth football did not impair the postural stability, neurocognitive function, or oculomotor performance measures of the players evaluated. Though encouraging, continued and more comprehensive investigations of this at-risk population are warranted.

  9. The Long-Term Game: An Analysis of the Life Expectancy of National Football League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Koning

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.

  10. Aspects Regarding the Role and the Importance of Physical Preparation in the Modern Football Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cărăbaş Ionică

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the great performance, the physical preparation represents one of the most important factors of the sports training. The development of speed, of force resistance and of skill at superior parameters should represent major objectives in the training of the football teams which aim to attain the top of the national and international hierarchies. The results of the assessments of the football games at high level, confirm this hypothesis that is why the physical preparation should be reconsidered and adapted to the requirements of the modern play. According to the opinion of the great specialists of the field, the physical qualities have a weight of 47% compared with the other qualities which a top football player should possess. For us the trainers, it is only about to find the most appropriate means in order to develop and exploit at maximum, those qualities.

  11. THE SPHERE OF THE SOURCES FOR ENERGY AND OF THE MEANS FOR RENFORCING IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Drăgan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available If the footballers have a rich nourishment in carbohydrats, she has an positive effect on thecapacity of them biological performance. The footballer who is good trained, has a big concentration of glycogenin muscle, if the meal after the last traning before the game contents a big proportion of carbohydrats. Also, thefootballers can to use in excess the vitamins A, C and E, with the justification that they are capable to stop thefortuitous frequency of the free radicals who oxidize and who work in the same kind as the antioxidants.In the view of the renforcing after effort, the footballers have at disposition a series of natural means: theaerobycal activity; the therapy through extent (streching; the total rest, as well as a series of physiotherapeuticalmeans: the massage; the therapy at warm; the therapy at cold; the cold-warm

  12. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy. PMID:26957761

  13. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy.

  14. The behaviour of share returns of football clubs: An econophysics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo; Loures, Luís; Nunes, José Rato; Dionísio, Andreia

    2017-04-01

    Football is a sport that moves thousands of people and millions of euros. Since 1983, several clubs entered the stock markets with shares, and now twenty two clubs are listed in the Stoxx Football Index. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of the return rates of such shares, with Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (and its correlation coefficient). With Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, we are able to observe that the shares of several clubs are far from the behaviour of a random walk, which is expected by the theory. Using Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis, we calculate the cross correlations of clubs' returns with national indexes and then with the Stoxx Football Index. Although almost all of them are positive, they do not seem to be strong.

  15. Masculinity, moral atmosphere, and moral functioning of high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A; Rutkowski, Leslie A; Vaughan, Ellen L; Steinfeldt, Matthew C

    2011-04-01

    In order to identify factors associated with on-field moral functioning among student athletes within the unique context of football, we examined masculine gender role conflict, moral atmosphere, and athletic identity. Using structural equation modeling to assess survey data from 204 high school football players, results demonstrated that moral atmosphere (i.e., the influence of coaches and teammates) was significantly associated with participants' process of on-field moral functioning across the levels of judgment, intention, and behavior. Neither masculine gender role conflict nor athletic identity significantly predicted moral functioning, but the results indicated that participants' identification with the athlete role significantly predicted conflict with socialized gender roles. Results suggest that in the aggressive and violent sport of football, coaches can have a direct influence on players' moral functioning process. Coaches can also have an indirect effect by influencing all the players so that a culture of ethical play can be cultivated among teammates and spread from the top down.

  16. The Effect of Simultaneous Sponsorship of Rival Football Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Barbosa de Amorim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of team identification and team-sponsor fit on the sponsor’s brand equity. The study’s main theoretical references are (a the Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; (b the Schema Theory (Singer, 1968 and (c the Associative Network Theories (Collins & Loftus, 1975, both about the functioning of the human memory; and (d customer-based brand equity (Keller, 1993. Research was conducted in Porto Alegre, RS, a Brazilian city where rival football (soccer teams Grêmio and Internacional share their main sponsors, Banrisul and Unimed, since 2001 and 2002, respectively, a rare context that was previously studied only once before (Davies, Veloutsou, & Costa, 2006. The valid sample comprised 2,000 fans of both teams. The sample was non-probabilistic with equal gender and team quotas. Data analysis was performed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA; and the reliability, convergent, discriminant and nomological validity of the constructs were verified. To test the substantive hypotheses, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM using the ADF technique was applied. The empirical results suggest that, in the studied context, the sponsor’s brand equity is more influenced by teamsponsor fit than by team identification, which is different from a non-rivalry sponsorship context.

