Parker, Eleanor J; Jamieson, Lisa M
Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate mode...
Jamieson Lisa M
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.
Sanders, Anne E; Spencer, A John
The way in which work is structured and organised is associated with the health and well-being of workers. To examine the associations between hours worked, job security, skill maintenance and work and home interference and subjective oral health; and to compare findings for different occupational groups. Data were collected in 1999 from a random stratified sample of households in all Australian States and Territories using a telephone interview and a questionnaire survey. Subjective oral health was evaluated with the short form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which assesses the adverse impact of oral conditions on quality of life. Data were obtained for 2,347 dentate adults in the workforce. In the 12 months preceding the survey, 51.9% had experienced oral pain and 31.0% reported psychological discomfort from dental problems. Males, young adults, Australian-born workers, and those in upper-white collar occupations reported lower mean OHIP-14 scores (ANOVA p age, country of birth and socioeconomic factors in a linear multiple regression analysis, hours worked, skill maintenance and work and home interference were significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores for all workers. While part-time work was associated with higher OHIP-14 among upper white-collar workers, working >40 hours a week was associated with higher OHIP-14 scores for other workers. Aspects of the work environment are associated with the subjective oral health of workers. Because these contexts are subject to only limited control by individual workers, their influence is a public health issue.
Roberts-Thomson Kaye F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings
Ahmad, Mas S; Abuzar, Menaka A; Razak, Ishak A; Rahman, Sabariah A; Borromeo, Gelsomina L
Education in oral health is important to prepare future medical professionals for collaborative roles in maintaining patients' oral health, an important component of general health and well-being. The aims of this study were to determine the perceptions of medical students in Malaysia and Australia of the quality of their training in oral health care and their perceptions of their professional role in maintaining the oral health of their patients. A survey was administered in the classroom with final-year Malaysian (n=527; response rate=79.3%) and Australian (n=455; response rate: 60%) medical students at selected institutions in those countries. In the results, most of these medical students reported encountering patients with oral health conditions including ulcers, halitosis, and edentulism. A majority in both countries reported believing they should advise patients to obtain regular dental check-ups and eat a healthy diet, although they reported feeling less than comfortable in managing emergency dental cases. A high percentage reported they received a good education in smoking cessation but not in managing dental trauma, detecting cancerous lesions, or providing dietary advice in oral disease prevention. They expressed support for inclusion of oral health education in medical curricula. These students' experience with and perceptions of oral health care provide valuable information for medical curriculum development in these two countries as well as increasing understanding of this aspect of interprofessional education and practice now in development around the world.
Arrow, P; Klobas, E
Early childhood caries has significant impacts on children and their families. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument for capturing the complex dimensions of preschool children's oral health. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument among Australian preschool children. Parents/children dyads (n = 286) participating in a treatment trial on early childhood caries completed the scale at baseline, and 33 parents repeated the questionnaire 2-3 weeks later. The validity and reliability of the ECOHIS was determined using tests for convergent and discriminant validity, internal reliability of the instrument and test-retest reliability. Scale impacts were strongly correlated with global oral health ratings (Spearman's correlations; r = 0.51, total score; r = 0.43, child impact; and r = 0.49, family impact; p childhood caries among Australian preschool children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
Jamieson, Lisa M; Parker, Eleanor J; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Lawrence, Herenia P; Broughton, John
Self-efficacy plays an important role in oral health-related behaviours. There is little known about associations between self-efficacy and subjective oral health among populations at heightened risk of dental disease. This study aimed to determine if low self-efficacy was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among a convenience sample of pregnant women. We used self-reported data from 446 Australian women pregnant with an Aboriginal child (age range 14-43 years) to evaluate self-rated oral health, self-efficacy and socio-demographic, psychosocial, social cognitive and risk factors. Hierarchical entry of explanatory variables into logistic regression models estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for fair or poor self-rated oral health. In an unadjusted model, those with low self-efficacy had 2.40 times the odds of rating their oral health as 'fair' or 'poor' (95% CI 1.54-3.74). Addition of socio-demographic factors attenuated the effect of low self-efficacy on poor self-rated oral health by 10 percent (POR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37-3.51). Addition of the psychosocial factors attenuated the odds by 17 percent (POR 2.07, 95% CI 1.28-3.36), while addition of the social cognitive variable fatalism increased the odds by 1 percent (POR 2.42, 95% CI 1.55-3.78). Inclusion of the behavioural risk factor 'not brushing previous day' attenuated the odds by 15 percent (POR 2.11, 95%CI 1.32-3.36). In the final model, which included all covariates, the odds were attenuated by 32 percent (POR 1.80, 95% CI 1.05, 3.08). Low self-efficacy persisted as a risk indicator for poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among this vulnerable population.
Taylor, Judy; Carlisle, Karen; Farmer, Jane; Larkins, Sarah; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda
In this paper, we consider factors significant in the success of community participation in the implementation of new oral health services. Our analysis draws on data from the Rural Engaging Communities in Oral Health (Rural ECOH) study (2014-2016). We aimed to assess the Australian relevance of a Scottish community participation framework for health service development; Remote Service Futures. Internationally, community participation in planning of health initiatives is common, but less common in new service implementation. Health managers query the legitimacy of "lay" community members, whether they will persist, and whether they can act as change agents. Our data provide evidence that helps answer these queries. Six communities, located within regions covered by two large rural primary healthcare organisations (Medicare Locals), were selected in two Australian states. Two university-based facilitators worked with a group of local residents (for each community) to monitor implementation of new oral health initiatives designed through participatory processes. Data about implementation were collected through interviews with 28 key stakeholders at the beginning of implementation and 12 months later. Data were coded, themed and analysed abductively. Five themes emerged; the inter-relationship between community motivation to participate with the fortunes of the oral health initiatives, having the "right" people involved, continuing involvement of sponsors and/or significant people, trusting working relationships between participants and perceiving benefits from participation. Findings provide evidence of a role for community participation in implementing new community services if solid partnerships with relevant providers can be negotiated and services are seen to be relevant and useful to the community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Amarasena, Najith; Kapellas, Kostas; Brown, Alex; Skilton, Michael R; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Bartold, Mark P; O'Dea, Kerin; Celermajer, David; Slade, Gary Douglas; Jamieson, Lisa
This study sought to: a) estimate the frequency of poor self-rated oral health as assessed by a summary measure; b) compare frequency according to sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological distress factors; and (3) determine if psychological distress was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding. Data were from a convenience sample of Indigenous Australian adults (n = 289) residing in Australia's Northern Territory. Poor self-rated oral health was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance or food avoidance in the last 12 months. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological distress associations with poor self-rated oral health (SROH). Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR). The frequency of poor SROH was 73.7 percent. High psychological distress, measured by a Kessler-6 score ≥8, was experienced by 33.9 percent of participants. Poor SROH was associated with high levels of psychological distress, being older, being female, and usually visiting a dentist because of a problem. In the multivariable model, factors that were significantly associated with poor SROH after adjustment for other covariates included having a high level of psychological distress (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.25-6.00), being female (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.03-4.78), and usually visiting a dentist because of a problem (OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.89-6.76). Poor self-rated oral health and high levels of psychological distress were both highly frequent among this vulnerable population. Psychological distress was significantly associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjustment for confounding. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Luzzi, Liana; Mejia, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa
Dental diseases have shown to be influenced by area-level socioeconomic status. This study aims to assess the effects of change in area-level SES on the oral health of Australian Indigenous children. Data were collected from a national surveillance survey for children's dental health at two points of time (2000-2002/2007-2010). The study examines caries experienced by area-level SES and whether changes in area-level SES (stable-high, upwardly-mobile, downwardly-mobile and stable low) affects caries experience. Dental caries in both the deciduous and permanent dentition increased significantly among Indigenous children during the study period. In stable low-SES areas, the experience of decayed, missing and overall dmft/DMFT in both dentitions was highest compared with other groups at both Time 1(2.15 vs 1.61, 1.77, 1.87 and 0.86 vs 0.55, 0.67, 0.70 respectively) and Time 2 (3.23 vs 2.08, 2.17, 2.02 and 1.49 vs 1.18, 1.21 respectively). A change in area-level SES was associated with experience of dental disease among Indigenous Australian children.
Wright, Fac; Chu, Sk-Y; Milledge, K L; Valdez, E; Law, G; Hsu, B; Naganathan, V; Hirani, V; Blyth, F M; Le Couteur, D G; Harford, J; Waite, L M; Handelsman, D J; Seibel, M J; Cumming, R G
The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) is a cohort study of the health of a representative sample of Australian men aged 70 years and older. The aim of this report is to describe the oral health of these men. Oral health was assessed when the men were all aged 78 years or older. Two calibrated examiners conducted a standardized intraoral assessment. Descriptive data were analysed by statistical association tests. Participants were excluded from the collection of some periodontal assessments if they had a medical contraindication. Dental assessments of 614 participants revealed 90 (14.6%) were edentate. Men had a mean of 13.8 missing teeth and 10.3 filled teeth. Dentate participants had a mean of 1.1 teeth with active coronal decay. Those in the low-income group had a higher rate of decayed teeth and lower rate of filled teeth. Thirty-four participants (5.5%) had one or more dental implants, and 66.3% relied on substitute natural teeth for functional occlusion. Of those with full periodontal assessments; 90.9% had sites with pocket depths of 3 mm or more, 96.6% had sites with CAL of 5 mm or more, and 79.7% had three or more sites with GI scores of 2 or more. There was a high prevalence of periodontal diseases and restorative burden of dentitions, which suggests that greater attention needs to be given to prevention and health maintenance in older Australian men. © 2017 The Authors. Australian Dental Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Dental Association.
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Jones, K; Parker, E J; Jamieson, L M
To better understand the determinants of self-rated oral health within an Indigenous population by: 1, examining potential individual-level correlates of socio-demographic, health behaviours, dental care access and oral health literacy-related outcomes with self-rated oral health; and, 2, examining the relative contribution of these domains to self-rated oral health in multivariable modelling. We conducted nested logistic regression analyses on self-reported status of 'fair or poor' versus 'better' oral health using data from a convenience sample of rural dwelling Indigenous Australians (n = 468). Data were collected on background characteristics, health behaviours, access to dental care, oral health literacy-related outcome variables and REALD 30, an oral health literacy scale. Overall 37.0 % of the Indigenous adult population reported fair or poor oral health. In multivariable modelling, risk indicators for fair or poor self-rated oral health that persisted after adjusting for other covariates included being aged 38+ years (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.9,4.6), holding a Government Health Concession card (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1,4.5), avoiding the dentist due to financial constraints (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.4,3.6), not knowing how to make an emergency dental visit (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1,2.7) and poor understanding of the prevention of dental disease (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1,2.7). In this vulnerable population, risk indicators contributing to poor self-rated oral health included socio-demographic, dental care access and oral health literacy-related factors. Health behaviours were not significant.
Full Text Available A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (<21 teeth and poor self-rated oral health among Australian adults. Variations in the association between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared.For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income.LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87 after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality.Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income
Background A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. Methods For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income. Results LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87) after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality. Conclusion Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition is likely due to the contextual differences between Australia
Singh, Ankur; Harford, Jane; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Peres, Marco A
A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income. LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87) after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality. Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition is likely due to the contextual differences between Australia and other high-income countries.
Duff, Margaret; Dahlen, Hannah G; Burns, Elaine; Priddis, Holly; Schmied, Virginia; George, Ajesh
Maternal oral health is important yet many pregnant women are unaware of its significance. Midwives are advised to promote oral health during pregnancy and are supported to do this in Australia through the Midwifery Initiated Oral Health training program. However, limited undergraduate education is being provided to midwifery students in this area. The objective of this paper is to describe how an innovative oral health education module for an undergraduate midwifery course in Australia was designed using a multidisciplinary approach. Midwives experienced in curriculum development and key investigators from the Midwifery Initiated Oral Health program designed the module using existing literature. Constructive alignment, blended learning and scaffolding were used in the design process. The draft module was then reviewed by midwifery academics and their feedback incorporated. The final module involves 4 h of teaching and learning and contains three components incorporated into first year course units. Each component is aligned with existing learning outcomes and incorporates blended learning approaches and tutorials/class activities as well as online quizzes and personal reflection. The module details key information (current evidence; basic anatomy/physiology; common oral conditions; and guidelines during pregnancy) that could better prepare students to promote oral health in clinical practice. This is the first time such an innovative, multidisciplinary approach has been undertaken embedding oral health in an undergraduate midwifery program in Australia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haysom, Leigh; Indig, Devon; Byun, Roy; Moore, Elizabeth; van den Dolder, Paul
To describe the prevalence and risk factors for markers of poor oral health in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal young people in custody in Australia. All incarcerated youth, aged 13-21 years, in New South Wales Juvenile Custodial Centres between August and October 2009 were invited to participate and undertake a dental exam. The main outcome measures were an assessment of moderate/abundant plaque, periodontal disease, dental caries experience, mean decayed and/or filled and/or missing teeth (DMFT) index and untreated decay. Two hundred ninety-four participants (91% male, 46% Aboriginal) underwent a dental exam. Markers of poor oral health were common - 49.4% with moderate/abundant plaque, 34.4% with periodontal disease, mean DMFT 3.56 and 54% having untreated decay. Risk factors independently associated with poor oral health were geographical remoteness and non-fluoridation of the water supply of the usual residence, a shorter incarceration time and dental treatment outside of custody. Young people entering custody have poor oral health, with those from geographically remote areas without water fluoridation at highest risk. The incarceration period is an opportunity for oral health improvements in these young people through access to dental treatment services. Better triaging systems are needed to identify those of greatest priority, and prevention services are needed. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Hughes, Toby; Bockmann, Michelle; Mihailidis, Suzanna; Bennett, Corinna; Harris, Abbe; Seow, W Kim; Lekkas, Dimitra; Ranjitkar, Sarbin; Rupinskas, Loreta; Pinkerton, Sandra; Brook, Alan; Smith, Richard; Townsend, Grant C
The Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at The University of Adelaide is entering an exciting new phase of its studies of dental development and oral health in twins and their families. Studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins have been continuing for nearly 30 years, with three major cohorts of twins recruited over that time, and currently we are working with twins aged 2 years old to adults. Cross-sectional data and records relating to teeth and faces of twins are available for around 300 pairs of teenage twins, as well as longitudinal data for 300 pairs of twins examined at three different stages of development, once with primary teeth, once at the mixed dentition stage, and then again when the permanent teeth had emerged. The third cohort of twins comprises over 600 pairs of twins recruited at around birth, together with other family members. The emphasis in this third group of twins has been to record the timing of emergence of the primary teeth and also to sample saliva and dental plaque to establish the timing of colonization of decay-forming bacteria in the mouth. Analyses have confirmed that genetic factors strongly influence variation in timing of primary tooth emergence. The research team is now beginning to carry out clinical examinations of the twins to see whether those who become colonized earlier with decay-forming bacteria develop dental decay at an earlier age. By making comparisons within and between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and applying modern molecular approaches, we are now teasing out how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors interact to influence dental development and also oral health.
Gibney, Jennifer Mary; Wright, Clive; Sharma, Anita; D'Souza, Mario; Naganathan, Vasi
to determine the oral health status of older patients in acute care wards at admission and after 7 days. a prospective descriptive study was conducted in two acute tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Oral health was assessed on admission (within 24 h) and Day 7 using the Oral Health Assessment Tool. a total of 575 patients were admitted under the Geriatric teams at the two hospitals. Four hundred and thirty-five (76%) patients had oral cleanliness (debris) scores in the 'not healthy' range with food particles, tartar or plaque evident in at least one area in most areas of the mouth, teeth or dentures. At Day 7 206 were reassessed. One hundred and forty-nine patients (73%) were in the 'not healthy' range and of these 127 (62%) had the same score as on admission. poor oral health is common in older people admitted to hospital acute care wards and does not improve over a 7-day period. Given the link between oral health and general health the next steps are to determine how oral health can be improved in this setting and see whether this leads to better patient outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Pateman, K; Cockburn, N; Campbell, J; Ford, P J
The symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) can affect oral care and access to dental services, but there is limited literature describing the oral health and perceived oral healthcare needs of people with MS. This study aimed to explore the oral health experiences, oral health behaviours and barriers to accessing dental care perceived by people living with MS in Australia. Six focus groups were held across two metropolitan areas (Brisbane, Queensland and Melbourne, Victoria) and one regional area (Toowoomba, Queensland). Focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis. Living with MS was a highly individual experience due to the range of symptoms that may be experienced. In addition to having different symptom experiences to others with MS, individual symptoms also differed on a daily basis as the disease relapsed and remitted. The physical expressions of MS directly and indirectly affected the oral health of participants. Additionally, oral health was affected by the side effects of medications and orofacial pain symptoms. Depending on the symptoms experienced by the individual, personal oral hygiene was affected and professional dental appointments were difficult. Participants also experienced structural barriers to accessing professional dental care including difficulty accessing transport to-and-from dental appointments, space limitations in the dental surgery and financial barriers to care. Dental care was perceived to be inflexible and was not tailored to individual experiences of MS, which contributed to perceptions of poor quality and appropriateness of care. It is important for dental professionals to offer tailored and individualized dental care when treating people with MS. Our findings suggest that there needs to be greater interprofessional communication and referral to manage atypical dental pain symptoms. Oral health education for people with MS should include altered strategies to performing daily oral hygiene, the management of xerostomia and
Hallett, Christine E; Madsen, Wendy; Pateman, Brian; Bradshaw, Julie
Oral history methodology was used to investigate the perspectives of retired British district nurses and Australian domiciliary nurses who had practiced between 1960 and 2000. Interviews yielded insights into the dramatic changes in community nursing practice during the last four decades of the 20th century. Massive changes in health care and government-led drives for greater efficiency meant moving from practice governed by "experiential time" (in which perception of time depends on the quality of experience) to practice governed by "measured time" (in which experience itself is molded by the measurement of time). Nurses recognized that the quality of their working lives and their relationships with families had been altered by the social, cultural, and political changes, including the drive for professional recognition in nursing itself, soaring economic costs of health care and push for deinstitutionalization of care. Community nurses faced several dilemmas as they grappled with the demands for efficiency created by these changes.
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Sayers Susan M
Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study has been underway in Australia's Northern Territory since 1987. Inclusion of oral epidemiological information in a follow-up study required flexible and novel approaches with unconventional techniques. Documenting these procedures may be of value to researchers interested in including oral health components in remotely-located studies. The objectives are to compare and describe dental data collection methods in wave III of the ABC study with a more conventional oral health investigation. Methods The Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH was considered the 'conventional' study. Differences between this investigation and the dental component of the ABC study were assessed in terms of ethics, location, recruitment, consent, privacy, equipment, examination, clinical data collection and replication. In the ABC study, recording of clinical data by different voice recording techniques were described and assessed for ease-of-use portability, reliability, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Results Conventional investigation recruitment was by post and telephone. Participants self presented. Examinations took place in dental clinics, using customised dental chairs with standard dental lights attached. For all examinations, a dental assistant recorded dental data directly onto a laptop computer. By contrast, follow-up of ABC study participants involved a multi-phase protocol with reliance on locally-employed Indigenous advocates bringing participants to the examination point. Dental examinations occurred in settings ranging from health centre clinic rooms to improvised spaces outdoors. The dental chair was a lightweight, portable reclining camp chair and the dental light a fire-fighter's head torch with rechargeable batteries. The digital voice recorder was considered the most suitable instrument for clinical dental data collection in the ABC study in comparison with
Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len
Objectives To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Setting Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. Participants 35 primary care providers who had experience in providing oral health advice to patients and four dental care providers who had provided oral health services to patients from the four communities. Results In the absence of a resident dentist, rural and remote residents did present to non-dental primary care providers with oral health problems such as toothache, abscess, oral/gum infection and sore mouth for treatment and advice. Themes emerged from the interview data around communication challenges and strategies to improve oral health. Although, non-dental care providers commonly advised patients to see a dentist, they rarely communicated with the dentist in the nearest regional town. Participants proposed that oral health could be improved by: enabling access to dental practitioners, educating communities on preventive oral healthcare, and building the skills and knowledge base of non-dental primary care providers in the field of oral health. Conclusions Prevention is a cornerstone to better oral health in rural and remote communities as well as in more urbanised communities. Strategies to improve the provision of dental services by either visiting or resident dental practitioners should include scope to provide community-based oral health promotion activities, and to engage more closely with other primary care service providers in these small communities. PMID:26515687
Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len
To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. 35 primary care providers who had experience in providing oral health advice to patients and four dental care providers who had provided oral health services to patients from the four communities. In the absence of a resident dentist, rural and remote residents did present to non-dental primary care providers with oral health problems such as toothache, abscess, oral/gum infection and sore mouth for treatment and advice. Themes emerged from the interview data around communication challenges and strategies to improve oral health. Although, non-dental care providers commonly advised patients to see a dentist, they rarely communicated with the dentist in the nearest regional town. Participants proposed that oral health could be improved by: enabling access to dental practitioners, educating communities on preventive oral healthcare, and building the skills and knowledge base of non-dental primary care providers in the field of oral health. Prevention is a cornerstone to better oral health in rural and remote communities as well as in more urbanised communities. Strategies to improve the provision of dental services by either visiting or resident dental practitioners should include scope to provide community-based oral health promotion activities, and to engage more closely with other primary care service providers in these small communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.
During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain
Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.
Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232
... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...
Crall, James J
National and state-level evidence has documented ongoing disparities in children's health and utilization of oral health care services, prompting a re-examination of factors associated with poor oral health and low use of oral health services. These efforts have yielded a wide array of proposals for improving children's oral health and oral health care delivery. This paper offers a perspective on the current context of efforts to improve children's oral health and oral health care delivery.
Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive
Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…
Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M
During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel
Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa
Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...
Riggs, E; Rajan, S; Casey, S; Kilpatrick, N
The number of people forced to flee their homes and move around the world is increasing rapidly. Such refugee populations are not only more likely to have poor physical, mental and social health outcomes but also to experience difficulties accessing health services in their new country. In particular, children from refugee backgrounds are at increased risk of poor oral health which in time is associated with poor adult oral health and impacts on child health (e.g. growth and development) and well-being. To date, there is little evidence about the nature and extent of their oral health problems nor interventions to improve their oral health status. This article summarises the evidence surrounding the oral health status of children from refugee backgrounds. In addition, a systematic review of the international literature over the past 10 years is presented which identifies interventions to improve the oral health of these vulnerable paediatric populations. Based on this evidence, potential strategies available to dental service providers to optimise provision of responsive dental care are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy. Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Womenâs Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 5/12/2009.
Smithers, Lisa G; Lynch, John; Hedges, Joanne; Jamieson, Lisa M
There are marked disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous children's diets and oral health. Both diet and oral health are linked to longer-term health problems. We aimed to investigate whether a culturally appropriate multi-faceted oral health promotion intervention reduced Aboriginal children's intake of sugars from discretionary foods at 2 years of age. We conducted a single-blind, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial involving women who were pregnant or had given birth to an Aboriginal child in the previous 6 weeks. The treatment group received anticipatory guidance, Motivational Interviewing, health and dental care for mothers during pregnancy and children at 6, 12 and 18 months. The control group received usual care. The key dietary outcome was the percent energy intake from sugars in discretionary foods (%EI), collected from up to three 24-h dietary recalls by trained research officers who were blind to intervention group. Secondary outcomes included intake of macronutrients, food groups, anthropometric z scores (weight, height, BMI and mid-upper arm circumference) and blood pressure. We enrolled 224 children to the treatment group and 230 to the control group. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that the %EI of sugars in discretionary foods was 1·6 % lower in the treatment group compared with control (95 % CI -3·4, 0·2). This culturally appropriate intervention at four time-points from pregnancy to 18 months resulted in small changes to 2-year-old Aboriginal children's diets, which was insufficient to warrant broader implementation of the intervention. Further consultation with Aboriginal communities is necessary for understanding how to improve the diet and diet-related health outcomes of young Aboriginal children.
Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.
Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdani, Reza; Virtanen, Jorma; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Murtomaa, Heikki
Objective. To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants, as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. Multiple logistic regression analysis served to estimate the predictive effect of oral health literacy on self-reported oral health status (good versus poor) controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors and tooth-brushing behavior. Results. In all, among 1031 partici...
Petersen, Poul Erik
Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care...... is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral...... diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work...
Pitts, N.; Amaechi, B.; Niederman, R.; Acevedo, A.-M.; Vianna, R.; Ganss, C.; Ismail, A.; Honkala, E.
The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233
O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S
The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fl uoride, adjusted fl uoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fl uoride in improving oral health...... including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fl uorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision...... of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fi elds of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fl uorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fl uoride...
Neurocognitive decline and delirium, frailty, incontinence, falls, hearing and vision impairment, medication compliance and pharmacokinetics, skin breakdown, impaired sleep and rest are regarded as geriatric giants by gerontologists, geriatricians and nursing home staff. As these are all interrelated in the elderly, failure to act on one can impact on the others. However, the implications of poor oral health have for too long been ignored and deserve equal status. Mouth pain can be devastating for the elderly, compound psychosocial problems, frustrate carers and nursing home staff and disrupt family dynamics. As appearance, function and comfort suffer, so may a person's self-esteem and confidence. The contributing factors for poor oral health such as rapid dental decay, acute and chronic periodontal infections and compromised systemic health on a background of a dry mouth, coupled with xerostomia-inducing medications, reduced fine motor function, declining cognition and motivation will not only lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality but also impact on quality of life. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanis...
Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya
Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour.
Moysés, Samuel Jorge
This article offers a critical review of the problem of inequalities in oral health and discusses strategies for disease prevention and oral health promotion. It shows that oral health is not merely a result of individual biological, psychological, and behavioral factors; rather, it is the sum of collective social conditions created when people interact with the social environment. Oral health status is directly related to socioeconomic position across the socioeconomic gradient in almost all...
O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M
The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.
Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura
Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries.
Background: Studies have shown that strong knowledge on oral health demonstrates better oral care practice and an association between increased knowledge and better oral health exists. Aim: To assess the influence of oral health knowledge and oral care practices to oral health status of secondary school students in ...
Mar 1, 2008 ... elsewhere on handicapped children have shown varying results; some showing poor oral health and others showing similar oral health status as those of normal children (1-5). These differences may be attributable, at least in part, to the differences in the level of disability and the level of oral health care.
The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.
The behavioral science experts are of opinion that only comprehensive and integrated common-risk-factor-based health promotion activities can enhance oral health and its equity as a part of general health. Are health professionals ready to assume their responsibility for promoting better oral health?
Kwan, Stella; Petersen, Poul Erik
This book chapter discusses the social determinants of oral health, and identifies interventions that have been, or can be, used in addressing oral health inequities (e.g. oral health promotion, education programmes, improving access to oral health care)....
Kwan, Stella; Petersen, Poul Erik
This book chapter discusses the social determinants of oral health, and identifies interventions that have been, or can be, used in addressing oral health inequities (e.g. oral health promotion, education programmes, improving access to oral health care).......This book chapter discusses the social determinants of oral health, and identifies interventions that have been, or can be, used in addressing oral health inequities (e.g. oral health promotion, education programmes, improving access to oral health care)....
The West Australian School Dental Service (SDS) provides free, statewide, primary dental care to schoolchildren aged 5-17 years. This study reports on an evaluation of the oral health of children examined during the 2014 calendar year. Children were sampled, based on their date of birth, and SDS clinicians collected the clinical information. Weighted mean values of caries experience were presented. Negative binomial regression modelling was undertaken to test for factors of significance in the rate of caries occurrence. Data from children aged 5-15 years were used (girls = 4616, boys = 4900). Mean dmft (5-10-year-olds), 1.42 SE 0.03; mean DMFT (6-15-year-olds), 0.51 SE 0.01. Negative binomial regression model of permanent tooth caries found higher rates of caries in children who were from non-fluoridated areas (RR 2.1); Aboriginal (RR 2.4); had gingival inflammation (RR 1.5); lower ICSEA level (RR 1.4); and recalled at more than 24-month interval (RR 1.8). The study highlighted poor dental health associated with living in non-fluoridated areas, Aboriginal identity, poor oral hygiene, lower socioeconomic level and having extended intervals between dental checkups. Timely assessments and preventive measures targeted at groups, including extending community water fluoridation, may assist in further improving the oral health of children in Western Australia. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
Vlad, R.S.; Petersen, P.E.
Attitudes, dental status, socioeconomic factors, oral health care, production of oral health, health status, quality of life......Attitudes, dental status, socioeconomic factors, oral health care, production of oral health, health status, quality of life...
Meldrum, Rebecca; Ho, Hillary; Satur, Julie
People with a lived experience of mental illness are at a higher risk for developing oral diseases and having poorer oral health than the broader population. This paper explores the role of Australian community mental health services in supporting the prevention and management of poor oral health among people living with mental illness. Through focus groups and semi-structured interviews, participants identified the value of receiving oral health support within a community mental health setting, in particular the delivery of basic education, preventive strategies, assistance with making or attending appointments and obtaining priority access to oral health services. Engagement with Community Health Services and referrals generated through the priority access system were identified as key enablers to addressing oral health issues. This study provides new insight into the importance of undertaking an integrated approach to reducing the oral health disparities experienced by those living with mental illness.
Ajwani, Shilpi; Jayanti, Sumedh; Burkolter, Nadia; Anderson, Craig; Bhole, Sameer; Itaoui, Rhonda; George, Ajesh
To identify current evidence on the role of nurses and allied health professionals in the oral health management of stroke patients, detailing their current knowledge, attitudes and practices and the potential benefits of an integrated oral care programme. Stroke has disabling oral health effects, such as dysphagia and hindered brushing due to upper limb hemiparesis. Together, these can increase bacterial load, increasing risk of pneumonia. In general management of stroke, nurses play a key role in early identification, assessment and referral, while occupational therapists, dieticians and speech pathologists are important in rehabilitation. While this should logically apply to the oral care of stroke patients, there is currently limited information, especially in Australia. Scoping review. A literature search was conducted using multiple databases regarding the oral health management of stroke patients by nondental professionals, and 26 articles were reviewed. The Australian National Clinical Guidelines for Stroke accentuate the need for oral care following stroke and suggest how hospital staff need to be involved. Currently, there are no Australian studies. However, international literature suggests that lack of oral health knowledge by nurses and poor patient attitude are reflected in infrequent assistance with stroke patient oral hygiene. There is limited information regarding the benefits of nursing-driven oral hygiene programme in reducing pneumonia incidence, and only few studies show that involving nurses in assisted oral care reduces plaque. There are some suggestions that involving nurses and speech pathologists in oral rehabilitation can improve dysphagia outcomes. Managing oral health poststroke is vital, and there is a need for an appropriate integrated oral care service in Australia. Nondental professionals, especially nurses, can play a key role in the poststroke oral health management of stroke patients to reduce complications, especially pneumonia
Tips for Good Oral Health During Pregnancy B elow are tips for taking care of your oral health while you are pregnant. Getting oral health care, practicing good oral hygiene, eating healthy foods, ...
Saha, Shyamali; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Tabrizian, Maryam; Prakash, Satya
Oral health is affected by its resident microorganisms. Three prominent oral disorders are dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, with the oral microbiota playing a key role in the initiation/progression of all three. Understanding the microbiota and the diseases they may cause is critical to the development of new therapeutics. This review is focused on probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of oral diseases. This review describes the oral ecosystem and its correlation with oral health/disease. The pathogenesis and current prevention/treatment strategies of periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC) are depicted. An introduction of probiotics is followed by an analysis of their role in PD and DC, and their potential role(s) in oral health. Finally, a discussion ensues on the future research directions and limitations of probiotics for oral health. An effective oral probiotic formulation should contribute to the prevention/treatment of microbial diseases of the oral cavity. Understanding the oral microbiota's role in oral disease is important for the development of a therapeutic to prevent/treat dental diseases. However, investigations into clinical efficacy, delivery/dose optimization, mechanism(s) of action and other related parameters are yet to be fully explored. Keeping this in mind, investigations into oral probiotic therapies are proving promising.
Ageing points towards increasing health problems and rising costs for the society. One of these health problems is the deteriorating oral health in care dependent elderly. The latter is related to the high need for care on many levels in these elderly. The lack of attention for oral care can be
Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.
This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.
Liu, Jian; Zhang, Shan Shan; Zheng, Shu Guo; Xu, Tao; Si, Yan
To review the current oral health status and oral health care models in China in an effort to provide recommendations for the future implementation of these models. A systematic literature review was conducted. The Medline, EMBASE, CNKI and Wanfang databases were searched for English and Chinese articles reporting relevant data from 1949 to the present. Data from three national oral health epidemiology surveys, Chinese government reports and national statistics yearbooks from 2011 to 2015 were also included. The oral health status of preschool children were significantly improved over the past 10 years, while caries experience among 35 to 45-year-old and 65 to 74-year-old groups showed an increase in 2005. The status of poor oral hygiene was observed for both adolescent and elderly groups. The ratio of dentist-to-population in China was reported as 1:10,000 in 2009, which was much lower than that of developed countries. The workforce of the dental service is distributed unevenly and remains insufficient for such a highly populated country. Although the need for dental treatment was perceived as high, the true demand for dental service in China was relatively low and not seen as critical. This situation clearly did not reflect so well with true oral disease conditions. There are several basic social medical insurance systems available in China, which covered most of the population's need for medical attention, but seldom covered dental treatment. National oral health policy in China should emphasise oral health promotion, especially in school education for children and young adults, to further strengthen daily toothbrushing, use of fluoride toothpaste and dental floss, and actively promote annual oral health examination. Oral health management should focus on cost-effective primary and secondary prevention with the long-term goal of maintaining oral health.
Jobling, Ian F.; Naar, Tony; Hanley, Marian
The joint oral history project of the National Library of Australia and the Australian Paralympic Committee focuses on interviews with Australians who have contributed greatly to the Paralympic Movement in Australia since the inaugural Paralympic Games of 1960, while also recognising their place in the larger social and cultural context. This…
Full Text Available Although oral health is a major determinant of general health and quality of life, it has a low priority in the context of mental illness. Chronic mental illness and its treatment carry inherent risks for significant oral diseases. Both the disease itself and its various pharmacologic management modalities lead to a range of oral complications and side effects, with caries, periodontal disease and xerostomia being encountered most frequently. Older age, female gender, length of hospitalization, duration of mental illness, psychiatric diagnosis are the most discussed predictors for adverse dental outcomes in the reviewed studies. Poor oral hygiene, higher intake of carbonates, smoking, poor perception of oral health self-needs, length of psychiatric disorder, length of psychotropic treatment, and less access to dental care pose at high risk for poor oral health among this population. This article emphasizes the importance of preventive dentistry programs to improve dental healthcare psychiatric chronic inpatients and the signifance of bridging dental health education to psychiatric rehabilitation programs. In this review, general information concerning the oral manifestations of mental illness, effect of medication of mental illness on oral health, the factors affecting oral health among this special population have been provided.
Ozlem Gurbuz; Kursat Altinbas; Erhan Kurt
Although oral health is a major determinant of general health and quality of life, it has a low priority in the context of mental illness. Chronic mental illness and its treatment carry inherent risks for significant oral diseases. Both the disease itself and its various pharmacologic management modalities lead to a range of oral complications and side effects, with caries, periodontal disease and xerostomia being encountered most frequently. Older age, female gender, length of hospitalizatio...
... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... Why is Oral Health Important for Men? Article Chapters Why is Oral ...
... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... Why Is Oral Health Important for Women? Article Chapters Why Is Oral ...
... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... your desktop! more... Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health Article Chapters Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral ...
Ellis, I. K.; Skinner, T. C.; Bhana, A.
recorded gender, age, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander self-identification status, whether people worked in the mining industry or not and in what capacity and occupation. Participants were asked a series of questions about health issues of concern from a list of 13 issues which included national......Introduction: In developed countries men's health is poorer than women's for a range of key indicators, and being an Indigenous man in Australia widens the gap substantially. Establishing the rates of mortality and health inequality between the sexes is useful for identifying that men's health...... needs attention and Indigenous men need particular attention. Men's health-seeking behaviour has been suggested as one of the causes of poor outcomes. This study aimed to identify differences in health concerns between men and women, and Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in an Australian mining town...
Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; McAlister, Scott; McGain, Forbes
Carbon footprints stemming from health care have been found to be variable, from 3% of the total national CO 2 equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions in England to 10% of the national CO 2 e emissions in the USA. We aimed to measure the carbon footprint of Australia's health-care system. We did an observational economic input-output lifecycle assessment of Australia's health-care system. All expenditure data were obtained from the 15 sectors of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare for the financial year 2014-15. The Australian Industrial Ecology Virtual Laboratory (IELab) data were used to obtain CO 2 e emissions per AUS$ spent on health care. In 2014-15 Australia spent $161·6 billion on health care that led to CO 2 e emissions of about 35 772 (68% CI 25 398-46 146) kilotonnes. Australia's total CO 2 e emissions in 2014-15 were 494 930 kilotonnes, thus health care represented 35 772 (7%) of 494 930 kilotonnes total CO 2 e emissions in Australia. The five most important sectors within health care in decreasing order of total CO 2 e emissions were: public hospitals (12 295 [34%] of 35 772 kilotonnes CO 2 e), private hospitals (3635 kilotonnes [10%]), other medications (3347 kilotonnes [9%]), benefit-paid drugs (3257 kilotonnes [9%]), and capital expenditure for buildings (2776 kilotonnes [8%]). The carbon footprint attributed to health care was 7% of Australia's total; with hospitals and pharmaceuticals the major contributors. We quantified Australian carbon footprint attributed to health care and identified health-care sectors that could be ameliorated. Our results suggest the need for carbon-efficient procedures, including greater public health measures, to lower the impact of health-care services on the environment. None. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Many workplace-based health promotion programmes have been reported but only a few include or focus specifically on oral health. Although certain obstacles to oral health promotion in the workplace exist from the management side, from the dental profession and from the employees, these seem...... is at present sparse and there are few guidelines to actual strategies for effective oral health promotion. However, elements of strategies that have been successful in various geographical and economic environments include: active involvement of the work force, the use of dental auxiliaries, voluntary daily...... mouthrinsing, screening activities, use of mass media, oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis and paraprofessional training. It is recommended that future research concentrates on these elements to build up a meaningful and relevant data base upon which effective oral health promotion programmes can...
