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Sample records for australian impact origin

  1. Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Standard, J C

    2003-01-01

    Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

  2. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these ...

  3. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.

  4. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

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    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  5. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

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    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied.

  6. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians

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    Darren Curnoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins.

  7. Danish and Australian Television: The Impact of Format Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2007-01-01

    influences local television markets and leads to changes according to local competitive, financial, cultural and political conditions. It explores the impact of format adaptation on Danish and Australian prime-time schedules between 1995 and 2004/05, and its effect on local content and genres among the main......Format adaptation plays an increasingly important part in international television. Formats such as Dancing with the Stars and Idol are screened in many territories. The article presents an in-depth case study of how this relatively new and highly internationalised production and business model...

  8. Impact origin of the Moon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

  9. Lunar origin from impact on the Earth

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    Stevenson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    All theories of lunar origin involve events or processes which seemingly have low efficiencies or low probabilities or both. An impact-triggered fission lunar origin is presented. If the impact ejecta (a mixture of target and projectile) leave the impact site ballistically and are subsequently acted upon only by the gravity field of a spherical Earth, then the ejecta either reimpacts the Earth or escapes on a hyperbolic trajectory. Hence the need for a second burn. Three possible resolutions are considered: pressure gradient acceleration, non-central gravity, and viscous spreading.

  10. NAVIGATING BETWEEN ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS IDENTITY: HERITAGE LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE AMONG YOUNG AUSTRALIANS OF INDONESIAN ORIGIN

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    Ahmad Bukhori Muslim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For ethnic minority groups, speaking a heritage language signifies belonging to their country of origin and enriches the dominant culture. The acculturation of major ethnic groups in Australia – Greek, Italian, Chinese, Indian and Vietnamese – has been frequently studied, but a minor one like Indonesian has not. Through semi-structured interviews at various places and observations at cultural events, the study explores the contextual use, meaning and perceived benefits of Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language among Indonesian families and how this practice influences the young participants’ (18-26 years old identification with Indonesia, the origin country of their parents, and Australia, their current culture of settlement. The findings suggest that Bahasa Indonesia serves as a marker of ethnic and religious identity glued in family socialization. Parents believe that not only does the language signify their Indonesian ethnic identity, but also provides a means for socializing family values, and is beneficial for educational purposes and future career opportunities. However, parents face a dilemma whether to focus on ethnic or religious identity in socializing the use of Bahasa Indonesia. Interestingly, most young participants demonstrate a more global worldview by embracing both Indonesian and Australian values. How religious identity relates to more global worldview should be addressed more comprehensively in future studies.

  11. Cultural Modulation and The Zero Originality Clause of Remix Culture in Australian Contemporary Art

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    Ross Rudesch Harley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian media artists particularly have been engaged in using found-footage strategies — as evidenced by work made over the past three decades and included in recent retrospective exhibitions such as 'SynCity: Remixing three generations of sample culture' (2006. Armed with techniques of cut and copy, these artists purposefully manipulate and hack found material for their own strategic purposes. In doing so, they dislocate archival material from its original techno-cultural location and re-animate global popular culture in their own personal/local style. Artists have always been plugged into archives, whether it be for inspiration, research purposes, or as a source of raw material. The present digitisation of archives into web databases and peer-to-peer networks has further accelerated this relationship of storage and cultural exchange. Tracing a conceptual bass-line that can be followed from the avant-garde filmmakers of the 20s, Situationist détournement and Burroughs’ cut-up techniques of the 1960s, 1980s Super8 strategies, contemporary VJ culture, creative commons, wikimedia, open source and P2P networks, this article lays out some of the stakes involved in remixing the archive in the bit-torrent age.

  12. Impacts of the Madden-Julian oscillation on Australian rainfall and circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, M.C.; Hendon, H.H.; Cleland, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Donald, A.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of the Madden¿Julian oscillation (MJO) on Australian rainfall and circulation are examined during all four seasons. The authors examine circulation anomalies and a number of different rainfall metrics, each composited contemporaneously for eight MJO phases derived from the real-time multivar

  13. Cyberbullying: Experiences, Impacts and Coping Strategies as Described by Australian Young People

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    Price, Megan; Dalgleish, John

    2010-01-01

    Cyberbullying impacts on the wellbeing, schooling, family and peer relationships of many young people. The current study of 548 young Australians revealed that cyberbullying is a group phenomenon most prevalent during the transitional ages between primary and secondary school. It takes on many forms and shows an overlap in roles between…

  14. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Fayet-Moore; Jean Kim; Nilani Sritharan; Peter Petocz

    2016-01-01

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with br...