  17. The relationship between personality and performance of football referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirooz Sayfollahpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After coaches and athletes, referees are the third side of sporting events. If the judgment is done properly, the result of competition will be determined according to skill and tactical superiority; otherwise, other environmental factors may affect the result of competition. Personality is one of the distinctive aspects of every individual’s life. Personality characteristics predispose an individual to perform various actions in specific situations. Football is one of the most stressful jobs and it seems personality is one the most important factors in Judgment method of referees. This study examines the relationship between extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience and performance of referees. The research method used was correlation. All 61 premier League Soccer's Referees (the season 2012-2011 were selected as the study population. Due to the limitation of population, all subjects were considered as the sample. The NEO Personality Inventory (60 items and 5 scales was used. For collecting the data, researcher visited Tehran’s referees in their training location; questionnaire was sent via e-mail to the referees in other cities. The SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results showed that there was significant relationship between personality dimensions and judgment methods. There was a positive relationship between flexibility and judgment quality. Also, the present study showed there was not significant relationship between neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and judgment quality.

  18. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport.

  19. Football experts versus sports economists: Whose forecasts are better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Bernd; Wicker, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    Given the uncertainty of outcome in sport, predicting the outcome of sporting contests is a major topic in sport sciences. This study examines the accuracy of expert predictions in the German Bundesliga and compares their predictions to those of sports economists. Prior to the start of each season, a set of distinguished experts (head coaches and players) express their subjective evaluations of the teams in school grades. While experts may be driven by irrational sentiments and may therefore systematically over- or underestimate specific teams, sports economists use observable characteristics to predict season outcomes. The latter typically use team wage bills given the positive pay-performance relationship as well as other factors (average team age, tenure, appearances on national team, and attendance). Using data from 15 consecutive Bundesliga seasons, the predictive accuracy of expert evaluations and sports economists is analysed. The results of separate estimations show that relative grade and relative wage bill significantly affect relative points, while age, tenure, appearances, and attendance are insignificant. In a joint model, relative grade and relative wage bill are still statistically significant, suggesting that the two types of predictions are complements rather than substitutes. Consequently, football experts and sports economists seem to rely on completely different sources of information when making their predictions.

  20. Quality of life and energy expenditure in transplant recipient football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totti, V; Zancanaro, M; Trerotola, M; Nanni Costa, A; Antonetti, T; Anedda, A; Roi, G S

    2013-09-01

    Football (soccer) is a highly motivating leisure activity with important potential as a health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to assess the "on the field" energy expenditure during football games and the quality of life of transplant recipients practicing football. Twenty-two recipients of kidney (n = 11), bone marrow (n = 7), liver (n = 3) or corneal (n = 1) transplantations had an overall mean age of 37 ± 9 years, body mass index of 23.5 ± 2.4 kg/m(2), and time after transplantation of 9.3 ± 6.4 years. They were compared with 25 healthy football players of mean age 41 ± 10 years and body mass index of 26.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2). There were no significant differences between transplant recipients and controls regarding mean energy expenditure (393 ± 113 vs 392 ± 132 kcal/h) number of steps (3.978 ± 1.317 vs 3.933 ± 1.563) during, and capillary blood lactate concentrations (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 5.2 ± 1.3 mmol/L) after the matches. The SF-36 questionnaire administered before the matches showed transplant recipient players to score significantly worse in the scales of general (P football matches attained a level of energy expenditure and a quality of life consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Football has the potential to be implemented as a permanent health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients.

  1. Identification of Factors Determining Market Value of the Most Valuable Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Majewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The problem of identifying the most important determinants of the market value of football players is quite well described in the literature. There are many works that try to identify these factors. Some of them are focused on variables to make a set complete and others are on models and methods. The aim of this article is to present the variables influencing the valuation and to build an econometric model valuing footballers playing on the forward position, taking into consideration the assumptions of the econometric modelling. Such an approach indicates managers as other sources for obtaining information. Methodology: Econometric models were used to verify the hypothesis formulated in this research. The database was created on the basis of variables presented on the website www.transfermarkt. de that presents the values of the most valuable football players in the world playing on the forward position. The Gretl program was used in the research. Findings: The literature review showed that there are many independent variables having an impact on the value of the player. There are also many different models used to valuate footballers’ performance rights. The results of estimation of models in the research indicated that such factors as Canadian classification points adjusted the market value of the team and dummy variables describing “goodwill” (only for the best players had an impact on the market value of footballers’ performance rights. Limitations/implications: Information about different factors having an impact on football players’ market value could support the investment decision process of football managers. Originality/value: The results were part of a study concerning economics of sport, particularly processes of management of football clubs and valuation of intangible assets.