Ellis, I. K.; Skinner, T. C.; Bhana, A.
needs attention and Indigenous men need particular attention. Men's health-seeking behaviour has been suggested as one of the causes of poor outcomes. This study aimed to identify differences in health concerns between men and women, and Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in an Australian mining town...... recorded gender, age, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander self-identification status, whether people worked in the mining industry or not and in what capacity and occupation. Participants were asked a series of questions about health issues of concern from a list of 13 issues which included national...... and local health priorities. They were then asked to prioritise their choices. Results: Three hundred and eighty participants completed the survey, 48% were male; 18.4% identified as an Indigenous person and 21% worked in the local mining industry. Men's and women's health priorities were generally similar...
... Policy Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Published: Jun 01, ... Email Print This fact sheet provides data on oral health care coverage and access for children, nonelderly adults ...
Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan
Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.
Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M
The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health.
Melissa J. Stoneham
Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.
Sanders, Anne E; Slade, Gary D; Lim, Sungwoo; Reisine, Susan T
The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) evaluated oral health quality of life for the first time using a previously untested subset of seven Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questions, i.e. the NHANES-OHIP. (i) To describe the impact of dental conditions on quality of life in the US adult population; (ii) to evaluate construct validity and adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP in NHANES 2003-2004 and a comparable Australian survey. In the cross-sectional NHANES 2003-2004 survey of a nationally representative sample of US adults (n=4907), prevalence was quantified as the proportion of adults who reported experiencing one or more impacts fairly often or very often within the past year. Construct validity was tested by comparing prevalence estimates across categories of sociodemographic, dental health and utilization characteristics known to vary in oral health. In 2002, Australian cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of adults (n=2644), adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP questions were tested with reference to a slightly modified version of the OHIP-14 questions. NHANES-OHIP prevalence estimates were markedly similar in the United States (15.3%) and Australia (15.7%). In the US construct, validity was evidenced by higher NHANES-OHIP scores among groups with greater levels of tooth loss, perceived treatment need and problem-oriented visiting and with lack of private dental insurance and low income. In Australia, prevalence for the NHANES-OHIP closely resembled prevalence estimates of the modified OHIP-14. Both varied to a similar degree across levels of tooth loss, perceived treatment need, problem-oriented visiting, and private dental insurance and income, demonstrating adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP as a brief independent instrument. There was acceptable construct validity and adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP questionnaire. In the United States, the impact of oral disease disproportionately affected disadvantaged groups, a finding
Kjersti Skjold Rønningen; Morten Enersen
Background: Diabetes describes a group of disorders characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood and abnormalities of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. A number of oral diseases and disorders have been associated with diabetes, and periodontitis has been identified as a possible risk factor for poor metabolic control in subjects with diabetes.Methods: This paper reviews the scientific literature to identify oral conditions that have been proposed and are known to be affect...
Lewis, A; Wallace, J; Deutsch, A; King, P
The Australian Government endorsed a national evidence based oral health model when it introduced the first Nursing Home Oral and Dental Health Plan in 2010. Called Better Oral Health in Residential Care, it promotes a multidisciplinary approach with doctors, nurses, care workers and dental professionals sharing responsibility for the four key processes of oral health screening, oral health care planning, daily oral hygiene and access to dental treatment. Frail and dependent residents are most conveniently treated on-site, hence an aged care/dental partnership is encouraged to facilitate the use of portable dental equipment in the delivery of dental care. Currently, few dentists provide services to residential aged care facilities (RACFs), with loss of clinical time in practice, difficulty in providing clinical care in a non-dental environment and lack of referral pathways from the RACFs to the dentists contributing to the problem. The need to establish a model of care involving dental hygienists/oral health therapists in RACFs has merit. Minimal intervention treatment using glass ionomer cement (GIC) and silver fluoride is ideal in aged care. However, GIC has limitation in dry mouths with low pH caused by polypharmacy or disease. Palliative and definitive treatment techniques need to be individualized with consideration of a patient's ability to maintain their own mouths as well as their mental and physical competence. The range of products available to address the oral diseases common to the frail elderly is growing. The oral health care provider is required to establish a preventive regime that is tailored to the patient's needs, is realistic and under revision as the patient's needs change. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
This podcast discusses the importance of older adults maintaing good oral health habits. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals. Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/27/2008.
Petersen, Poul Erik
Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high b...
Esfandiari, Shahrokh; Feine, Jocelyne
Health-care costs are rising at an alarmingly fast rate worldwide, particularly in developed countries such as the United States. This is predominantly a result of the development of new, high-cost health technologies intended for improved diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of health technology assessment is to systematically determine the true benefits of new technologies, taking into account clinical efficacy/effectiveness and cost as well as societal preference and ethical issues. In this report, the purpose of health technology assessment is explained in light of new developments in oral health technology, particularly intraoral implants. This information is intended to educate and to challenge oral health opinion leaders to consider all of the issues involved in the development and diffusion of new oral health technologies.
Full Text Available Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease that progressively and irreversibly affects the central nervous system, leading to a decline in cognitive function. There is loss of brain function, which affects memory, thought, language, judgment and behavior. Since the patients present difficulties with self-care, there is a compromised oral hygiene. There will inevitably be loss of self-care during the course of the disease. The moment one diagnoses dementia, one should refer the patient to a dentist for evaluation, since the more severe the disease is, the harder it is to perform orthodontic procedures, due to loss of patient cooperation. Dental treatment will include guidance on essential oral hygiene for caregivers and family members, since these will be responsible for its performance, as the patient will be unable to perform basic self-care. When a proper dental plan with preventive approach is performed, acting from the diagnosis of the disease on, one can assist in improving the quality of life of these individuals. This paper aims to conduct an update of studies on the oral effects caused by dementia.
T Radhika; Ranganathan Kannan
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of dia...
Effective control of plaque and gingivitis are among our most important treatment goals. Several antimicrobial products have demonstrated safety and various degrees of effectiveness as adjuncts to mechanical plaque control. Our clinical decisions relating to antimicrobial products should be based on the expanding body of research that documents product safety and effectiveness in reducing both plaque and gingivitis. Antimicrobials present exciting prospects for in-office and home use, but they do not replace thorough root debridement and traditional plaque control. However, when selected based on individual patient needs and used in recommended regimens, antimicrobials can be important additions to both professional treatment and oral hygiene practices.
Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh
Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Alt...
Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L
Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities.
Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Ware, Robert S; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A
To identify health conditions associated with productivity loss in working Australians, adjusting for comorbidity, demographics, and work-related characteristics. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit study cross-sectional screening data set was used to identify health-related productivity losses in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. Data collected with the World Health Organisation Health and Productivity Questionnaire were analyzed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively. Health conditions impacted on both presenteeism and absenteeism. Drug and alcohol problems and psychological distress had a greater impact on absenteeism and presenteeism than other investigated health conditions. Demographic characteristics, health status (comorbidity), and work-related characteristics all impacted significantly on both absenteeism and presenteeism. Mental health conditions contributed more strongly to productivity loss than other investigated health conditions.
FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Methamphetamine use and oral health M ethamphetamine is an inexpensive, easy-to-make illicit drug. It is known by several street names: “meth,” “speed,” “ice,” “chalk,” “crank,” “fire,” “ ...
d) Critical or analytical reviews in the area of theory, policy, or research in Dentistry. e) Reviews of recently published books or group of books which would be of relevance to the improvement of oral health in Africa. f) Short reports of scientific meetings, news items, activities and functions of the IADR and other dental ...
Rumbach, Anna F; Rose, Tanya A; Cheah, Mynn
To explore Australian speech-language pathologists' use of non-speech oral motor exercises, and rationales for using/not using non-speech oral motor exercises in clinical practice. A total of 124 speech-language pathologists practising in Australia, working with paediatric and/or adult clients with speech sound difficulties, completed an online survey. The majority of speech-language pathologists reported that they did not use non-speech oral motor exercises when working with paediatric or adult clients with speech sound difficulties. However, more than half of the speech-language pathologists working with adult clients who have dysarthria reported using non-speech oral motor exercises with this population. The most frequently reported rationale for using non-speech oral motor exercises in speech sound difficulty management was to improve awareness/placement of articulators. The majority of speech-language pathologists agreed there is no clear clinical or research evidence base to support non-speech oral motor exercise use with clients who have speech sound difficulties. This study provides an overview of Australian speech-language pathologists' reported use and perceptions of non-speech oral motor exercises' applicability and efficacy in treating paediatric and adult clients who have speech sound difficulties. The research findings provide speech-language pathologists with insight into how and why non-speech oral motor exercises are currently used, and adds to the knowledge base regarding Australian speech-language pathology practice of non-speech oral motor exercises in the treatment of speech sound difficulties. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-speech oral motor exercises refer to oral motor activities which do not involve speech, but involve the manipulation or stimulation of oral structures including the lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate. Non-speech oral motor exercises are intended to improve the function (e.g., movement, strength) of oral structures. The
Many workplace-based health promotion programmes have been reported but only a few include or focus specifically on oral health. Although certain obstacles to oral health promotion in the workplace exist from the management side, from the dental profession and from the employees, these seem...... to be of a scale that can easily be overcome: moreover, numerous potential benefits exist. From the employer's point of view, the main arguments in favour are reduced health care costs, increased productivity and reduced absenteeism. The benefits to the dental profession are possible increases in utilization...... of services and less restraint from fee payment structures and physical environments. The immediate benefit to the employees is easy access to dental services. In addition, work-related dental hazards can be compensated for or prevented and screening activities can be more easily organized. The literature...
Villarosa, Ariana C; Villarosa, Amy R; Salamonson, Yenna; Ramjan, Lucie M; Sousa, Mariana S; Srinivas, Ravi; Jones, Nathan; George, Ajesh
Early childhood caries is the most common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are twice more likely to develop dental decay, and contributing factors include poor maternal oral health and underutilisation of dental services. Globally, Indigenous health workers are in a unique position to deliver culturally competent oral healthcare because they have a contextual understanding of the needs of the community. This scoping review aimed to identify the role of Indigenous health workers in promoting maternal oral health globally. A systematic search was undertaken of six electronic databases for relevant published literature and grey literature, and expanded to include non-dental health professionals and other Indigenous populations across the lifespan when limited studies were identified. Twenty-two papers met the inclusion criteria, focussing on the role of Indigenous health workers in maternal oral healthcare, types of oral health training programs and screening tools to evaluate program effectiveness. There was a paucity of peer-reviewed evidence on the role of Indigenous health workers in promoting maternal oral health, with most studies focusing on other non-dental health professionals. Nevertheless, there were reports of Indigenous health workers supporting oral health in early childhood. Although some oral health screening tools and training programs were identified for non-dental health professionals during the antenatal period, no specific screening tool has been developed for use by Indigenous health workers. While the role of health workers from Indigenous communities in promoting maternal oral health is yet to be clearly defined, they have the potential to play a crucial role in 'driving' screening and education of maternal oral health especially when there is adequate organisational support, warranting further research.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi
This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of ora...
The perception that Indigenous Australians were primitive hunters and gatherers who lived in a nomadic 'Stone Age' culture resonates through most narratives found on Indigenous people in pre-colonial times. This narrative is better placed in the realm of myth; I contest claims that the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians was only forty years in pre-colonial times, by providing suggestive evidence that there is a strong probability that longevity favoured Indigenous Australians in comparison to many poorer sectors of the European population living in slum habitats. As well, I will challenge notions that Indigenous Australians were more violent than supposedly 'civilised' nations. Finally I express the hope that future researchers will revisit archival sources to develop a more nuanced perspective on the past.
Bowser, Jonathan; Sivahop, Jacqueline; Glicken, Anita
The impact of an oral health curriculum was evaluated by measuring increases in knowledge about oral health topics and implementation of oral health skills in the clinical year. A 3-year, longitudinal oral health curriculum was developed and implemented. Student knowledge of oral health concepts was evaluated before and 2 years after the curriculum was implemented. Student performance of oral health skills was evaluated in the clinical year by electronic patient logging. Students demonstrated significant and persistent gains in knowledge following the initiation of the curriculum. Students used oral health skills in the clinical year, particularly in the area of patient education about oral health. Incorporation of an oral health curriculum can lead to lasting knowledge about basic oral health concepts and increased performance of oral health skills in the clinical year.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas
This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...
Ladegaard Grønkjær, Lea; Vilstrup, Hendrik
Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the oral care habits and self-perceived oral health in patients with liver cirrhosis, as well as to evaluate the impact of oral health on well-being and the relation to nutritional status. Participants and methods: From October 2012 to May 2013, we...... carried out a prospective study on patients with liver cirrhosis. Questions on oral care habits and self-perceived oral health were answered, and the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14) provided information on oral conditions. The findings were compared with The Danish Institute for Health...... Services Research report on the Danish population’s dental status. Results: One hundred and seven patients participated. Their oral care habits and self-perceived oral health were poorer than the Danish population; the patients had fewer teeth (on average 19 vs. 26, P=0.0001), attended the dentist less...
Petersen, Poul Erik
Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work with the newly established WHO Collaborating Centre, Kuwait University, to strengthen the development of appropriate models for primary oral health care. PMID:24525450
Petersen, Poul Erik
Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work with the newly established WHO Collaborating Centre, Kuwait University, to strengthen the development of appropriate models for primary oral health care. © 2014 P.E. Petersen, Geneva.
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O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret
The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Sweden, the aim was to study the associations between oral health variables and total and central adiposity, respectively, and to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors (SES, lifestyle, dental anxiety and co-morbidity. Methods The subjects constituted a randomised sample from the 1992 data collection in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden (n = 999, 38- > =78 yrs. The study comprised a clinical and radiographic examination, together with a self-administered questionnaire. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI > =30 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio (WHR > =0.80, and waist circumference >0.88 m. Associations were estimated using logistic regression including adjustments for possible confounders. Results The mean BMI value was 25.96 kg/m2, the mean WHR 0.83, and the mean waist circumference 0.83 m. The number of teeth, the number of restored teeth, xerostomia, dental visiting habits and self-perceived health were associated with both total and central adiposity, independent of age and SES. For instance, there were statistically significant associations between a small number of teeth ( Conclusions Associations were found between oral health and obesity. The choice of obesity measure in oral health studies should be carefully considered.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Yamamoto, Tatsuo
and oral precancer/cancer. The negative impact of poor oral conditions on the quality of life of older adults is an important public health issue, which must be addressed by policy-makers. The means for strengthening oral health programme implementation are available; the major challenge is therefore...... services towards prevention should consider oral care needs of older people. Education and continuous training must ensure that oral health care providers have skills in and a profound understanding of the biomedical and psychosocial aspects of care for older people. Research for better oral health should...
Saniotis, Arthur; Bi, Peng
Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteriously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmacological factors. In this paper we present an overview of some of the foreseeable issues which older Australians will face from a public health perspective.
Vasiliou, A.; Shankardass, K.; Nisenbaum, R.; Qui?onez, C.
Background Psychological stress appears to contribute to poor oral health systemically in combination with other chronic diseases. Few studies directly examine this relationship. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of 2,412 participants between the ages of 25?64 years old living in the City of Toronto between 2009 and 2012 were used to examine the relationship between current stress and two self-rated oral health outcomes (general oral health and oral pain). Dental care utilization and ...
Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.
Badenoch-Jones, E K; White, B P; Lynham, A J
There are persistent concerns about litigation in the dental and medical professions. These concerns arise in a setting where general dentists are more frequently undertaking a wider range of oral surgery procedures, potentially increasing legal risk. Judicial cases dealing with medical negligence in the fields of general dentistry (oral surgery procedure) and oral and maxillofacial surgery were located using the three main legal databases. Relevant cases were analysed to determine the procedures involved, the patients' claims of injury, findings of negligence and damages awarded. A thematic analysis of the cases was undertaken to determine trends. Fifteen cases over a 20-year period were located across almost all Australian jurisdictions (eight cases involved general dentists; seven cases involved oral and maxillofacial surgeons). Eleven of the 15 cases involved determinations of whether or not the practitioner had failed in their duty of care; negligence was found in six cases. Eleven of the 15 cases related to molar extractions (eight specifically to third molar). Dental and medical practitioners wanting to manage legal risk should have regard to circumstances arising in judicial cases. Adequate warning of risks is critical, as is offering referral in appropriate cases. Preoperative radiographs, good medical records and processes to ensure appropriate follow-up are also important. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
Armfield, Jason M; Mejía, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa M
It has been proposed that psychosocial variables are important determinants of oral health outcomes. In addition, the effect of socioeconomic factors in oral health has been argued to work through the shaping of psychosocial stressors and resources. This study therefore aimed to examine the role of psychosocial factors in oral health after controlling for selected socioeconomic and behavioural factors. Logistic and generalised linear regression analyses were conducted on self-rated oral health, untreated decayed teeth and number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) from dentate participants in a national survey of adult oral health (n = 5364) conducted in 2004-2006 in Australia. After controlling for all other variables, more frequent dental visiting and toothbrushing were associated with poorer self-rated oral health, more untreated decay and higher DMFT. Pervasive socioeconomic inequalities were demonstrated, with higher income, having a tertiary degree, higher self-perceived social standing and not being employed all significantly associated with oral health after controlling for the other variables. The only psychosocial variables related to self-rated oral health were the stressors perceived stress and perceived constraints. Psychosocial resources were not statistically associated with self-rated oral health and no psychosocial variables were significantly associated with either untreated decayed teeth or DMFT after controlling for the other variables. Although the role of behavioural and socioeconomic variables as determinants of oral health was supported, the role of psychosocial variables in oral health outcomes received mixed support. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.
Gambhir, RS; Gupta, T
Dental diseases are a significant public health menace having a substantial impact on the quality of life which in turn affects the daily performance and general life satisfaction. There is a vast difference in health status including the oral health between urban and rural population of India and in other developing countries. The existing situation demands the formulation and implementation of National Oral Health Policy in India in order to expand the oral health care to make it more affor...
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of diabetes with an emphasis on periodontal disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disorders and pre-term birth. Dental considerations for management of these patients and recent advances in the dental field with respect to diabetes are also highlighted.
Iacono, Teresa; Stagg, Kellie; Pearce, Natalie; Hulme Chambers, Alana
Background Uptake of e-health, the use of information communication technologies (ICT) for health service delivery, in allied health appears to be lagging behind other health care areas, despite offering the potential to address problems with service access by rural and remote Australians. The aim of the study was to conduct a scoping review of studies into the application of or attitudes towards ehealth amongst allied health professionals conducted in Australia. Methods Studies meeting inclu...
Friedman, N Deborah; Athan, Eugene; Walton, Aaron L; O'Brien, Daniel P
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of subcutaneous tissue that is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and is responsible for disfiguring skin lesions. The disease is endemic to specific geographic regions in the state of Victoria in southeastern Australia. Growing evidence of the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for M. ulcerans disease has evolved our practice to the use of primarily oral medical therapy. An observational cohort study was performed on all confirmed M. ulcerans cases treated with primary rifampin-based medical therapy at Barwon Health between October 2010 and December 2014 and receiving 12 months of follow-up. One hundred thirty-two patients were managed with primary medical therapy. The median age of patients was 49 years, and nearly 10% had diabetes mellitus. Lesions were ulcerative in 83.3% of patients and at WHO stage 1 in 78.8% of patients. The median duration of therapy was 56 days, with 22 patients (16.7%) completing fewer than 56 days of antimicrobial treatment. Antibiotic-associated complications requiring cessation of one or more antibiotics occurred in 21 (15.9%) patients. Limited surgical debridement was performed on 30 of these medically managed patients (22.7%). Cure was achieved, with healing within 12 months, in 131 of 132 patients (99.2%), and cosmetic outcomes were excellent. Primary rifampin-based oral medical therapy for M. ulcerans disease, combined with either clarithromycin or a fluoroquinolone, has an excellent rate of cure and an acceptable toxicity profile in Australian patients. We advocate for further research to determine the optimal and safest minimum duration of medical therapy for BU. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Vasiliou, A; Shankardass, K; Nisenbaum, R; Quiñonez, C
Psychological stress appears to contribute to poor oral health systemically in combination with other chronic diseases. Few studies directly examine this relationship. Data from a cross-sectional study of 2,412 participants between the ages of 25-64 years old living in the City of Toronto between 2009 and 2012 were used to examine the relationship between current stress and two self-rated oral health outcomes (general oral health and oral pain). Dental care utilization and access to dental insurance were examined as effect modifiers. A positive relationship between current stress and poor oral health was observed for both outcomes (oral pain coefficient 0.32, 95 % CI 0.26-0.38; general oral health coefficient 0.28, 95 % CI 0.19-0.36). Effects on oral pain were stronger for the uninsured, while effects on general oral health were stronger with decreasing socioeconomic position. Our findings suggest that individuals with greater perceived stress also report poorer oral health, and that this relationship is modified by dental insurance and socioeconomic position. These findings warrant a greater focus on the role of psychological stress in the development of oral disease, including how perceived stress contributes to health inequities in self-reported oral health status. Patients experiencing stressful lives may differentially require closer monitoring and more vigilant maintenance of their oral health, above and beyond that which is needed to achieve a state of health in the oral environment of less stressed individuals. There may be health promoting effects of addressing psychosocial concerns related to dental care - particularly for the poor and uninsured.
Garry, Brendan; Boran, Sue
To explore the enablers and barriers perceived by community nurses in the promotion of oral health in an adult community trust directorate. Oral health care promotion in community care settings is being neglected. England and Wales have witnessed marked improvements in periodontal disease; however, no improvements have been seen in older people. A qualitative methodology was employed, where eight nurses from Band 5 to 7 were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The data was analysed thematically. Data analysis was organised into four themes: professional self-concept and the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary in the promotion of oral health; the impact an organisation has on the promotion of oral health and an exploration of the enablers and barriers identified by the community nurses while delivering care; the relationships between the nurse and patient and the potential impact on oral health promotion; the concept of self-regard in relation to the promotion of oral health and its overall impact. A commitment to improving oral health and requests for additional educational input were apparent. Organisational enablers and barriers were identified, alongside the crucial role a positive self-regard for oral health care may play in the promotion of oral health. Nurses need relevant education, organisational support, adequate resources and support from a multidisciplinary team to deliver optimal oral health promotion.
Maria C. Dolce
Full Text Available Millions of Americans have unmet oral healthcare needs and profound oral health disparities persist in vulnerable and underserved populations, especially poor children, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities. Nurses can play a significant role in improving the quality of oral health including access to care with appropriate education and training. The purpose of this paper is to describe New York University College of Nursing’s response to this challenge. The Oral Health Nursing Education and Practice (OHNEP program is a national initiative aimed at preparing a nursing workforce with the competencies to prioritize oral disease prevention and health promotion, provide evidence-based oral healthcare in a variety of practice settings, and collaborate in interprofessional teams across the healthcare system. The overarching goal of this national initiative is to create an educational infrastructure for the nursing profession that advances nursing’s contribution to reducing oral health disparities across the lifespan.
Aim: To determine the oral hygiene practices and oral health care seeking behaviours among primary school teachers. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among primary school teachers from public schools in Ndola district, Zambia.The primary schools were selected using stratified ...
Hou, Rui; Mi, Yong; Xu, Quanhong; Wu, Fang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Xue, Peng; Xiao, Gao; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yinhua; Yang, Wenbing
The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students' attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases.
Hou, Rui; Mi, Yong; Xu, Quanhong; Wu, Fang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Xue, Peng; Xiao, Gao; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yinhua; Yang, Wenbing
Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addre...
Nélio Jorge Veiga; Patricia Carvalho; Octávio Ribeiro; Inês Coelho
Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral health instructions, particularly in the control of dental plaque, as well as assess the effectiveness of the reinforcement of the same instructions. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Clinic of the Portuguese Catholic University (UCP) in Viseu-Portugal from January to June 2012. Three different assessments were performed with 30 participants using the O’Leary Plaque Index and a questionnaire on oral health behavior, w...
Fisher, Matthew; Baum, Frances E; MacDougall, Colin; Newman, Lareen; McDermott, Dennis; Phillips, Clare
Intersectoral action between public agencies across policy sectors, and between levels of government, is seen as essential for effective action by governments to address social determinants of health (SDH) and to reduce health inequities. The health sector has been identified as having a crucial stewardship role, to engage other policy sectors in action to address the impacts of their policies on health. This article reports on research to investigate intersectoral action on SDH and health inequities in Australian health policy. We gathered and individually analysed 266 policy documents, being all of the published, strategic health policies of the national Australian government and eight State/Territory governments, current at the time of sampling in late 2012-early 2013. Our analysis showed that strategies for intersectoral action were common in Australian health policy, but predominantly concerned with extending access to individualized medical or behavioural interventions to client groups in other policy sectors. Where intersectoral strategies did propose action on SDH (other than access to health-care), they were mostly limited to addressing proximal factors, rather than policy settings affecting the distribution of socioeconomic resources. There was little evidence of engagement between the health sector and those policy sectors most able to influence systemic socioeconomic inequalities in Australia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Leite, Renata S.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been described as a new epidemic. Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is predicted to increase by about 50% by year 2030.This article will review oral health manifestations of diabetes, and discuss associations between periodontal disease and diabetes. Although there is a strong body of evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and T2DM, oral health awareness is lacking among patients with diabe...
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas
programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...... systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease......This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...
Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V
Oral health literacy is a relatively new but critical concept in our efforts to decrease disparities and increase oral health for all Marylanders. Oral health literacy is important because low health literacy contributes to disease which results in increased costs for all of us. Those with low health literacy are usually at highest risk for oral diseases and problems. These individuals include the poor, those with low levels of education, minorities, and the elderly. Prompted by the untimely demise of Deamonte Driver, Maryland has taken the lead in developing a statewide approach to improving oral health literacy with the ultimate objective of reducing disparities. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Cockburn, N; Pradhan, A; Taing, M W; Kisely, S; Ford, P J
Many psychotropic medications affect oral health. This review identified oral side effects for antidepressant, antipsychotic, anticonvulsant, antianxiety and sedative drugs that are recommended in Australia for the management of common mental illnesses and provides recommendations to manage these side-effects. The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat common mental health conditions. For each medication, the generic name, class, and drug company reported side-effects were extracted from the online Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (eMIMs) and UpToDate databases. Meyler's Side Effect of Drugs Encyclopaedia was used to identify additional oral adverse reactions to these medications. Fifty-seven drugs were identified: 23 antidepressants, 22 antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, and 12 anxiolytic or sedative medications. Xerostomia (91%) the most commonly reported side effect among all classes of medications of the 28 identified symptoms. Other commonly reported adverse effects included dysguesia (65%) for antidepressants, and tardive dyskinesia (94%) or increased salivation (78%) for antipsychotic medications. While xerostomia has often been reported as a common adverse effect of psychotropic drugs, this review has identified additional side effects including dysguesia from antidepressants and tardive dyskinesia and increased salivation from antipsychotics. Clinicians should consider oral consequences of psychotropic medication in addition to other side-effects when prescribing. For antidepressants, this would mean choosing duloxetine, agomelatine and any of the serotonin re-uptake inhibitors except sertraline. In the case of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers, atypical agents have less oral side effects than older alternatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boggess, Kim A.; Edelstein, Burton L.
The mouth is an obvious portal of entry to the body, and oral health reflects and influences general health and well being. Maternal oral health has significant implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Maternal periodontal disease, that is, a chronic infection of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures, has been associated with preterm birth, development of preeclampsia, and delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant. Maternal oral flora is transmitted to the newborn in...
Vijendra P Singh
Full Text Available Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP and erectile dysfunction (ED by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions.
Caruana, Erin L; Kuys, Suzanne S; Brauer, Sandra G
To determine current Australian allied health rehabilitation weekend service provision and to identify perceived barriers to and facilitators of weekend service provision. Senior physiotherapists from Australian rehabilitation units completed an online cross-sectional survey exploring current service provision, staffing, perceived outcomes, and barriers and facilitators to weekend service provision. A total of 179 (83%) eligible units responded, with 94 facilities (53%) providing weekend therapy. A Saturday service was the most common (97%) with the most frequent service providers being physiotherapists (90%). Rehabilitation weekend service was perceived to increase patient/family satisfaction (66%) and achieve faster goal attainment (55%). Common barriers were budgetary restraints (66%) and staffing availability (54%), with facilitators including organisational support (76%), staff availability (62%) and staff support (61%). Despite increasing evidence of effectiveness, only half of Australian rehabilitation facilities provide weekend services. Further efforts are required to translate evidence from clinical trials into feasible service delivery models. © 2018 AJA Inc.
Thomas M. Marthaler
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.
Marthaler, Thomas M
The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the caries-protective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%). In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67%) and Switzerland (85%). In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Parker Eleanor J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians suffer substantially poorer oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts and new approaches are needed to address these disparities. Previous work in Port Augusta, South Australia, a regional town with a large Indigenous community, revealed associations between low oral health literacy scores and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study aims to determine if implementation of a functional, context-specific oral health literacy intervention improves oral health literacy-related outcomes measured by use of dental services, and assessment of oral health knowledge, oral health self-care and oral health- related self-efficacy. Methods/design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT that utilises a delayed intervention design. Participants are Indigenous adults, aged 18 years and older, who plan to reside in Port Augusta or a nearby community for the next two years. The intervention group will receive the intervention from the outset of the study while the control group will be offered the intervention 12 months following their enrolment in the study. The intervention consists of a series of five culturally sensitive, oral health education workshops delivered over a 12 month period by Indigenous project officers. Workshops consist of presentations, hands-on activities, interactive displays, group discussions and role plays. The themes addressed in the workshops are underpinned by oral health literacy concepts, and incorporate oral health-related self-efficacy, oral health-related fatalism, oral health knowledge, access to dental care and rights and entitlements as a patient. Data will be collected through a self-report questionnaire at baseline, at 12 months and at 24 months. The primary outcome measure is oral health literacy. Secondary outcome measures include oral health knowledge, oral health self-care, use of dental services, oral health-related self-efficacy and oral health-related fatalism
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c) Update articles surveying the present state of knowledge in selected fields of Dentistry and oral health. d) Critical or analytical reviews in the area of theory, policy, or research in Dentistry. e) Reviews of recently published books or group of books which would be of relevance to the improvement of oral health in Africa.
Full Text Available It is a fact that mind and body share an intimate relationship. There are many ways in which mental and physical health impact each other. Psychosocial factors play a part in the pathogenesis of physical health, and oral health is no exception. Chronic and painful oral symptoms lead to psychosocial disorder and at the same time, some patients with psychosocial disorders experience painful oral and facial symptoms. Several investigators have concluded that psychosocial factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of an array of oral problems, ranging from poor oral hygiene to chronic pain disorders, such as temporomandibular joint disorders, burning mouth syndrome, and atypical pain. This review aims at the in-depth analysis of the correlation between psychosocial disorders and various oral symptoms.
Jamieson, L M; Parker, E J; Broughton, J; Lawrence, H P; Armfield, J M
Stage of Change constructs may be proxy markers of psychosocial health which, in turn, are related to oral health. To determine if Stage of Change constructs were associated with subjective oral health in a population at heightened risk of dental disease. Stage of Change constructs were developed from a validated 18-item scale and categorised into 'Pre-contemplative', 'Contemplative' and 'Active'. A convenience sample of 446 Australian non-Aboriginal women pregnant by an Aboriginal male (age range 14-43 years) provided data to evaluate the outcome variables (self-rated oral health and oral health impairment), the Stage of Change constructs and socio-demographic, behavioural and access-related factors. Factors significant at the p health and 34% had oral health impairment. Around 12% were 'Pre-contemplative', 46% 'Contemplative' and 42% 'Active'. Being either 'pre-contemplative' or 'contemplative' was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. 'Pre-contemplative' ceased being significant after adjusting for dentate status and dental behaviour. 'Pre-contemplative' remained significant when adjusting for dental cost, but not 'Contemplative'. The Stages of Change constructs ceased being associated with self-rated oral health after adjusting for all confounders. Only 'Contemplative' (reference: 'Active') was a risk indicator in the null model for oral health impairment which persisted after adding dentate status, dental behaviour and dental cost variables, but not socio-demographics. When adjusting for all confounders, 'Contemplative' was not a risk indicator for oral health impairment. Both the 'Pre-contemplative' and 'Contemplative' Stage of Change constructs were associated with poor self-rated oral health and oral health impairment after adjusting for some, but not all, covariates. When considered as a proxy marker of psychosocial health, Stage of Change constructs may have some relevance for subjective oral health.
Kieffer, Jacobien M; Hoogstraten, Johan
The aim of this work was to assess the association among oral health, general health, and quality of life (QoL). The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the RAND-36 were distributed amongst 118 psychology freshmen. Additionally, two single items self-rated general health (SRGH) and self-rated oral health (SROH) - were administered. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to evaluate differences between SRGH and SROH categories, regarding OHIP subscale scores and RAND subscale scores. More than 75% of the subjects rated their oral and general health as good. Mean OHIP scores and RAND scores indicated a relatively good oral- and general health-related QoL respectively. The correlation between oral and general health was weak. Significant differences were found between SRGH categories regarding RAND subscale scores, except for the 'role emotional' and 'mental health' subscales. Significant differences were also found between SROH categories regarding OHIP subscale scores, except for the 'psychological disability' subscale. However, no significant differences were found between SRGH categories regarding OHIP subscale scores, or between SROH categories regarding RAND subscale scores. The findings suggest that oral health, general health, and QoL have different determinants. Furthermore, oral health and general health appear to be mostly unrelated in this seemingly healthy population. It is proposed that if no apparent disease is present, oral and general health must be regarded as separate constructs.
Nélio Jorge Veiga
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral health instructions, particularly in the control of dental plaque, as well as assess the effectiveness of the reinforcement of the same instructions. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Clinic of the Portuguese Catholic University (UCP in Viseu-Portugal from January to June 2012. Three different assessments were performed with 30 participants using the O’Leary Plaque Index and a questionnaire on oral health behavior, with a one-month interval between each assessment. In the first assessment, all participants received the same instructions of oral hygiene and the O’Leary Plaque Index registration and the application of the questionnaire were performed; in the second assessment, a new registration of the O’Leary Index was made, but only the experimental group (n=16 received the reinforcement of oral health instructions, and in the third assessment, a new registration of the O’Leary Plaque Index was made for all the individuals (n=30. Results: Both control and experimental groups showed a decrease in the O’Leary Plaque Index, but the latter showed a more significant decrease in the last assessment: 38.19% (n=16 vs. 69.57% (n=14, p <0.05. Regarding the frequency of toothbrushing, in the experimental group, 68.8% (n=11 brushed the teeth at least twice a day, while in the control group only 57.1% (n=8 performed the same frequency of toothbrushing. In this case, statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Oral health promotion through oral hygiene instruction was effective in improving oral health behaviors, and, consequentely, the control of dental biofilm. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p117
Davidson, Fiona; Heffernan, Ed; Greenberg, David; Butler, Tony; Burgess, Philip
The aim of this paper is to describe the development and technical specifications of a framework and national key performance indicators (KPIs) for Australian mental health Court Liaison Services (CLSs) by the National Mental Health Court Liaison Performance Working Group (Working Group). Representatives from each Australian State and Territory were invited to form a Working Group. Through a series of national workshops and meetings, a framework and set of performance indicators were developed using a review of literature and expert opinion. A total of six KPIs for CLSs have been identified and a set of technical specifications have been formed. This paper describes the process and outcomes of a national collaboration to develop a framework and KPIs. The measures have been developed to support future benchmarking activities and to assist services to identify best practice in this area of mental health service delivery.
Wright, F A Clive; Law, Garry; Chu, Steven K-Y; Cullen, John S; Le Couteur, David G
To describe an oral health care programme for older people in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) to improve access to care and support facilities. Different models of residential care have been proposed, but few have been comprehensive (providing on-site health promotion and service delivery) or sustainable. A partnership model of oral health care, with dental services plus oral health education, was integrated into the community outreach services of a metropolitan hospital department of aged care. The programme provided annual oral health education and training to staff, and on-site dental care to 10 (RACFs). None of the RACFs had received organised education or on-site dental service care prior to the programme. At the completion of the third year of the programme, 607 residents (75% of the total bed capacity for the 10 RACFs) had received an annual oral health assessment, and 271 (46.5%) had received on-site dental care. More than 120 nursing and allied health staff had received education and training in oral health support to residents. Oral cleanliness, the proportion not experiencing dental pain and referral for additional care decreased significantly over the period, but dental caries experience and periodontal conditions remained a concern. Sustainable domiciliary oral health services and oral health education are feasible and practical using a partnership model within the Australian health system. Adaptability, continuity and the use of oral health therapists/dental hygienists in the coordination and management of the programme further contribute to viability. © 2017 The Authors. Gerodontology published by The Gerodontology Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kieffer, J.M.; Hoogstraten, J.
The aim of this work was to assess the association among oral health, general health, and quality of life (QoL). The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the RAND-36 were distributed amongst 118 psychology freshmen. Additionally, two single items self-rated general health (SRGH) and self-rated
Mawardi, Hani H; Al-Mohaya, Maha A; Treister, Nathaniel S
Over the past decade, advances in cancer treatment have helped in prolonging the survival rate for cancer patients. However, the patients who undergo treatment for cancer are potentially at high-risk for developing a number of oral complications, including oral mucositis, infections, hyposalivation, dental caries, and jaw osteonecrosis. Cancer survivors may remain at life-long risk of developing oral complications, and therefore require long-term dental follow-up, well after completion of cancer therapy. Patients should typically undergo thorough oral examination prior to initiation of therapy, during and after therapy to identify any active infection. In addition, and in order to maintain adequate oral health throughout treatment, patients should continue normal oral hygiene with tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning. The aim of this review is to discuss potential oral complications as a result of cancer therapy, and the certain precautions we should be aware of these patients.