  2. Biomarkers of brain injury following an American football game: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatzki, Matthew J; Soja, Scott E; McCabe, Colleen A; Breckenridge, Ryanne E; White, Jeffrey L; Baker, Julien S

    2016-09-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if the biomarkers of head injury, NSE and S100B, increased in serum following an American football game. Serum creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol levels were also measured to determine muscle damage and stress caused by the football game. NSE, S100B, CK, and cortisol were measured in the serum of 17 football players before and after a collegiate junior varsity football game. No head injuries were reported by the players, athletic training staff, or coaches yet both NSE (Pre-game: 7.0 μg•L-1 ± 2.2 versus Post-game: 13.1 μg•L-1 ± 7.0, P game: 0.013 μg•L-1 ± 0.012 versus Post-game: 0.069 μg•L-1 ± 0.036, P game: 90.5 U•L-1 ± 41.9 versus Post-game: 120.2 U•L-1 ± 62.7, P = 0.116) nor cortisol (Pre-game: 369.2 nmoles•L-1 ± 159.8 versus Post-game: 353.0 nmoles•L-1 ± 170.5, P = 0.349) increased significantly following the football game. There was little correlation found between S100B and body mass (R2 = 0.029) or CK (R2 = 0.352) levels. Although serum NSE and S100B increase as a result of playing in an American football game, the values are similar to or lower than levels found following competition in other contact and non-contact sports. Furthermore, the lack of correlation between S100B and body mass or CK indicates that S100B increases independent of body mass or muscle injury.

  3. SUITABILITY OF FIFA'S "THE 11" TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS - IMPACT ON PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Kuzmic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. "The 11" injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA's medical research centre (F-MARC to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of "The 11" for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP, 12 control (CON] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr participated. The EXP group followed "The 11" training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ? 0.05. Feedback was also gathered on the young players' perceptions of "The 11". No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p < 0.05. Speed over 20 m improved by 2% (p < 0.05. Most players considered "The 11" beneficial but not enjoyable in the prescribed format. Given the observed improvements in the physical abilities and the perceived benefits of "The 11", it would appear that a modified version of the programme is appropriate and should be included in the training of young football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to "The 11" should be considered

  4. Hydration and Fluid Replacement Knowledge, Attitudes, Barriers, and Behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Kumley, Roberta F; Bellar, David M; Pike, Kim L; Pierson, Eric E; Weidner, Thomas; Pearson, David; Friesen, Carol A

    2016-11-01

    Judge, LW, Kumley, RF, Bellar, DM, Pike, KL, Pierson, EE, Weidner, T, Pearson, D, and Friesen, CA. Hydration and fluid replacement knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2972-2978, 2016-Hydration is an important part of athletic performance, and understanding athletes' hydration knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors is critical for sport practitioners. The aim of this study was to assess National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 (D1) American football players, with regard to hydration and fluid intake before, during, and after exercise, and to apply this assessment to their overall hydration practice. The sample consisted of 100 student-athletes from 2 different NCAA D1 universities, who participated in voluntary summer football conditioning. Participants completed a survey to identify the fluid and hydration knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, demographic data, primary football position, previous nutrition education, and barriers to adequate fluid consumption. The average Hydration Knowledge Score (HKS) for the participants in the present study was 11.8 ± 1.9 (69.4% correct), with scores ranging from 42 to 100% correct. Four key misunderstandings regarding hydration, specifically related to intervals of hydration habits among the study subjects, were revealed. Only 24% of the players reported drinking enough fluids before, during, immediately after, and 2 hours after practice. Generalized linear model analysis predicted the outcome variable HKS (χ = 28.001, p = 0.045), with nutrition education (Wald χ = 8.250, p = 0.041) and position on the football team (χ = 9.361, p = 0.025) being significant predictors. "Backs" (e.g., quarterbacks, running backs, and defensive backs) demonstrated significantly higher hydration knowledge than "Linemen" (p = 0.014). Findings indicated that if changes are not made to increase hydration awareness levels among football teams

  5. Football Fans, Their Information, The Web And The Personal Home Page

    OpenAIRE

    Narsesian, S.

    2010-01-01

    From the early days of the Internet to the present day, the World Wide Web has developed into one of the world's largest information resources. One of the first genres of web pages, which was also one of the first information resources, was the Personal Home Page (PHP). Over this same period of time, professional football in England has created the world's richest league and by extension an abundance of football related PHPs. This study investigates the role of the PHP as an information resou...

  6. “Yingli Cup” China-Germany Friendly Football Match Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On the evening of July 24, the "Yingli Cup" China-Germany Friendly Football Match was held in the Workers Stadium in Beijing. The home team was Football Club (FC) Beijing Guo’an and the visit team FC Bayern Munich. The CPAFFC, as the honorary organizer,participated in the preparation for the match, one of a series of activities celebrating the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between China and Germany.Bayern Munich is one of the

  7. Football training improves lean body mass in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, J; Hornstrup, Therese; Schmidt, Jakob Friis;

    2014-01-01

    ). Fifty-seven men aged 67 (range: 43-74) were randomly assigned to a football group (FG, n = 29) or a usual care control group (CON, n = 28). The primary outcome was change in lean body mass (LBM) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Secondary outcomes included changes in knee.......7%; 95%CI 1.3-0.0; P = 0.06), but these changes were not significantly different from CON. In conclusion, football training over 12 weeks improved LBM and muscle strength compared with usual care in men with prostate cancer receiving ADT....

  8. Understanding Football as a Vehicle for Enhancing Social Inclusion: Using an Intervention Mapping Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Parnell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a partnership between an academic institute and a third sector organisation attached to a professional football club in the United Kingdom. The partnership concerns a sport for development intervention. The purpose of the article is to outline the development of applied monitoring and evaluation and the application of intervention mapping for an intervention to tackle anti-social behaviour through a football-based social inclusion project for children and young people. This case supports the development of third sector-university partnerships and the use of intervention mapping to meet shared objectives in relation to articulating the impact of interventions to funders and for research outputs.

  9. Football training in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Jacob; Hornstrup, Therese; Christensen, Jesper F

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the activity profile of football training and its short-term effects on bone mass, bone turnover markers (BTMs) and postural balance in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: This was a randomised 12-week study in which men...... with PCa undergoing ADT were assigned to a football intervention group [FTG, n = 29, 67 ± 7 (±SD) years] training 2‒3 times per week for 45‒60 min or to a control group (n = 28, 66 ± 5 years). The activity profile was measured using a 5-Hz GPS. The outcomes were total body and leg bone mineral content (BMC...

  10. Interactive Football-Training Based on Rebounders with Hit Position Sensing and Audio-Visual Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj; Thomassen, Nikolaj;

    2014-01-01

    The last decade’s advancements in computer technology have facilitated a growing interest in the development of interactive sports-training equipment. This development has provided athletes and coaches with measurement and training tools, with performance analysis or skill improvement as purpose......-visual feedback. Football Lab enables the creation of novel training games, which aim to improve players’ technical skills, and simultaneously function as a tool for measuring player performance and development over time. A logging of the Football Lab was conducted through 92 weeks, where the platform...

  11. Operational Modal Analysis for Estimating the Dynamic Properties of a Stadium Structure during a Football Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Peeters

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During a football game, the ambient vibrations at the roof of a football stadium were recorded. A very large data set consisting of 4 hours of data, sampled at 80 Hz, is available. By a data reduction procedure, the complete data set could be analysed at once in a very short time. The data set was also split in shorter segments corresponding to certain events before, during and after the game to investigate the influence of varying operational conditions on the dynamic properties.

  12. Walter Miles, Pop Warner, B. C. Graves, and the psychology of football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Frank G; Benjamin, Ludy T

    2006-01-01

    In 1926-1927, a graduate student, B. C. Graves, working with Stanford University psychologist Walter Miles and legendary football coach Pop Warner, conducted an investigation of variations in signal calling as they affected the charging times of football players. The study was one of two that involved Miles and the ingenious multiple chronograph that he had invented to time the reactions of seven players simultaneously. These studies represented a brief digression in the career of Miles, who certainly was no sport psychologist. They tell of an interesting collaboration between scientist and coaches that produced one of the richest studies in sport psychology in the first half of the twentieth century.