Gambhir, R S; Gupta, T
Dental diseases are a significant public health menace having a substantial impact on the quality of life which in turn affects the daily performance and general life satisfaction. There is a vast difference in health status including the oral health between urban and rural population of India and in other developing countries. The existing situation demands the formulation and implementation of National Oral Health Policy in India in order to expand the oral health care to make it more affordable, and reachable. An extensive literature search was conducted using various search engines in order to include relevant information in the review. Number of keywords and their combinations were used in order to extract appropriate data. Finally 24 out of 35 articles were selected upon detailed reading. The present paper focusses on some of the important subjects that can be considered while formulation of a National Oral Health Policy for the benefits of both the dental profession and community as a whole. There is a need of dental health planners and policy makers that have relevant qualifications and training in public health dentistry to understand the unique needs and resources for the development of an effective oral health policy. Professional dental organizations can also support government programs to provide basic oral health needs of extensive underserved population of this country.
... basics and what you can do to promote oral health. By Mayo Clinic Staff Your smile depends on ... right techniques? Follow these steps to protect your oral health. Oral health begins with clean teeth. Keeping the ...
Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove
Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)
Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen
While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen
While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651
Kent, Megan; Welladsen, Heather M.; Mangott, Arnold; Li, Yan
This study investigated the biochemical suitability of Australian native microalgal species Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaliella sp., and a chlorophytic polyculture as nutritional supplements for human health. The four microalgal cultures were harvested during exponential growth, lyophilized, and analysed for proximate composition (moisture, ash, lipid, carbohydrates, and protein), pigments, and amino acid and fatty acid profiles. The resulting nutritional value, based on biochemical composition, was compared to commercial Spirulina and Chlorella products. The Australian native microalgae exhibited similar, and in several cases superior, organic nutritional properties relative to the assessed commercial products, with biochemical profiles rich in high-quality protein, nutritious polyunsaturated fats (such as α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid), and antioxidant pigments. These findings indicate that the microalgae assessed have great potential as multi-nutrient human health supplements. PMID:25723496
Ouliaris, Calina; Kealy-Bateman, Warren
Following the recent widespread reform of mental-health legislation in Australia, psychiatric advance directives (PADs) have now been incorporated in four jurisdictions. We contextualise the potential role for PADs within the Australian legal framework and note their varying introduction across jurisdictions, with a focus on progressive legislation in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The formal recognition of PADs effectively shifts the trajectory of mental-health law towards a stronger recognition of consumer autonomy, albeit to varying degrees across jurisdictions. The most inspiring of these changes may be seen in the ACT Act, where an innovative framing of PAD provisions creates a safe space for clinicians and patients to engage, build therapeutic alliances and develop appropriate frameworks for further change.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Yamamoto, Tatsuo
The proportion of older people continues to grow worldwide, especially in developing countries. Non-communicable diseases are fast becoming the leading causes of disability and mortality, and in coming decades health and social policy-makers will face tremendous challenges posed by the rapidly changing burden of chronic diseases in old age. Chronic disease and most oral diseases share common risk factors. Globally, poor oral health amongst older people has been particularly evident in high levels of tooth loss, dental caries experience, and the prevalence rates of periodontal disease, xerostomia and oral precancer/cancer. The negative impact of poor oral conditions on the quality of life of older adults is an important public health issue, which must be addressed by policy-makers. The means for strengthening oral health programme implementation are available; the major challenge is therefore to translate knowledge into action programmes for the oral health of older people. The World Health Organization recommends that countries adopt certain strategies for improving the oral health of the elderly. National health authorities should develop policies and measurable goals and targets for oral health. National public health programmes should incorporate oral health promotion and disease prevention based on the common risk factors approach. Control of oral disease and illness in older adults should be strengthened through organization of affordable oral health services, which meet their needs. The needs for care are highest among disadvantaged, vulnerable groups in both developed and developing countries. In developing countries the challenges to provision of primary oral health care are particularly high because of a shortage of dental manpower. In developed countries reorientation of oral health services towards prevention should consider oral care needs of older people. Education and continuous training must ensure that oral health care providers have skills in and a
Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Results Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Conclusions Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students’ attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases. PMID:24884668
Cheng, Christina; Dunn, Matthew
Almost 80% of Australian Internet users seek out health information online so the readability of this information is important. This study aimed to evaluate the readability of Australian online health information and determine if it matches the average reading level of Australians. Two hundred and fifty-one web pages with information on 12 common health conditions were identified across sectors. Readability was assessed by the Flesch-Kincaid (F-K), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) formulas, with grade 8 adopted as the average Australian reading level. The average reading grade measured by F-K and SMOG was 10.54 and 12.12 respectively. The mean FRE was 47.54, a 'difficult-to-read' score. Only 0.4% of web pages were written at or below grade 8 according to SMOG. Information on dementia was the most difficult to read overall, while obesity was the most difficult among government websites. The findings suggest that the readability of Australian health websites is above the average Australian levels of reading. A quantifiable guideline is needed to ensure online health information accommodates the reading needs of the general public to effectively use the Internet as an enabler of health literacy. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.
conference on Children and oral healthindicated that children loose an estimated 52 million hours of school. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ORAL HEALTH CARE TRAINING WORKSHOP FOR. SCHOOL TEACHERS: A PILOT STUDY. 1. Department of Periodontology and Community Dentistry, University College Hospital, ...
Norris, Marianne; Dimarco, Marguerite A; Thacker, Sherrey A
This article describes ways to elicit the cooperation of a young patient while limiting fear and/or alarm, provides steps for performing a complete oral exam to evaluate the oral health of a child, and discusses reimbursement for the application of fluoride varnish.
Full Text Available Oral health is essential to total health and satisfactory quality of life. According to the World Health Organization (2012, oral health has been defined as a state of being free of mouth and facial pain, oral infections and sores, and oral and other diseases that limit an individual’s capacity in biting, chewing, smiling, speaking, and psychosocial well-being. Oral conditions like dental caries and periodontal (gum disease continue to plague humanity. Nearly all adults have existing tooth decay, and severe gum disease occurs in 15 to 20% of middle-aged adults. The adverse effects of inadequate care for teeth, gums, bite, and jaws can move beyond the mouth to affect overall physical and psychological health. Research has indicated that poor oral health may be associated with medical conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, pneumonia, and other respiratory diseases. It has also been linked to pre-term births and low-birth-weight babies. Jaw problems are also a common cause of headaches and ear and facial pain. Dental clearance prior to medical treatment, including cancer/bisphosphonate therapy and cardiac surgery, minimizes both oral and systemic complications. Many medical conditions have oral manifestations, and some medications have side effects that lead to compromised oral health as well as jaw function disabilities. This paper summarizes and highlights the importance of oral-systemic connections. In addition, the features of common dental problems are discussed.
Batista, Marília Jesus; Lawrence, Herenia Procopio; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de
To investigate the association between critical and communicative oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health outcomes (status, oral health-related quality of life and practices) in adults. This cross-sectional study examined a household probability sample of 248 adults, representing 149,635 residents (20-64 years old) in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. Clinical oral health and socioeconomic and demographic data, as well as data on oral health-related quality of life (OHIP-14) and health practices were collected. The oral examinations were carried out in the participants' homes, using the World Health Organization criteria for oral diseases. The critical and communicative OHL instrument was the primary independent variable, and it was measured using five Likert items that were dichotomized as 'high' ('agree' and 'strongly agree' responses for the 5 items) and 'low' OHL. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed on each outcome (oral health status and practices), controlling for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Approximately 71.5% presented low OHL. When adjusted for age and sex (first model) low OHL was associated with untreated caries (Odds Ratio = 1.92, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.07-3.45), tooth brushing oral health impact on quality of life (OR = 2.06, 1.15-3.69). Adjusting for age, sex and SES, OHL is related to a risk factor (biofilm) and a consequence of poor oral health (emergency dental visits) and can interfere with the impact of oral diseases on quality of life. As low OHL can be modified, the results support oral health promotion strategies directed at improving critical and communicative oral health literacy in adult populations.
Wey, Mang Chek; Loh, SiewYim; Doss, Jennifer Geraldine; Abu Bakar, Abdul Kadir; Kisely, Steve
People with chronic schizophrenia have high rates of physical ill-health such as heart disease. However, there has been less attention to the issue of poor oral health including dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal (gum) disease, although both have consequences for quality of life and systemic physical health. We therefore measured tooth decay and gum disease in Malaysians with schizophrenia. We recruited long-stay inpatients with schizophrenia from June to October 2014. Four dental specialists assessed oral health using the decayed-missing-filled teeth index, the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs and the Debris Index of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Results were compared with the 2010 Oral Health survey of the general Malaysian population. A total of 543 patients participated (66.7% males, 33.3% females; mean age = 54.8 years [standard deviation = 16.0]) with a mean illness duration of 18.4 years (standard deviation = 17.1). The mean decayed-missing-filled teeth was 20.5 (standard deviation = 9.9), almost double that of the general population (11.7). Higher decayed-missing-filled teeth scores were associated with both older age (p disease were greatest in those aged between 45 and 64 years, coinciding with the onset of tooth loss. Dental disease in people with schizophrenia deserves the same attention as other comorbid physical illness. The disparity in oral health is most marked for dental decay. Possible interventions include oral health assessments using standard checklists designed for non-dental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth and early dental referral. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Aljanakh, Mohammad; Siddiqui, Ammar Ahmed; Mirza, Asaad Javaid
To assess the dental health knowledge and the interest of secondary school teachers in imparting oral health education in Hail, Saudi Arabia. It was a questionnaire based cross-sectional survey of secondary school teachers in Hail, Saudi Arabia, carried out from November 2014 to January 2015. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to determine teachers' oral health knowledge and their interest in participating in oral health education of school children. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Two hundred and twenty three secondary school teachers responded to the survey. Results showed that about 80 to 90 % of teachers had sufficient knowledge of causes and prevention of dental caries and gingivitis. About 94% of teachers agreed that they can play an effective role in oral health promotion while 96% were found to be interested in performing additional duty as oral health promoter. A large majority (91.9 %) had the opinion that oral health education must be included in school curriculum. Teachers in Hail region had adequate amount of knowledge regarding oral health, and they were interested to play their role in promoting oral health education. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended to include dental health education in curriculum at secondary school level and to provide sufficient training to teachers to enable them to participate actively in oral health promotion activities.
Mental illness is common, under detected and often poorly managed in residential aged care facilities. These concerns have achieved greater prominence as the worldwide population ages. Over 80% of people in nursing home care fulfill criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders in an environment that often presents significant difficulties for assessment and treatment. This article aims to provide an overview of the important mental health issues involved in providing medical care for patients with behavioural and psychological problems in residential aged care facilities. Recent developments in education and training, service development and assessment and treatment strategies show some promise of improving the outcome for aged care residents with mental health problems. This is of especial relevance for primary care physicians who continue to provide the bulk of medical care for this population.
Petersen, Poul Erik
The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past five years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as an important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem in high income...... countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and the necessary actions for the improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral disease prevention...... and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years oral health was subject...
Wierzbicka, Maria; Petersen, Poul Erik; Szatko, Franciszek
OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of dental caries over time in Polish schoolchildren, to analyse the oral health behaviour of children and mothers, and to compare the levels of dental knowledge and attitudes of mothers and schoolteachers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional oral health surveys of children...... aged 6 and 12 years were carried out in 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2000; questionnaire surveys of a sample of mothers and schoolteachers were conducted in 1999. SETTING: The surveys in schools intended to aid planning and evaluation of the revitalised school oral health programme in Poland. SUBJECTS...... conditions in children and wanted to become involved in oral health education. In conclusion, the need for oral health education of children and mothers was shown and the continuous implementation of school oral health programmes is most relevant....
Chadwick, Sharlene; Travaglia, Joanne
Purpose During the past decade, there has been increased attention into bullying behaviours in workplaces. Research to date has varied in design, the definition of what constitutes bullying behaviour, as well as the methods used to collect data and measure bullying incidence and prevalence. Nonetheless, studies demonstrate that bullying is a significant issue, which warrants an increased research focus to develop greater understanding of the concept, its effects and implications in, and for, the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to focus on capturing a range of international and Australian literature regarding workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. As a result, this paper identified the gaps in the literature when expanded specifically to an Australian health context. Design/methodology/approach The purpose of this review is to summarise the existing literature, both internationally and in Australia which examines workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. This describes the review of the literature on workplace bullying in a health context undertaken from January to April 2014. The "Preferred Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" method was used to structure the review, which covered a wide range of literature from databases including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and InformIT, as well as reports, and grey literature. Findings The review included 62 studies that met the inclusion criteria and reported either: factors contributing to workplace bullying, at least one significant example of workplace bullying behaviour or the impact of workplace bullying behaviours in a health context. Originality/value There is limited data on workplace bullying behaviours in an Australian health context. The literature supports there is value in future research to develop consistent definitions, policies, procedures and frameworks, which could help to prevent or address workplace bullying
A Javadzadeh Blouri
Full Text Available Fasting is a religious obligation, which can be challenging for individuals with oral conditions due to its stringent code of conduct. Moreover, food abstinence during fasting can restrict oral feeding even further in patients whose nutrition has been already compromised. Previous research has mainly concentrated on oral hygiene and gum health, disregarding orodental conditions and diseases. This highlights the importance of further research in this regard. In this paper, we intended to clarify the correlation between fasting and oral injections, bleeding following tooth extraction, and brushing to overcome common misconceptions which indicate the breach of religious disciplines under such circumstances. We also aimed to determine the grave effects of fasting on health in case of severe immunological deficiencies, chronic oral ulcers and certain drug administration protocols for those with rigid religious beliefs.
Mar 15, 2010 ... demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental ... optimal oral health status. Oral health problems can impact quality of life in .... dental health of Chinese adolescents was generally good. Only 12% of the students ...
Yoon, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Hae-Young; Patton, Lauren L; Chun, Jin-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Mi-Ok
This study aims to comprehensively assess the association of subjective and objective oral health status and oral health behaviors with happiness, under consideration of demographic, socioeconomic, and general health-related factors. This study also aims to test whether subjective oral health outcomes are better predictors of happiness compared with objective oral health outcomes. The data were collected from 479 community-dwelling elders aged 65 years or over selected by a cluster sampling method. A questionnaire and an oral examination were implemented. A multiple regression method was conducted to assess associations with happiness index (HI). The mean age of the elders was 74.6 years. Mean (standard deviation, SD) HI, EuroQol-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) index were 5.7 (SD 2.3), 59.8 (SD 21.1), and 16.3 (SD 13.1). In the final model, a significant association with HI of the OHIP-14 index (P = 0.091) among all the participants and significant associations of oral symptoms (P = 0.038), wearing a removable denture (P = 0.039), and of the oral health behavior of daily toothbrushing (P = 0.007) among poorer oral health QoL group were confirmed under consideration of other related factors. While correlations of HI to subjective measures of health, EQ-VAS and OHIP-14 score were moderate to weak, those to objective measures of health were only weak or insignificant. Oral impacts which might persistently affect one's daily life need to be considered in designing and delivering public services aimed to promote people's happiness. With oral health impacts and behaviors accounting for 10% of happiness among elders, public and community services for the elderly that support oral health and daily toothbrushing for the dentate are critical for the well-being of our elders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Balaban, Raquel; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; da Silva Araújo, Ana Cláudia; Dias Filho, Edmir Barros Ribeiro
In dentistry, clinical practice is directed towards attitudes that promote oral health and the paediatricians occupy a privileged position in this process. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of paediatricians in relation to the oral health of their patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Institute of Integrative Medicine Professor Fernando Figueira, Recife, Brazil. A total of 182 paediatricians participated by filling out a questionnaire. A total of 63.9% believed the first visit to the dentist should occur before the child completes 1 year of life. Moreover, 67.8% considered their knowledge on oral health to be insufficient. Approximately 78% of the paediatricians diagnosed caries through an analysis of cavities. Only 29.9% always recommended fluoride dentifrice. The term 'fluorosis' was unknown by 48.3% of the respondents. Concerning pacifiers, 32.6% did not allow it and 66.9% did not either recommend it or restrict it. A total of 83.4% classified the oral health content in their medical education as either nonexistent or deficient; this figure remained high (72.4%) in relation to residency. It is important to develop oral health information programmes to paediatricians. Information on oral health should be included in medical curricula and residency. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Rouxel, P.; Duijster, D.; Tsakos, G.; Watt, R.G.
Objectives This study describes the oral health status and associated risk factors in a sample of female prisoners and compares their oral health to that of the female population from the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey. Method A random sample of prisoners was selected from HMP Holloway, London.
Dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease (gum diseases) have been the most important global oral health burdens. In Tanzania 80% of the population is affected by periodontal (gum) diseases. There are also important links between oral health and general health. For example gum disease is associated.
Oct 3, 2017 ... in order to improve referral of pregnant women, oral health awareness and dental service utilization among pregnant women in the region. Keywords: oral health practices, oral health status, pregnant women, traditional birth attendant clinics, Nigerian rural community. 17. African Journal of Oral Health.
Objectives: To assess the self-reported oral health practices, behaviour and oral health status of pregnant women attending traditional birth attendant (TBA) clinics in a rural community. Methods: A cross sectional survey of the oral health practices and oral health status of sixty-two pregnant women attending traditional birth ...
Sheiham, A; Alexander, D; Cohen, L
This paper reviews the shortcomings of present approaches to reduce oral diseases and inequalities, details the importance of social determinants, and links that to research needs and policies on implementation of strategies to reduce oral health inequalities. Inequalities in health...... their environment. There is a dearth of oral health research on social determinants that cause health-compromising behaviors and on risk factors common to some chronic diseases. The gap between what is known and implemented by other health disciplines and the dental fraternity needs addressing. To re-orient oral...... health research, practice, and policy toward a 'social determinants' model, a closer collaboration between and integration of dental and general health research is needed. Here, we suggest a research agenda that should lead to reductions in global inequalities in oral health....
Sheiham, A; Alexander, D; Cohen, L
their environment. There is a dearth of oral health research on social determinants that cause health-compromising behaviors and on risk factors common to some chronic diseases. The gap between what is known and implemented by other health disciplines and the dental fraternity needs addressing. To re-orient oral...... health research, practice, and policy toward a 'social determinants' model, a closer collaboration between and integration of dental and general health research is needed. Here, we suggest a research agenda that should lead to reductions in global inequalities in oral health.......This paper reviews the shortcomings of present approaches to reduce oral diseases and inequalities, details the importance of social determinants, and links that to research needs and policies on implementation of strategies to reduce oral health inequalities. Inequalities in health...
Green, Janette P; Eagar, Kathy
To determine the health status of people in Australian immigration detention centres and the effect of time in, and reason for, detention. An analysis of the health records of 720 of the 7375 people in detention in the financial year 1 July 2005-30 June 2006, with oversampling of those detained for > 3 months. Health encounters and health condition categories; estimated incidence rates of new health conditions, new mental health conditions, and new injuries for each cohort (defined by time in, and reason for, detention). People in detention had an estimated 1.2 (95% CI, 1.18-1.27) health encounters per person-week. Those detained for > 24 months had particularly poor health, both mental and physical. Asylum seekers had more health problems than other people in detention. The main health problems varied depending on the length of time in detention, but included dental, mental health, and musculoskeletal problems, and lacerations. Both time in, and reason for, detention were significantly related to the rate of new mental health problems (P = 0.018 and P immigration detention are frequent users of health services, and there is a clear association between time in detention and rates of mental illness. Government policies internationally should be informed by evidence from studies of the health of this marginalised and often traumatised group.
Zoghi, Maryam; Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Roller, Louis; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann
It has been identified that health science student groups may have distinctive learning needs. By university educators' and professional fieldwork supervisors' being aware of the unique learning style preferences of health science students, they have the capacity to adjust their teaching approaches to best fit with their students' learning preferences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of Australian health science students enrolled in 10 different disciplines. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was distributed to 2,885 students enrolled in dietetics and nutrition, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedics, pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiation therapy, radiography, and social work at one Australian university. A total of 752 usable survey forms were returned (response rate 26%). The results indicated the converger learning style to be most frequently preferred by health science students and that the diverger and accommodator learning styles were the least preferred. It is recommended that educators take learning style preferences of health science students into consideration when planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching activities, such as including more problem-solving activities that fit within the converger learning style.
McLoughlin, Pauline; Warin, Megan
Since their establishment in 1992, Australian Immigration Detention Centres have been the focus of increasing concern due to allegations of their serious impact on the mental health of asylum seekers. Informed by Foucault's treatise on surveillance and the phenomenological work of Casey, this paper extends the current clinical data by examining the architecture and location of detention centres, and the complex relationships between space, place and mental health. In spatialising these relationships, we argue that Immigration Detention Centres operate not only as Panopticons, but are embodied by asylum seekers as 'anti-places': as places that mediate and constitute thinned out and liminal experiences. In particular, it is the embodied effects of surveillance and suspended liminality that impact on mental health. An approach which locates the embodiment of place and space as central to the poor mental health of asylum seekers adds an important dimension to our understandings of (dis)placement and mental health in the lives of the exiled.
An overview of the demographics and oral health status of the elderly population of India is presented. India is a vast country with a population of one billion people. Of this, people older than 60 years constitute 7.6%, which in actual number is 76 million. There are several factors that affect the oral health of elderly. The dentist:population ratio is 1:27,000 in urban areas and 1:300,000 in rural areas, whereas 80% of the elderly population reside in rural India. Forty per cent of the elderly live below the poverty line and 73% are illiterate. Ninety per cent of the elderly have no social security and the dependency ratio is 12.26. Incidence of oral cancer, which is considered an old-age disease, is highest in India, 13.5% of all body cancers are oral cancers. Preventive dental care is almost nonexistent to the rural masses and very limited in urban areas. Above all, there is no orientation of dental graduates towards the special needs of the geriatric population. Recommendations include: the establishment of Continuing Dental Education programmes on geriatric oral care; inclusion of a geriatric component in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula; initiation of a diploma, certificate and degree courses in geriatric dentistry; research on various aspects of ageing and age-related oral health problems; provision of preventive and curative treatment for various oral diseases to the elderly.
Fuller, Robert S.; Hamacher, Duane W.
We investigate an Australian Aboriginal cultural story that seems to describe an extraordinary series of astronomical events occurring at the same time. We hypothesise that this was a witnessed natural event and explore natural phenomena that could account for the description. We select a thunderstorm, total solar eclipse, and strong Aurora Australis as the most likely candidates, then conclude a plausible date of 764 CE. We evaluate the different factors that would determine whether all these events could have been visible, include meteorological data, alternative total solar eclipse dates, solar activity cycles, aurorae appearances, and sky brightness during total solar eclipses. We conduct this study as a test-case for rigorously and systematically examining descriptions of rare natural phenomena in oral traditions, highlighting the difficulties and challenges with interpreting this type of hypothesis.
To analyse the way in which a public health metaphor has been incorporated into Australian political practice to justify the exclusion or mistreatment of unwelcome non-citizens, giving particular attention to recent asylum seekers. Starting with a personal experience of working in an immigration detention centre and then drawing on media reports and published scholarship, I critique political rhetoric and policy on asylum seekers, arguing that the significance of a public health metaphor lies in its effectiveness in persuading the public that refugees and asylum seekers are a moral contaminant that threatens the nation and has to be contained. Acceptance of the metaphor sanctions humanly degrading inferences, policies and actions. Public health professionals therefore have a responsibility to challenge the political use of public health and associated metaphors. Substituting the existing metaphor for one that is more morally acceptable could help to redefine refugees and asylum seekers more positively and promote compassion in political leaders and the community.
Villarosa, Amy R; Clark, Sally; Villarosa, Ariana C; Patterson Norrie, Tiffany; Macdonald, Susan; Anlezark, Jennifer; Srinivas, Ravi; George, Ajesh
This study aimed to look at the practices and perspectives of residential aged care facility (RACF) care staff regarding the provision of oral health care in RACFs. Emphasis has been placed on the provision of adequate oral health care in RACFs through the Better Oral Health in Residential Aged Care programme. Endorsed by the Australian government, this programme provided oral health education and training for aged care staff. However, recent evidence suggests that nearly five years after the implementation of this programme, the provision of oral care in RACFs in NSW remains inadequate. This project utilised an exploratory qualitative design which involved a focus group with 12 RACF care staff. Participants were asked to discuss the current oral health practices in their facility, and their perceived barriers to providing oral health care. The key findings demonstrated current oral health practices and challenges among care staff. Most care staff had received oral health training and demonstrated positive attitudes towards providing dental care. However, some participants identified that ongoing and regular training was necessary to inform practice and raise awareness among residents. Organisational constraints and access to dental services also limited provision of dental care while a lack of standardised guidelines created confusion in defining their role as oral healthcare providers in the RACF. This study highlighted the need for research and strategies that focus on capacity building care staff in oral health care and improving access of aged care residents to dental services. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Olusile, Adeyemi Oluniyi; Adeniyi, Abiola Adetokunbo; Orebanjo, Olufemi
There is scarce information available on oral health service utilization patterns and common oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians. We conducted the 2010-2011 national oral health survey before the introduction of the national oral health policy to determine the prevalence of oral health service utilization, patterns of oral hygiene practices, and self reported oral health status, among adults in various social classes, educational strata, ethnic groups and geopolitical zones in Nigeria. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in North-Central, North-West, South-East, South-South and South-West geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used for the sample selection. We administered a structured questionnaire to a total of 7,630 participants. Information on the socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices and oral health services utilization pattern of participants was obtained. We interviewed 7, 630 participants (55.6% female). The participants ages ranged between 18 and 81 years, mean age was 37.96 (SD = 13.2). Overall 21.2% of the participants rated their oral health status as very good, 37.1% as good and 27.4% as fair. Only 26.4% reported having visited the dentist at least once prior to the conduct of the survey. More than half of these visits (54.9%) were for treatment purpose. Utilization of oral health services was significantly (p educated and being engaged in a skilled profession. More educated persons, females and younger persons used toothbrushes for daily tooth cleaning. Age, sex, marital status, level of education and occupation were significantly related to daily frequency of tooth cleaning (p educated persons displayed poorer oral hygiene practices. The study findings suggest that there is low oral health service utilization among adult Nigerians and that socio-demographic variables influence oral health utilization habits and oral hygiene behavior among adult Nigerians Further studies to
Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.
Petersen, Poul Erik
Chronic diseases and injuries are the leading health problems in all but a few parts of the world. The rapidly changing disease patterns throughout the world are closely linked to changing lifestyles, which include diets rich in sugars, widespread use of tobacco, and increased consumption...... of alcohol. In addition to socio-environmental determinants, oral disease is highly related to these lifestyle factors, which are risks to most chronic diseases as well as protective factors such as appropriate exposure to fluoride and good oral hygiene. Oral diseases qualify as major public health problems...... owing to their high prevalence and incidence in all regions of the world, and as for all diseases, the greatest burden of oral diseases is on disadvantaged and socially marginalized populations. The severe impact in terms of pain and suffering, impairment of function and effect on quality of life must...
Full Text Available Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same.
Fisher-Owens, S A; Soobader, M J; Gansky, S A; Isong, I A; Weintraub, J A; Platt, L J; Newacheck, P W
To ascertain differences across states in children's oral health care access and oral health status and the factors that contribute to those differences. Observational study using cross-sectional surveys. Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, we examined state variation in parents' report of children's oral health care access (absence of a preventive dental visit) and oral health status. We assessed the unadjusted prevalences of these outcomes, then adjusted with child-, family-, and neighbourhood-level variables using logistic regression; these results are presented directly and graphically. Using multilevel analysis, we then calculated the degree to which child-, family-, and community-level variables explained state variation. Finally, we quantified the influence of state-level variables on state variation. Unadjusted rates of no preventive dental care ranged 9.0-26.8% (mean 17.5%), with little impact of adjusting (10.3-26.7%). Almost 9% of the population had fair/poor oral health; unadjusted range 4.1-14.5%. Adjusting analyses affected fair/poor oral health more than access (5.7-10.7%). Child, family and community factors explained ∼¼ of the state variation in no preventive visit and ∼½ of fair/poor oral health. State-level factors further contributed to explaining up to a third of residual state variation. Geography matters: where a child lives has a large impact on his or her access to oral health care and oral health status, even after adjusting for child, family, community, and state variables. As state-level variation persists, other factors and richer data are needed to clarify the variation and drive changes for more egalitarian and overall improved oral health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meurman, J. H.
The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.
Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah
This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers' teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses' knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses.
Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan
Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…
Yuen, Hon K.; Wolf, Bethany J.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Salinas, Carlos F.; London, Steven D.
The purpose of this study was to determine levels of oral health knowledge and factors associated with adequate oral health knowledge in adults with diabetes. A convenience sample of 253 adult US residents with diabetes completed an oral health survey to assess their knowledge. Results showed that only 47% of the participants answered five or more (out of a maximum of seven) oral health knowledge items related to diabetes correctly. Participants who received oral health information related to...
Rathy Ravindran; M.G. Deepa; A.K. Sruthi; Cherian Kuruvila; S Priya; S Sunil; Joseph Edward; G Roopesh
Background: Oral cav ity re flects the general health status of a person and diagnosing and treating oral manifestations of systemic disease pose a greater challenge. Even though there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus, oral health awareness is lacking among diabetic patients and health professionals. The present study was undertaken to determine the oral health status in type II diabetic patients and also...
Hefler, Marita; Kerrigan, Vicki; Henryks, Joanna; Freeman, Becky; Thomas, David P
Despite the enormous potential of social media for health promotion, there is an inadequate evidence base for how they can be used effectively to influence behaviour. In Australia, research suggests social media use is higher among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than the general Australian population; however, health promoters need a better understanding of who uses technologies, how and why. This qualitative study investigates what types of health content are being shared among Aboriginal and Torres Strait people through social media networks, as well as how people engage with, and are influenced by, health-related information in their offline life. We present six social media user typologies together with an overview of health content that generated significant interaction. Content ranged from typical health-related issues such as mental health, diet, alcohol, smoking and exercise, through to a range of broader social determinants of health. Social media-based health promotion approaches that build on the social capital generated by supportive online environments may be more likely to generate greater traction than confronting and emotion-inducing approaches used in mass media campaigns for some health topics.
Bassilios, Bridget; Nicholas, Angela; Reifels, Lennart; King, Kylie; Spittal, Matthew J; Fletcher, Justine; Pirkis, Jane
This study examines the uptake by children aged predominantly 0-11 years of an Australian primary mental health service - the Access to Allied Psychological Services programme - which began in 2001. In particular, it considers access to, and use of, the child component of Access to Allied Psychological Services, the Child Mental Health Service, introduced in 2010. Using routinely collected programme data from a national minimum dataset and regional population data, we conducted descriptive and regression analysis to examine programme uptake, predictors of service reach and consumer- and treatment-based characteristics of service. Between 2003 and 2013, 18,631 referrals for children were made and 75,178 sessions were scheduled via Access to Allied Psychological Services, over 50% of which were via the Child Mental Health Service in its first 3 years of operation. The rate of referrals for children to the Child Mental Health Service was associated with the rate of Access to Allied Psychological Services referrals for consumers aged 12+ years. The Child Mental Health Service has increased services provided within the Access to Allied Psychological Services programme for children with emotional and behavioural issues and their families, and is potentially filling a service gap in the area of prevention and early intervention for children who have significant levels of need but are unable to access other mental health services. Our findings are policy-relevant for other developed countries with a similar primary mental health care system that are considering means of improving service access by children. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Iqbal, S.; Qureshi, A.; Iqbal, N.; Khan, A.A.
Diabetes causes numerous oral and salivary changes leading to cariogenic and gingival lesions. The present study was designed to elucidate the role of diabetes mellitus in oral health. A cross-sectional study including 60 diabetic children (case group) and 30 non diabetic children (control group) of age 3-14 years was conducted. HbA1c and blood glucose level was measured along with the oral health including gingival status and dental caries status was visually assessed. Gingival status was coded for healthy, marginal gingivitis and calculus. Dental caries status (decayed and filled) for both deciduous and permanent dentition was assessed. Data was recorded in a pre-coded oral health proforma, which was then entered and analyzed in SPSS version 10.0. Descriptive analysis such as percentage frequencies and means was performed. Exact Chi-square test was used to analyze any significant changes observed amongst the study population, where level of significance was p < 0.05 with confidence interval 95%. The results show important difference between both groups of children. Dental caries level is significantly higher in diabetic children both in deciduous and permanent dentition than in non-diabetic children (p <0.05). Gingival health was also observed to be debilitated in diabetic children than nondiabetic children (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights that special preventive measures must be adopted to maintain a good oral health of the diabetic children. (author)
Personal responsibility is a powerful idea supported by many values central to West European thought. On the conceptual level personal responsibility is a complex notion. It is important to separate the concept of being responsible for a given state of affairs from the concept of holding people responsible by introducing measures that decrease their share of available resources. Introducing personal responsibility in oral health also has limitations of a more practical nature. Knowledge, social status and other diseases affect the degree to which people can be said to be responsible for their poor oral health. These factors affect people's oral health and their ability to take care of it. Both the conceptual and practical issues at stake are not reasons to abandon the idea of personal responsibility in oral health, but they do affect what the notion means and when it is reasonable to hold people responsible. They also commit people who support the idea of personal responsibility in oral health to supporting the idea of societal responsibility for mitigating the effects of factors that diminish people's responsibility and increase the available information and knowledge in the population.
Hunter, Lauren P; Yount, Susan M
Access to dental care is a problem in California as in many parts of the United States. Many women, including half of those having dental problems, do not see a dentist during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to describe the oral health status and oral health practices of low-income pregnant women in San Diego, California, and to determine the needs for oral health care education in this population. This descriptive, retrospective, correlational study examined oral health and oral health care practices by age, ethnicity, and gravidity by using medical records from a convenience sample of 380 low-income pregnant women. Most participants were primigravida, aged between 19 and 29 years, of Hispanic ethnicity, and insured by the state (Medi-Cal). All women received education on oral health. The majority (84%) were encouraged to get a dental examination. It had been more than 1 year since the last dental visit for most women (55%). Hispanic women were in need of dental care more than Filipina women or women of other ethnicities. A broken tooth was the primary reason for immediate dental referrals. Regularity of flossing and brushing teeth differed significantly (P= .015, P dental health promotion programs. Findings suggest that low-income pregnant women have some healthy oral health care practices but are in need of dental services and oral health education. An oral health history, oral health education, dental screening, and dental referral, if needed, should be a routine part of prenatal care and annual examinations. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Alcaraz, Luis David; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Romero, Héctor; Simón-Soro, Aurea; Pignatelli, Miguel; Mira, Alex
The oral cavity of humans is inhabited by hundreds of bacterial species and some of them have a key role in the development of oral diseases, mainly dental caries and periodontitis. We describe for the first time the metagenome of the human oral cavity under health and diseased conditions, with a focus on supragingival dental plaque and cavities. Direct pyrosequencing of eight samples with different oral-health status produced 1 Gbp of sequence without the biases imposed by PCR or cloning. These data show that cavities are not dominated by Streptococcus mutans (the species originally identified as the ethiological agent of dental caries) but are in fact a complex community formed by tens of bacterial species, in agreement with the view that caries is a polymicrobial disease. The analysis of the reads indicated that the oral cavity is functionally a different environment from the gut, with many functional categories enriched in one of the two environments and depleted in the other. Individuals who had never suffered from dental caries showed an over-representation of several functional categories, like genes for antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing. In addition, they did not have mutans streptococci but displayed high recruitment of other species. Several isolates belonging to these dominant bacteria in healthy individuals were cultured and shown to inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria, suggesting the use of these commensal bacterial strains as probiotics to promote oral health and prevent dental caries.
Yi Mohammadi, Joanna Jin; Franks, Kay; Hines, Sonia
The objective of this review is to critically appraise and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of professional oral health care intervention on the oral health of aged care residents with dementia.More specifically the objectives are to identify the efficacy of professional oral health care interventions on general oral health, the presence of plaque and the number of decayed or missing teeth. Dementia poses a significant challenge for health and social policy in Australia. The quality of life of individuals, their families and friends is impacted by dementia. Older people with dementia often have other health comorbidities resulting in the need for a higher level of care. From 2009 to 2010, 53% of permanent residents in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) had dementia on admission. Older Australians are retaining more of their natural teeth, therefore residents entering RACFs will have more of their natural teeth and require complex dental work than they did in previous generations. Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare showed that more than half the residents in RACFs are now partially dentate with an average of 12 teeth each. Furthermore, coronal and root caries are significant problems, especially in older Australians who are cognitively impaired.Residents in aged care facilities frequently have poor oral health and hygiene with moderate to high levels of oral disease and overall dental neglect. This is reinforced by aged care staff who acknowledge that the demands of feeding, toileting and behavioral issues amongst residents often take precedence over oral health care regimens. Current literature shows that there is a general reluctance on the part of aged care staff to prioritize oral care due to limited knowledge as well as existing psychological barriers to working on another person's mouth. Although staff routinely deal with residents' urinary and faecal incontinence, deep psychological barriers exist when working on someone
Hall, Martin; Christian, Bradley
Despite the best efforts and commitment of oral health programs, there is no evidence that the current surgical output-based model of oral health care is delivering better oral health outcomes to the community. In fact, Australian evidence indicates the oral health of the community could be getting worse. It is now well-understood that this traditional surgical model of oral health care will never successfully manage the disease itself. It is proposed that a health-promoting, minimally invasive oral disease management model of care may lead to a sustainable benefit to the oral health status of the individual and community groups. The aim of this paper is to describe such a model of oral health care (MoC) currently being implemented by the North Richmond Community Health Oral Health (NRCH-OH) program in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; this model may serve as a template for other services to re-orient their healthcare delivery towards health promotion and prevention. The paper describes the guiding principles and theories for the model and also its operational components, which are: pre-engagement while on the waitlist; client engagement at the reception area; the assessment phase; oral health education (high-risk clients only); disease management; and reviews and recall.
Petersen, Poul Erik
The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past 5 years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as oral health is important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem...... in high income countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and necessary actions to the continuous improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral...... disease prevention and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years...