  13. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila; Jeppesen, Rikke Schou; Krustrup, Birgitte Rejkjær

    2010-01-01

    exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks......). The study also points to the importance of the activity itself for internal bonding illustrated through we- and they-stories. Our data indicate that team sports, such as football, may have an advantage over individual sports in the development of social capital....

  14. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Bonnet Ruled Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filiz KANBAY

    2005-01-01

    We consider the Bonnet ruled surfaces which admit only one non-trivial isometry that preserves the principal curvatures. We determine the Bonnet ruled surfaces whose generators and orthogonal trajectories form a special net called an A-net.

  16. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ``in-in" correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  17. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: sloth@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ''in-in'' correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  18. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  19. Aussie rules OK!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A.

    1999-01-01

    Mining equipment produced by the Australian export marketing organization Austmine is reviewed. The technology described includes Security Systems, electrical supply; ore processing plant; pipe conveyors; excavations; image processing equipment; jigs; CAD software; management software; safety monitoring systems; loaders; on-line analysis systems and pumps. 8 photos.

  20. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  1. Football is a metaphor of life” (Jean Paul Sartre. Metaphor in the language of Italian football column in the daily printed press and the on line press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szemberska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is a thorough analysis of a particular form of communication which is constituted by the language of football journalism. As we demonstrate in the present paper, the language of Italian football press is a rich source not only of loanwords, but also and mainly of rhetorical figures, especially metaphors. Besides the undeniable ubiquity of figurativeness, another phenomenon analysed in the article are semantic areas present in such a press, which variety and multiple aspects are considered in our specific study. Finally, our description of the language of Italian football journalism proves that these are not only linguistic considerations, but also cultural and multimedia.

  2. Parton model sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hinchliffe, Ian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Kwiatkowski, Axel

    1996-01-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of various Parton Model sum rules. The basis of the sum rules in perturbative QCD is discussed. Their use in extracting the value of the strong coupling constant is evaluated and the failure of the naive version of some of these rules is assessed.

  3. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  4. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  5. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  6. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  7. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADF Australian Defence Force COLA cost of living adjustment CPI consumer price index CSB career status bonus CSS...will help you build a Lego city; however, mum will still need to change the nappies. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION...by Disney and Johnson (2001) and the World Bank (Pordes, 1994). There have also been various papers and reviews about Australian and U.S. military

  8. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  9. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  10. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  11. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  12. The acute effect of match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility in elite youth football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, M; Thorborg, K; Pizzari, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of competitive football match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. Fifteen male international youth football players were included. Hamstring strength and associated pain ratings, ankle dorsiflexion, hip extension, knee extension....... Competitive football match play has a significant acute and transient effect on isometric hamstring strength and associated pain levels during resisted knee flexion in male international youth players. Range of motion measures appear to remain relatively unaffected by match play. Isometric hamstring strength...

  13. Features of physiological responses on organism of football players aged 10-12 years in exercise using different training methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdula A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the effect of various special exercises football players’ organism in different modes. Material : The study involved 24 young players aged 10-12 years. Results : There is a large range of load parameters for elite athletes, which necessitates evaluation exercise intensity football for young players. Found that depending on the method chosen football special exercises have different effects on the body force young players. Conclusions : It was found that by using the method of competitive gaming and heart rate and energy increases with increasing number of players. The analysis shows the existence of significant differences in terms of heart rate for game and interval method.

  14. Preparation for football competition at moderate to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, C J; McSharry, P E; Hewitt, A J; Saunders, P U

    2008-08-01

    Analysis of approximately 100 years of home-and-away South American World Cup matches illustrate that football competition at moderate/high altitude (>2000 m) favors the home team, although this is more than compensated by the likelihood of sea-level teams winning at home against the same opponents who have descended from altitude. Nevertheless, the home team advantage at altitudes above approximately 2000 m may reflect that traditionally, teams from sea level or low altitude have not spent 1-2 weeks acclimatizing at altitude. Despite large differences between individuals, in the first few days at high altitude (e.g. La Paz, 3600 m) some players experience symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) such as headache and disrupted sleep, and their maximum aerobic power (VO2max) is approximately 25% reduced while their ventilation, heart rate and blood lactate during submaximal exercise are elevated. Simulated altitude for a few weeks before competition at altitude can be used to attain partial ventilatory acclimation and ameliorated symptoms of AMS. The variety of simulated altitude exposures usually created with enriched nitrogen mixtures of air include resting or exercising for a few hours per day or sleeping approximately 8 h/night in hypoxia. Preparation for competition at moderate/high altitude by training at altitude is probably superior to simulated exposure; however, the optimal duration at moderate/high altitude is unclear. Preparing for 1-2 weeks at moderate/high altitude is a reasonable compromise between the benefits associated with overcoming AMS and partial restoration of VO2max vs the likelihood of detraining.