Iacono, Teresa; Stagg, Kellie; Pearce, Natalie; Hulme Chambers, Alana
Uptake of e-health, the use of information communication technologies (ICT) for health service delivery, in allied health appears to be lagging behind other health care areas, despite offering the potential to address problems with service access by rural and remote Australians. The aim of the study was to conduct a scoping review of studies into the application of or attitudes towards ehealth amongst allied health professionals conducted in Australia. Studies meeting inclusion criteria published from January 2004 to June 2015 were reviewed. Professions included were audiology, dietetics, exercise physiology, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, podiatry, social work, and speech pathology. Terms for these professions and forms of ehealth were combined in databases of CINAHL (EBSCO), Cochrane Library, PsycINFO (1806 - Ovid), MEDLINE (Ovid) and AMED (Ovid). Forty-four studies meeting inclusion criteria were summarised. They were either trials of aspects of ehealth service delivery, or clinician and/or client use of and attitudes towards ehealth. Trials of ehealth were largely from two research groups located at the Universities of Sydney and Queensland; most involved speech pathology and physiotherapy. Assessments through ehealth and intervention outcomes through ehealth were comparable with face-to-face delivery. Clinicians used ICT mostly for managing their work and for professional development, but were reticent about its use in service delivery, which contrasted with the more positive attitudes and experiences of clients. The potential of ehealth to address allied health needs of Australians living in rural and remote Australia appears unrealised. Clinicians may need to embrace ehealth as a means to radicalise practice, rather than replicate existing practices through a different mode of delivery.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte
This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropha...
Ahmad, M S; Abuzar, M A; Razak, I A; Rahman, S A; Borromeo, G L
Poor oral health has been associated with compromised general health and quality of life. To promote comprehensive patient management, the role of medical professionals in oral health maintenance is compelling, thus indicating the need for educational preparation in this area of practice. This study aimed to determine the extent of training in oral health in Malaysian and Australian medical schools. An audio-recorded semi-structured phone interview involving Academic Programme Directors in Malaysian (n = 9, response rate=81.8%) and Australian (n = 7, response rate = 35.0%) medical schools was conducted during the 2014/2015 and 2014 academic years, respectively. Qualitative data was analysed via thematic analysis, involving coding and grouping into emerging themes. Quantitative data were measured for frequencies. It was found that medical schools in Malaysia and Australia offered limited teaching of various oral health-related components that were mostly integrated throughout the curriculum, in the absence of structured learning objectives, teaching methodologies and assessment approaches. Barriers to providing oral health education included having insufficient expertise and overloaded curriculum. As medical educators demonstrated support for oral health education, collaboration amongst various stakeholders is integral to developing a well-structured curriculum and practice guidelines on oral health management involving medical professionals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Introduction: The high dependence on doctors for oral health information due to the shortage of oral health manpower in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. It is imperative therefore, that medical students as future medical doctors have proper knowledge and oral health behavior. Objective: To evaluate self reported oral ...
Savolainen, J. (Jarno)
Abstract Dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease could well be seen as being behaviour-related. The high prevalence of periodontal disease in the Finnish adult population mirrors the need for improving oral health behaviours in a comprehensive manner. Thus far, scant attention has been drawn to the underlying psycho-social factors that could, in part, explain oral health and oral health behaviours. Deficiencies in oral health behaviour may also be indicative of an ind...
Moxey, Annette; McEvoy, Mark; Bowe, Steven; Attia, John
To examine the impact of perceived importance of spirituality or religion (ISR) and religious service attendance (RSA) on health and well-being in older Australians. A cross-sectional survey of 752 community-dwelling men and women aged 55-85 years from the Hunter Region, New South Wales. Overall, 51% of participants felt spirituality or religion was important in their lives and 24% attended religious services at least 2-3 times a month. In univariate regression analyses, ISR and RSA were associated with increased levels of social support (P < 0.001). However, ISR was also associated with more comorbidities (incidence-rate ratio= 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). There were no statistically significant associations between ISR or RSA and other measures such as mental and physical health. Spirituality and religious involvement have a beneficial impact on older Australians' perceptions of social support, and may enable individuals to better cope with the presence of multiple comorbidities later in life. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.
Petersen, Poul Erik
The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past five years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as an important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem in high income...... at national level....
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.
Kotwal, Sradha; Webster, Angela C; Cass, Alan; Gallagher, Martin
Linked health data bring together data about one person from varying sources such as administrative health datasets, death registries and clinical registries using a process that maintains patient privacy. Linked health data have been used for burden of disease estimates and health-care planning and is being increasingly use as a research methodology to study health service utilisation and patient outcomes. Within Australian nephrology, there has been limited understanding and use of linked health data so far, but we expect that with the increasing availability of data and the growing complexity of health care, the use of such data will expand. This is especially pertinent for the growing elderly population with advanced kidney disease, who are poorly represented in other types of research studies. This article summarizes the history of linked health data in Australia, the nature of available datasets in Australia, the methods of access to these data, privacy and ethical issues, along with strengths, limitations and implications for the future. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Sielicka, Danuta; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child's health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity. The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health.
Verrips, G.H.W.; Schuller, A.A.
Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH) of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14). Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the mo...
Schou, L; Wight, C; Clemson, N
; 2) active involvement of residents only; 3) active involvement of both residents and staff. The programme comprised three 1-h sessions at monthly intervals in groups of five to six residents or members of staff. The analysis of the results showed poor oral health and oral hygiene, high objective......The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate educational approaches specifically for improvement of oral hygiene behaviour amongst institutionalised elderly. A sample of 201 residents, 48-99 yr of age (mean age 82 yr), was selected from four different institutions in Lothian...... need for oral care but low perceived need. The programme had little impact on most of the included variables and only about half of the participants remembered the programme 2 months after its termination. The implications of the study are that groups of elderly need to be differentiated further so...
Schou, L; Wight, C; Clemson, N
The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate educational approaches specifically for improvement of oral hygiene behaviour amongst institutionalised elderly. A sample of 201 residents, 48-99 yr of age (mean age 82 yr), was selected from four different institutions in Lothian...... need for oral care but low perceived need. The programme had little impact on most of the included variables and only about half of the participants remembered the programme 2 months after its termination. The implications of the study are that groups of elderly need to be differentiated further so......; 2) active involvement of residents only; 3) active involvement of both residents and staff. The programme comprised three 1-h sessions at monthly intervals in groups of five to six residents or members of staff. The analysis of the results showed poor oral health and oral hygiene, high objective...
Crall, James J
The purpose of this paper was to highlight information and issues raised in a keynote address for the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry's Symposium on Lifetime Oral Health Care for Patients with Special Needs held in November, 2006. Topics include: (1) relevant statistics and definitions; (2) the prevalence and impact of common oral diseases in individuals with special health care needs (ISHCN); (3) an overview of oral health care delivery for ISHCN; (4) key delivery system and policy issues; and (5) a synopsis of major contextual initiatives related to ISHCN. In light of the Academy's primary interest in infants, children, and adolescents--including children with special health care needs--the major focus is on children. Significant oral health and oral health care issues for adults with special needs, however, generally parallel those for children and are of interest to the Academy, particularly as they relate to the transition from pediatric care to adult care, a critical period for extending the level of oral health and health trajectory established during childhood.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking statesâ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...
Introduction. Health is one of the most valuable assets one can possess Oral health is now recognized as equally important in relation to general health. Oral health may be defined as a standard of health of the oral and related tissues which enables an individual to eat, speak and socialize without active disease, discomfort ...
Marília Jesus Batista
Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the association between critical and communicative oral health literacy (OHL and oral health outcomes (status, oral health-related quality of life and practices in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study examined a household probability sample of 248 adults, representing 149,635 residents (20–64 years old in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. Clinical oral health and socioeconomic and demographic data, as well as data on oral health-related quality of life (OHIP-14 and health practices were collected. The oral examinations were carried out in the participants’ homes, using the World Health Organization criteria for oral diseases. The critical and communicative OHL instrument was the primary independent variable, and it was measured using five Likert items that were dichotomized as ‘high’ (‘agree’ and ‘strongly agree’ responses for the 5 items and ‘low’ OHL. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed on each outcome (oral health status and practices, controlling for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES. Results Approximately 71.5% presented low OHL. When adjusted for age and sex (first model low OHL was associated with untreated caries (Odds Ratio = 1.92, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.07–3.45, tooth brushing <3 times a day (OR = 2.00, 1.11–3.62 and irregular tooth flossing (OR = 2.17, 1.24–3.80. After SES inclusion in the first model, significant associations were found for low OHL when the outcomes were: presence of biofilm (OR = 1.83, 1.08–3.33, dental care for emergency only (OR = 2.24, 1.24–4.04 and prevalence of oral health impact on quality of life (OR = 2.06, 1.15–3.69. Conclusion Adjusting for age, sex and SES, OHL is related to a risk factor (biofilm and a consequence of poor oral health (emergency dental visits and can interfere with the impact of oral diseases on quality of life. As low OHL can be modified, the results support oral health promotion
Tuti N Mohd-Dom
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the level of oral health literacy and behavior among health sciences. Methods: The method used descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 609 students from Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Oral health literacy level and behaviour was assessed with a validated and pretested self-administered questionnaire using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS tool and modified Oral Health Adult Literacy Questionnaire (OHL-AQ. Results: A total of 509 participants involved in the study (83.6%. The overall mean oral health literacy score was 10.27 (95% CI 7.92, 12.62, which found dental students showing statistically significant higher scores (mean=11.36, 95% CI 9.70, 13.02 compared to medical (mean=10.72, 95% CI 8.67, 12.77, allied health sciences (mean=9.89, 95% CI 7.34, 12.44 and pharmacy (mean=9.55, 95% CI 7.23, 11.87. Almost all respondents are non-smokers (99.8% and non-drinkers (97.2%. Only 19.1% pay regular dental visits every 6-12 months while 51.1% visit dentist only when they have dental pain. Conclusion: There appears to be a positive relationship between oral health literacy and oral health behavior. Health science university students should be provided substantial dental health education in their curriculum as they show good potential as strategic partners in oral health.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i2.404
Parker, E J; Jamieson, L M; Steffens, M A; Cathro, P; Logan, R M
There is limited information on self-perceived oral health of homeless populations. This study quantified self-reported oral health among a metropolitan homeless adult population and compared against a representative sample of the metropolitan adult population obtained from the National Survey of Adult Oral Health. A total of 248 homeless participants (age range 17-78 years, 79% male) completed a self-report questionnaire. Data for an age-matched, representative sample of metropolitan-dwelling adults were obtained from Australia's second National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Percentage responses and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, with non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals used to identify statistically significant differences between the two groups. Homeless adults reported poorer oral health than their age-matched general population counterparts. Twice as many homeless adults reported visiting a dentist more than a year ago and that their usual reason for dental attendance was for a dental problem. The proportion of homeless adults with a perceived need for fillings or extractions was also twice that of their age-matched general population counterparts. Three times as many homeless adults rated their oral health as 'fair' or 'poor'. A significantly greater proportion of homeless adults in an Australian metropolitan location reported poorer oral health compared with the general metropolitan adult population. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.
Fatima, Syeda H; Naseem, Sajida; Awan, Sara A; Ghazanfar, Haider; Ali, Zainab; Khan, Najeeb A
Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted. Participants were interviewed through a self-designed questionnaire. Later, each participant demonstrated their teeth brushing technique on a standard model of the oral cavity, which was assessed against a checklist conforming to the modified bass technique. A video clip showing the aforementioned brushing technique was shown at the end of the interview. The collected data was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results Toothpaste was the top choice (97.2%) of teeth cleaning tool with 69% participants brushing their teeth two times a day and 56.9% using toothbrushes with bristles of medium texture. The use of mouthwash (32.6%) and dental floss (11.1%) was considerably low. Dental caries and teeth discoloration were seen in 46.5% and 43.8% physicians, respectively. An alarmingly low number of physicians (31.9%) claimed to have read guidelines regarding oral health. This translated into most participants (78.5%) visiting a dentist only when needed. Only 4.9% participants performed all components of the modified bass technique to clean teeth on the oral cavity model, with up to 22.9% unable to perform a single step accurately. Conclusion The oral health knowledge and practices of physicians were found to be suboptimal and
Fatima, Syeda H; Naseem, Sajida; Ghazanfar, Haider; Ali, Zainab; Khan, Najeeb A
Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted. Participants were interviewed through a self-designed questionnaire. Later, each participant demonstrated their teeth brushing technique on a standard model of the oral cavity, which was assessed against a checklist conforming to the modified bass technique. A video clip showing the aforementioned brushing technique was shown at the end of the interview. The collected data was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results Toothpaste was the top choice (97.2%) of teeth cleaning tool with 69% participants brushing their teeth two times a day and 56.9% using toothbrushes with bristles of medium texture. The use of mouthwash (32.6%) and dental floss (11.1%) was considerably low. Dental caries and teeth discoloration were seen in 46.5% and 43.8% physicians, respectively. An alarmingly low number of physicians (31.9%) claimed to have read guidelines regarding oral health. This translated into most participants (78.5%) visiting a dentist only when needed. Only 4.9% participants performed all components of the modified bass technique to clean teeth on the oral cavity model, with up to 22.9% unable to perform a single step accurately. Conclusion The oral health knowledge and practices of physicians were found to be suboptimal and
Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh
Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted ques...
Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Tennant, Marc
Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the costs of teledentistry and traditional dental screening approaches in Australian school children. Methods A cost-minimisation analysis was performed from the perspective of the oral health system, comparing the cost of dental screening in school children using a traditional visual examination approach with the cost of mid-level dental practitioners (MLDPs), such as dental therapists, screening the same cohort of children remotely using teledentistry. A model was developed to simulate the costs (over a 12-month period) of the two models of dental screening for all school children (2.7million children) aged 5-14 years across all Australian states and territories. The fixed costs and the variable costs, including staff salary, travel and accommodation costs, and cost of supply were calculated. All costs are given in Australian dollars. Results The total estimated cost of the teledentistry model was $50million. The fixed cost of teledentistry was $1million and that of staff salaries (tele-assistants, charters and their supervisors, as well as information technology support was estimated to be $49million. The estimated staff salary saved with the teledentistry model was $56million, and the estimated travel allowance and supply expenses avoided were $16million and $14million respectively; an annual reduction of $85million in total. Conclusions The present study shows that the teledentistry model of dental screening can minimise costs. The estimated savings were due primarily to the low salaries of dental therapists and the avoidance of travel and accommodation costs. Such savings could be redistributed to improve infrastructure and oral health services in rural or other underserved areas. What is known about the topic? Caries is a preventable disease, which, if it remains untreated, can cause significant morbidity requiring costly treatment. Regular dental screening and oral health education have the great
Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi
Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Petersen, Poul Erik
The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past 5 years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as oral health is important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem in high income countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and necessary actions to the continuous improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral disease prevention and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years oral health was subject to discussion by those bodies in 2007. At the EB120 and WHA60, the Member States agreed on an action plan for oral health and integrated disease prevention, thereby confirming the approach of the Oral Health Programme. The policy forms the basis for future development or adjustment of oral health programmes at national level. Clinical and public health research has shown that a number of individual, professional and community preventive measures are effective in preventing most oral diseases. However, advances in oral health science have not yet benefited the poor and disadvantaged populations worldwide. The major challenges of the future will be to translate knowledge and experiences in oral disease prevention and health promotion into action programmes. The WHO Global Oral Health Programme invites the international oral health research community to engage further in research capacity building in developing countries, and in strengthening the work so that research is recognized as the foundation of oral heath policy at global level.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi
This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly...... of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet.......g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries....
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of the eligible population of users of public oral health care services in the Australian state of Victoria, aged 17 years or younger. The study was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected from July 2008 to June 2009 for 45,728 young clients of public oral health care. The sample mean age was 8.9 (SD: 3.5 years. The majority (82.7% was between 6 and 17 years of age, and 50.3% were males. The majority (76.6% was Australian-born and spoke English at home (89.1%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.0 (SD: 2.1 teeth, with a mean dmft of 3.16 (SD: 5.79 teeth. Data indicate that, among six year olds in the Significant Caries Index (SiC category, the mean dmft was 6.82 teeth. Findings corroborate social inequalities in oral health outcome and provide suggestions for oral health services to develop strategies and priorities to reduce inequalities in health and well-being, and better coordinate and target services to local needs.
Anya Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira
Full Text Available In the last century, numerous advances in biomedical researches and technology in the dentistry field have been responsible for improvements in health and wellbeing of populations(1. However, despite major achievements in the context of oral health, many problems still remain, such as dental caries, the most common of oral diseases. The prevalence of dental caries showed a downward trend over the last three decades of the XX century and in early twenty-first century, especially in developed countries, however, it is still considered an important worldwide public health issue, affecting 60% to 90% of school children, besides the vast majority of the adults(2-4. In the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal do Ministério da Saúde – Projeto SB 2010(5 (National Survey of Oral Health of the Ministry of Health - SB Project 2010, improvements in the oral health status of Brazilians were observed, however, caries prevalence is still high. Among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, for example, the average of affected teeth was 4.25 - more than twice the mean number found at the age of 12. Among the elderly aged 65 to 74 years, the number of decayed, missing and filled (DMF teeth hardly changed, remaining at 27.5 in 2010, while the average was 27.8 in 2003. In international context, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health(5, a study by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2004 indicated that, on data from 188 countries, the average DMF at age 12 was 1.6, reaching the average of 2.8 in the Americas, while in Europe it was 1.6. In South America, only Venezuela had an average DMF at age 12 similar to the Brazilian (2.1. In other countries, the averages were higher, as in Argentina (3.4, Bolivia (4.7, Colombia (2.3, Paraguay (2.8 and Peru (3.7. The epidemiological findings on 2010 oral health in Brazil(5 showed that the country joined the group of those with low prevalence of caries at the age of 12. Although results have been encouraging in this regard
Anya Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira Meyer
Full Text Available In the last century, numerous advances in biomedical researches and technology in the dentistry field have been responsible for improvements in health and wellbeing of populations(1. However, despite major achievements in the context of oral health, many problems still remain, such as dental caries, the most common of oral diseases. The prevalence of dental caries showed a downward trend over the last three decades of the XX century and in early twenty-first century, especially in developed countries, however, it is still considered an important worldwide public health issue, affecting 60% to 90% of school children, besides the vast majority of the adults(2-4. In the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal do Ministério da Saúde – Projeto SB 2010(5 (National Survey of Oral Health of the Ministry of Health - SB Project 2010, improvements in the oral health status of Brazilians were observed, however, caries prevalence is still high. Among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, for example, the average of affected teeth was 4.25 - more than twice the mean number found at the age of 12. Among the elderly aged 65 to 74 years, the number of decayed, missing and filled (DMF teeth hardly changed, remaining at 27.5 in 2010, while the average was 27.8 in 2003. In international context, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health(5, a study by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2004 indicated that, on data from 188 countries, the average DMF at age 12 was 1.6, reaching the average of 2.8 in the Americas, while in Europe it was 1.6. In South America, only Venezuela had an average DMF at age 12 similar to the Brazilian (2.1. In other countries, the averages were higher, as in Argentina (3.4, Bolivia (4.7, Colombia (2.3, Paraguay (2.8 and Peru (3.7. The epidemiological findings on 2010 oral health in Brazil(5 showed that the country joined the group of those with low prevalence of caries at the age of 12. Although results have been encouraging in this regard
Usher, Kim; Woods, Cindy; Casellac, Evan; Glass, Nel; Wilson, Rhonda; Mayner, Lidia; Jackson, Debra; Brown, Janie; Duffy, Elaine; Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth; Irwin, Pauletta
Increased bandwidth, broadband network availability and improved functionality have enhanced the accessibility and attractiveness of social media. The use of the Internet by higher education students has markedly increased. Social media are already used widely across the health sector but little is currently known of the use of social media by health profession students in Australia. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to explore health profession students' use of social media and their media preferences for sourcing information. An electronic survey was made available to health profession students at ten participating universities across most Australian states and territories. Respondents were 637 first year students and 451 final year students. The results for first and final year health profession students indicate that online media is the preferred source of information with only 20% of students nominating traditional peer-reviewed journals as a preferred information source. In addition, the results indicate that Facebook usage was high among all students while use of other types of social media such as Twitter remains comparatively low. As health profession students engage regularly with social media, and this use is likely to grow rather than diminish, educational institutions are challenged to consider the use of social media as a validated platform for learning and teaching.
Crocombe, L A; Mahoney, G D; Spencer, A J; Waller, M
The aim of this study was to determine if Australian Defence Force (ADF) members had better oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) than the general Australian population and whether the difference was due to better access to dental care. The OHRQoL, as measured by OHIP-14 summary indicators, of participants from the Defence Deployed Solomon Islands (SI) Health Study and the National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-06 (NSAOH) were compared. The SI sample was age/gender status-adjusted to match that of the NSAOH sample which was age/gender/regional location weighted to that of the Australian population. NSAOH respondents with good access to dental care had lower OHIP-14 summary measures [frequency of impacts 8.5% (95% CI = 5.4, 11.6), extent mean = 0.16 (0.11, 0.22), severity mean = 5.0 (4.4, 5.6)] than the total NSAOH sample [frequency 18.6 (16.6, 20.7); extent 0.52 (0.44, 0.59); severity 7.6 (7.1, 8.1)]. The NSAOH respondents with both good access to dental care and self-reported good general health did not have as low OHIP-14 summary scores as in the SI sample [frequency 2.6 (1.2, 5.4), extent 0.05 (0.01, 0.10); severity 2.6 (1.9, 3.4)]. ADF members had better OHRQoL than the general Australian population, even those with good access to dental care and self-reported good general health. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.
Yamane-Takeuchi, Mayu; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Azuma, Tetsuji; Furuta, Michiko; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu
Background The present study aimed to elucidate the associations among self-rated oral health, clinical oral health status, oral health behaviors, subjective oral symptoms, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a group of Japanese university students. Methods Of 2051 participants, 2027 (98.83%) students received an optional oral examination and answered a questionnaire including items regarding age, sex, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, subjective oral symptoms, an...
O'Mullane, Denis; And Others
Data on the relative levels of men's and women's dental health are scarce, but the available data do indicate differences in tooth loss and health-related behavior patterns. Better methods for recording and reporting this information are recommended. (MSE)
Haghighi, Abdullah; Shafipour, Vida; Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is one of the most common nosocomial infections which increase mortality rate and length stay of hospitalisation. Oral care would not only improve patient's oral health and well-being, but it can also reduce the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The objective of this study was to identify the impact of oral care practices on oral health status of patients in intensive care unit and the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia. This clinical trial recruited 100 participants who were randomly assigned to a control group (receiving oral care by nurses) and an intervention group (receiving systematic care by the researcher) during 2015-2016. Beck Oral Assessment Scale was used to determine the required number of times for receiving oral care with regard to patient's oral health in the intervention group. Each care included adjusting endotracheal tube cuff pressure, brushing with toothpaste, using antiseptics and moistening the lips. The oral cavity was examined using BOAS and Mucosal-Plaque Score, and Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score was used for detecting pneumonia. The BOAS scoring showed significant differences between the two groups from the first to fifth day (P<0.001). The mucosal-plaque index was significantly different between the two groups from the third day to fifth day (P<0.001). The incidence rate of pneumonia on the third and fifth day was 10% (5) and 14% (7) in the control group, and 4% (2) and 10% (5) in the intervention group, respectively. The Fisher test did not show significant difference (P=0.538), however, the incidence rate in the intervention group reduced compared with the control group. Although following a systematic oral care program could not significantly decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients compared to the conventional oral care practices, it significantly improved the oral health and mucosal-plaque index. Copyright © 2016
P, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Kote, Sunder; Singh, Shilpi; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo; Vashishtha, Vaibhav
Introduction: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights problem in the world today. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of domestic violence on oral health behavior and oral health status of females attending community outreach programmes in and around Modinagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through the community outreach programmes organized in Modinagar. A structured questionnaire was used to illicit information regarding socio demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and domestic violence. The dental health examination was done to record dental health status, intraoral and extraoral soft tissue injury, tooth fracture and tooth avulsion due to the injury. Results: Out of the total 304 women, 204(67.1%) reported positive domestic violence. Psychological violence was found to be severe whereas sexual violence was found to be mild in most of the cases. Significant difference was found between oral hygiene aids used , frequency of tooth brushing, periodontal status, missing teeth, intraoral soft tissue injuries and fractures between both the groups (pviolence had significant influence on oral health behavior and oral health status of women. Thus, the dental professionals also should make an attempt to help victims gain access to support and referral services and to provide adequate treatment to them so as to make a positive difference in their lives. PMID:25584297
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi
, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e......This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly...... high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral...
... that the loss of alveolar bone mineral density leaves bone more susceptible to periodontal bacteria, increasing the ... bone density will have a favorable impact on dental health. Bisphosphonates, a group of medications available for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been linked to the development ...
any deleterious habits, self-perception of oral health needs etc.,. [Table 1]. Prior to the ... qualification. Self‑reported conditions. Marital status. Oral hygiene knowledge. Oral hygiene practices. Deleterious habits. Awareness regarding oral health problems .... subtle and pervasive, influencing eating, sleeping, work and social ...
Austin, Marie-Paule; Reilly, Nicole; Sullivan, Elizabeth
To describe the Australian perinatal mental health reforms and explore ways of improving surveillance of maternal mental health morbidity and mortality in this context. We reviewed the Australian perinatal (defined as conception to one year postpartum) mental health reforms, in association with an appraisal of the population health methods that could be used for their evaluation. Despite the increasing focus of public health reforms on maternal mental health in the perinatal period, there is currently no national data available to evaluate these reforms or to provide an evidence base for improved health outcomes. National data development and linkage of relevant datasets would go a long way towards enabling such an endeavour. Inclusion of key mental health items in the Perinatal National Minimum Dataset and use of data linkage techniques will allow for monitoring of trends in maternal mental health morbidity and mortality in response to the Australian reforms. Once this is implemented, cost-benefit analyses can be undertaken. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K
In Australia, women from non–English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living wi...
This thesis seeks to examine a number of issues surrounding evidence, equity and health in the contemporary Australian public health arena, using cardiovascular disease and its determinants as the principal case studies. Additionally, it uses a novel epidemiological study from Finland to learn lessons from abroad. The eight case studies presented in this portfolio include in-depth examination of health associations with several socio-cultural variables: ethnicity, migrant status, residential ...
Ship, Jonathan A
Diabetes is a common disease with concomitant oral manifestations that impact dental care. The purpose of this review is to summarize the prevalence, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes, as well as dental treatment considerations for the patient with diabetes. Safely managing the patient with diabetes requires effective communication among multiple health care providers. Dentists must be familiar with techniques to diagnose, treat and prevent stomatological disorders in patients with diabetes. Dental practitioners will be treating more patients with diabetes in the future, and this article provides an overview of the systemic and oral aspects of the disease that impact dental treatment.
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bhambal, Ajay
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries, to describe the periodontal conditions, and to assess the level of attitude, knowledge and practice in relation to oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13 year-old children in Bhopal, India. The data would aim to provide a baseline...... for planning and evaluation of oral health education programmes for children in the region. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: A cross sectional study of 599 children 11-13 years was conducted. Random sampling procedures were used to obtain representative samples of children in rural (n = 181......) and urban areas (n = 277). In urban slum areas convenience sampling was applied (n = 141). The data were collected through clinical examinations by means of WHO standard method, and a sub-sample completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health behaviour, knowledge, and attitude. RESULTS...
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bhambal, Ajay
) and urban areas (n = 277). In urban slum areas convenience sampling was applied (n = 141). The data were collected through clinical examinations by means of WHO standard method, and a sub-sample completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health behaviour, knowledge, and attitude. RESULTS....... Mean number of sextants with CPI score 0 was 3.5 among children in urban areas and 0.6 for children in slum areas. Seventy-five per cent of the children reported toothbrushing once a day, 31% used a plastic toothbrush and the general level of knowledge on oral health was low. Intake of sugary food......OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries, to describe the periodontal conditions, and to assess the level of attitude, knowledge and practice in relation to oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13 year-old children in Bhopal, India. The data would aim to provide a baseline...
E-health implementation in Australia will depend upon interoperable computer systems to share information and data across the health sector. Semantic interoperability, which preserves the meaning of information and data when it is shared or re-purposed, is critical for safe clinical care, and also for any re-use of the information or data for other purposes. One such re-use is for national health statistics. Usable statistics rely on comparable and consistent data, and current practice is to use agreed national data standards to achieve this. The standardisation and interoperability needed to support e-health should also provide strong support for national health statistics. This report discusses some of the semantic interoperability issues involved in moving from the current data supply process for national health statistics to an e-health-enabled future.
Garbin, Cas; Garbin, Aji; Dos Santos, Kt; Lima, Dp
The aim of this study was to verify the influence of preschool children participating in an oral health education programme on daily health practices of their families, through parent's perception. A sample of 119 parents of 5- to 6-year-old preschool children were selected. Data were collected using a structured open-closed questionnaire, self-administered. The questions focused on parents' knowledge about activities of oral health education conducted in school, the importance given by them to these activities, learning from their offspring and the presence of habit change at home. In total, 63 (52.9%) parents agreed to participate. Ninety-eight per cent knew about educative and preventive activities developed at school and all of them affirmed that these activities were important, mainly because of knowledge, motivation and improvement in children's health. Ninety and half per cent of parents reported that they learned something about oral health from their children and, among these, almost half (47.8%) cited toothbrushing as the indicator for better learning. Besides this, 87.3% of participants revealed the change in oral health habits of their family members. Preschool children were able to transmit knowledge acquired at school to their parents that included change in oral health routine of their family members.
Kent, B. (I 972) A new translucent cement for dentistry: The glass ionomer cement . British Dental Journal, 132, 133-5. Woolfolk MW, Lang WP, Faja BW...CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ORAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE, LOCUS OF CONTROL, AND ORAL HEALTH STATUS by Andrew Robert Knofczynski Lieutenant, Dental Corps...United States Navy A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Comprehensive Dentist1y Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental School Unifonned
Percival, Nikki A; McCalman, Janya; Armit, Christine; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Rowley, Kevin; Doyle, Joyce; Tsey, Komla
In Australia, significant resources have been invested in producing health promotion best practice guidelines, frameworks and tools (herein referred to as health promotion tools) as a strategy to improve Indigenous health promotion programmes. Yet, there has been very little rigorous implementation research about whether or how health promotion tools are implemented. This paper theorizes the complex processes of health promotion tool implementation in Indigenous comprehensive primary healthcare services. Data were derived from published and grey literature about the development and the implementation of four Indigenous health promotion tools. Tools were theoretically sampled to account for the key implementation types described in the literature. Data were analysed using the grounded-theory methods of coding and constant comparison with construct a theoretical implementation model. An Indigenous Health Promotion Tool Implementation Model was developed. Implementation is a social process, whereby researchers, practitioners and community members collectively interacted in creating culturally responsive health promotion to the common purpose of facilitating empowerment. The implementation of health promotion tools was influenced by the presence of change agents; a commitment to reciprocity and organizational governance and resourcing. The Indigenous Health Promotion Tool Implementation Model assists in explaining how health promotion tools are implemented and the conditions that influence these actions. Rather than simply developing more health promotion tools, our study suggests that continuous investment in developing conditions that support empowering implementation processes are required to maximize the beneficial impacts and effectiveness of health promotion tools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Bird, Philip S; Trott, Darren J; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Milinovich, Gabriel J; Hillman, Kristine M; Burrell, Paul C; Blackall, Linda L
An obligatory anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative coccobacillus with black-pigmented colonies was isolated from the oral cavity of selected Australian marsupial species. Phenotypic and molecular criteria showed that this bacterium was a distinct species within the genus Porphyromonas, and was closely related to Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas gulae. This putative novel species and P. gulae could be differentiated from P. gingivalis by catalase activity. Further characterization by multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis of glutamate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase enzyme mobility and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS showed that this putative novel species could be differentiated phenotypically from P. gingivalis and P. gulae. Definitive identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that this bacterium belonged to a unique monophyletic lineage, phylogenetically distinct from P. gingivalis (94.9 % similarity) and P. gulae (95.5 %). This also was supported by 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and glutamate dehydrogenase gene sequencing. A new species epithet, Porphyromonas loveana sp. nov., is proposed for this bacterium, with DSM 28520T (=NCTC 13658T=UQD444T=MRK101T), isolated from a musky rat kangaroo, as the type strain.
Heslop, Karen Ruth; Wynaden, Dianne Gaye
Sustaining a fall during hospitalization reduces a patient's ability to return home following discharge. It is well accepted that factors, such as alteration in balance, functional mobility, muscle strength, and fear of falling, are all factors that impact on the quality of life of elderly people following a fall. However, the impact that falls have on mental health outcomes in older adult mental health patients remains unexplored. The present study reports Health of the Nation Outcome Scale scores for people over the age of 65 (HoNOS65+), which were examined in a cohort of 65 patients who sustained a fall and 73 non-fallers admitted to an older adult mental health service (OAMHS). Results were compared with state and national HoNOS65+ data recorded in Australian National Outcome Casemix Collection data to explore the effect that sustaining a fall while hospitalized has on mental health outcomes. Australian state and national HoNOS65+ data indicate that older adults generally experience improved HoNOS65+ scores from admission to discharge. Mental health outcomes for patients who sustained a fall while admitted to an OAMHS did not follow this trend. Sustaining a fall while admitted to an OAMHS negatively affects discharge mental health outcomes. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
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... State Offices Search the Organizations Database Center for Oral Health Systems Integration and Improvement (COHSII) COHSII is a ... needs of the MCH population. Brush Up on Oral Health This monthly newsletter provides Head Start staff with ...
Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Xin; Li, Jiyao; Hu, Deyu; Hu, Tao; Yin, Wei; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong
Chinese president Xi Jinping made clear at the National Health and Wellness Conference that health is the prerequisite for people's all-around development and a precondition for the sustainable development of China. Oral health is an indispensable component of overall health in humans. However, the long neglect of oral health in overall health agendas has made oral diseases an increasing concern. With this perspective, we described the global challenges of oral diseases, with an emphasis on the challenges faced by China. We also described and analyzed the recently released health policies of the Chinese government, which aim to guide mid-term and long-term oral health promotion in China. More importantly, we called for specific actions to fulfill the larger goal of oral health for the nation. The implementation of primordial prevention efforts against oral diseases, the integration of oral health into the promotion of overall health, and the management of oral diseases in conjunction with other chronic non-communicable diseases with shared risk factors were highly recommended. In addition, we suggested the reform of standard clinical residency training, the development of domestic manufacturing of dental equipment and materials, the revitalization traditional Chinese medicine for the prevention and treatment of oral diseases, and integration of oral health promotion into the Belt and Road Initiative. We look forward to seeing a joint effort from all aspects of the society to fulfill the goal of Healthy China 2030 and ensure the oral health of the nation.
Burns, Melanie C.
Condom use among Australian adolescents has been shown to be variable, despite good knowledge among this group about sexual health risks and the promotion of condoms as a simple way to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted infections. This study explores dominant constructions of condom use within two Australian lifestyle magazines targeted…
Ariga, Jitendra; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Nazar, Huda
The School Oral Health Program (SOHP), Kuwait, is a joint venture between the Ministry of Health, Kuwait, and Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Mass., USA. This program provides oral health education, prevention and treatment to almost 280,000 public school children in Kuwait. Services are delivered through a system of center- and school-based clinics and preventive mobile teams. One of the recent developments is the effective use of portable dental units for the delivery of preventive care to children in schools without the need for children to go to dental clinics. Preventive procedures performed under this program are the biannual application of fluoride varnish and the placement of pit and fissure sealants on newly erupted permanent molars and premolars. During recent years, the SOHP has improved its coverage of children, with prevention up to 80%. This has resulted in a considerable reduction in treatment needs, which is evident from the reduced number of composite restorations performed under this program during the last 6 years. This indicates that the disease level is on a decline, which can be confirmed from the results of the ongoing National Oral Health Survey on Kuwaiti school children. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... Other conditions that might be linked to oral health include eating disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, head and neck cancers, and Sjogren's syndrome — an immune system disorder that causes dry mouth. Because of these ... in your overall health — especially if you've had any recent illnesses ...
Borreani, E; Jones, K; Scambler, S; Gallagher, J E
Older people represent a growing and diverse section of the population. As age increases, people are more likely to experience health and mobility problems and be at higher risk of developing oral disease. Nevertheless, few older people utilise primary oral healthcare services. It is therefore important to understand the value older people place on oral health and dental services to inform providers and planners of oral health care. This research was conducted as part of a study to identify potential ways of minimising barriers to oral health care in older people. To explore perceptions of oral health and oral healthcare services amongst older people living in a socially deprived inner city area and how these are related to service utilisation. A qualitative approach was utilised to explore the range of issues related to older people's perceptions of oral health and their views on health care. This involved a combination of focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews with older people and their carers. Data analysis was conducted using the Framework approach. * Thirty-nine older people and/or their carers participated in focus groups. * Oral health perception: Oral health was associated with the presence of natural teeth, the absence of pain, practical/social functioning, preferably supported by positive assessment by a dentist. * Oral health life-course: Older people have a long and complex dental history. Past negative experiences with oral health care, especially in childhood, strongly influenced present attitudes towards dentistry and dental personnel. * Citizenship and right to health care: There was a strong perception that, as 'British citizens', older people should have a right to free health care and that the National Health Service (NHS) should support them in this phase of their life. The oral health life-course of older people is an important influence on their perceptions of oral health and dental attendance. They consider oral health of
Murray, Joanne; Scholten, Ingrid
To determine whether a simple oral hygiene protocol improves the oral health of inpatients in stroke rehabilitation. Poor oral health can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia. The comorbidities associated with stroke, such as dysphagia, hemiparesis and cognitive impairment, can further impede independent oral care. International stroke guidelines recommend routine oral care but stop short of detailing specific regimes. The oral health assessment tool (OHAT) was conducted by speech-language pathologists with 100 patients with and without dysphagia in three metropolitan inpatient stroke rehabilitation facilities. A simple nurse-led oral hygiene regime was then implemented with all participants, which included twice daily tooth brushing and mouth rinsing after lunch, and oral health was measured again one week later. Initially, dysphagia was negatively associated with OHAT scores, and independence for oral hygiene was positively associated with oral health. After one week of a simple oral hygiene regime, the OHAT scores available for 89 participants indicated an improvement on average for all participants. In particular, 59% of participants with dysphagia had an improvement of 1 or more points. None of the participants developed pneumonia. A simple, inexpensive oral hygiene regime resulted in positive outcomes for patients with and without dysphagia in inpatient stroke rehabilitation settings. Oral health assessments and oral hygiene regimes that are simple to implement by the interdisciplinary team can be incorporated into standard stroke care with positive effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey
Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people’s mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of ‘risk’, ‘ageing as decline/dependence’ and ‘healthy ageing’ were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to ‘target’ groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people’s mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. PMID:27147440
Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey
Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people's mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of 'risk', 'ageing as decline/dependence' and 'healthy ageing' were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to 'target' groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people's mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. © The Author(s) 2016.
Background: Despite the need for oral health morbidity surveys to aid in reviewing of the oral health services, dental data of Ugandan children is scanty. Objectives: to describe the magnitude and distribution of selected oral health conditions among primary school children in Mbarara, Uganda. Methods: A stratified ...
Background: Despite the reported increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, very few studies have documented report on oral health awareness and oral health conditions of individuals with diabetes mellitus from our environment. Thus this study aimed at assessing the oral health awareness, practices and status of ...
White, B. Alex
An overview of the current oral health status of Americans looks at the epidemiology of oral/dental diseases, rates of use of dental services, and expenditures for dental health care. Substantial progress in improving oral health is seen as are particular challenges resulting from the aging and ethnic diversification of the population. (MSE)
Skinner, J; Byun, R; Blinkhorn, A
The aims of this study were to examine variations in levels of access to public oral health services in New South Wales by teenagers from 2004-05 to 2014-15 and to determine whether more teenagers have been treated with preventive dental items in keeping with the strategic shift statewide towards prevention and early intervention. This study involved an analysis of a subset of the New South Wales Oral Health Data Collection for teenagers treated in the New South Wales Public Oral Health Service in the financial years 2004-05 to 2014-15. Relevant Australian Dental Association dental service item groups are reported for teenagers by year as a percentage of total visits delivered in that year. The utilization of the New South Wales Public Oral Health Service by teenagers has remained relatively stable over the 11 years at approximately 6%, while the provision of some preventive items increased over the time period. There were important differences found in access by teenagers to preventive items by socio-economic status and rurality, and these differences will be targeted over the coming years by New South Wales Public Oral Health Services and better monitored by a new electronic oral health record being implemented statewide from 2016. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) from an important component of the health care system of any nation. Adequate knowledge regarding oral health is also mandatory as it is directly related to general health. Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess oral health status and treatment needs of the health ...
... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Oral Health Disparities as Determined by Selected Healthy People 2020 Oral Health Objectives for the United States, 2009–2010 Recommend ...
Petersen, P E; Kandelman, D; Arpin, S
The aim of this report is (1) to provide a global overview of oral health conditions in older people, use of oral health services, and self care practices; (2) to explore what types of oral health services are available to older people, and (3) to identify some major barriers to and opportunities...... for the establishment of oral health services and health promotion programmes....
van Beek, H
The first part of this article is an edited Dutch summary of the paper "Oral-health-related benefits of orthodontic treatment" by Donald J. Burden in the special issue''Orthodontics: quality of care, quality of life'' in Seminars in Orthodontics (June 2007). Burden carried out a systematic review of the literature on some, historically claimed, beneficial influences of orthodontic treatment, such as reduced susceptibility to dental caries, periodontal disease, temporomandibular dysfunction, and traumatic injury. Based on the results of this review, Burden concludes that the oral health benefits of orthodontic intervention have not been demonstrated. The second part is a critical and balanced commentary on the content of the paper and on Burden's conclusions.
Gijsbert H.W. Verrips
Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions: The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.
Burton, Anthony J; Bambrick, Hilary J; Friel, Sharon
Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change. The first author interviewed (n=16) health service planners from five Australian states and territories using an interpretivist paradigm. All interviews were digitally recorded, key components transcribed and thematically analysed. Results indicate that the majority of participants were aware of climate change but not of its potential health impacts. Despite this, most planners were of the opinion that they would need to plan for the health impacts of climate change on the community. With the best available evidence pointing towards there being significant health impacts as a result of climate change, now is the time to undertake proactive service planning that address market failures within the health system. If considered planning is not undertaken then Australian health system can only deal with climate change in an expensive ad hoc, crisis management manner. Without meeting the challenges of climate change to the health system head on, Australia will remain unprepared for the health impacts of climate change with negative consequences for the health of the Australian population.
Burton, Anthony J.; Bambrick, Hilary J.; Friel, Sharon
Background Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change. Methods The first author interviewed (n=16) health service planners from five Australian states and territories using an interpretivist paradigm. All interviews were digitally recorded, key components transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Results indicate that the majority of participants were aware of climate change but not of its potential health impacts. Despite this, most planners were of the opinion that they would need to plan for the health impacts of climate change on the community. Conclusion With the best available evidence pointing towards there being significant health impacts as a result of climate change, now is the time to undertake proactive service planning that address market failures within the health system. If considered planning is not undertaken then Australian health system can only deal with climate change in an expensive ad hoc, crisis management manner. Without meeting the challenges of climate change to the health system head on, Australia will remain unprepared for the health impacts of climate change with negative consequences for the health of the Australian population. PMID:24947804
Carlos Roberto Silveira Correa
Full Text Available Objective: To present epidemiological data on adolescents oral health, collected by Community Health Agents (CHA using Community Oral Health Indicator (COHI in a city of Ceará State, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in Guaiúba-CE from July, 2007 to February, 2008. Community health agents collected data using the COHI. The COHI evaluates the masticatory capacity (number of teeth; the need of restorative care (dental cavities and residual roots; presence of soft tissue injury; use and need of dental prosthesis. It allows giving priority care to the patients with greater needs by means of a list of signs related to oral health problems. A total of 743 adolescents were examined. Results: adolescents had 26.14 ± 3.61 teeth on average; 129 (17.4% did not present cavities, 301 (40.5% had one or two, 223 (30.0%, had three or more; 110 (14.8% presented residual root, 121 (25.7% tartar, 74 (10.0% sore gums, 15 (2.0% oral tissues injuries; 49 (6.6% required prosthesis; 694 (93.4% used toothbrush; and 281 (51.3% had visited the dentist last year. It was detected an association between visit to the dentist in the last year and gender (p = 0, 0001, and between age below 12 and having three or more cavities (p = 0.023. Conclusion: Collected data demonstrated low oral health indicators among teenagers. It was noted that those aged under 12 present oral health indicators worse than the older ones, which demands public policies concerning such reality. Data suggests that COHI is suitable for epidemiological surveys.
Garcia, I; Tabak, L A
Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions.
Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity as a pervasive phenomenon in recent years has the risky consequences on public and oral health and endangers the teeth especially periodontal tissues. This aim of this study was to assess the relationship of oral health (teeth and periodontal tissue with obesity and anthropometric measures such as waist circumference (WC and body mass index (BMI. Materials &Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 180 subjects in 3 groups of normal weight, over-weight and obese. Periodontal pocket depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP and Community Periodontal Index (CPI were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was also applied after adjusting for the confounding factors. Results: Of 180 subjects, 54, 68 and 58 cases were normal, overweight and obese. 75 and 105 participants were male and female, respectively. Generally, a pocket depth was increased 1.394 times with one unit increase of BMI (OR: 1.394, 95% CI: 0.936-2.077. Dental caries index enhanced to 1.036 with one unit increase of waist circumference (WC (OR: 1.036, 95% CI: 1.001-1.071. One centimeter rise of WC increased CPI up to 0.625 times (OR: 1.122, 95% CI: 0.053-0.078. Conclusion: Obesity even in the absence of underlying systemic diseases can cause the potential risk in oral health.
Objective: To assess the perceived oral health, oral self-care habits, dental visit and self-reported oral health problems among pregnant women in Benin-City, Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.
Full Text Available Introduction. Caries or tooth decay regardless of the good knowledge of the nature of the disease and the possibility of its effective prevention is still the most widespread disease in our population. It also very often threatens the functions of organs and even the entire organism. Health culture is an integral part of general culture and health education plays an important role in maintaining health of individuals. Aim. The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of oral health behaviour of schoolchildren aged 12 to 14 on their oral health. The schoolchildren attended the seventh and eight grade at Drago Milovic Elementary School in Tivat. Method. The survey was conducted during the period from the end of January to April 2015 at Drago Milovic Elementary School in Tivat. It comprised all seventh and eight-graders that were at school those days. The survey instrument was a questionnaire specially designed for this study and it consisted of 36 closed-ended questions. Clinical examination of oral health in children was used as an additional research instrument. Assessment of oral health was carried out under natural light with dental mirror and probe according to WHO recommendations. The parameter used to assess the state of oral health was DMFT index — the number of carious, extracted and filled teeth. In addition, the assessment of oral hygiene was conducted using soft debris index according to Green-Vermillion which determines absence or presence, quantity and distribution of dental plaque and other soft deposits. Results. The majority of students stated that they lack knowledge regarding the effectiveness of fluoride toothpaste (69.4%. It was found that the lowest incidence of caries occurred among those students who think that teeth should be brushed after every meal, and the highest incidence of this diagnosis occurred in respondents who think that teeth should be brushed once a day. Half of the surveyed students
Rosenberg, Sebastian; Salvador-Carulla, Luis
Australia was one of the first countries to develop a national policy for mental health. A persistent characteristic of all these policies has been their reference to the importance of accountability. What does this mean exactly and have we achieved it? Can Australia tell if anybody is getting better? To review accountability for mental health in Australia and question whether two decades of Australian rhetoric around accountability for mental health has been fulfilled. This paper first considers the concept of accountability and its application to mental health. We then draw on existing literature, reports, and empirical data from national and state governments to illustrate historical and current approaches to accountability for mental health. We provide a content analysis of the most current set of national indicators. The paper also briefly considers some relevant international processes to compare Australia's progress in establishing accountability for mental health. Australia's federated system of government permits competing approaches to accountability, with multiple and overlapping data sets. A clear national approach to accountability for mental health has failed to emerge. Existing data focuses on administrative and health service indicators, failing to reflect broader social factors which reveal quality of life. In spite of twenty years of investment and effort Australia has been described as outcome blind, unable to demonstrate the merit of USD 8bn spent on mental health annually. While it may be prolific, existing administrative data provide little outcomes information against which Australia can genuinely assess the health and welfare of people with a mental illness. International efforts are evolving slowly. Even in high income countries such as Australia, resources for mental health services are constrained. Countries cannot afford to continue to invest in services or programs that fail to demonstrate good outcomes for people with a mental illness
Almaiman, Sarah; Bahkali, Salwa; Alabdulatif, Norah; Bahkaly, Ahlam; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa
Access to oral health care services around the world is limited by a lack of universal coverage. The internet and social media can be an important source for patients to access supplementary oral health related information (OHRI). Online OHRI presents an opportunity to enhance dental public health education about innumerable oral health issues and promote dental self-care. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of social media users among the Saudi population and identify the preferred social media platform for seeking Arabic OHRI and its impact on seekers' knowledge, attitude, and behavior. A total of 2652 Twitter followers were surveyed, using a web-based self-administered questionnaire to collect data on demographic characteristics and online OHRI seeking behavior More than two thirds, 67.7% (n= 1796), of the participants reported they were seeking Arabic online OHRI, while 41.1% of the participants reported they had no preference for using a specific social media platform. These results emphasize the need and importance of supporting the content of social media with trusted and high quality online OHRI resources to promote a high level of public awareness about oral health and dental health services. Further studies in this regard are highly recommended on a larger scale of nationalities to explore the role of social media platform preference in promoting health promotion and dental public health awareness.
Molster, C; Charles, T; Samanek, A; O'Leary, P
This study was designed to obtain data on public understanding of genetic concepts in the adult population of Western Australia. It explored knowledge of genetic risk of disease, inheritance, biology, determinism, and factors that predict relatively higher genetic knowledge within the general population. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 1,009 respondents. Most members of the Western Australian community are aware of basic genetic concepts and the link between genes, inheritance, and risk of disease. Significantly fewer understand the biological mechanisms underlying these concepts and there was some misconception around the meaning of 'increased genetic risk'. The odds of higher genetic knowledge (>19 out of 24 questions correct) were greater among those with 12 years or more education (OR = 3.0), those aged 18-44 years (OR = 2.3), women (OR = 2.0), those with annual household income of AUD 80,000 or more (OR = 1.8), and those who had talked with someone (OR = 1.7) or searched the internet (OR = 1.6) for information on genes and health. This study provides evidence of an association between social location and public knowledge of human genetic concepts related to health and disease. This is consistent with previous findings and raises questions about the acquisition of textbook genetics knowledge within socio-cultural contexts. The impact of misconceptions about genetic concepts on the uptake of preventive health behaviors requires further investigation, as does the level of genetics knowledge that is required to empower informed participation in individual and societal decisions about genetics and health. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to survey the oral health status and describe the oral health care of dependent elderly in Muang, Phitsanulok. The subjects obtained by convenience sampling, were 70 dependent elderly with ADL score 0-4 in Muang, Phitsanulok. Data was collected via the oral health status examination and interview about oral health care.The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results showed that most subjects (62.9% had remain natural teeth but they had not occluding pairs of teeth (52%, most of them had dental caries (82.1%. Among the edentulous group found that majority of the study group were primary school level and low income. Among the dentate group revealed that 100 % of the study group had never flossed their teeth, 31.9 % brushed their teeth twice a day and 14.3% did not clean their mouth with any methods. The caregivers play the major role of dependent elderly oral health care.
Full Text Available There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world’s elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries
Smaïl-Faugeron, V; Fron-Chabouis, H; Durieux, P
Prospective registration of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represents the best solution to reporting bias. The extent to which oral health journals have endorsed and complied with RCT registration is unknown. We identified journals publishing RCTs in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine in the Journal Citation Reports. We classified journals into 3 groups: journals requiring or recommending trial registration, journals referring indirectly to registration, and journals providing no reference to registration. For the 5 journals with the highest 2012 impact factors in each group, we assessed whether RCTs with results published in 2013 had been registered. Of 78 journals examined, 32 (41%) required or recommended trial registration, 19 (24%) referred indirectly to registration, and 27 (35%) provided no reference to registration. We identified 317 RCTs with results published in the 15 selected journals in 2013. Overall, 73 (23%) were registered in a trial registry. Among those, 91% were registered retrospectively and 32% did not report trial registration in the published article. The proportion of trials registered was not significantly associated with editorial policies: 29% with results in journals that required or recommended registration, 15% in those that referred indirectly to registration, and 21% in those providing no reference to registration (P = 0.05). Less than one-quarter of RCTs with results published in a sample of oral health journals were registered with a public registry. Improvements are needed with respect to how journals inform and require their authors to register their trials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.
Cinar, Ayse Basak
of Oral and General Health Promotion, Health Behavior Theories and Children'.This book provides further evidence that children's general and oral health are interrelated by common lifestyle and family factors, and both should be supported by holistic health promotion strategies and empowerment of families......Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for all...... Turkish and Finnish children, this book underlies that oral health is turning out to be part of the global health culture, regardless of cultural differences and different oral health care systems. The book, further, by most recent literature, provides a review of 'Significance of Oral Health, Concept...
There is an interdependent relationship between nutrition and health of oral tissues. The well-being of the oral tissues, the quantity and quality of saliva and the dimension of taste depend on the intake of nutrients. Oral health determines the type of food consumed and ultimately the nutritional level. A review of literature
Fernández Gutiérrez, María Marcela
Oral health depends on a complex interplay between the mucosal tissues, physicochemical and microbial components present in the oral cavity. Maintenance of a stable ecosystem is an essential determinant of oral health. However, as a result of a major change in the ecosystem, the stability can be
ABSTRACT. There is an interdependent relationship between nutrition and health of oral tissues. The well-being of the oral tissues, the quantity and quality of saliva and the dimension of taste depend on the intake of nutrients. Oral health determines the type of food consumed and ultimately the nutritional level. A review of ...
Jul 1, 2015 ... Oral health‑related quality of life (OHQoL) characterizes a person's perception of how oral health influences his or her quality of life and overall well‑being.[1‑5] The large influence of oral health on attractiveness at first sight, breath, comfort, sleep, social life, and life quality has been previously demonstrated ...
tooth brushing, studies reveal a deficient knowledge on oral health issues among those who brush irregularly (Wehmeyer et al., 2014). Assessing knowledge of older adults may assist the identification of risk factors for oral diseases which is beneficial in efforts to promote oral health. Although a number of studies have been ...
Background: Individuals, generally, in this environment are known to rate their oral health status favourably despite the presence of oral diseases and conditions, probably due to sub optimal awareness level about oral health, however it is not known if this is the case with members of the dental team especially those who ...
Zhong, C; Ma, K N; Wong, Y S; So, Y; Lee, P C; Yang, Y
Pregnancy gingivitis and early childhood caries remain prevalent in Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge and beliefs related to pregnancy gingivitis and children's oral health. An outreach survey was carried out in a clinic that provided antenatal examination. A written oral health questionnaire related to pregnancy gingivitis and early childhood caries was administered to pregnant women. Of the 106 pregnant women who enrolled in the study, 100 completed the questionnaires. Among the 100 subjects, only 39% correctly identified that hormonal changes contribute to pregnancy gingivitis. Only 36% identified red and swollen gums as signs of gingivitis. Furthermore, 53% of the surveyed pregnant women were not sure about the amount of toothpaste to administer to a child aged 18 months to 5 years. Almost 50% assumed that a replanted avulsed tooth would probably not survive within a short extra-alveolar period of less than 60 minutes. Prenatal women generally lack knowledge of a common oral disease that occurs during pregnancy and of what constitutes adequate oral health care for children. Oral health care education should be implemented as part of a prenatal care program.
Jiang, Yingying; Hu, Wenting; Zhang, Juanjuan; Sun, Yan; Gao, Yuguang
This study aimed to improve students' ability in practical and theoretical courses of oral health education and to promote students' learning interest and initiative. Fourth-year students of the oral medical profession from 2006 to 2008 at Weifang Medical University were chosen as research objects for oral health education to explore the experimental teaching reform. The students were divided into test and control groups, with the test group using the "speak out" way of teaching and the control group using the traditional teaching method. Results of after-class evaluation of the test group, as well as final examination and practice examination of the two groups, were analyzed and compared. After-class evaluation results of the test group showed that the "speak out" teaching method was recognized by the students and improved students' ability to understand oral health education. The final examination and practice examination results showed that the score of the test group was higher than that of the control group (P teaching methods can improve students' ability for oral health education, in accordance with the trend of teaching reform.
Johnson, L B; Boyd, L D; Rainchuso, L; Rothman, A; Mayer, B
The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge among professionals who specialize in treating eating disorders, and identify to what extent their education, and training addresses oral health care delivery, and recommendations for individuals with eating disorders. Participants for this study were licensed behavioural and medical providers specializing in eating disorder treatment (n = 107), and recruited through professional eating disorder organizations. Participants completed an anonymous, online questionnaire (33 items) assessing level of oral health-related education, knowledge and treatment recommendations within the participant's respective eating disorder discipline. The majority of respondents (85%) were formally trained in eating disorders, and of those trained, 64.4% were not satisfied with the level of oral health education during formal education, and 19.5% report no oral health education. Respondents consider their knowledge of risk of oral disease for their clients/patients as average or above (84%), and ranked tooth erosion as the greatest reason for oral care (63%) while dry mouth led in the rankings for least significant reason for oral care (33%). Referral for oral care was found to be more common after reports of complication (55%). According to these findings, eating disorder professionals regard oral health care for their clients as significant, and may be unaware of associated oral risk factors, current oral care standards and long-term oral effects of disordered eating apart from enamel erosion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available While some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centres. Our study objectives were to: (a describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities; (b describe the status of health centre system support for health promotion activities; and (c introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centres systems over two years. Baseline assessments showed sub-optimal health centre systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health centre systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision making processes about the design/redesign of health centre systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff and members of the local community to address organisational and policy level barriers.
Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart
Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers.
de Andrade, Fabíola Bof; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; da Cruz Teixeira, Doralice Severo; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida
To assess the impact of oral health on quality of life in elderly Brazilians and to evaluate its association with clinical oral health measures and socioeconomic and general health factors. Cross-sectional study. Population-based cohort study on health, well-being, and aging. Eight hundred fifty-seven participants representing 588,384 community-dwelling elderly adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Self-perceived impact of oral health on quality of life was measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), with scores categorized as good, moderate, or poor, indicating low, moderate, and high degrees of negative impact on quality of life, respectively. Nearly half of the individuals had good GOHAI scores (44.7% of overall sample, 45.9% of dentate participants, and 43.4% of edentulous participants). In the overall sample, those with poor self-rated general health and a need for dental prostheses were more likely to have poor and moderate GOHAI scores. Individuals with depression were significantly more likely to have poor GOHAI scores. No socioeconomic variables were related to the outcome, except self-perception of sufficient income, which was a protective factor against a poor GOHAI score in dentate participants. Moderate and high degrees of negative impact of oral health on quality of life were associated with general health and clinical oral health measures, independent of socioeconomic factors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.
Durey, A; Bessarab, D; Slack-Smith, L
To address the mouth as a site of structural inequalities looking through the lens of Aboriginal Australian experience. This is a critical review of published literature relevant to our objective. Criteria for selection included articles on: the social context of oral and general health inequalities for Aboriginal Australians; Aboriginal perceptions and meanings of the mouth and experiences of oral health care and the role of the current political-economic climate in promoting or compromising oral health for Aboriginal Australians. Evidence suggests oral health is important for Aboriginal Australians yet constrained by challenges beyond their control as individuals, including accessing dental services. Competing demands on limited budgets often led to oral health dropping off the radar unless there was an emergency. Structural (social, political and economic) factors often inhibited Aboriginal people making optimum health choices to prevent oral disease and access services for treatment. Factors included cost of services, limited education about oral health, intense advertising of sugary drinks and discrimination from service providers. Yet the literature indicates individuals, rather than structural factors, are held responsible and blamed for the poor state of their oral health. The current neoliberal climate focuses on individual responsibility for health and wellbeing often ignoring the social context. To avoid the mouth becoming an ongoing site for structural inequality, critically reviewing oral health policies and practices for whether they promote or compromise Aboriginal Australians' oral health is a step towards accountability-related oral health outcomes.
Ahdi, Mohamed; Teeuw, Wijnand J.; Meeuwissen, Hedvig G. T. A.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Loos, Bruno G.; Meesters, Eelco W.
Diabetes care includes annual evaluation of micro- and macrovascular complications, however, oral pathologies are not included. We studied retrieving oral health information, in particular periodontal disease, from the dentist and studied the association between the reported periodontal condition
Ahdi, M.; Teeuw, W.J.; Meeuwissen, H.G.T.A.; Hoekstra, J.B.L.; Gerdes, V.E.A.; Loos, B.G.; Meesters, E.W.
Background Diabetes care includes annual evaluation of micro- and macrovascular complications, however, oral pathologies are not included. We studied retrieving oral health information, in particular periodontal disease, from the dentist and studied the association between the reported periodontal
%) needed cause related periodontal therapy. The children had poor oral hygiene. Conclusion: The oral health of these children needs urgent attention. Parents/caregivers should be educated on the high standard of dental care. Keywords: ...
Hummel, Jeff; Phillips, Kathryn E
Clinical outcomes have been shown to be better, and total costs lower, when patients with chronic illness such as diabetes are managed using a population health strategy in a primary care setting that includes structured coordination of care with specialty services. This "population health management approach" offers a promising new vision for addressing oral disease as a chronic illness through a collaborative partnership between primary care teams and dental professionals.
Health differentials related to the social position of people whose sexual attraction or gender identity differs from that of the majority may be the 'forgotten inequity' in contemporary Australian discourses on health inequalities and social inclusion. What sexually- and gender-diverse communities see as health priorities and the social determinants of their health have been little studied in Australia. This survey explored the experience and opinions of a convenience sample of gay, lesbian, bisexual, trangender and intersex (GLBTI) people in South Australia. A pencil and paper survey was administered to people attending events associated with the Feast GLBTI festival in Adelaide in 2004 and good participation rates were obtained. Two hundred and fifty-three people completed the survey, of which 122 identified as female, 124 as male and seven as other genders. Depression, HIV, suicide, family relationship problems and alcohol problems were seen as the most important health issues for these communities, while discrimination under the law and in daily life were rated the most important health determinants. GLBTI South Australians surveyed identified priority health issues for their communities and identified legal and personal discrimination as significant determinants of their health.
Oral health is integral to general health. Those with ill health are at greater risk of oral diseases that, in turn further complicate their overall health. The experience of pain, endurance of dental abscesses, problems with eating and chewing, embarrassment about the shape or missing of teeth, discoloured or damaged teeth ...
Isman, Robert E.
Primary oral health care, and the scope of services it includes, are defined. The proposed scope of services is a set of basic dental services used by the Indian Health Service. Policy recommendations for improving the integration of primary oral health services with primary health care and delivery are offered. (Author/MSE)
Oct 2, 2012 ... This paper investigated the influence of occupation on women's attitude towards oral health among women ... KEY WORDS: Oral Health, Human Wellbeing, Occupational Health, Women's Attitude,. Primary Health ..... exhibit changes in their gum during pregnancy, which is known as pregnancy gingivitis.
Background. The Health Promoting Schools Initiative can provide a platform to explore integration of oral health promotion activities within the broader context of healthcare delivery. Objectives. To understand the contextualised delivery of oral health service provision within Health Promoting Schools, to conduct a ...
Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application
Hoffman, Gary R; Islam, Shofiq; Eisenberg, Robert L
Microvascular reconstruction of oncologic surgical and traumatic defects has been globally practiced by plastic and orthopedic surgical disciplines since the early 1970s. During the past 20 years, reconstructive techniques have been progressively incorporated into the purview of oral and maxillofacial and otolaryngology-head and neck surgeons, particularly those practicing in Europe, the United Kingdom, and China. There has also been a steady increase in the adoption of these techniques in North America, South America, and Japan. We reviewed our experience (during a 5-year period) with microvascular reconstruction of postablative defects in the oral and maxillofacial region. To our knowledge, resection and neck dissection (or neck exploration in benign free tissue transfer); undertaken by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon), and free tissue transfer reconstruction (undertaken by otolaryngology head and neck and oral and maxillofacial surgeons) of ablative defects of the mouth, jaws, and face (managed within an Australian head and neck cancer multidisciplinary care team) have not been previously reported. The study cohort comprised 107 patients who underwent 109 microvascularly anastomosed free tissue transfers. Of the 107 patients, 79 were males and 38 were females. The median age was 62 years (range 15 to 87). The clinicodemographic analyses and the range of complications observed in this patient cohort are reported. The overall flap success rate in our study was 97%. The surgical outcomes of our study compare favorably with those previously reported. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Celik, Gul Gunes; Eser, Ismet
Oral health problems are common complications that most intensive care unit patients experience. There are many factors that affect oral health negatively and nurses have important responsibilities in this regard. The aim of this study was assessment of the intensive care unit patients' oral health and risk factors. This study was planned as a descriptive study and conducted between December 2015 and June 2016, with 202 patients in 20 intensive care units of 6 hospitals in Turkey. Data were collected via Data Collection Form and Bedside Oral Exam guide. Oral health assessment of patients was made using a source of light and a tongue depressor. We observed a significant difference in score of the Bedside Oral Exam guide by age, consciousness, type of respiration and feeding, the frequency of oral health, the total number of drugs, and technique of oral care (P oral assessment guide. The result of this study shows that there are various risk factors that adversely affect the oral health of intensive care unit patients. Nurses should undertake assessments on the basis of oral care protocols for patients at risk and carry out evidence-based individualized oral care applications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Kojima, Azusa; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu
Background Self-rated oral health is a valid and useful summary indicator of overall oral health status and quality of life. However, few studies on perception of oral health have been conducted among Japanese young adults. This study investigated whether oral health behavior, subjective oral symptoms, or clinical oral status were associated with self-rated oral health in Japanese young adults. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 2,087 students (1,183 males, 904 females), aged 18 and...
Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.
Tooth decay remains the most common chronic disease of childhood. The CincySmiles Foundation (CSF) developed an instrument to evaluate Head Start parents' knowledge of oral health care practices and to identify barriers Head Start parents face when seeking dental treatment for their children. Data from Head Start parents (n = 675) across 3…
Touger-Decker, Riva; Mobley, Connie C
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition is an integral component of oral health. The American Dietetic Association supports the integration of oral health with nutrition services, education, and research. Collaboration between dietetics and dental professionals is recommended for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention. Scientific and epidemiological data suggest a lifelong synergy between nutrition and the integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Oral health and nutrition have a synergistic bidirectional relationship. Oral infectious diseases, as well as acute, chronic, and terminal systemic diseases with oral manifestations, impact the functional ability to eat as well as diet and nutrition status. Likewise, nutrition and diet may affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity as well as the progression of oral diseases. As we advance in our discoveries of the links between oral and nutrition health, practitioners of both disciplines must learn to provide screening, baseline education, and referral to each other as part of comprehensive client/patient care. Dietetics practice requires registered dietitians to provide medical nutrition therapy that incorporates a person's total health needs, including oral health. Inclusion of both didactic and clinical practice concepts that illustrate the role of nutrition in oral health is essential in both dental and dietetic education programs. Collaborative endeavors between dietetics and dentistry in research, education, and delineation of health provider practice roles are needed to ensure comprehensive health care. The multifaceted interactions between diet, nutrition, and oral health in practice, education, and research in both dietetics and dentistry merit continued, detailed delineation.
Couch, Elizabeth; Mead, Jean Marie; Walsh, Margaret M
Systematic oral care reduces oral complications among children in paediatric palliative care (PPC), yet little is known about the oral health perceptions of PPC nursing staff. This qualitative cross-sectional study used semi-structured interviews based on phenomenography to explore PPC nursing staff's perceptions of oral health and the relationship of oral care to comfort and quality of life. A purposive sample of nine nursing staff employed at a California PPC facility participated. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: signs of oral health, reasons for oral care, adaptation of oral care on a case-by-case basis, barriers to providing oral care, and facilitators of improving oral care. The perceived importance of oral health was the underlining similarity between the themes. A need for further research in the area of oral PPC is indicated. Collaboration with dental professionals may be needed to create oral PPC guidelines that fit the complex needs of children with life-limiting illnesses.
To determine the knowledge and oral hygiene status of orphange children in apune and a changes in them after health education. Study Design: Interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Centers for Orphan Children in Pune, India, from April to June 2014. Methodology: A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the dental problems and existing oral hygiene maintenance practice among children between 5 - 12 years of age (n=100) in an orphanage center. Pre- and post interventional intra-oral examination was carried out to check their oral hygiene status which included DMFS (Decayed Missing Filled Tooth Surfaces index (for permanent teeth)), OHIS (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index) and gingival indices. Intervention was in the form of oral health education, demonstration of correct brushing technique, diet counselling and maintenance of overall oral hygiene. Results: Present study shows that the orphans had multiple dental problems along with improper oral hygiene practices and careless attitude towards oral health. Pre- and post-interventional DMFS was compared using Wilcoxon sign rank test, which was not significant; while OHIS and gingival indices were compared by using repeat measures ANOVA(p < 0.001) which was significant for each, respectively. Conclusion: There was considerable improvement in the oral hygiene status of orphans due to educational intervention. Oral health education at right age can help to cultivate healthy oral hygiene practices in orphans which will benefit them for lifelong. Caretakers should be educated and trained about oral hygiene practices so that they can implement it and supervise the orphan children. (author)
Krnjacki, Lauren; Priest, Naomi; Aitken, Zoe; Emerson, Eric; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; King, Tania; Kavanagh, Anne
Among working-age Australian adults with a disability, we assess the association between disability-based discrimination and both overall health and psychological distress. Using data from the 2015 Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers we estimated the proportion of working-age women and men (15-64 years) with disability who report disability-based discrimination by socio-demographic characteristics and assessed the association between disability-based discrimination and self-reported health and psychological distress. Nearly 14% of Australians with disability reported disability-based discrimination in the previous year. Disability-based discrimination was more common among people living in more disadvantaged circumstances (unemployed, low income, lower-status occupations), younger people and people born in English-speaking countries. Disability-based discrimination was associated with higher levels of psychological distress (OR: 2.53, 95%CI: 2.11, 3.02) and poorer self-reported health (OR: 1.63, 95%CI: 1.37, 1.95). Disability-based discrimination is a prevalent, important determinant of health for Australians with disability. Implications for public health: Disability-based discrimination is an under-recognised public health problem that is likely to contribute to disability-based health inequities. Public health policy, research and practice needs to concentrate efforts on developing policy and programs that reduce discrimination experienced by Australians with disability. © 2017 The Authors.
Sandoval, Marίa José; Zekeridou, Alkisti; Spyropoulou, Vasiliki; Courvoisier, Delphine; Mombelli, Andrea; McLin, Valérie; Giannopoulou, Catherine
To evaluate oral health conditions in pediatric liver transplant recipients, with special focus on caries, green staining of the teeth, gingival bleeding, and gingival overgrowth. 40 patients (mean age 11.6 years) were examined at a routine follow-up visit, 6 months to 16 years after liver transplantation at the Swiss Center for Liver Disease in Children. After the medical examination, participants were further examined for the presence of dental caries, periodontal disease, GE, and GTC. The mean decay, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) score was 3.8. 45% of the participants presented at least one carious lesion. Two-third of the participants had more than 20% of sites with the presence of plaque and gingival inflammation. Signs of GE were found in 18% and GTC in 30% of the participants. A positive correlation was identified between GTC and peak serum bilirubin (PGingival inflammation was associated with plaque (Ppoor oral health status. Liver transplant physicians should counsel patients for regular dental follow-up in order to avoid serious dental infections. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keel, Stuart; Foreman, Joshua; Xie, Jing; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed
The study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for self-reported stroke in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. In this national eye study, 1738 Indigenous Australians (41.1% male) aged 40-92 years and 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (46.4% male) aged 50-98 years from 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness, were recruited and examined. Sociodemographic information and a history of stroke, diabetes, and ocular health were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The crude prevalence of self-reported stroke was 5.04% (156 of 3098, 95% confidence interval: 4.29%-5.87%) for non-Indigenous Australians and 8.75% (152 of 1738, 95% confidence interval: 7.46%-10.17%) for Indigenous Australians (P self-reported stroke for non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australians was 4.23% and 12.72%, respectively. The prevalence of stroke increased significantly with age for both Indigenous (odds ratio = 1.06 per year, P ≤ .001) and non-Indigenous Australians (odds ratio = 1.04 per year, P ≤ .001), with the Indigenous prevalence being higher than that of the non-Indigenous group at every age. The prevalence of self-reported stroke was 3 times higher in Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians. This disparity is consistent with previous reports, highlighting the need for intensified prevention and support services to reduce the burden of stroke on Indigenous Australians. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Moysés, Samuel Jorge
To systematically evaluate the literature to investigate associations between social, demographic, economic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and the self-perception of oral health measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). In this systematic review of the literature, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) were adapted for the performance of a qualitative metasummary, without meta-analysis. Articles about oral health and associated factors with implications for quality of life were selected, with a focus on the tool for self-rating of the oral health-disease process, the OHIP. Pubmed/National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - BVS/BIREME) were searched. Articles published between 2001 and 2011 were included. The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were employed: oral health, quality of life, sickness impact profile, and socioeconomic factors. Of 57 articles identified, 20 met the inclusion criteria. The metasummary revealed that a poor self-perception of oral health was associated with unfavorable social, economic, demographic, and psychosocial factors, as well as with undesirable habits and poor clinical oral conditions. There is consensus in the literature about the influence of the investigated factors on the self-perception of oral health and on quality of life. The OHIP is an important aid for determining oral health needs and for developing strategies to control/reduce disease and promote oral health, with a consequent positive impact on quality of life.
Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Hee-Gerl; Hur, Jung-Yi; Yang, Kyeongra
Oral diseases among older adults are prevalent and a major public health problem, but public attention regarding this matter is quite limited. Many older adults experience limited access to oral care services. The study aimed to describe characteristics of oral health conditions, perceived oral health status, and oral health practices and to examine factors related to living status and accessibility to dental health care among 9,660 low-income older adults living in a suburban city in Korea. Approximately 42% of low-income older adults lived alone; 68% perceived their oral health as either excellent or good; and 31% reported difficulty accessing dental services. Lack of accessibility to oral care services was significantly more common in older adults with low incomes, living alone, having poor oral conditions, poor self-perceived oral health, and poor tooth-brushing behavior. Strategies to promote access to dental care services for underserved older adults should be developed to prevent further oral problems and their impact on overall health conditions.
Sampaio-Maia, B; Caldas, I M; Pereira, M L; Pérez-Mongiovi, D; Araujo, R
The oral microbiome can alter the balance between health and disease, locally and systemically. Within the oral cavity, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses may all be found, each having a particular role, but strongly interacting with each other and with the host, in sickness or in health. A description on how colonization occurs and how the oral microbiome dynamically evolves throughout the host's life is given. In this chapter the authors also address oral and nonoral conditions in which oral microorganisms may play a role in the etiology and progression, presenting the up-to-date knowledge on oral dysbiosis as well as the known underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms involving oral microorganisms in each condition. In oral pathology, oral microorganisms are associated with several diseases, namely dental caries, periodontal diseases, endodontic infections, and also oral cancer. In systemic diseases, nonoral infections, adverse pregnancy outcomes, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are among the most prevalent pathologies linked with oral cavity microorganisms. The knowledge on how colonization occurs, how oral microbiome coevolves with the host, and how oral microorganisms interact with each other may be a key factor to understand diseases etiology and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The assessment of comprehensive oral health care for children aged 6 (GES-6years showed low utilization of this guarantee, with lower use for children from municipal public schools. The empowerment and health literacy of parents improve their role as oral-health promoters for their children. Objective: To implement and to assess a strategy of empowerment and health literacy of the community about their guaranteed health rights to increase the use of GES-6years. Methods: A mixed design. Using qualitative methodology we will design a communication tool, culturally and socially appropriate to be sent to the beneficiary community of this guarantee. Using a nonrandomized community trial, this instrument designed to empower and improve oral health literacy on GES-6 guarantee, will be sent as personalized letter (intervention signed by the mayor of the municipality with a message aimed to children beneficiaries for GES -6years and another addressed to their parents/guardians. Schools would be selected from clusters (communes of the two regions selected for convenience. Communes will be randomly selected amog those whose authorities agree to participate, and will be selected as for intervention or control. Data analysis will assess the differences in the prevalence of use of this guarantee among children from municipal schools belonging to the intervention or control arm.