  15. A profile of a National Football League team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, J Luke; Huggins, Robert A; Casa, Douglas J; Palmieri, Gerard A; Kraemer, William J; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physical profiles of players on the 2011 New York Giants (NYG) team and to make comparisons with the historical literature on previous National Football League (NFL) player profiles. In this study, height, body mass (BM), body fat percentage (BF%) using skinfold measurements, and several predicted 1 repetition maximal strength and power measures in 30 returning players from the 2011 NYG team, who recently won the Super Bowl, were collected. Players were grouped by position: running back, quarterback (QB), wide receiver (WR), tight end, offensive lineman (OL), defensive lineman (DL), linebacker (LB), and defensive back (DB). Pooled and weighted mean differences (NYG - NFL) and effect sizes were used to evaluate height, BM, and BF% comparisons of NYG to previous NFL studies from 1998 to 2009. The characteristics of the players as a group were: age, height, BM, BF%: 26 ± 2 years, 183.8 ± 9.0 cm, 144.9 ± 20.8 kg, 14.3 ± 5.5%, respectively. Comparisons highlight distinct position-specific dissimilarity in strength measures, BM, and BF%, which reflect current strength training, conditioning, and team play strategy. As expected, NYG positional differences were found for height (p ≤ 0.05), BM (p ≤ 0.037), BF% (p ≤ 0.048), bench press (p ≤ 0.048), inclined bench press (p ≤ 0.013), and squat (p ≤ 0.026). Anthropometrics profiles did not significantly differ from previously published trends in NFL players indicating equity in physical characteristics over the past 13 years. However, NYG LBs, DLs, OLs, QBs, and WRs trended toward less BF% but generally similar BM compared with NFL players, suggesting greater lean BM in these positions. This study adds new players' data to prototypical position-specific databases that may be used as templates for comparison of players for draft selection or physical training.

  16. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  17. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  18. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  19. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  20. A Case Study of Knowledge Management in the "Back Office" of Two English Football Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doloriert, Clair; Whitworth, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore knowledge management (KM) practice in the "back office" of two English football clubs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of a comparative case study of two medium-sized businesses using multi-method data including unstructured interviews, structured questionnaires and document analysis. Data…

  1. The Role of Physical Education and Other Formative Experiences of Three Generations of Female Football Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Stacey; Kirk, David

    2014-01-01

    The experiences of female sports fans have been largely marginalised in academic research to date and little research has examined the formative sporting experiences of female spectators. This article draws on 51 semi-structured interviews with three generations of female fans of one (men's) professional football club (Leicester City), to…

  2. Thrown for a loss : (American) football and the European Sport Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural insignificance of football in Europe despite the receptiveness of Europeans to American popular culture in general. It is argued that this anomaly can be explained by a sociohistorical perspective on the differential popularization of sports and the changing socia

  3. Who Is Whistling Vivaldi? How Black Football Players Engage with Stereotype Threats in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    In light of the impact of negative stereotypes on student-athlete academic performance, the purpose of this paper was to conduct a qualitative study that examined how Black American male football players engage and cope with negative stereotypes at a predominantly White institution. Data were collected and analyzed from semi-structured interviews…

  4. Executive summary: The health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Dvorak, J.; Junge, A.

    2010-01-01

    The present special issue of Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports deals with health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games. One review article and 13 original articles were the result of a 2-year multi-center study in Copenhagen and Zurich...

  5. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Professional Football (Soccer Across Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gouttebarge, Frank J.G. Backx, Haruhito Aoki, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the prevalence of symptoms related to distress, anxiety/depression or substance abuse/dependence, – typically referred to as symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD – is lacking in European professional football (soccer. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of symptoms related to CMD (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour in professional footballers from five European countries, and to explore associations of the outcome measures under study with life events and career dissatisfaction. A cross-sectional design was used. Questionnaires were distributed among professional footballers by the national players’ unions in Finland, France, Norway, Spain and Sweden. The highest prevalence of symptoms related to common mental disorders were 18% for distress (Sweden, 43% for anxiety/depression (Norway, 33% for sleeping disturbance (Spain, 17% for adverse alcohol behaviour (Finland, and 74% for adverse nutrition behaviour (Norway. In Finland, France and Sweden, both life events and career dissatisfaction were associated with distress, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour. Results suggest the need for self-awareness in professional football about common mental disorders and a multidisciplinary approach by the medical team.

  6. Examining the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction levels of football coaches

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    Fikret Soyer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is done for examining the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction feelings of football coaches. Whether there are significant differences in levels of organizational commitment and job satisfaction feelings of football coaches are tested with respect to age, marital status, education and income levels, amateurism and professionalism and other variables.266 football coaches that are selected by random sampling method have participated in this survey on a voluntary basis.Research data have been evaluated by computer. Frequency and percentage distribution table is applied for personal information. Pearson correlation analysis is used for the relationship between dependent variables. As for the analysis of differences between dependent and independent variables, Mann-Whitney U test is done for pairs and Kruskal Wallis test is done for groups with more than two people. On difference analysis 0,05 significance level is taken as bases.As a result, a significant positive relationship of 0.001 levels is observed among the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction of football coaches.

  7. Recreational football training decreases risk factors for bone fractures in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Aagaard, Per; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2010-01-01

    The present intervention was designed to investigate whether a 14-week period of regular recreational association football (F) or endurance running (R) has an effect on the risk of falls and bone fractures due to gains in muscle function and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). Fifty healthy u...

  8. Footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar, Marco; Goncalves, Bruno; Botelho, Goreti; Lemmink, Koen; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games. Ten young professional players (age=18.0 +/- 0.67years) participated in 3 bouts of each small-sided games for 6min with 1min of active rest between bouts. Positional data were colle

  9. Relationship between leader-member exchange and burnout in professional footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Süleyman M

    2011-11-01

    Numerous variables influence burnout, one of which is leader-member exchange. The present study was conducted to determine whether leader-member exchange quality affects burnout in professional footballers. The study used the Leader-Member Exchange-7 scale developed by Scandura and Graen ( 1984 ) to measure leader (coach)-member (player) exchange and Pines's ( 2005 ) abbreviated version of the burnout scale developed by Pines and Aronson ( 1988 ) to measure burnout. The data were obtained from the professional players (N = 107) of six football clubs in the Turkish Secondary Football League in western Turkey. The results demonstrated that quality of leader-member exchange significantly and inversely influenced burnout of professional footballers. The study also evaluated quality of leader-member exchange in terms of three strengths of relationship (low, fair, and high) between the coach and players. Contrary to expectations, the results revealed significant differences in burnout when comparing low versus fair quality and low versus high quality, while no significant difference in burnout was observed between fair and high quality.

  10. Length, width and centroid distance as measures of teams tactical performance in youth football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folgado, Hugo; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Frencken, Wouter; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Small-sided games are commonly used in training and teaching contexts of football. However, few studies have focused on the tactical implications of this type of drills. The aim of this study is to identify how tactical collective behaviour varies with age in different small-sided game formats. We i

  11. Length, width and centroid distance as measures of teams tactical performance in youth football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folgado, H.; Lemmink, K.A.; Frencken, W.; Sampaio, J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Small-sided games are commonly used in training and teaching contexts of football. However, few studies have focused on the tactical implications of this type of drills. The aim of this study is to identify how tactical collective behaviour varies with age in different small-sided game for

  12. Preparing to "Not" Be a Footballer: Higher Education and Professional Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Christopher; Kelly, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the commercialised and professionalised world of elite sport, issues associated with career pathways and post sporting career options have a particular resonance. In various football codes, an unexpected knock, twist, bend or break can profoundly impact a player's career. In this high risk and high consequence environment, a number of sports…