Maheshwari, Rajesh; Steel, Zachary
Indian-Australians represent a distinct immigrant group both demographically and culturally. Yet, despite an expanding body of research on transcultural mental health in Australia, there is a paucity of studies regarding mental health of Indian-Australians. This paper explores the extent of psychological morbidity and related service use in a representative sample of Indian-Australians. It further examines the association of mental health with social participation and networking in this ethnic community. Measures to assess current levels of psychological distress, functional disability, service use, and social capital were administered in a random sample of 71 Indian-Australian family groups living in Sydney. Amongst participants, 15% reported high to very high levels of psychological distress. Psychological distress was associated with increased days of functional disability and higher levels of functional impairment, and an increased likelihood of a GP consultation. However, 91% of participants with identifiable mental health needs did not seek any mental health consultation. Social capital was not found to be a significant predictor of psychological health or service use in this sample. Psychological morbidity in the Indian-Australian community is associated with high levels of functional disability, both in number of days and extent of severity, but only a small proportion seeks mental health help.
Laws, Thomas A.; Fiedler, Brenton A.
Mental health problems in young Australians continue to be a major public health issue. Studying at university can generate social pressures particularly for youth, which have been associated with the onset of a mental illness or a worsening of an existing condition. Many universities provide health services to support students with health…
McCuaig, Louise; Carroll, Kristie; Macdonald, Doune
The teaching of health literacy in school-based health education (SBHE) is of international interest, yet there is less ready access to how conceptions of health literacy can be operationalised in school programmes. More specifically, while articulated in curriculum documents such as the incoming Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical…
Tracy Burrows; Leanne Hides; Robyn Brown; Christopher V Dayas; Frances Kay-Lambkin
Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including...
Durward, C S; Todd, R V
The reconstruction of dental services and training in Cambodia following the devastation of the country during the reign of the Khmer Rouge has been limited by minimal help from other countries for political reasons. Following the recent signing of a peace treaty, a National Conference on Oral Health has been held, and a National Oral Health Plan formulated, outlining goals for the year 2000, and strategies to improve the oral health status in the country.
Sara Ehsani; Mostafa Moin; Ghasem Meighani; Seyed Jalal Pourhashemi; Hadi Khayatpisheh; Nazli Yarahmadi
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, which is diagnosed by periodic symptoms of inflammation, bronchial spasm, and increased mucosal secretions. It has higher incidence among the preschool children. There are many contradictory reports based on the effect of asthma on oral health, however it has been hypothesized that asthma could lead to poor oral health. The objective of the present study was to investigate oral health indices in 44 preschool children of three to six ye...
Lalani, Afsheen; Dasar, Pralhad L; Sandesh, N; Mishra, Prashant; Kumar, Sandeep; Balsaraf, Swati
The behavior of oral health providers toward their own oral health reflects their understanding of the importance of preventive dental procedures and of improving the oral health of their target population. This study was done with an aim to assess the relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of third and final year dental students from a Dental College in Indore City, India. A total of 137 dental students participated in the study. The students were invited to complete the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire. The HU-DBI questionnaire consisted of twenty polar responses (agree/disagree) regarding oral health-related behavior. In addition, two further questions about the frequency of brushing and flossing were included. Subsequently, oral health examination was conducted to assess plaque and gingival status. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Independent sample t-test, and Pearson's correlation. The significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. The results showed that about 66.6% of the students checked their teeth in the mirror after brushing. Only 20.1% of the students reported bleeding from gums. The mean oral heath behavior score (HU-DBI) was 6.47 ± 2.0. A negative correlation of HU-DBI scores with plaque (r = -0.501) and gingival scores (r = -0.580) was observed. Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.
Johnson, Maree; George, Ajesh; Dahlen, Hannah; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Blinkhorn, Anthony; Ellis, Sharon; Yeo, Anthony
Background Evidence is emerging that women?s poor oral health and health practices during pregnancy are associated with poor oral health in their children and potentially an increased risk of pre-term or low-birth weight infants. Methods/Design The Midwifery Initiated Oral Health-Dental Service (MIOH-DS) trial is a three arm multicentre randomised controlled trial which will recruit women from three metropolitan hospitals aimed at improving women?s oral health and service access and indirectl...
Kizito, Alex; Caitlin, Meredith; Wang, Yili; Kasangaki, Arabat; Macnab, Andrew J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children's oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact. Design/Methodology/Approach: Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and…
Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human ...
Chen, Yi-An; Quiñonez, Carlos
To: a) Familiarize readers with the concept of a basic income guarantee (BIG) and its different forms; b) Consider how BIG could improve oral health and decrease oral health disparities; c) Motivate readers to advocate for the evaluation of oral health outcomes in BIG experiments. Published articles and book chapters that have analyzed and reviewed data from past BIG pilot projects were examined for their findings on health and socioeconomic outcomes. Our findings suggest various areas and mechanisms whereby BIG can influence oral health-related outcomes, whether through impacts on work, illness and injury, education, a social multiplier effect, expenditure behavior, and/or mental illness and other health outcomes. Our findings illustrate the importance of assessing oral health-related outcomes in future BIG pilot projects. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to: (1) assess the knowledge and awareness of diabetic patients of their risk for systemic and oral diseases as complications associated with diabetes, (2) to assess their attitudes toward sustaining good oral health through proper oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups, and ...
Though oral diseases are preventable, many people across the globe still suffer from pain and discomfort associated with oral diseases. The attainment of optimum oral health is impeded by a number of obstacles which include the cost and affordability of treatment, poor access due to workforce shortages and inequitable ...
Khedekar, Mikhila; Suresh, K V; Parkar, M I; Malik, Neelima; Patil, Snehal; Taur, Swapnil; Pradhan, Debapriya
To determine the knowledge and oral hygiene status of orphanage children in Pune and changes in them after health education. Interventional study. Centers for Orphan Children in Pune, India, from April to June 2014. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the dental problems and existing oral hygiene maintenance practice among children between 5 - 12 years of age (n=100) in an orphanage center. Pre- and postinterventional intra-oral examination was carried out to check their oral hygiene status which included DMFS [Decayed Missing Filled Tooth Surfaces index (for permanent teeth)], OHIS (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index) and gingival indices. Intervention was in the form of oral health education, demonstration of correct brushing technique, diet counselling and maintenance of overall oral hygiene. Present study shows that the orphans had multiple dental problems along with improper oral hygiene practices and careless attitude towards oral health. Pre- and post-interventional DMFS was compared using Wilcoxon sign rank test, which was not significant; while OHIS and gingival indices were compared by using repeat measures ANOVA(p educational intervention. Oral health education at right age can help to cultivate healthy oral hygiene practices in orphans which will benefit them for lifelong. Caretakers should be educated and trained about oral hygiene practices so that they can implement it and supervise the orphan children.
Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Howard, Donna E.
Surveyed young adolescents receiving general health examinations regarding oral sex occurrence. Overall, 18 percent reported having oral sex, and of that 18 percent, 25 percent reported no vaginal sex. Few adolescents used barrier protection during oral sex. Most adolescents thought that penile-anal sex could transmit HIV, but only 68 percent…
Effects of nutrition on oral health. ... The effects of malnutrition can be seen in the oral structures in all stages of human growth and development from conception to old age. ... These oral lesions are painful; disturb food intake and mastication thereby further compromising the nutrition of the affected individuals. In Africa ...
Matthews, Lynda R; Pockett, Rosalie B; Nisbet, Gillian; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Dunston, Roger; Lee, Alison; White, Jill F
A substantial literature engaging with the directions and experiences of stakeholders involved in interprofessional health education exists at the international level, yet almost nothing has been published that documents and analyses the Australian experience. Accordingly, this study aimed to scope the experiences of key stakeholders in health and higher education in relation to the development of interprofessional practice capabilities in health graduates in Australia. Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews and two focus groups of key stakeholders involved in the development and delivery of interprofessional health education in Australian higher education were undertaken. Interview data were coded to identify categories that were organised into key themes, according to principles of thematic analysis. Three themes were identified: the need for common ground between health and higher education, constraints and enablers in current practice, and the need for research to establish an evidence base. Five directions for national development were also identified. The study identified a range of interconnected changes that will be required to successfully mainstream interprofessional education within Australia, in particular, the importance of addressing issues of culture change and the need for a nationally coordinated and research informed approach. These findings reiterate those found in the international literature.
Perera, I; Ekanayake, L
to assess socio-economic inequalities in two perceived oral health outcomes namely perceived oral health status and perceived oral impacts among adolescents in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study where the data where collected by means of structured questionnaires to the children and their parents. A total 1,225 15-year-old adolescents attending state, private and international schools in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Inverse social gradients in perceived oral health status and perceived oral impacts were observed in relation to six socioeconomic indicators in the bivariate analyses. Adolescents from lower social positions had significantly reported more oral impacts and had rated their oral health as poor. But it was mainly the indicators of family material affluence that emerged as significant predictors of perceived oral health outcomes in the logistic regression analyses. The study demonstrates the existence of significant social gradients in perceived oral health outcomes among adolescents from a developing country. Further studies to assess causes of social gradients in perceived oral health outcomes are recommended.
Joana Christina Carvalho
Full Text Available Information on the oral health condition of the target population is required to enable the development of policy strategies for oral health promotion. This information needs to be substantiated by reliable data obtained through regular oral health assessments. Countries around the world have set up oral health data-registration systems that monitor the oral health of the population. These systems are either integrated in the public oral health care service or in national surveys conducted on a regular basis. This paper describes the conception and development of a Case Report Form for oral health assessments and introduces a recently developed electronic data-registration system for data capture in oral health surveys. The conception and development of a Case Report Form poses a number of challenges to be overcome. In addition to ensuring the scientific quality of its contents, several requirements need to be met. In the framework of national oral health surveys, handwritten data capture has proven accurate, but entails an important workload related to the printing and transporting of the forms, data transfer and storage of the forms, as well as the time required to perform these tasks. On the other hand, electronic data capture enables time saving and better performance. However, the advantages of this system may not be fully acknowledged by general practitioners, and their motivation to employ information and communication technologies may need to be encouraged. In the long term, the inclusion of electronic data registration in university training is probably the best strategy to achieve this.
George, Mary C
The first surgeon general's report regarding oral health, Oral Health in America, called for a national effort to improve oral health among Americans and raised awareness of the importance of oral health; however, many Americans continue to experience poor oral health and are unable to access oral health care. Renewed national interest in oral health and access to oral health care through recent public policy documents and legislation presents a convergence of opportunities for the dental hygiene profession to continue to serve as a strong voice for the prevention of oral disease and the promotion of oral health for all segments of the population.
Durham, Jo; Brolan, Claire E; Lui, Chi-Wai; Whittaker, Maxine
Public health professionals have a responsibility to protect and promote the right to health amongst populations, especially vulnerable and disenfranchised groups, such as people seeking asylum and whose health care is frequently compromised. As at 31 March 2016, there was a total of 3707 people (including 384 children) in immigration detention facilities or community detention in Australia, with 431 of them detained for more than 2 years. The Public Health Association of Australia and the Australian Medical Association assert that people seeking asylum in Australia have a right to health in the same way as Australian citizens, and they denounce detention of such people in government facilities for prolonged and indeterminate periods of time. The position of these two professional organisations is consistent with the compelling body of evidence demonstrating the negative impact detention has on health. Yet in recent years, both the Labour and Liberal parties-when at the helm of Australia's Federal Government-have implemented a suite of regressive policies toward individuals seeking asylum. This has involved enforced legal restrictions on dissenting voices of those working with these populations, including health professionals. This paper outlines Australia's contemporary offshore immigration detention policy and practices. It summarises evidence on asylum seeker health in detention centres and describes the government's practice of purposeful silencing of health professionals. The authors examine how Australia's treatment of asylum seekers violates their health rights. Based on these analyses, the authors call for concrete action to translate the overwhelming body of evidence on the deleterious impacts of immigration detention into ethical policy and pragmatic interventions. To this end, they provide four recommendations for action.
Caserta, D; Ralli, E; Matteucci, E; Bordi, G; Mallozzi, M; Moscarini, M
It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. This review summarizes the conditions of special interest for physicians, including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome), functional ovarian cysts, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, myomas, pelvic inflammatory disease, bone mineral density, benign breast disease and endometrial/ovarian and colorectal cancer. The benefits of COCs in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, menstrual migraine and in perimenopause have also been treated for more comprehensive information. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. We strongly believe that these aspects are not of minor relevance and they deserve a special consideration by health providers and by the mass media, which have the main responsibility in the diffusion of scientific information. Thus, counseling and education are necessary to help women make well-informed health-care decisions and it is also crucial to increase awareness among general practitioners and gynaecologists.
Catharina Leite Matos Soares
Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.
Slade Gary D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental disease and treatment experience can negatively affect the oral health related quality of life (OHRQL of preschool aged children and their caregivers. Currently no valid and reliable instrument is available to measure these negative influences in very young children. The objective of this research was to develop the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS to measure the OHRQL of preschool children and their families. Methods Twenty-two health professionals evaluated a pool of 45 items that assess the impact of oral health problems on 6-14-year-old children and their families. The health professionals identified 36 items as relevant to preschool children. Thirty parents rated the importance of these 36 items to preschool children; 13 (9 child and 4 family items were considered important. The 13-item ECOHIS was administered to 295 parents of 5-year-old children to assess construct validity and internal consistency reliability (using Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was evaluated among another sample of parents (N = 46 using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results ECOHIS scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with fair or poor parental ratings of their child's general and oral health, and the presence of dental disease in the child. Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.91 and 0.95 respectively, and the ICC for test-retest reliability was 0.84. Conclusion The ECOHIS performed well in assessing OHRQL among children and their families. Studies in other populations are needed to further establish the instrument's technical properties.
Vishnu Rekha, C; Arangannal, P; Shahed, H
To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions test was used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.
van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; De Visschere, Luc; Schols, Jos
This article presents a brief introduction to the medical aspects of ageing and age-related diseases, and to some geriatric syndromes, followed by a discussion on their impact on general and oral healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people. Recent investigations suggest that inflammation constitutes a biological foundation of ageing and the onset of age-related diseases. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy, together with alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, make older people at risk of adverse medication reactions. A side effect of several medications is causing xerostomia and hyposalivation, and both the type and number of medications used are relevant. New options of general healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people are the use of mobility aids and assistive technology devices, domiciliary health care, respite care and telecare. Their oral health status may be jeopardised by frailty, disability, care dependency and limited access to professional oral health care. Recommendations for improvement are the following: better integrating oral health care into general health care, developing and implementing an oral healthcare guideline, providing customised oral hygiene care aids, domiciliary oral healthcare provision, visiting dental hygienists and/or nurses, oral hygiene telecare, easily and safely accessible dental offices, transforming dentistry into medical oral health care and upgrading dentists to oral physicians. In case oral healthcare providers do not take the responsibility of persuading society of the importance of adequate oral health, weakened oral health of community-dwelling older people will become a potential new geriatric syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mohammed Al-Thani; Al-Anoud Al-Thani; Abdulla Al-Emadi; Walaa Al-Chetachi; Hammad Akram; Benjamin Poovelil
Abstract Introduction Oral health has a significant impact on physical, social and mental well-being of an individual. Qatar, like the rest of the world, is experiencing higher prevalence of oral health-related problems. Objectives To examine the oral health status and extent of preventive and curative needs among six-year-old school children in Qatar by key demographic indicators. Methods Secondary data analysis of 1124 six-year-old private and government primary scho...
Background: In spite of careful planning and modern techniques, radiotherapy inevitably involves side-effects due to exposure of surrounding normal tissues. Patients treated for head and neck cancer who experience oral symptoms do not always consider these symptoms to be related to their disease or its treatment.
Wilkins, Alexa; Lobo, Roanna C; Griffin, Denese M; Woods, Heather A
The evaluation of health promotion training for the Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal maternal and child health (MCH) sector. Fifty-one MCH professionals from five regions in WA who attended one of three health promotion short courses in 2012-2013 were invited to complete an online survey or a telephone interview, between 4 to 17 months post-course. Respondents were asked how they had utilised the information and resources from the training and to identify the enabling factors or barriers to integrating health promotion into their work practices subsequently. Overall response rate was 33% (n=17); 94% of respondents reported they had utilised the information and resources from the course and 76% had undertaken health promotion activities since attending the course. Building contacts with other MCH providers and access to planning tools were identified as valuable components of the course. Barriers to translating knowledge into practice included financial constraints and lack of organisational support for health promotion activity. Health promotion training provides participants with the skills and confidence to deliver health promotion strategies in their communities. The training presents an opportunity to build health professionals' capacity to address some determinants of poor health outcomes among pregnant Aboriginal women and their babies. SO WHAT?: Training would be enhanced if accompanied by ongoing support for participants to integrate health promotion into their work practice, organisational development including health promotion training for senior management, establishing stronger referral pathways among partner organisations to support continuity of care and embedding training into MCH workforce curricula.
Hunt, Leanne; Ramjan, Lucie; McDonald, Glenda; Koch, Jane; Baird, David; Salamonson, Yenna
Indigenous people are the most disadvantaged population within Australia with living conditions comparable to developing countries. The Bachelor of Nursing programme at the University of Western Sydney has embedded Indigenous health into the undergraduate teaching programme, with an expectation that students develop an awareness of Indigenous health and healthcare issues. To gain insight into students' perceptions of Indigenous people and whether the course learning and teaching strategies implemented improved students' learning outcomes and attitude towards Indigenous people and Indigenous health in Australia. A mixed methods prospective survey design was chosen. Students enrolled in the Indigenous health subject in 2013 were invited to complete pre- and post-subject surveys that contained closed- and open-ended questions. Students' socio-demographic data was collected at baseline, but the 'Attitude Toward Indigenous Australians' (ATIA) scale, and the 3-item Knowledge, Interest and Confidence to nursing Australian Indigenous peoples scale were administered at both pre- and post-subject surveys. 502 students completed the baseline survey and 249 students completed the follow-up survey. There was a statistically significant attitudinal change towards Indigenous Australians, measured by the ATIA scale, and participants' knowledge, intent to work with Indigenous Australians and confidence in caring for them increased significantly at follow-up. Based on the participants' responses to open-ended questions, four key themes emerged: a) understanding Indigenous history, culture and healthcare; b) development of cultural competence; c) enhanced respect for Indigenous Australians' culture and traditional practices; and d) enhanced awareness of the inherent disadvantages for Indigenous Australians in education and healthcare. There were no statistically significant socio-demographic group differences among those who commented on key themes. Addressing health inequalities for
Gomersall, Judith Streak; Gibson, Odette; Dwyer, Judith; O'Donnell, Kim; Stephenson, Matthew; Carter, Drew; Canuto, Kootsy; Munn, Zachary; Aromataris, Edoardo; Brown, Alex
To synthesise client perceptions of the unique characteristics and value of care provided in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) compared to mainstream/general practitioner services, and implications for improving access to quality, appropriate primary health care for Indigenous Australians. Standardised systematic review methods with modification informed by ethical and methodological considerations in research involving Indigenous Australians. Perceived unique valued characteristics of ACCHOs were: 1) accessibility, facilitated by ACCHOs welcoming social spaces and additional services; 2) culturally safe care; and 3) appropriate care, responsive to holistic needs. Provider-client relationships characterised by shared understanding of clients' needs, Indigenous staff, and relationships between clients who share the same culture, are central to ACCHO clients' perceptions of ACCHOs' unique value. The client perceptions provide insights about how ACCHOs address socio-economic factors that contribute to high levels of chronic disease in Indigenous communities, why mainstream PHC provider care cannot substitute for ACCHO care, and how to improve accessibility and quality of care in mainstream providers. Implications for public health: To increase utilisation of PHC services in Indigenous Australian communities, and help close the gaps between the health status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, Indigenous community leaders and Australian governments should prioritise implementing effective initiatives to support quality health care provision by ACCHOs. © 2017 The Authors.
Cinar, Ayse Basak
of Oral and General Health Promotion, Health Behavior Theories and Children'.This book provides further evidence that children's general and oral health are interrelated by common lifestyle and family factors, and both should be supported by holistic health promotion strategies and empowerment of families...... to adopt healthy lifestyles, both in economically developing and developed countries. This book should be especially useful to researchers, professionals in dentistry and medicine, policy makers, and anyone else involved in provision of better health to community....
In 2014, Australia updated its health management plan for pandemic influenza. This updated plan builds upon the lessons from the 2009 influenza pandemic and revised guidance from the World Health Organization. The 2009 pandemic highlighted the need for flexibility in responding to pandemics so that responses can be tailored according to the severity of a pandemic. Recognition of the need for flexibility is a key feature of both the revised WHO guidance and the revised Australian plan. This column provides an overview of the updated WHO guidance and of the revised Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza.
Clark, Melinda; Quinonez, Rocio; Bowser, Jonathan; Silk, Hugh
Oral diseases are very prevalent across the lifespan and impact overall health, yet are largely preventable. The Smiles for Life (SFL) curriculum was created to educate healthcare providers about oral disease and support integration of oral health and primary care. This study examines SFL's influence on clinical practice and education. Surveys were sent to registered users of SFL. Users who self-identified as direct care providers (DCPs), or educators, were included in the analysis. Survey response rate was 18 percent, with 87 percent identifying as DCPs and 13 percent as educators. Across professions, 85 percent of DCPs reported SFL influencing their practice to some degree, with variance among profession type and experience. DCPs most commonly reported that SFL led them to improve how they conduct oral health activities, with 60 percent performing the activity more skillfully following completion of SFL. Fluoride varnish application was the most common practice behavior initiated, and caries risk assessments was the oral health activity affected to the greatest degree. A majority of educators (94 percent) reported that SFL led them to incorporate or enhance oral health in their teaching. SFL helped educators emphasize the importance of oral health, improved their ability to teach content, raised motivation, and reduced barriers to teaching oral health. Data supports that SFL is positively influencing oral health practice across professions, especially in areas of caries risk assessment and fluoride varnish application. SFL improves the frequency and quality with which DCPs and educators participate in oral health activities, and facilitates oral health inclusion in primary care. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Campbell, Megan A; Hunt, Jennifer; Walker, David; Williams, Rodger
Aboriginal people continue to experience a disproportionately heavy burden of oral disease. A range of oral health services may be available to Aboriginal communities, including those provided by Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs). This study explored the oral health care experiences and activities of ACCHSs to inform policy and program decision making. Mixed methods, including an online survey and semi-structured interviews with senior ACCHS staff, were used. Areas of inquiry included perceived community need for oral health care, oral health care models, accessibility of other oral health services and barriers to providing oral health care. Twenty-nine NSW ACCHSs participated in the study. The activities of NSW ACCHSs in oral health care are diverse and reflect the localised approaches they take to delivering primary health care. ACCHSs commonly face barriers in delivering oral health care, as do Aboriginal communities in accessing other oral health services. NSW ACCHSs are important but under-acknowledged providers of a range of oral health services to Aboriginal communities and are well placed to provide this care as part of their comprehensive primary health care model. ACCHS roles in improving Aboriginal oral health would be strengthened by greater acknowledgement of their contributions and expertise and the development of transparent, long-term funding policies that respond to community need. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Bakke, Merete; Larsen, Stine L; Lautrup, Caroline
No comprehensive study has previously been published on orofacial function in patients with well-defined Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform an overall assessment of orofacial function and oral health in patients, and to compare the findings with matched......-matched controls. Orofacial function and oral health were assessed using the Nordic Orofacial Test, masticatory ability, performance and efficiency, oral stereognosis, jaw opening, jaw muscle tenderness, the Oral Health Impact Profile-49, number of natural teeth, and oral hygiene. Orofacial dysfunction was more...... prevalent, mastication and jaw opening poorer, and impact of oral health on daily life more negative, in patients with PD than in controls. The results indicate that mastication and orofacial function are impaired in moderate to advanced PD, and with progression of the disease both orofacial and dental...
Seman, Kamariah; Yaacob, Habibah; Hamid, Abd. Manaf Hj.; Ismail, Abdul Rashid; Yusoff, Azizah
Involvement of oral health educators among non-health professionals in oral health promotion is important in the prevention of oral diseases. This study was carried out to compare the level of oral health knowledge among pre-school teachers before and after oral health seminar. Pre-test data was collected by distributing questionnaire to pre-school teachers in Pasir Mas, who attended the seminar on “Oral Health” (n=33) and they were required to fill anonymously before the seminar started. The...
Muirhead, Vanessa; Quiñonez, Carlos; Figueiredo, Rafael; Locker, David
This study explored oral health disparities associated with food insecurity in working poor Canadians. We used a cross-sectional stratified study design and telephone survey methodology to obtain data from 1049 working poor persons aged between 18 and 64 years. The survey instrument contained sociodemographic items, self-reported oral health measures, access to dental care indicators (dental visiting behaviour and insurance coverage) and questions about competing financial demands. Food-insecure persons gave 'often' or 'sometimes' responses to any of the three food insecurity indicators used in the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003) assessing 'worry' about not having enough food, not eating enough food and not having the desired quality of food because of insufficient finances in the previous 12 months. Food-insecure working poor persons had poor oral health compared with food-secure working poor persons indicated by a higher percentage of denture wearers (P oral health as good or very good (P oral health disparities between food-insecure and food-secure persons related to denture wearing, having a toothache, reporting poor/very poor self-rated oral health or experiencing an oral health impact persisted after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and access to dental care factors (P poor persons reported relinquishing goods or services in order to pay for necessary dental care. This study identified oral health disparities within an already marginalized group not alleviated by access to professional dental care. Working poor persons regarded professional dental care as a competing financial demand.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine if paediatric oral health education leaflets with a food and nutritional focus provide messages that are clear and consistent with the current Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Infant Feeding Guidelines. Methods Forty-three leaflets aimed at parents were sourced from Australian state and territory Health Departments, oral health industry partners and commercial organisations, and a content analysis was performed. Recommendations on food and drink type, consumption frequency and general diet and nutrition advice were considered and cross-referenced with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Infant Feeding Guidelines to identify areas of consistency and discrepancy. Results Twenty leaflets recommended reducing the consumption of sugary and/or acidic food, while 23 leaflets recommended reducing the consumption of sugary and/or acidic drinks. The majority of the leaflets advised water (n = 35 and milk (n = 23 to drink. Although 33 leaflets encouraged a healthy diet, seven of these did not specify what a healthy diet was. Twenty-eight leaflets provided early childhood-related (0–2 years feeding advice. Confusing messages were found in nine leaflets, with ambiguous recommendations that were open to individual interpretation. Conclusions There were some inconsistencies between the leaflets and the dietary and infant feeding guidelines in Australia; and across the leaflets, as not all important messages were included in any one leaflet. Government Health Departments and other relevant agencies should ensure that advisory messages regarding diet, particularly those with dental implications, are clear, complete and consistent across all dental educational leaflets.
Eldarrat, Aziza H
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE TO: (1) assess the knowledge and awareness of diabetic patients of their risk for systemic and oral diseases as complications associated with diabetes, (2) to assess their attitudes toward sustaining good oral health through proper oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups, and (3) to the extent that they are aware, to determine how they became aware. Two hundred self-administered questionnaires were distributed to assess the main objectives of the study. Only completed questionnaires were used in the current study data analysis. A majority of the participants had Type 2 diabetes (58%). The awareness of diabetic patients of their increased risk for oral diseases is low compared to their awareness of systemic diseases. Their attitude toward maintaining good oral health was also not to desired standard. Of the participants, 50% brushed their teeth once daily and 66% never used dental floss. Regarding participants' sources of awareness, 37% learned from dentists and 45% through other media sources. Diabetic patients are found to have little knowledge of their increased risk for oral diseases. In order to promote proper oral health and to reduce the risk of oral diseases, health professionals in both the dental and medical fields need to take the responsibility to develop programs to educate the public about the oral manifestations of diabetes and its complications on oral health.
Aziza H. Eldarrat
Full Text Available Objectives : The objectives of the study were to: 1 assess the knowledge and awareness of diabetic patients of their risk for systemic and oral diseases as complications associated with diabetes, 2 to assess their attitudes toward sustaining good oral health through proper oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups, and 3 to the extent that they are aware, to determine how they became aware. Methods : Two hundred self-administered questionnaires were distributed to assess the main objectives of the study. Only completed questionnaires were used in the current study data analysis. Results: A majority of the participants had Type 2 diabetes (58%. The awareness of diabetic patients of their increased risk for oral diseases is low compared to their awareness of systemic diseases. Their attitude toward maintaining good oral health was also not to desired standard. Of the participants, 50% brushed their teeth once daily and 66% never used dental floss. Regarding participants’ sources of awareness, 37% learned from dentists and 45% through other media sources. Conclusions : Diabetic patients are found to have little knowledge of their increased risk for oral diseases. In order to promote proper oral health and to reduce the risk of oral diseases, health professionals in both the dental and medical fields need to take the responsibility to develop programs to educate the public about the oral manifestations of diabetes and its complications on oral health.
Porovic, Selma; Zukanovic, Amila; Juric, Hrvoje; Dinarevic, Senka Mesihovic
Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the oral health condition Down syndrome (DS) adults in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by analyzing oral health of Down syndrome individuals in two largest regions, Sarajevo and Tuzla Canton. Patients and Methods: Caries and oral health status of 33 Down syndrome adults aged 19-45 years were examined and assessed according WHO 1997 criteria. Results: The mean DMFT index is 15,96?8,08. The analysis of oral hygiene of Down syndrome children by ...
Alfrey, Laura; Brown, Trent D.
The concept of "health literacy" is becoming increasingly prominent internationally, and it has been identified as one of the five key propositions that underpin the forthcoming Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (ACHPE). The ACHPE is one of few national curricula to explicitly refer to health literacy, identifying it…
To investigate the relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries in city community and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information, and to provide scientific basis for future infant nursing bottle caries prevention. Three hundred infants aged 6, 7, 12, 18 months in April 2009 in Bai Guan Street Community Hospital Shangyu City were enrolled in this study, nursing bottle caries were examined and recorded. Questionnaires on infant basic data, feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information were asked and recorded in these 300 parents. The relationship was analyzed between the infant nursing bottle caries and the questionnaires by Chi-square test with the SPSS14.0 software package. The infant nursing bottle caries correlated obviously with the habit of sleeping with the nursing bottle or mammary papilla in mouth, and did not correlate with the breast or artificial feeding patterns. The occurrence rate of infant nursing bottle caries was significantly lower in the infants with oral health behavior than those without oral health behavior. After feeding food, more parents feed the infants with little plain boiled water than clean the infant oral cavity with finger cap wet carbasus. 56.7% of parents had no acknowledge of danger of infant nursing bottle caries. There is some correlation between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information.
Notwithstanding recent migration policy amendments, there is concern that Australian asylum policies have disproportionately burdened the health and wellbeing of onshore asylum seekers. There may be a case to be made that Australian governments have been in violation of the right to health of this population. The objective of this paper is to critically examine these issues and assess the implications for public health practice. The author undertook a review of the recent empirical literature on the health effects of post-migration stressors arising from Australian policies of immigration detention, temporary protection and the restriction of Medicare to some asylum seekers. This evidence was examined within the context of Australia's international law obligations. Findings reveal that Australian asylum policies of detention, temporary protection and the exclusion of some asylum seekers from Medicare rights have been associated with adverse mental health outcomes for this population. This is attributable to the impact of these policies on accessing health care and the underlying determinants of health for asylum seekers. It is arguable that Australian Governments have been discriminating against asylum seekers by withholding access on the grounds of their migration status, to health care and to the core determinants of health in this context. In so doing, Australia may have been in violation of its obligation to respect the right to health of this population. While the 'right to health' framework has much to offer public health, it is an undervalued and poorly understood discipline. The author argues for more education, research and advocacy around the intersection between heath and human rights.
Brusse, Carl; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle
Background Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. Objective The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health promotion interventions, with a particular focus on the Australian context and on health promotion targeted toward an Indigenous audience. Specifically, our research questions were: (1) What is the peer-reviewed evidence of benefit for social media and mobile technologies used in health promotion, intervention, self-management, and health service delivery, with regard to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media? and (2) What social media and mobile software have been used in Indigenous-focused health promotion interventions in Australia with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, or otitis media, and what is the evidence of their effectiveness and benefit? Methods We conducted a scoping study of peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of social media and mobile technologies in health promotion (globally) with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media. A scoping review was also conducted for Australian uses of social media to reach Indigenous Australians and mobile apps produced by Australian health bodies, again with respect to these three areas. Results The review identified 17 intervention studies and seven systematic reviews that met inclusion criteria, which showed limited evidence of benefit from these interventions. We also found five Australian projects with significant social media health components targeting the Indigenous Australian population for health promotion purposes, and four mobile software apps that met inclusion
Yaacob, Munirah; Worthington, Helen V; Deacon, Scott A; Deery, Chris; Walmsley, A Damien; Robinson, Peter G; Glenny, Anne-Marie
Removing dental plaque may play a key role maintaining oral health. There is conflicting evidence for the relative merits of manual and powered toothbrushing in achieving this. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2005. To compare manual and powered toothbrushes in everyday use, by people of any age, in relation to the removal of plaque, the health of the gingivae, staining and calculus, dependability, adverse effects and cost. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 23 January 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 23 January 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 23 January 2014) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 23 January 2014). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials of at least four weeks of unsupervised powered toothbrushing versus manual toothbrushing for oral health in children and adults. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Random-effects models were used provided there were four or more studies included in the meta-analysis, otherwise fixed-effect models were used. Data were classed as short term (one to three months) and long term (greater than three months). Fifty-six trials met the inclusion criteria; 51 trials involving 4624 participants provided data for meta-analysis. Five trials were at low risk of bias, five at high and 46 at unclear risk of bias.There is moderate quality evidence that powered toothbrushes provide a statistically significant benefit compared with manual toothbrushes with regard to the reduction of plaque in both the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0
Pang, Bonnie; Alfrey, Laura; Varea, Valeria
Young people with English as an Additional Language/Dialect backgrounds are often identified in public health messages and popular media as "bodies at risk" because they do not conform to the health regimens of contemporary Western societies. With increasing numbers of Chinese students in Australian schools, it is necessary to advance…
Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.
BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening
Huang, Deborah L; Park, Mijung
This study aims to examine if older adults living in poverty and from minority racial/ethnic groups experienced disproportionately high rates of poor oral health outcomes measured by oral health quality of life (OHQOL) and number of permanent teeth. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,745 community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. Oral health outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using the NHANES-Oral Health Impact Profile for OHQOL and standardized examination for dentition. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between oral health outcomes and predictors of interest. All analyses were weighted to account for complex survey sampling methods. Both poverty and minority race/ethnicity were significantly associated with poor oral health outcomes in OHQOL and number of permanent teeth. Distribution of scores for each OHQOL domain varied by minority racial/ethnic group. Oral health disparities persist in older adults living in poverty and among those from minority racial/ethnic groups. The racial/ethnic variation in OHQOL domains should be further examined to develop interventions to improve the oral health of these groups. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Delwel, S.; Binnekade, T.T.; Perez, Roberto; Hertogh, Cees M. P. M.; Scherder, Erik; Lobbezoo, Frank
BACKGROUND: The number of older people with dementia and a natural dentition is growing. Recently, a systematic review concerning the oral health of older people with dementia with the focus on diseases of oral hard tissues was published. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive literature overview
Background: Patients were presenting on their index visit at the University of Zimbabwe Oral Health Centre oral and maxillofacial clinic with tumours with durations of onset varying from months to years. Oro-facial tumour is characterized by poor treatment outcomes if the patient presents for treatment late. Health care ...
Abstract. Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, ...
date knowledge to pupils and students. However, most teachers in developing countries like Nigeria have poor knowledge and motivation about oral health which may be due to inadequate training in the area of oral health. This might be one of ...
Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the level of oral health knowledge, behavior, experience and sources of oral health knowledge among pregnant women attending Kyela district hospital. Study participants and Methods: This was a hospital based Cross-sectional study among 380 pregnant women attending ...
Background: Several behavioural studies have shown a direct correlation between oral health awareness and practices. Awareness of individuals regarding their periodontal health status when accompanied with knowledge about the periodontal disease process can help improve self oral healthcare and prevent ...
A substantial proportion of pregnant women reports experiencing oral health problems during pregnancy. However, most of them perceive that such problems are normal in pregnancy and hence do not seek dentist consultation. The objective of this study was to determine the prenatal oral health experience and the ...
Aim: To determine awareness and perception of oral health services and their influence on the utilization of oral health services. Subjects and Methods: A total of 353 simple randomly selected pupils aged 11-20 years at Chifubu secondary school in Ndola participated in the study. Data was collected using structured close ...
Buunk-Werkhoven, Yvonne A. B.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, Cees P.
In the framework of the development and evaluation of oral health interventions that take into account people's oral health-related quality of life (OH-QoL), it is important to know what determinants and effects of OH-QoL are. Because the processes involved in the experience of OH-QoL may differ for
Brown, Ruth M.; Canham, Daryl; Cureton, Virginia Young
A high prevalence of dental caries in the pediatric population is a major health problem. At highest risk are low-income minority groups, including refugee and immigrant populations. Consequences of oral disease include pain, difficulty eating and speaking, poor school performance, and poor self-esteem. Parent involvement in oral health education…
Background: Informed consent and autonomy are the major ethical principles that define the relationship between health workers and the patient. ... Results: The majority of the students were treated in the private sector (85.0%) by male oral health workers (61.6%) and dentists (89.5%) as opposed to dental therapists or oral ...
Aim: To investigate oral health knowledge and behaviour amongst nursing students in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital on respondents aged 17 to 40 years, using self administered structured questionnaire. Result: From oral health ...
De Visschere, L.M.; Putten, Gerard van der; Vanobbergen, J.N.; Schols, J.M.; Baat, C. de
doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2010.00406.x An oral health care guideline for institutionalised older people Institutionalized older people are prone to oral health problems and their negative impact due to frailty, disabilities, multi-morbidity, and multiple medication use. Until recently, no
My definition of Primary Oral Health Care .:' in a nutshell is: The understandng of the oral' health problems of individuals, families and. Communities, making them aware and appreciate' the problems; and motivate them as individualS, families and communities to participate in solving them taking into consideration their ...
East African Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 10 October 2011 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Several behavioural studies have shown a direct correlation between oral health awareness and practices. Awareness ... interviewed (69.9%) had moderate oral health knowledge while only a few children. (8.9%) had poor information.
Mickenautsch, S.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Frencken, J.E.F.M.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the provision of restorative care and dental operators' opinion about their conditions of service in a South African provincial oral health service system. DESIGN: Assessment of oral health service over a four-month period. SETTING: Gauteng Province, South Africa. SUBJECTS:
Young, Peter; Gordon, Michael S
The poor mental health of asylum seekers and refugees in immigration detention has consistently been reported in peer-reviewed literature internationally; however, data on the mental health of asylum seekers and refugees detained in Australian immigration has been very limited. We re-analysed mental health screening data obtained by the Human Rights Commission. Longer time in detention was associated with higher self-reported depression scores, with female individuals being more vulnerable to time in detention than those of male gender. Approximately one-half of the refugee group who agreed to complete the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire had post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. On clinician-rated measures, one-third of the children, adolescents and adults suffered with clinical symptoms requiring tertiary outpatient assessment. This paper consolidates the findings of the 2014 Australian Human Rights Commission report and it provides an argument for public reporting of refugee data. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
... variety of foods as part of a well-balanced diet may not only improve your dental health, but ... to promote better oral health? Eat a well-balanced diet characterized by moderation and variety. Develop eating habits ...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Adolescents are vulnerable group in term of acquisition of oral health-related knowledge, habits and attitudes. That is why the aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dental status, dental anxiety and oral health-related behavior and oral healthrelated quality of life as captured by Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP index. Methods. This crosssectional survey included representative sample of 404 adolescents (15 years old, randomly recruited from high schools in Belgrade, Serbia. The adolescents were interviewed using Serbian versions of eight-item OIDP index, Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HUDBI and modified Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS. Three previously trained and calibrated dentists examined the subjects in the classrooms to determine the oral health status of adolescents [the Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index and visual signs of gingivitis]. Results. At least one oral impact was reported in 49.50% of adolescents. Most frequently, oral health problems affected eating (26.73%, tooth cleaning (27.47% and sleep and relaxation (16.83%. In comparison with adolescents without oral impacts, the adolescents with at least one oral impact reported, had higher DMFT score, more often reported problems with bleeding gums, usage of hard toothbrush, worries about the color of their teeth and seeing the dentist because of the symptoms. Logistic regression showed that dental anxiety (MDAS score, dental behavior (HUDBI score and worrying about the color of the teeth significantly affected OIDP score. Conclusion. Oral healthrelated quality of life among adolescents was affected by their behavior and dental anxiety levels. Implementing public health policies that target adolescents with poor oral health or bad habits might be helpful in improving their oral health-related quality of life.
Al Saffan, Abdulrahman Dahham; Baseer, Mohammad Abdul; Alshammary, Abdul Aziz; Assery, Mansour; Kamel, Ashraf; Rahman, Ghousia
To assess the early effect of oral health education on oral health knowledge of primary and intermediate school students of private schools by utilizing pre/post questionnaires data from oral health educational projects in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Second, to examine topic-specific knowledge differences between genders, nationalities, and educational levels of the students. Cross-sectional oral health educational data of private school students ( n = 1279) in primary and intermediate levels were extracted from the King Salman Centre for Children's Health (KSCCH) projects undertaken by Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy. Student's pre- and post-test data were analyzed for changes in oral health knowledge. Overall knowledge score and topic-specific knowledge scores were calculated and the differences between gender, nationality, and educational level were examined using Mann-Whitney U-test. Pre/post change in the oral health knowledge was evaluated by Wilcoxon's sign rank test. Immediately, after oral health educational session high knowledge score category showed an increase of 25.6%, medium and low knowledge score categories showed -3.2% and -22.3% decrease, and this change was statistically significant ( P education showed significantly high mean knowledge ( P private school student's overall, and topic-specific oral health knowledge improved immediately after educational intervention provided by KSCCH. High knowledge gain was observed among female non-Saudi primary school students.
Alves, Renata Toledo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida; Costa, Luciane Rezende; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Paiva, Saul Martins
There is little information about health professionals’ behavior regarding oral health care during pregnancy. We evaluated attitudes of obstetricians/gynecologists, nurses, and dentists working at a public community service towards pregnant women’s oral health. Health professionals responded to a self-applied questionnaire. Cluster analysis identified two clusters of respondents; Chi-square, Student’s t test, and logistic regression were used to compare the two clusters in terms of the indepe...
Gao, Xiaol-Li; McGrath, Colman
The impact of acculturation on systemic health has been extensively investigated and is regarded as an important explanatory factor for health disparity. However, information is limited and fragmented on the oral health implications of acculturation. This study aimed to review the current evidence on the oral health impact of acculturation. Papers were retrieved from five electronic databases. Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. Their scientific quality was rated and key findin...
Schuch, Helena S; Haag, Dandara G; Kapellas, Kostas; Arantes, Rui; Peres, Marco A; Thomson, W M; Jamieson, Lisa M
To compare the magnitude of relative oral health inequalities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous persons from Brazil, New Zealand and Australia. Data were from surveys in Brazil (2010), New Zealand (2009) and Australia (2004-06 and 2012). Participants were aged 35-44 years and 65-74 years. Indigenous and non-Indigenous inequalities were estimated by prevalence ratios (PR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for sex, age and income. Outcomes included inadequate dentition, untreated dental caries, periodontal disease and the prevalence of "fair" or "poor" self-rated oral health in Australia and New Zealand, and satisfaction with mouth/teeth in Brazil (SROH). Irrespective of country, Indigenous persons had worse oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts in all indicators. The magnitude of these ratios was greatest among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, who, after adjustments, had 2.77 times the prevalence of untreated dental caries (95% CI 1.76, 4.37), 5.14 times the prevalence of fair/poor SROH (95% CI 2.53, 10.43). Indigenous people had poorer oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts, regardless of setting. The magnitude of the relative inequalities was greatest among Indigenous Australians for untreated dental decay and poor SROH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Shinada, Kayoko; Wright, Fredrick A C; Kawaguchi, Yoko
This study aims to analyse the relationship between seven health practices, oral health behaviors, and oral health status in community dwelling elderly Thai. The subjects were 612 elderly people (mean age = 68.8 ± 5.9 years). Questionnaires survey about sociodemographics, self-reported seven health practices and oral health behaviors were conducted by trained interviewers. Oral examinations investigated the number of teeth present, decayed teeth, periodontal status and functional tooth units (FTUs). Oral malodor was assessed by Organoleptic Test, and unstimulated saliva was collected for 5 min. Five health practices (smoking, drinking, physical activity, breakfast and weight maintenance) were significantly related with oral health behaviors. ancova analysis demonstrated the following significant associations: (i) smoking behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (ii) drinking alcohol behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iii) eating breakfast behavior with periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iv) eating between-meal snack with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth and periodontal disease, (v) maintaining weight with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease and oral malodor, (vi) sleeping with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (vii) physical activity with periodontal disease and salivary flow rate. Good health practices were related with good oral health behaviors. Moreover, general health practices were associated with the clinical oral health status such as number of teeth present, decayed teeth, FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate. The elderly with good general health practices were considered to have good oral health status. Improving general health
Petersen, P E; Kandelman, D; Arpin, S
The aim of this report is (1) to provide a global overview of oral health conditions in older people, use of oral health services, and self care practices; (2) to explore what types of oral health services are available to older people, and (3) to identify some major barriers to and opportunities...
Danckert, Rachael; Ryan, Anna; Plummer, Virginia; Williams, Cylie
Poor oral health has been associated with systemic diseases, morbidity and mortality. Many patients in hospital environments are physically compromised and rely upon awareness and assistance from health professionals for the maintenance or improvement of their oral health. This study aimed to identify whether common individual and environment factors associated with hospitalisation impacted on oral hygiene. Data were collected during point prevalence audits of patients in the acute and rehabilitation environments on three separate occasions. Data included demographic information, plaque score, presence of dental hygiene products, independence level and whether nurse assistance was documented in the health record. Data were collected for 199 patients. A higher plaque score was associated with not having a toothbrush (p = 0.002), being male (p = 0.007), being acutely unwell (p = 0.025) and requiring nursing assistance for oral hygiene (p = 0.002). There was fair agreement between the documentation of requiring assistance for oral care and the patient independently able to perform oral hygiene (ICC = 0.22). Oral hygiene was impacted by factors arising from hospitalisation, for those without a toothbrush and male patients of acute wards. Establishment of practices that increase awareness and promote good oral health should be prioritised. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.
Full Text Available Globally, the number of life expectancy in worldwide population has increased compared with 1990. In 2014, the mean life expectancy have reached 75 years old, and even above 80 years in several developed countries. The interesting point is women have shown higher increase of live expectancy compared with men, Women have increased 6.6 years compared with men, 5.8 years. Better health welfare, economic growth, and lifestyle modification suspected to be contributing in higher life expectancy worldwide. Despite the encouraging news that the age of population is increasing, the concern will be whether this longer age come with the better health condition, including oral and dental health. The presence of teeth inside the mouth is one of significant points to support one’s quality of life. This research involved 66 subjects, age between 35–60 years old, divided into two groups, menopause and non-menopause women. The research shown that tooth loss occurred more in non-menopause women than menopause woman, which is 37% woman has lost as many as 12 teeth, compared with post menopausal the toothloss only occurred in 19.6%. The treatment need of non-surgery periodontal care in non-menopausal woman higher by 37.9%, and surgery care is 23.2%, meanwhile in the menopause group, non surgery care is 30.3% and surgery care is only 9.1%. The conclusion is the teeth extractions mostly take place in the period before menopause compared post-menopausal. Treatment need is also higher before menopausal than after menopause. In order to that, the menopausal women need to have adequate dental care by the patient and the dentist as well
Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko
Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…
Bissong, Mea; Azodo, C C; Agbor, M A; Nkuo-Akenji, T; Fon, P Nde
Diabetes mellitus affects virtually all tissues and organs the body including the hard and soft issues of the oral cavity, manifesting with several complications. To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate oral diseases with glycaemic control. This was an observational study involving 149 diabetic patients recruited from hospitals in Southwest Region of Cameroon and 102 non-diabetic controls drawn from the general population. The study participants were aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using questionnaires, oral examination and laboratory tests. Oral examination was conducted to assess dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis and candidiasis. Glycemic status was assessed by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels using standardized methods. Thirty five out of 149 (23.5%) diabetic patients had gingivitis; 37 (24.8%) had periodontitis; 29 (19.5%) had dental caries and 32 (21.5%) had oral candidiasis. Gingivitis, periodontitis and oral candidiasis was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (P diabetic patients presented with poor oral hygiene than non-diabetics. Poorly controlled diabetics presented more with gingivitis and candidiasis than well-controlled diabetics and this relationship was statistically significant. The prevalence of oral disease was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetic controls and hyperglycaemia seemed to be a major contributor to oral health in diabetic patients in the study area. Proper management of blood sugar levels might improve on the oral health of diabetes mellitus patients.
Cheema, Sohaila; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Al-Thani, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Abraham, Amit; Al-Mannai, Ghanim Ali; Al-Emadi, Abdulla Asad; Al-Chetachi, Walaa Fattah; Almalki, Badria Ali; Hassan Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali; Haj Bakri, Ahmad Omar; Lowenfels, Albert; Mamtani, Ravinder
Oral health is a crucial determinant of quality of life. We aimed to determine oral health condition and factors associated with poor oral status in the adult national population of Qatar. We used data from the World Health Organization supported STEPS (STEPwise approach to Surveillance) Survey conducted by the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar in 2012. A total of 2,496 Qataris (1,053 men, 1,443 women) answered the national survey. The Rao-Scott Chi-Square test was used to analyze oral health characteristics and multinomial logistic regression to assess risk factors. The self-perceived oral status of approximately 40 percent of respondents was either "average" or "poor" rather than "good." Poor oral status was more often reported by women (OR = 1.93; 95%CI = 1.30-2.80), by older (OR = 3.38; 95%CI = 1.59-7.19) and less educated respondents (OR = 3.58; 95%CI = 2.15-5.96). Other risk groups included people with diabetes (OR = 1.87; 95%CI = 1.24-2.81), smokeless tobacco users (OR = 3.90; 95%CI = 1.75-8.68), or ever tobacco users (OR = 1.66; 95%CI = 1.03-2.67). Oral health status appeared to be independent of diet, BMI status, and history of hypertension. Difficulties and behaviors related to oral health were more frequently reported by women than by men. These included pain (P oral hygiene. Our results provide evidence that oral health remains a public health concern in Qatar. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Public Health Dentistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Christian, Bradley; Blinkhorn, Anthony S
The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe caries prevalence and experience among Aboriginal children; and (2) investigate the disparity in dental caries between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian children. As background, dental caries is a widespread disease within Aboriginal communities and it has a particularly severe impact on children. In recognition of the extent and severity of this disease, its impact on childhood nutrition, socialisation and schooling, the control of dental caries has been identified as a key indicator in the reduction of disadvantage among Aboriginal communities. Medline was the primary database used in the literature search. Other databases included: PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Australian National and State departments of health websites were also searched for relevant documents. Articles were included in the review if they reported information on either caries prevalence rates or experience scores or both, for Aboriginal children in Australia. Articles were excluded if the study sample was special needs children, and/or caries statistics were reported only for children over 12 years. Caries prevalence among 6-year-olds in rural non-fluoridated Western Australia in 1963 was 27%, and in 2004 was 85% among 6-year-olds in rural non-fluoridated Queensland. There was a corresponding increase in caries experience scores in this period from 2.07 in 1963 to 6.37 in 2004. National estimates for 2000-2003 reported a caries prevalence of 72% and caries experience (dmft: decayed, missing and filled primary teeth) of 3.68 for 6-year-old Aboriginal Australian children. For 12-year-olds the national estimates were a caries prevalence of 45% and experience (DMFT, Decayed, Missing and Filled Permanent Teeth) of 1.25 (SE=0.07). The magnitude of disparity (relative difference) in 6-year-old caries experience between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children was relatively consistent over the period 1983-2007, with Aboriginal children
Ali, Dena A.
Aim: The aims of this study were to assess attitudes and behavior of oral health maintenance among students in four faculties (Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Health) and to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of all students at Kuwait University Health Sciences Center (KUHSC) based on their academic level. Materials and Methods: Students enrolled in the Faculties of Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Allied Health at KUHSC were evaluated regarding their oral health attitudes...
Pillai, Rajath; Iyer, Kiran; Spin-Neto, Rubens
Background: To systematically review the current literature investigating the association between oral health and acquired brain injury. Methods: A structured search strategy was applied to PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CENTRAL electronic databases until March 2017 by two independent...... reviewers. The preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis guidelines were used for systematic review. Results: Even though the objective was to assess the association between oral health and acquired brain injury, eligible studies focused solely on different forms of stroke and stroke...... on the possible association between gingivitis and stroke. Patients with stroke generally had poorer oral hygiene practices and oral health. Dental prophylaxis and professional intervention reduced the incidence of stroke. Conclusions: Overall, oral health and stroke were related. Periodontitis and tooth loss...
Full Text Available Substances that are consumed daily or occasionally may influence an individual’s oral health. Some substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, and areca nut, adversely affect the oral region. However, some other substances, such as honey and green tea, which have antimicrobial properties, and berries, which have anticarcinogenic potential, exhibit beneficial effects on oral health. The effectiveness of synthetic drugs in maintaining oral health cannot be ignored; however, the benefits of synthetic drugs are associated with adverse effects and high costs. By contrast, the medicinal use of natural substances is associated with safety, affordability, and long-term benefits. In this paper, we review various natural substances that are potentially beneficial to oral health.
Hoeksema, Arie R; Peters, Lilian L; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita
The objective of this study is to assess oral health and oral status of elderly patients newly admitted to a nursing home from admission until death. Oral health, oral status, need for dental care, cooperation with dental treatment, and given dental care were assessed by two geriatric dentists in
Casamassimo, P S; Lee, J Y; Marazita, M L; Milgrom, P; Chi, D L; Divaris, K
Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations' health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.
Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.
Gao, Xiaol-Li; McGrath, Colman
The impact of acculturation on systemic health has been extensively investigated and is regarded as an important explanatory factor for health disparity. However, information is limited and fragmented on the oral health implications of acculturation. This study aimed to review the current evidence on the oral health impact of acculturation. Papers were retrieved from five electronic databases. Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. Their scientific quality was rated and key findings were summarized. Seventeen studies investigated the impacts of acculturation on the utilization of dental services; among them, 16 reported positive associations between at least one acculturation indicator and use of dental services. All 15 studies relating acculturation to oral diseases (dental caries and periodontal disease) suggested better oral health among acculturated individuals. Evidence is lacking to support that better oral health of acculturated immigrants is attributable to their improved dental attendance. Further researches involving other oral health behaviors and diseases and incorporating refined acculturation scales are needed. Prospective studies will facilitate the understanding on the trajectory of immigrants' oral health along the acculturation continuum.
Do, Loc G; Scott, Jane A; Thomson, W Murray; Stamm, John W; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Levy, Steven M; Wong, Ching; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John
Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health, in order to support effective evidence-based policies and interventions in improving child oral health. The aim of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) project is to identify and evaluate the relative importance and timing of critical factors that shape the oral health of young children and then to seek to evaluate those factors in their inter-relationship with socioeconomic influences. This investigation will apply an observational prospective study design to a cohort of socioeconomically-diverse South Australian newborns and their mothers, intensively following these dyads as the children grow to toddler age. Mothers of newborn children will be invited to participate in the study in the early post-partum period. At enrolment, data will be collected on parental socioeconomic status, mothers' general and dental health conditions, details of the pregnancy, infant feeding practice and parental health behaviours and practices. Data on diet and feeding practices, oral health behaviours and practices, and dental visiting patterns will be collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. When children turn 24-30 months, the children and their mothers/primary care givers will be invited to an oral examination to record oral health status. Anthropometric assessment will also be conducted. This prospective cohort study will examine a wide range of determinants influencing child oral health and related general conditions such as overweight. It will lead to the
Background Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health, in order to support effective evidence-based policies and interventions in improving child oral health. The aim of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) project is to identify and evaluate the relative importance and timing of critical factors that shape the oral health of young children and then to seek to evaluate those factors in their inter-relationship with socioeconomic influences. Methods/Design This investigation will apply an observational prospective study design to a cohort of socioeconomically-diverse South Australian newborns and their mothers, intensively following these dyads as the children grow to toddler age. Mothers of newborn children will be invited to participate in the study in the early post-partum period. At enrolment, data will be collected on parental socioeconomic status, mothers’ general and dental health conditions, details of the pregnancy, infant feeding practice and parental health behaviours and practices. Data on diet and feeding practices, oral health behaviours and practices, and dental visiting patterns will be collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. When children turn 24-30 months, the children and their mothers/primary care givers will be invited to an oral examination to record oral health status. Anthropometric assessment will also be conducted. Discussion This prospective cohort study will examine a wide range of determinants influencing child oral health and related general conditions
Background Dentists are considered role models by the general population in regards to oral hygiene and oral health behavior. This study aimed to access the oral health status of dentists and laypersons, and compare the dentists’ practice of preventive dentistry and oral self-care behaviors to that of the laypersons. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 472 participants (195 dentists and 277 laypersons from the general population). Their oral health/hygiene behavior was assessed using a standardized close-ended multiple choice questionnaire. Oral examination was performed to assess caries using Decayed Missed Filled teeth (DMFT) index and periodontal status using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Results Ninety-six percent of dentists brushed their teeth at least once daily, using fluoridated toothpaste and 80.5% twice daily. Although 94% of laypersons brushed their teeth once daily, they seldom used fluoridated toothpaste. Ten percent of participants in each group were caries free. The mean number of teeth present in the oral cavity (27.4 versus 25.4), mean number of teeth with caries (1.8 versus 3.7) and fillings (2.5 versus 0.4) were significantly different (p behaviors than the laypersons. Despite similar prevalence of caries in the two groups, the prevalence of decayed and unfilled teeth was lower among the dentists. PMID:24655533
Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A
For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs.
Macek, Mark D; Atchison, Kathryn A; Chen, Haiyan; Wells, William; Haynes, Don; Parker, Ruth M; Azzo, Shurouk
In 2010, a health literacy instrument designed to measure oral health conceptual knowledge was introduced. This developmental work was limited in that it included a relatively small and homogeneous study population and few oral health measures against which to test concurrent validity. The purpose of the present investigation is to expand upon the earlier work by utilizing a larger study sample and additional outcome variables. Data for this report came from the Multi-site Oral Health Literacy Research Study (MOHLRS), a large, cross-sectional survey conducted at two university-based dental clinics in the United States. MOHLRS included multiple assessments administered during face-to-face interviews. Conceptual knowledge was measured with the Comprehensive Measure of Oral Health Knowledge (CMOHK). Questions about self-efficacy, utilization, and dental beliefs and attitudes were also asked. Covariates included recruitment site, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and languages spoken. Overall, 18% of 909 adult participants exhibited "low" conceptual knowledge. CMOHK scores were significantly associated with three health literacy instruments, the REALM, Short-test of functional health literacy in adults (TOFHLA), and confidence filling out forms. In both bivariate and multivariable analyses, CMOHK scores were also significantly associated with dental beliefs and attitudes and self-efficacy to prevent both dental caries and periodontal disease. CMOHK scores were not associated with utilization, measured either as having a dental visit or a dental cleaning in the last year. The present investigation provides additional support for the CMOHK's validity. Researchers are encouraged to incorporate oral health conceptual knowledge into their theoretical frameworks, especially as it relates to beliefs and self-efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Visually impaired children are challenged everyday in their everyday skills. Oral hygiene practices among visually impaired children require a special approach with time and patience. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral health education and fluoridated dentifrices on the oral health status of visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: Fifty visually impaired children between 8 and 12 years of age formed the study group. Oral health education and motivation was done with the help of Braille. Modified Bass method of brushing was taught to the children and the required dental treatment was done. Subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups fluoridated and non-fluoridated. Oral hygiene index -simplified, DMFT, deft index, and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus count were assessed at baseline, immediately after the treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 month intervals. The oral health awareness was assessed using a questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study. Results: At baseline, the mean OHI-S, DMFT and deft scores were 2.72, 0.47, and 0.51 respectively. At the end of 12 months there was a significant decrease in OHI-S scores in the fluoridated group. No significant difference was seen in DMFT and deft between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated groups at the different time interval. After the oral health education and comprehensive treatment there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts in both groups; however, at the end of 3, 6, 12 months there was a significant decrease in fluoridated group as compared to the non-fluoridated. The oral health awareness increased significantly at the end of the study. Conclusion: The oral health education and motivation formulated for the visually impaired children was effective in improving their oral health status. Fluoridated dentifrices decreased the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts and improved the oral hygiene status.
Kumar, Sujay; Konde, Sapna; Raj, Sunil; Agarwal, Manisha
Visually impaired children are challenged everyday in their everyday skills. Oral hygiene practices among visually impaired children require a special approach with time and patience. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral health education and fluoridated dentifrices on the oral health status of visually impaired children. Fifty visually impaired children between 8 and 12 years of age formed the study group. Oral health education and motivation was done with the help of Braille. Modified Bass method of brushing was taught to the children and the required dental treatment was done. Subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups fluoridated and non-fluoridated. Oral hygiene index -simplified, DMFT, deft index, and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus count were assessed at baseline, immediately after the treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 month intervals. The oral health awareness was assessed using a questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study. At baseline, the mean OHI-S, DMFT and deft scores were 2.72, 0.47, and 0.51 respectively. At the end of 12 months there was a significant decrease in OHI-S scores in the fluoridated group. No significant difference was seen in DMFT and deft between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated groups at the different time interval. After the oral health education and comprehensive treatment there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts in both groups; however, at the end of 3, 6, 12 months there was a significant decrease in fluoridated group as compared to the non-fluoridated. The oral health awareness increased significantly at the end of the study. The oral health education and motivation formulated for the visually impaired children was effective in improving their oral health status. Fluoridated dentifrices decreased the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts and improved the oral hygiene status.
Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina
This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa
Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.
Collins, Chimere C; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D; Zeldin, Leslie P; Divaris, Kimon
Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community. This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software. Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources. Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are pervasive, but parents
Lee, Kyung Hee; Plassman, Brenda L; Pan, Wei; Wu, Bei
Poor oral health is a common problem among older adults in general and particularly among those with cognitive impairment. The current study was conducted to (a) explore direct and indirect relationships between cognitive function and oral health outcomes and (b) test the mediating effect of oral hygiene on the relationship between cognitive function and oral health. The current study used data from 327 community-dwelling older adults in West Virginia who completed an oral health evaluation, comprehensive cognitive assessment, and questionnaire about oral hygiene. Structure equation modeling was used to test for mediation. Results showed that more severe cognitive impairment was related to poorer oral health outcomes and less frequent tooth brushing and flossing. Tooth brushing serves as a mediator between cognitive impairment and oral health outcome. The current study suggests regular tooth brushing is a promising intervention to maintain oral health among individuals with cognitive impairment. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(5), 30-37.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Rabiei, Sepideh; Mohebbi, Simin Z; Patja, Kristiina; Virtanen, Jorma I
Integration of oral health promotion into general health care has been highly recommended by the World Health Organization. Primary-care physicians can as part of their general health care promote and contribute to improved oral health care. Our aim was to investigate primary-care physicians' knowledge of oral health, their attitudes toward delivering oral health care (OHC), and their willingness to obtain more education in this field. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all primary-care physicians working in the public health centers of Tehran city. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire queried their knowledge in pediatric- and general medicine-related areas of dentistry, providing knowledge scores to be calculated for three domains. The physicians' attitudes toward OHC and willingness to pursue continuous education underwent evaluation with statements utilizing a 5-point Likert scale. Totally, 220 physicians took part in the survey (response rate: 92%). Chi-square test, linear and logistic regression, and t-test served for statistical analyses. The physicians' knowledge score was significantly lower in the pediatric domain than in the dental and medical domains (p oral health activities in their practice, and almost two-thirds (62%) of them showed a willingness to pursue further education about OHC. Those with higher knowledge scores had a greater willingness to deliver oral health care to their patients. Physicians' lack of knowledge of OHC and their generally positive attitudes toward it revealed a great need for planning of a continuous medical education program in primary care.
Le, Phu; Dempster, Laura; Limeback, Hardy; Locker, David
This study assessed the efficacy of oral care education among nursing home staff members to improve the oral health of residents. Nursing home support staff members (NHSSMs) in the study group received oral care education at baseline between a pretest and posttest. NHSSMs' oral care knowledge was measured using a 20-item knowledge test at baseline, posteducation, and at a 6-month follow-up. Residents' oral health was assessed at baseline and again at a 6-month follow-up using the Modified Plaque Index (PI) and Modified Gingival Index (GI). Among staff members who received the oral care education (n = 32), posttest knowledge statistically significantly increased from the pretest level (p Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most serious diseases of metabolism. Long-term consequences of hyperglycemia are very heterogeneous and affect partially all tissues and organs of the organism. A number of oral diseases and disorders have been associated with DM, and periodontitis has been identified as a possible risk factor for poor glycemic control and the development of other clinical complications of diabetes. In this review article, we discuss the relevant information about DM associated oral conditions and role of dental practitioners to take the responsibility to develop programs to educate the public about the oral manifestations of diabetes and its complications on oral health in order to promote proper oral health and to reduce the risk of oral diseases.
Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian
Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.
Natália Spillere Rovaris
Full Text Available AIDS progression is faster in children than adults. Little is known about the oral health status of children living with HIV. Aim: To carry out a literature review about the oral health conditions of children living with HIV in order to observe if this specific population presents different oral health conditions compared to children without HIV infection. Methods: A documental study of literature review was carried out. Studies were searched at PubMed using “oral health”, “children”, “HIV” and “AIDS” as keywords. Papers published between 2001 and 2011 were included. After applying the exclusion criteria and complete reading of the selected studies, other articles were selected from the references lists of the first ones. Results: Firstly, 24 studies were identified. Among them, 65.5% were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. From the five selected articles, another five from the references of these were included. Only one article compared the oral health conditions of children living with HIV with controls without HIV infection. Conclusions: Only 10 papers contained information on the oral health conditions of children living with HIV, and just one compared the results with controls. The few studies found were insufficient to establish the oral health condition profile of children living with HIV. This lack of information could represent the lack of interest of researchers and health authorities in more integrative care and can result in neglect with this specific population of children.
Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Fine, P; Haddad, F; Loosemore, M; de Medici, A; Donos, N; Newton, T; van Someren, K; Moazzez, R; Jaques, R; Hunter, G; Khan, K; Shimmin, M; Brewer, J; Meehan, L; Mills, S; Porter, S
While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies.
The papers II and III of this thesis are not available in Munin. Paper II: Stein, L., Bergdahl, M., Pettersen, K. S., Bergdahl, J.: “The association between oral health literacy and alexithymia: Implications for patient-clinician communication”. (Manuscript). Published version with title “Exploring the association between oral health literacy and alexithymia” available in Community Dental Health 2015, 32(3):143 - 147. Paper III: Stein, L., Bergdahl, M., Pettersen, K. S., Bergdahl...
Bourgeois, Denis M; Phantumvanit, Prathip; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Horn, Virginie; Carlile, Monica; Eiselé, Jean-Luc
Ensuring that members of society are healthy and reaching their full potential requires the prevention of oral diseases through the promotion of oral health and well-being. The present article identifies the best policy conditions of effective public health and primary care integration and the actors who promote and sustain these efforts. In this review, arguments and recommendations are provided to introduce an oral health collaborative promotion programme called Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2, arising from an unique partnership between FDI World Dental Federation, the global company Unilever plc and an international network of National Dental Associations, health-care centres, schools and educators populations. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan
The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from ......'s oral hygiene; in certain circumstances children may benefit from using polyol-containing chewing gum in terms of reduced dental caries.......The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from...
Daly, Blánaid; Newton, Tim; Batchelor, Paul; Jones, Kate
The aim of this study was (i) to determine the oral health status and oral health care needs of this population, (ii) to assess oral health-related quality of life using OHIP-14 and (iii) to explore whether there is a relationship between oral health status and oral health-related quality of life. A convenience sample was drawn from eight facilities catering for homeless people in south east London. Participants were invited to attend an outreach dental clinic and receive a clinical oral health and treatment needs assessment. The impact of oral disease was assessed using OHIP-14. There were 102 people from a range of vulnerable housing situations invited to participate in the study. The mean age was 39.5 (SD +/- 12.3) and 92% (n = 92) were men. The mean DMFT of dentate participants (n = 94) was 15.5 (SD +/- 7.6), mean DT was 4.2 (SD +/- 5.2), mean MT was 6.8 (SD +/- 6.0) and mean FT was 4.6 (SD +/- 4.8). Normative needs were extensive with 76% having a restorative need, 80% having a need for oral hygiene measures and periodontal treatment and 38% having a prosthetic treatment need. Ninety one per cent of homeless people experienced at least one impact and the mean number of impacts (n = 90) was 5.9 (SD +/- 4.8).The most commonly experienced oral health-related quality of life impacts were in the dimension of pain, with aching in the mouth having a prevalence of 65% and discomfort while eating foods having a prevalence of 62%. Forty-four per cent felt handicapped by their oral condition. The experience of oral impact had only a slight relationship with clinical status and there were no differences in clinical status or oral impact by vulnerability of housing situation. Oral health care needs were extensive and greater than that of the general population in the UK, although disease levels were similar. While homeless people experienced many more oral impacts (as measured with OHIP-14) compared with adults of the same age in the general population in the UK, there was
Shaghaghian, S; Bahmani, M; Amin, M
To assess the impact of oral hygiene of preschool children and parental attitude on children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this cross-sectional study, 396 children of Shiraz kindergartens were selected by a randomized cluster sampling. Children's oral hygiene was assessed using the Simplified Debris Index (DI-S) and a self-made questionnaire about oral hygiene habits. Children's OHRQoL was evaluated by the Farsi version of Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (F-ECOHIS). The effect of oral hygiene determinants on OHRQoL was measured using Pearson and Spearman correlation, independent-sample t-test and anova. Children's mean DI-S and F-ECOHIS scores were 1.19 (± 0.77) and 19.36 (±8.42), respectively. Only 75% of the children had their teeth brushed once a day or more, and in 28%, toothbrushing had started before 2 years of age. DI-S values (P Oral health status of preschool children in Shiraz was less than optimal and had a significant impact on their OHRQoL. Therefore, improvement of children's OHRQoL could be achieved by improving their home dental care. Strategies promoting parental attitude about the importance of children's toothbrushing may significantly influence children's oral hygiene and are highly recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Petersen, P E; Kandelman, D; Arpin, S; Ogawa, H
The aim of this report is (1) to provide a global overview of oral health conditions in older people, use of oral health services, and self care practices; (2) to explore what types of oral health services are available to older people, and (3) to identify some major barriers to and opportunities for the establishment of oral health services and health promotion programmes. A postal questionnaire designed by the World Health Organization (WHO) was distributed worldwide to the Chief Dental Officers or country oral health focal points at ministries of health. WHO received 46 questionnaires from countries (39% response rate). In addition, systematic data were collected from the WHO Global Oral Health Data Bank and the World Health Survey in order to include oral health information on the remaining countries. In total, the data base covers 136 out 193 countries, i.e., 71% of all WHO Member States. Dental caries and periodontal disease comprise a considerable public health problem in the majority of countries. Significant disparities within and between regions are observed in epidemiologic indicators of oral disease. The prevalence rates of tooth loss and experience of oral problems vary substantially by WHO Region and national income. Experience of oral problems among older people is high in low income countries; meanwhile, access to health care is poor, in particular in rural areas. Although tooth brushing is the most popular oral hygiene practice across the world, regular tooth brushing appears less common among older people than the population at large. In particular, this practice is less frequent in low income countries; in contrast, traditional oral self-care is prevalent in several countries of Africa and Asia. While fluoridated toothpaste is widely used in developed countries, it is extremely infrequent in most developing countries. Oral health services are available in developed countries; however, the use of such services is low among the older people. Lack
Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Bebbington, Ami; Jacoby, Peter; Girdler, Sonya; Leonard, Helen
This study assessed factors that could influence equipment and respite services use among Australian families caring for a girl/woman with Rett syndrome and examined relationships between use of these resources and the health of female caregivers. Data was sourced from questionnaires completed by families (n=170) contributing to the Australian…
Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen
Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…
Webb, Gwendalyn L.; Williams, Cori J.
Australian Aboriginal children, in general, lag behind their mainstream peers in measures of literacy. This article discusses some of the complex and interconnected factors that impact Aboriginal children's early language and literacy development. Poor health and historically negative socio-political factors are known influences on Aboriginal…
Gürkan, Ali; Köse, Timur; Atilla, Gül
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the oral health status and oral hygiene habits of dialysis patients. A total of 145 patients on dialysis were evaluated in two centres. Evaluation included oral examination of soft and hard tissues and completion of a questionnaire that was used to gather information about demographic, socioeconomic, medical and dental status and oral hygiene attitudes of patients. Awareness of the importance of oral health was also determined by four yes/no questions within this questionnaire. Of the 145 patients, 89 (61.4%) were presently candidates for renal transplantation. Nineteen patients (13.1%) were edentulous and nearly half of the patients (n=69, 47.6%) had 15 or fewer remaining teeth. Dentate patients who regularly brushed twice a day and flossed were few (n=18, 14.3%; n=3, 2.4%, respectively). In addition, plaque score was more than 50% in most of the dentate patients (93.7%). Gingival bleeding was reported by about two thirds of dentate patients (67.5%). None of the patients were referred to a dentist or were attending regular dental care. The percentage of patients who were aware of oral cavity-related infections and importance of oral hygiene following renal transplantation was very low (20.7% and 9.7%, respectively). Poor oral health, unsatisfactory daily oral hygiene habits and insufficient awareness of the importance of oral health is frequent among Turkish dialysis patients. Dentists and nephrologists should work in close cooperation in order to raise awareness and encourage regular dental controls.
Apr 5, 2015 ... Conclusions: Self-perceived oral health is worse and whole salivary IgG levels are higher in gutka-chewers compared to controls. Key words: .... control group), negative control (distilled water) and saliva samples were added to .... blood circulation and reaches the oral cavity by passively leaking mainly via.