  13. Computed Tomography is Diagnostic in the Cervical Imaging of Helmeted Football Players With Shoulder Pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Michael; Foley, Jack; Heller, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Prospective, observational case series evaluating the value of cervical spine computed tomography (CT) scans in the initial evaluation of a helmeted football player with suspected cervical spine injury. Subjects: Five asymptomatic male football players, fully equipped and immobilized on a backboard. Design: Multiple 3.0-mm, helically acquired, axially displayed CT images of the cervical spine were obtained from the skull base inferiorly through T1, with images filmed at soft tissue and bone windows. Sagittal and coronal reformatted images were performed. Software was used to minimize metallic artifact. Measurements: All series were reviewed by a Board-certified neuroradiologist for image clarity and diagnostic capability. Results: Lateral scout films demonstrated mild segmental degradation, depending on the location of the metallic snaps overlying the spine. Anteroposterior scout films and bone window images were of diagnostic quality. The soft tissue windows showed minimal localized artifact occurring at the same levels as in the lateral scout views. This minimal beam-hardening streak artifact did not affect the diagnostic quality of the soft tissue windows. Reconstructed images were uniformly of clinical diagnostic quality. Discussion: When CT scans were reviewed as a unit, sufficient information was available to allow reliable clinical decisions about the helmeted football player. In light of recent publications demonstrating the difficulty of obtaining adequate radiographs to evaluate cervical spine injury in equipped football players, helmeted athletes may undergo CT scanning without any significant diagnostic limitations. PMID:15496989

  14. Mapping the global football field: a sociological model of transnational forces within the world game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland

    2012-06-01

    This paper provides a sociological model of the key transnational political and economic forces that are shaping the 'global football field'. The model draws upon, and significantly extends, the theory of the 'global field' developed previously by Robertson. The model features four quadrants, each of which contains a dominant operating principle, an 'elemental reference point', and an 'elemental theme'. The quadrants contain, first, neo-liberalism, associated with the individual and elite football clubs; second, neo-mercantilism, associated with nation-states and national football systems; third, international relations, associated with international governing bodies; and fourth, global civil society, associated with diverse institutions that pursue human development and/or social justice. We examine some of the interactions and tensions between the major institutional and ideological forces across the four quadrants. We conclude by examining how the weakest quadrant, featuring global civil society, may gain greater prominence within football. In broad terms, we argue that our four-fold model may be utilized to map and to examine other substantive research fields with reference to globalization.

  15. Sports Biographies of African American Football Players: The Racism of Colorblindness in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of racism in a genre of children's literature that has been largely overlooked by research and teaching in multicultural children's literature: sports biographies and, in particular, the biographies of African American professional football players. By examining the race bias of this genre of children's literature, the…

  16. "I Found out the Hard Way": Micro-Political Workings in Professional Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew; Potrac, Paul; Jones, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the micro-political experiences of Adam (a pseudonym), a newly appointed fitness coach at a Football Association Premier League club, in his search for acceptance by senior colleagues. Data were collected through a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews, before being subject to a process of inductive analysis. Goffman's…

  17. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacem

  18. The Genesis of Romanian Football. Social Factors and Processes behind the Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER, László

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with those social and economic factors that contributed to the genesis of Romanian soccer at the turn of the previous century. The author argues that football was imported from abroad via peregrination and schools, but certain social processes, such as urbanization, capitalization and the appearance of massive working classes, are the reasons why this beautiful game became socially embedded in the local environments. The different circumstances in Banat and Transylvania and in the old Romanian Kingdom marked the social history and trajectory “travelled” by the ball. While in the western part of the country, football arrived in a fertile ground because of the already existing bourgeois sport associations and the rapidly emerging local working classes, the role of foreign companies and expats in implementing football was more significant in the southern regions. This difference in the genesis of the game produced two distinct styles of playing football. These two styles clearly reflect the historical and social background specific to the different regions.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of 3 months of football training in overweight children examined by comprehensive echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Andersen, Lars Juel; Rebelo, António Natal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We examined effects of a 3-month football training programme in overweight children using comprehensive echocardiography and peripheral arterial tonometry. Twenty preadolescent overweight children (17 boys, 3 girls aged 8-12 yrs; body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85(th) percentile) participated in...... have positive structural and functional effects on the cardiovascular system in overweight preadolescent children....

  20. University of Miami Hurricane Football Team Off-Season Strength Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Ray

    The off-season football strength training and conditioning program at the University of Miami was developed to emphasize commitment and continued intensity of effort on the part of the individual player. The program emphasizes the intrinsic rewards of physical conditioning, positive reinforcement for effort, and individual responsibility for…