Morino, T; Ookawa, K; Haruta, N; Hagiwara, Y; Seki, M
To better understand the role of the professional oral health care for elderly in improving geriatric oral health, the effects of short-term professional oral health care (once per week for 1 month) on oral microbiological parameters were assessed. Parallel, open-labelled, randomize-controlled trial was undertaken in a nursing home for elderly in Shizuoka, Japan. Thirty-four dentate elderly over 74 years were randomly assigned from ID number to the intervention (17/34) and control (17/34) groups. The outcomes were changes in oral microbiological parameters (number of bacteria in unstimulated saliva; whole bacteria, Streptococcus, Fusobacterium and Prevotella: opportunistic pathogens detection: and index of oral hygiene evaluation [Dental Plaque Index, DPI]) within the intervention period. Each parameter was evaluated at before and after intervention period. Four elderly were lost from mortality (1), bone fracture (1), refused to participate (1) and multi-antibiotics usage (1). Finally, 30 elderly were analysed (14/intervention and 16/control). At baseline, no difference was found between the control and intervention groups. After the intervention period, the percentage of Streptococcus species increased significantly in the intervention group (Intervention, 86% [12/14]; Control, 50% [8/16]: Fisher's, right-tailed, P oral health care can improve oral conditions in the elderly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sullivan, A L; Bailey, J H; Stokic, D S
Cross-sectional study. To examine predictors of oral health in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Ninety-two people with SCI (> or =6 months, 44% cervical level) completed questionnaires and underwent oral examination. Socio-economic, injury-related and oral habits variables were used for predicting oral health score (OHS); Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score; and periodontal screen and recording index (PSR). Most people with SCI were able to bring at least one hand to the mouth (82%) and brush teeth independently (65%). Regarding daily oral habits, 84% reported brushing teeth, 48% rinsing mouth, 14% flossing, 33% tobacco use and 13% mouthstick use. Only 32% had teeth cleaned within the past year. Oral examination revealed three decayed and eight missing teeth on average, with prominent periodontal disease (64%). Employment before SCI and more risky oral habits were significant predictors of worse OHS (P=0.005 and P=0.014, respectively) and PSR score (P=0.010 and P=0.035, respectively). Older age was the only predictor of worse DMFT score (POral health appears compromised in people with SCI. Identification of modifiable risk factors warrants examination whether intervention with focus on behavioral changes may improve oral health in this population.
Objective of this study is to determine the degree of validity of self completed health questionnaire among oral surgery patient at the Capitol Dental when compared with a structured oral interview. A prospective random selection method was applied using a standardized questionnaire. The cohorts are patients attending ...
Lesions commonly noticed includes; Candidiasis, Xerostomia, Herpes Stomatitis and Aphthous Ulcerations. Patient's educational level did not affect their ability to detect a change in their mouths (X2=2.932, p=0.402). Conclusion: The awareness of HIV-positive patients to their oral health is poor. As oral manifestations of ...
Results: There was a significant change in oral health knowledge for KNH participants. However, no significant change in oral knowledge was recorded for MDH participants. The proportion of participants who brushed their teeth at least twice a day increased significantly from 52% to 88% for KNH. The proportion of those ...
Aug 27, 2011 ... Objective: The objective of this study was to document oral health practices of pregnant women in two tertiary institutions in North-eastern ... Forty-four (15%) had had previous encounter with a dentist, while the highest frequency of oral care was twice a day in ... The research and ethical committee of the ...
Yuen, Hon K.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Mahoney, Samantha; Slate, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Carolyn; London, Steven
Oral health information was included in 89.5% of diabetes education programs in states with high diabetes prevalence compared to 85.9% in low prevalence states (P=0.22). However, management of dry mouth, demonstrations and return demonstrations of oral hygiene techniques were covered by 27.0%, 10.1% and
Background. Oral health promotion is a cost-effective strategy that can be implemented at schools for the prevention of oral diseases. The importance and value of school-based interventions in children has been identified in South Africa (SA). Although oral health strategies include integrated school-based interventions, ...
Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Klepacz-Szewczyk, Justyna; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek
The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.
An, Jonathan Y; Darveau, Richard; Kaeberlein, Matt
Age is the single greatest risk factor for many diseases, including oral diseases. Despite this, a majority of preclinical oral health research has not adequately considered the importance of aging in research aimed at the mechanistic understanding of oral disease. Here, we have attempted to provide insights from animal studies in the geroscience field and apply them in the context of oral health research. In particular, we discuss the relationship between the biology of aging and mechanisms of oral disease. We also present a framework for defining and utilizing age-appropriate rodents and present experimental design considerations, such as the number of age-points used and the importance of genetic background. While focused primarily on rodent models, alternative animal models that may be particularly useful for studies of oral health during aging, such as companion dogs and marmoset monkeys, are also discussed. We hope that such information will aid in the design of future preclinical studies of geriatric dental health, thus allowing more reliability for translation of such studies to age-associated oral disease in people.
Manger, D; Walshaw, M; Fitzgerald, R; Doughty, J; Wanyonyi, K L; White, S; Gallagher, J E
Introduction This paper is the second of four reviews exploring the relationships between oral health and general medical conditions, in order to support teams within Public Health England, health practitioners and policymakers.Aim This review aimed to explore the most contemporary evidence on whether poor oral health and pulmonary disease occurs in the same individuals or populations, to outline the nature of the relationship between these two health outcomes, and discuss the implication of any findings for health services and future research.Methods The work was undertaken by a group comprising consultant clinicians from medicine and dentistry, trainees, public health, and academics. The methodology involved a streamlined rapid review process and synthesis of the data.Results The results identified a number of systematic reviews of medium to high quality which provide evidence that oral health and oral hygiene habits have an impact on incidence and outcomes of lung diseases, such as pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in people living in the community and in long-term care facilities. The findings are discussed in relation to the implications for service and future research.Conclusion The cumulative evidence of this review suggests an association between oral and pulmonary disease, specifically COPD and pneumonia, and incidence of the latter can be reduced by oral hygiene measures such as chlorhexidine and povidone iodine in all patients, while toothbrushing reduces the incidence, duration, and mortality from pneumonia in community and hospital patients.
Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian
, and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful...... building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...
Spears, Barbara A; Taddeo, Carmel M; Daly, Anthony L; Stretton, Alexander; Karklins, Larisa T
To examine the relationship between young Australians' cyberbullying experiences, their help-seeking practices and associated mental well-being and social connectedness, with a view to informing national health and well-being agendas. An online survey was administered to young people aged 12-18 years (n = 2,338), recruited across Australia in year 2 of a larger 4-year study. Youth with no experience of cyberbullying had better well-being profiles and mental health overall. Conversely, cyberbully victims, had poorer well-being and mental health and tended not to engage with online support services, in spite of being more likely to be online after 11 pm. Parents and peers were identified as key sources of help for most young people when dealing with problems. Cyberbullying is a public health issue particularly for vulnerable youth whose mental health and well-being is impacted more than those not involved. As youth are spending increasing time in the 24/7 online environment, there is a need to develop initiatives that engage young people and encourage help-seeking online, whilst concomitantly building capacity of parents and peers to support their well-being.
Temple, Jeromey B; Williams, Ruth
Given recent rises in out-of-pocket health expenses, we examined the financial well-being of older Australians with multiple health conditions and disabilities. The 2014 General Social Survey was used to measure the: (i) current financial position; (ii) propensity to experience financial difficulties; and (iii) types of behaviours older people with multiple health conditions engage in to improve financial resilience. Compared to older Australians with no health conditions, respondents with multiple health conditions had lower incomes and assets and a higher propensity to hold consumer debt (once controls were included). They were at a higher risk of cash flow difficulties, dissaving to meet day-to-day living expenses and exclusion from financial providers. However, the majority of people with multiple health conditions engaged in financially resilient behaviours. Many older Australians with multiple health conditions were in a financially precarious situation with implications for the ability to afford ongoing increases in out-of-pocket health-care costs. © 2018 AJA Inc.
Tham, Rachel; Humphreys, John S; Kinsman, Leigh; Buykx, Penny; Asaid, Adel; Tuohey, Kathy
Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a) Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care); (b) Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction); and (c) Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability). Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how; what benefits have been realised and for whom; the level of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care; (b Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction; and (c Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability. Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how
Ndukwe K.C, Fatusi O.A, Ugboko V.I. Craniocervical necrotizing fasciitis in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002; 40( 1 ), 64-67. Reference to a book 5. Hollist N.O. A collection of traditional Yoruba oral and dental medicaments. 1st ed pp 20-39. Ibadan: Book Builders, 2004. Reference to a book chapter 2. Guthua ...
S?otwi?ska, Sylwia Ma?gorzata; S?otwi?ski, Robert
Proper food choices are part of preventing or reducing the risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. A significant association has been proven between oral diseases and the incidence of systemic diseases. Obesity, just like smoking, is one of the major risk factors for oral disease and is a serious social problem that has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries. The results of studies on periodontitis confirm the relationship between the values of body mass index (BMI) a...
Muscat, Danielle M; Smith, Sian; Dhillon, Haryana M; Morony, Suzanne; Davis, Esther L; Luxford, Karen; Shepherd, Heather L; Hayen, Andrew; Comings, John; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten
Adult education institutions have been identified as potential settings to improve health literacy and address the health inequalities that stem from limited health literacy. However, few health literacy interventions have been tested in this setting. Feasibility study for an RCT of the UK Skilled for Health Program adapted for implementation in Australian adult education settings. Implementation at two sites with mixed methods evaluation to examine feasibility, test for change in participants' health literacy and pilot test health literacy measures. Twenty-two socially disadvantaged adults with low literacy participated in the program and received 80-90 hours of health literacy instruction. The program received institutional support from Australia's largest provider of vocational education and training and was feasible to implement (100 % participation; >90 % completion; high teacher satisfaction). Quantitative results showed improvements in participants' health literacy skills and confidence, with no change on a generic measure of health literacy. Qualitative analysis identified positive student and teacher engagement with course content and self-reported improvements in health knowledge, attitudes, and communication with healthcare professionals. Positive feasibility results support a larger RCT of the health literacy program. However, there is a need to identify better, multi-dimensional measures of health literacy in order to be able to quantify change in a larger trial. This feasibility study represents the first step in providing the high quality evidence needed to understand the way in which health literacy can be improved and health inequalities reduced through Australian adult education programs.
Macek, Mark D; Haynes, Don; Wells, William; Bauer-Leffler, Simon; Cotten, P Ann; Parker, Ruth M
Health literacy encompasses several abilities including word recognition, reading comprehension, communication skills, and conceptual knowledge. To date, conceptual knowledge has not been included in oral health literacy research. This study assesses the validity and reliability of a new instrument and describes conceptual oral health knowledge among a sample of low-income adults. One hundred Baltimore adults were administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (Short-TOFHLA), and a new survey of conceptual oral health knowledge. Respondents were also asked about sociodemographics, dental health, and utilization. Psychometric analysis was used to identify a subset of oral health knowledge questions from the new survey instrument. The resulting Comprehensive Measure of Oral Health Knowledge (CMOHK) was categorized into three levels of knowledge (poor, fair, good). Nearly one-third of Baltimore adults exhibited the lowest level. CMOHK scores were significantly associated with age, education level, and word recognition (REALM). CMOHK scores were not associated with reading comprehension (Short-TOFHLA) or dental care visits. Instrument reliability was good (Cronbach alpha = 0.74). This preliminary study yielded a new measure of oral health conceptual knowledge, available for use in future oral health literacy studies. The author presents a conceptual framework of oral health literacy that separates health literacy into four unique components and places decision-making at the center. Future studies are needed to determine whether this framework is supported by empirical data and leads to improvements in oral health and reductions in health disparities.
We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans to develop therapeutic tools against oral diseases such as oral candidiasis. C. albicans, a dimorphic fungus, is a component of the healthy human microbial flora. However, the excessive overgrowth of C. albicans causes oral candidiasis, and the symptoms, accompanied by severe inflammation, reduce the quality of life of elderly people. We found that spices such as clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) exhibit inhibitory activity against Candida mycelial growth and show therapeutic efficacy in a murine oral candidiasis model. Our studies also demonstrated that the inhibitory activity of cinnamaldehyde was strengthened in parallel with a prolonged treatment time. Furthermore, when cinnamaldehyde in combination with methylcellulose was administered to the model mice, the therapeutic effect was potentiated. Here, we summarize up-to-date findings on how to use spices and herbs on a daily basis to improve or prevent oral problems such as oral candidiasis with the presentation of our recent data.
Kang, Hee-Young; Na, Song-Sook; Kim, Yun-Kyung
This study was done to examine the effects of oral care with essential oil in improving the oral health status of hospice patients with terminal cancer. The participants were 43 patients with terminal cancer admitted to K hospital in G city, Korea. Twenty-two patients were assigned to the experimental group and 21 to the control group. Participants in the experimental group received special mouth care with essential oil (application of essential oil mixture consisting of geranium, lavender, tea tree, and peppermint). The control group received special mouth care with 0.9% saline. The special mouth care was performed twice daily for one week in both groups. The scores for subjective oral comfortness, objective oral state, and numbers of colonizing Candida albicans were measured before and after the treatment. The score for subjective oral comfortness and objective oral state were significantly higher in the experimental group compared to the control group. The numbers of colonizing Candida albicans significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Oral care with essential oil could be an effective oral health nursing intervention for hospice patients with terminal cancer.
Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Foreman, Joshua; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed
To determine the prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) is a population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (aged 50-98 years) and 1738 Indigenous Australians (aged 40-92 years) living in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. An eye was considered to have vision loss due to trauma if the best-corrected visual acuity was worse than 6/12 and the main cause was attributed to ocular trauma. This determination was made by two independent ophthalmologists and any disagreements were adjudicated by a third senior ophthalmologist. The sampling weight adjusted prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and over was 0.24% (95%CI: 0.10, 0.52) and 0.79% (95%CI: 0.56, 1.13), respectively. Trauma was attributed as an underlying cause of bilateral vision loss in one Indigenous participant, with all other cases being monocular. Males displayed a higher prevalence of vision loss from ocular trauma than females in both the non-Indigenous (0.47% vs. 1.25%, p=0.03) and Indigenous populations (0.12% vs. 0.38%, p=0.02). After multivariate adjustments, residing in Very Remote geographical areas was associated with higher odds of vision loss from ocular trauma. We estimate that 2.4 per 1000 non-Indigenous and 7.9 per 1000 Indigenous Australian adults have monocular vision loss due to a previous severe ocular trauma. Our findings indicate that males, Indigenous Australians and those residing in Very Remote communities may benefit from targeted health promotion to improve awareness of trauma prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Graham; O'Donnell, Daryl; Crooks, Levinia; Lake, Rob
The Australian response to HIV oversaw one of the most rapid and sustained changes in community behaviour in Australia's health-promotion history. The combined action of communities of gay men, sex workers, people who inject drugs, people living with HIV and clinicians working in partnership with government, public health and research has been recognised for many years as highly successful in minimising the HIV epidemic. This article will show how the Australian HIV partnership response moved from a crisis response to a constant and continuously adapting response, with challenges in sustaining the partnership. Drawing on key themes, lessons for broader health promotion are identified. The Australian HIV response has shown that a partnership that is engaged, politically active, adaptive and resourced to work across multiple social, structural, behavioural and health-service levels can reduce the transmission and impact of HIV. The experience of the response to HIV, including its successes and failures, has lessons applicable across health promotion. This includes the need to harness community mobilisation and action; sustain participation, investment and leadership across the partnership; commit to social, political and structural approaches; and build and use evidence from multiple sources to continuously adapt and evolve. So what? The Australian HIV response was one of the first health issues to have the Ottawa Charter embedded from the beginning, and has many lessons to offer broader health promotion and common challenges. As a profession and a movement, health promotion needs to engage with the interactions and synergies across the promotion of health, learn from our evidence, and resist the siloing of our responses.
Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K
In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities.
Gomez, Andres; Nelson, Karen E
In the era of applied meta-omics and personalized medicine, the oral microbiome is a valuable asset. From biomarker discovery to being a powerful source of therapeutic targets and to presenting an opportunity for developing non-invasive approaches to health care, it has become clear that oral microbes may hold the answer for understanding disease, even beyond the oral cavity. Although our understanding of oral microbiome diversity has come a long way in the past 50 years, there are still many areas that need to be fine-tuned for better risk assessment and diagnosis, especially in early developmental stages of human life. Here, we discuss the factors that impact development of the oral microbiome and explore oral markers of disease, with a focus on the early oral cavity. Our ultimate goal is to put different experimental and methodological views into perspective for better assessment of early oral and systemic disease at an early age and discuss how oral microbiomes-at the community level-could provide improved assessment in individuals and populations at risk.
Petrova, Elena G; Hyman, Michael; Estrella, Maria Regina Padilla; Inglehart, Marita R
The purposes of this study were to increase dentists' understanding of how to best engage parents and their children with special health care needs (SHCN) in oral health promotion efforts and explore the relationships between these patients' level of functioning and oral health and their parents' comfort concerning oral health promotion. Survey data were collected from 154 caregivers of SHCN children. Children's oral health data were obtained from their clinical charts. The patients' level of functioning ranged from the lowest to the highest regarding their ability to listen/understand, talk, relate to others, care for themselves, play with others, and participate in physical activities. Children's gingival health was correlated with their ability to talk (r=-.12; Ppatient's level of functioning might predict the degree to which parents actually engage in oral health promotion efforts and are interested in oral health-related education.
Yazahmeidi, Boshra; Holman, C D'Arcy J
It is cause for concern when a democratically elected government suppresses embarrassing information by hindering public health research or the publication of research findings. We conducted a survey of Australian public health academics to estimate the level of acts of suppression of research by Australian governments, to characterise these events, and to gather views on what interventions might be effective in curbing them. A total of 302 academics in 17 institutions completed a postal questionnaire in August 2006 (46% of 652 invited). The instrument sought details of suppression events they had witnessed since 2001. There were 142 suppression events, including 85 personally experienced by 21.2% (n=64) of respondents. The rates were higher in 2005/06 than in earlier years. No State or Territory was immune from suppression. Although governments most commonly hindered research by sanitising, delaying or prohibiting publications (66% of events), no part of the research process was unaffected. Researchers commonly believed their work was targeted because it drew attention to failings in health services (48%), the health status of a vulnerable group (26%), or pointed to a harm in the environment (11%). The government agency seeking to suppress the health information mostly succeeded (87%) and, consequently, the public was left uninformed or given a false impression. Respondents identified a full range of participative, cognitive, structural and legislative control strategies. The suppression of public health information is widely practised by Australian governments. Systemic interventions are necessary to preserve the integrity of public health research conducted with government involvement.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS), a service of the Postgraduate Dental College, is chartered by the Department of Defense TRICARE Management...
Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J
intervention procedures aim, at treating existing problems and restore teeth and related structure to normal function. It is unfortunate that the low priority given to oral health hinders acquisition of data and establishment of effective periodontal care programmes in developing countries but also in some...... programmes in order to improve oral health conditions and particularly periodontal status in the majority of countries around the world is evident. Unfortunately, in many countries, the human, financial and material resources are still insufficient to meet the need for oral health care services...... and to provide universal access, especially in disadvantaged communities, in both developing and developed countries. Moreover, even though the most widespread illnesses are avoidable, not all population groups are well informed about or able to take advantage of the proper measures for oral health promotion...
Petersen, Poul Erik; Jiang, Han; Peng, Bin
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to measure the association of general and oral health-related behaviours with living conditions and to explore the interrelationships between general and oral health-related behaviours in Chinese urban adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey...... of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight Chinese provincial capitals. The response rate was 92%. The study population was selected through multistage cluster sampling and comprised three age groups: 11, 13 and 15 years. Data on oral and general health, lifestyles as well as living conditions were...... distributions, regression analyses and factor analyses. RESULTS: Oral health-related behaviours among adolescents were associated with socioeconomic status of parents, school performance and peer relationships. The odds of a dental visit was 0.63 in adolescents of poorly educated parents and the corresponding...
Tetuan, Theresa M; McGlasson, Dawn; Meyer, Ileen
Children from low-income families are more likely to have dental disease and less likely to have regular dental care. Children's dental-related illnesses are responsible for more than 880,000 lost school days each year. The lack of reliable state-level data often makes monitoring the oral health of children a challenge. By conducting oral health screenings, school nurses could promote prevention and early identification of dental problems and could aid in the collection of data. This innovative project used a convenience sample of students to test a caries detection device. Children in Grades 3 and 6 (n = 2,622) received oral health screening by the school nurse using a noninvasive laser fluorescent dental device. Findings revealed that 82% of students referred to the dentists received dental care. School nurses can contribute to improving the oral health status of the school-age population by early detection of dental caries and referrals for a dental evaluation.
Muzyka, Brian C; Glass, Magdalena; Glass, Oliver M
Psychiatric medications may have serious and untoward adverse effects such as blurred vision, restlessness, agranulocytosis, muscle rigidity, and tremors. When compared to medications, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is becoming a more acceptable treatment due to its efficacy, tolerability, and minimal adverse effect profile. Oral trauma can be an ECT-related adverse effect. We reviewed the published literature on oral health and dental protection in patients undergoing ECT, and found that there are deficits in all guidelines on dental protection during ECT. Dental assessment and treatment before and after ECT is warranted. Given the increased risk of poor oral health in psychiatric patients, and the continued evolution of ECT as a mainstay treatment, it is important that studies be conducted to determine the optimal method of oral protection. If adequate care can be ensured, the risks of ECT-induced oral trauma will be minimized.
Mortezai Banaye Jedd; Towhid Babazadeh; Zahra Hashemian; Fatemeh Moradi; Zeinab Ghavami
Background and Objectives: Identifying the effective factors on oral health behaviors could have an important role in promotion of oral health in diabetic patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the assessment of cognitive-behavioral determinants of oral health in students using Pender's Health Promotion Model. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 251 subjects were selected from Azad University, Payame Noor University and Sarab Faculty of Medical Sciences by...
Peterson, L C; Cobb, D S; Reynolds, D C
The majority of work on computer use in the dental field has focused on non-clinical practice management information needs. Very few computer-based dental information systems provide management support of the clinical care process, particularly with respect to quality management. Traditional quality assurance methods rely on the paper record and provide only retrospective analysis. Today, proactive quality management initiatives are on the rise. Computer-based dental information systems are being integrated into the care environment, actively providing decision support as patient care is being delivered. These new systems emphasize assessment and improvement of patient care at the time of treatment, thus building internal quality management into the caregiving process. The integration of real time quality management and patient care will be expedited by the introduction of an information system architecture that emulates the gathering and storage of clinical care data currently provided by the paper record. As a proposed solution to the problems associated with existing dental record systems, the computer-based patient record has emerged as a possible alternative to the paper dental record. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently conducted a study on improving the efficiency and accuracy of patient record keeping. As a result of this study, the IOM advocates the development and implementation of computer-based patient records as the standard for all patient care records. This project represents the ongoing efforts of The University of Iowa College of Dentistry's collaboration with the University of Uppsala Data Center, Uppsala, Sweden, on a computer-based patient dental record model. ICOHR (Intelligent Computer Based Oral Health Record) is an information system which brings together five important parts of the patient's dental record: medical and dental history; oral status; treatment planning; progress notes; and a Patient Care Database, generated from their
S Jalal Pourhashemi
Full Text Available Context: Addiction results in a range of health problems especially in the oral cavity. Aims: This study assessed the oral health status among women with a history of drug abuse in Tehran, Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted through structured interviews and clinical examinations of women at three rehabilitation centers in Tehran. Materials and Methods: Data on background characteristics, addiction history, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and oral health indices were collected. Statistical Analysis Used: We used MANOVA test and multiple logistic regression models to analyze the data. Results: We assessed 95 participants aged 37.88 ± 10.65 years. The most commonly reported drugs used prior to treatment were opiates (77.2%. The mean knowledge and attitude score among the patients was 80.83 ± 12.89 (37.5-100. Less than half of the dentate women reported tooth brushing as "rarely or never" (44.2%. Most of them (81.8% had never used dental floss and 76.1% were daily smokers. The mean score of dental caries index (decayed, missed and filled teeth of the participants was 20.2 ± 7.18 and 17 subjects were edentulous (17.9%. Factors such as age, drug type, duration of addiction, time of last dental visit, and frequency of brushing were associated with oral health status among these women. Conclusions: Women with a history of drug abuse in our study suffered from poor oral health. Although they had an acceptable level of knowledge and attitude toward oral health, their oral health, and hygiene was poor. These results call for more attention in designing and implementing oral health programs for addicts.
Batwala, V; Mulogo, E M; Arubaku, W
Despite the need for oral health morbidity surveys to aid in reviewing of the oral health services, dental data of Ugandan children is scanty. To describe the magnitude and distribution of selected oral health conditions among primary school children in Mbarara, Uganda. A stratified two-stage cluster sample of 437 children aged 5-6, 8-9 and 11-12 was enrolled. The selected conditions included: dental caries, plaque, calculus, gingivitis, fluorosis and malocclusion (maxillary overjet). These conditions were diagnosed and scored in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. The mean decayed, missing, filled permanent teeth (DMFT) was 1.5(±0.8 SD). Females had higher DMFT (1.6±0.8SD) than males (1.3±0.8SD). Decayed, filled milk teeth (dt) was 2.7(±1.8SD) but more in males 3.1(±2.1SD) than in females 2.4(±1.6SD). Children in private schools were likely to have more caries in both permanent teeth (DMFT: 1.6±0.9SD) and milk teeth (dt: 3.0±1.9SD). Day-scholars were likely to have more caries in permanent teeth (DFMT: 1.50.8SD). Those in boarding were likely to have more caries in milk teeth (dt: 3±2.2SD). Milk teeth caries decreased with age (pgingivitis. The oral hygiene of school children was poor with high plaque prevalence demonstrating a lack of established oral hygiene practices. A comprehensive community-focused oral health care intervention that includes oral health education in homes and the strengthening of school health programme is needed to improve the oral health status of children in Mbarara.
Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho
Conclusion: Parents’ dental health habits influence their children's oral health. Oral health education programs aimed at preventive actions are needed to provide children not only with adequate oral health, but better quality of life. Special attention should be given to the entire family, concerning their lifestyle and oral health habits.
Rouxel, Patrick L; Heilmann, Anja; Aida, Jun; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G
In the last two decades, there has been increasing application of the concept of social capital in various fields of public health, including oral health. However, social capital is a contested concept with debates on its definition, measurement, and application. This study provides an overview of the concept of social capital, highlights the various pathways linking social capital to health, and discusses the potential implication of this concept for health policy. An extensive and diverse international literature has examined the relationship between social capital and a range of general health outcomes across the life course. A more limited but expanding literature has also demonstrated the potential influence of social capital on oral health. Much of the evidence in relation to oral health is limited by methodological shortcomings mainly related to the measurement of social capital, cross-sectional study designs, and inadequate controls for confounding factors. Further research using stronger methodological designs should explore the role of social capital in oral health and assess its potential application in the development of oral health improvement interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kelsall, Helen L; Sim, Malcolm R; Ikin, Jillian F; Forbes, Andrew B; McKenzie, Dean P; Glass, Deborah C; Ittak, Peter
Abstract Background Since the 1991 Gulf War concerns have been raised about the effects of deployment to the Gulf War on veterans' health. Studies of the reproductive health of Gulf War veterans have reported varied findings. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of male Australian Gulf War veterans (n = 1,424) and a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1,548). The study was conducted from August 2000 to April 2002. A postal questionnaire included questions about difficultie...
Tapper, Alan; Phillimore, John
Australian government health expenditure per capita has grown steadily across the past few decades, but little is known about trends in the age distribution of health expenditure. In this paper, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) fiscal incidence studies, which track expenditure at the household level between 1984 and 2010, are used to shed light on this topic. The main finding was that spending has shifted focus from the younger half to the older half of the population. This shift is evident in three areas: (1) acute care (hospitals); (2) community health services (doctors); and (3) pharmaceuticals. Together, these areas account for approximately 88% of expenditure. The trend is independent of demographic aging. It is unlikely to reflect changes in population health. Its explanation is open to debate. Growth in expenditure per household has been more than threefold faster for elderly than young households. Across this period, expenditure per household per week has increased by 51% for the young, by 79% for the middle aged and by 179% for the elderly. This age-related growth is most prominent in expenditure on acute care, community health services and pharmaceuticals. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The Productivity Commission has published figures that relate age and Australian heath expenditure. However, there has been no published study of age-related trends in Australian health expenditure. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: In addition to tracking age-related trends across 26 years, this paper adds a breakdown of those trends into four categories of expenditure, namely acute care, community health services, pharmaceutical benefits, and other. This breakdown shows that the trends vary by expenditure type. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS?: The paper shows that forward projections in health expenditure need to take into account age-related trends as well as demographic trends.
Bettie, Nirmal F; Ramachandiran, Hari; Anand, Vijay; Sathiamurthy, Anusha; Sekaran, Preethi
The seven dimensions of quality of life are required for a healthy living. Any impairment or disability affects any one or more of these dimensions resulting in functional impairment or handicap, which indicates the presence of disease. The success of any oral treatment depends on how far the individual is relieved of his disease process. Relief of symptoms provides patient comfort and enable functional activities. This well-being is considered as a measure of oral health and reflects patient satisfaction. This article presents various instruments or tools available in the form of a questionnaire that estimates patient satisfaction and thereby oral health.
van Nieuw Ameronpn, A; Veerman, E C I; Brand, H S; Vissink, A
Several salivary proteins are involved in the antimicrobial defence within the oral cavity, and are able to eliminate or inhibit a great number of microorganisms that enter the body via the oral cavity. Thus changes in the composition of saliva may not only affect people's oral health, but also have consequences for their general health. Based on salivary proteins, antimicrobial peptides have been synthesized. Potentially, these could be used as a new class of antibiotics. The antimicrobial peptides are hardly cytotoxic to human cells and do not evoke any or only very little resistence in microorganisms.
Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah
We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities
Full Text Available Objectives. The oral health services of the prison population are considered more complex than those of the general population. The aim of this study was to examine the oral health status (the DMFT index and OHI index and to evaluate the relation between the oral health and risk factors of inmates of this population, thus identifying the dental health status of inmates by gender, age, and the duration of their sentence. Materials and Methods. Our study has included a total number of 150 inmates, of both genders, from Lipjan prison house in Kosovo. Results. Oral health condition of inmates in Lipjan prison house is severe; the average value of DMFT is 8.44: for minors 6.22, while for adults 9.55. The assessment of DMFT index within the recruited inmates in our study shows that the mean rate of oral cure was 3.21, while the mean extraction value and caries were 3.55 and 3.58, respectively. The mean plaque test value was 1.44. Conclusion. Based on this research, we have concluded that the oral health condition of the inmates in Lipjan prison is not good, due to the presence of different risk factors among them.
Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh
Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants' knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample.
Roe, Sandy; Branson, Bonnie G.; Lackey, Nancy R.
Responses from 23 of 37 area health education center project directors revealed that dental and dental hygiene students participated in interdisciplinary allied health studies. Oral health care education was delivered across disciplines; methods included problem-based learning and reflection. (SK)
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Borge; Nielsen, Ellen
health-care programme. Clinical data and data from interviews comprising social factors, life-style, dental visit habits, oral hygiene practices and self-perceived oral health were collected. A modified index on perceived dysfunction, discomfort and disability due to oral disorders was used. Results......A cross-sectional study of oral health and oral health-related quality of life among frail elderly persons on admission to a special oral health care programme in Copenhagen City, Denmark Aim: To describe the oral health and the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of citizens in Copenhagen...... City on admission to a specific oral health-care programme for disabled elderly persons. Further, to analyse how various factors influence the oral health and the OHRQoL among these patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 189 persons (average 85 years) consecutively admitted to a special oral...
Roberts, Ryan Z; Erwin, Paul Campbell
Children in poverty have limited access to oral healthcare. One approach to reduce such health inequities is to expand the involvement of primary care physicians in the provision of oral healthcare. The purpose of this study was to assess pediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and professional experiences regarding oral health in children, and to determine their willingness to incorporate preventive dental education and procedures into their practices. We conducted a survey of pediatricians in Tennessee to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and professional experiences regarding oral health, and to determine their willingness to incorporate preventive dental education and procedures into their practices. Of the 450 providers randomly selected for survey distribution, 107 returned completed surveys (response rate, 23.8%). The majority of respondents reported that they are likely to examine children's teeth during well-child care visits, but only a minority use preventive techniques such as application of fluoride varnish. Pediatricians receive very little education on oral health during medical school and residency programs. Expanding oral healthcare access through primary care physicians will require adequate training in medical school, residency, and in continuing education courses.
Price, Shelia S; Funk, Amy D; Shockey, Alcinda K; Sharps, Gina M; Crout, Richard J; Frere, Cathryn L; Morgan, Susan K; DeBiase, Christina B; Hobbs, Gerald R
Heart disease is the number one killer of women, and studies have shown connections between cardiovascular and oral health. However, interprofessional community-based participatory initiatives promoting women's oral health have received little research attention. This study evaluated the effectiveness of personalized oral health education (POHE) during a free one-day interprofessional women's health promotion event. The objectives were to 1) assess the participants' knowledge about the connection between oral health and heart disease; 2) disseminate information about oral-systemic linkages; 3) encourage comprehensive dental examinations; and 4) evaluate POHE outcomes. West Virginia University School of Dentistry faculty and students delivered POHE to the participants. These POHE instructors were calibrated with a standardized script regarding periodontal disease, health impact of tobacco, xerostomia-inducing medications, and oral hygiene instruction. Immediately prior to and following each POHE session, all the participants (N=165; 100 percent response rate) completed a number-coded questionnaire. The findings showed that the participants' knowledge of oral-systemic health linkages had increased following the POHE. The respondents received oral health kits and were offered discount vouchers toward the cost of a comprehensive oral examination at the dental school. This replicable model may prove useful to other dental schools in promoting women's oral health.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of current professional guidelines regarding oral health care through pregnancy and infancy stages, and to include risks associated with treatment, as well as health care providers' beliefs and attitudes surrounding treatment of these specific populations. Although dental treatment during the second trimester is ideal, there is no indication that preventive or restorative dental treatment during any trimester of pregnancy can cause harm to the mother or developing fetus. Despite these recommendations, routine dental care is often voluntarily avoided or postponed for the duration of pregnancy. Post-delivery, preventive oral care is typically postponed for a child until 3 years of age, years after the first tooth has erupted. While most health care professionals agree on the importance of good oral health in every stage of life, it is not being addressed. Whether it is based on misconceptions or lack of knowledge, health care providers are performing inadequate oral care for these patients. Recommendations to increase health care during pregnancy and infancy should include improved advocacy of the established oral health care guidelines within each professional organization. In addition, curriculum revision should occur at the university level, to ensure future health care professionals will have a strong oral health foundation. Lastly, a collaborative effort needs to occur between all health care providers to better treat the patient's overall health, not only the specifics of one professional discipline. As health care professionals we are all responsible for the complete well-being of our patients, and an interdisciplinary approach will better ensure we accomplish this task.
Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J; Thomas, Shane A; Wells, Yvonne
A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well ("healthy," "active," and "successful" aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.
Full Text Available A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (‘healthy’, ‘active’ and ‘successful’ aging has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12 year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being underweight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being underweight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.
Briggs, D S; Tejativaddhana, P; Cruickshank, M; Fraser, J; Campbell, S
There have been recent calls for a renewed worldwide focus on primary health care. The Thai-Australian Health Alliance addresses this call by developing health care management capability in primary health care professionals in rural Thailand. This paper describes the history and current activities of the Thai-Australian Health Alliance and its approaches to developing health care management capacity for primary care services through international collaborations in research, education and training over a sustained time period. The Alliance's approach is described herein as a distributed network of practices with access to shared knowledge through collaboration. Its research and education approaches involve action research, multi-methods projects, and evaluative studies in the context of workshops and field studies. WHO principles underpin this approach, with countries sharing practical experiences and outcomes, encouraging leadership and management resource networks, creating clearing houses/knowledge centres, and harmonising and aligning partners with their country's health systems. Various evaluations of the Alliance's activities have demonstrated that a capacity building approach that aligns researchers, educators and health practitioners in comparative and reflective activities can be effective in transferring knowledge and skills among a collaboration's partners. Project participants, including primary health care practitioners, health policy makers and academics embraced the need to acquire management skills to sustain primary care units. Participants believe that the approaches described herein were crucial to developing the management skills needed of health care professionals for rural and remote primary health care. The implementation of this initiative was challenged by pre-existing low opinions of the importance of the management role in health care, but with time the Alliance's activities highlighted for all the importance of health care management
Full Text Available Abstract Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.
Crabtree, Rebecca; Kirk, Abigail; Moore, Moriah; Abraham, Sam
Oral health is a simple and important part of college students' lives but might often be overlooked or undermined because of increased stress levels and unhealthy habits associated with the college setting. Despite the challenges, college days may be one of the best times to establish lifelong healthy habits, including oral health routines. The purpose of this study was to determine the current oral care behaviors and perceptions of students at a midwestern college. This study was nonexperimental in nature with a quantitative method and a cross-sectional design, which included 126 participants. The survey instrument included 2 Likert-type scales. The oral health-related quality-of-life model was used as the theoretical framework to guide the study.
3- oral health training (control group . Two weeks and two months after the intervention, plaque index was measured. Positive and negative changes were recorded over time, and then, the study data were analyzed using Chi-square (bonferroni adjustment, McNemar, Kruskal-Wallis and Paired t-Test. Results: The study results revealed no significant differences between the halitosis group and the traditional group, though both had a significant difference with the control group. Positive changes in halitosis group especially within girls were held to be more durable compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Oral health training accompanging training of oral malodor, tooth decay and periodontal disease seems to be more effective on health promotion of senior high school students in Yazd. Furthermore, oral malodor training produces more durable effects. As a result, this training style is recommended in regard with eductional programs of schools.
Yanagisawa, Tomohito; Furukawa, Sayaka; Ueno, Masayuki; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko
Mass media is an important source for the general public to obtain health information. Newspapers especially have the advantages of providing a variety of information to a broad range of age groups, with wide regional coverage of both urban and rural areas. The purposes of this study were to review the oral malodor information in Japanese newspapers and to investigate peoples' knowledge on the causes of oral malodor. The Nikkei Database was used to select articles published in five major newspapers over a period of 12 years from 1993 to 2004. "Oral malodor" was used as a key search word. A total of 386 articles which contained oral malodor information were identified and used for the analysis. A questionnaire survey was conducted for the patients who visited a fresh breath clinic (n=295). The average number of articles per year was 32.2 +/- 7.3 and there was not a significant difference among years and months. There were only 25 articles (6.5%) with the central theme of oral malodor. More than half of the articles introduced anti-oral malodor products. The causes of oral malodor were described in 35% of the articles (n=134). Periodontal disease (n=57), tongue coating (n=35), otorhinolaryngological diseases (n=19), stomach problems (n=14) and psychological factors (n=21) were described as the causes of malodor. Only 35 articles (26%) described the treatment and