  15. Impact of climate variability on an east Australian bay

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    Gräwe, U.; Wolff, J.-O.; Ribbe, J.

    2010-01-01

    The climate along the subtropical east coast of Australia is changing significantly. Rainfall has decreased by about 50 mm per decade and temperature increased by about 0.1 °C per decade during the last 50 years. These changes are likely to impact upon episodes of hypersalinity and the persistence of inverse circulations, which are often characteristic features of the coastal zone in the subtropics and are controlled by the balance between evaporation, precipitation, and freshwater discharge. In this study, observations and results from a general ocean circulation model are used to investigate how current climate trends have impacted upon the physical characteristics of the Hervey Bay, Australia. During the last two decades, mean precipitation in Hervey Bay deviates by 13% from the climatology (1941-2000). In the same time, the river discharge is reduced by 23%. In direct consequence, the frequency of hypersaline and inverse conditions has increased. Moreover, the salinity flux out of the bay has increased and the evaporation induced residual circulation has accelerated. Contrary to the drying trend, the occurrence of severe rainfalls, associated with floods, leads to short-term fluctuations in the salinity. These freshwater discharge events are used to estimate a typical response time for the bay.

  16. Climate Change and Long-Term Fire Management Impacts on Australian Savanna

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    Scheiter, S.; Higgins, S. I.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical savannas cover a large proportion of the Earth's land surface and many people are dependent on the ecosystem services that savannas supply. Their sustainable management is therefore crucial. Due to the complexity of vegetation dynamics, the impacts of climate change and land use on savannas are highly uncertain. Here, we use a dynamic vegetation model, the aDGVM, to project how climate change and fire management influence vegetation in northern Australian savannas in 2100. We show that under future climate conditions, vegetation can store more carbon than under ambient conditions, despite substantial changes in fire regimes. Changes in rainfall seasonality influence future carbon storage but do not turn vegetation into a carbon source, suggesting that CO2 fertilization is the main driver of vegetation change. The application of prescribed fires with varying return intervals and burning season, influences vegetation dynamics and fire induced carbon and greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon sequestration is maximized with early dry season fires and long fire return intervals, grass productivity is maximized with late dry season fires at an intermediate fire return intervals. The study has implications for management policy across Australian savannas because it can contribute to identifying fire management strategies that optimize grazing yield, carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions. This knowledge is crucial to maintain important ecosystem services of Australian savannas.

  17. An Investigation of the impact of interest rates and interest rate volatility on Australian financial sector stock return distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faff, R.; Kremmer, M.; Hodgson, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper extends the existing literature by analysing the dual impact of changes in the interest rate and interest rate volatility on the distribution of Australian financial sector stock returns. In addition, a multivariate GARCH-M model is used to analyse the impact of deregulation on the financ

  18. Impacts and the origin of life

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    Kasting, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    As living creatures, all of us have some interest in the question of how life originated. To some, the question is more religious than scientific; nonetheless, a small but dedicated group of scientists spend their careers trying to answer it from a rational standpoint. Logically, the question can be broken down into the three standard divisions of any mystery: When did life originate? Where did it originate? And how did it originate? Of these three sub-questions the last is by far the most difficult and I will make no attempt to address it here. I will however take a personal look at the two easier parts of the problem. In particular, I will outline my current view of the physical environment of the early Earth, and I will try to show how observations of other solar system bodies, especially our own Moon, provide clues as to when and where life could have originated.

  19. Innovation Performance and Its Impact on Profitability Among Different Sectors in the Australian Construction Industry

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    Mary Hardie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The BRITE (Building Research Information Technology and Environment project was established by the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Construction Innovation to encourage innovation in the construction industry. While innovation is generally perceived to be broadly beneficial, there has been little formal study of its occurrence or impact in Australian construction or of the factors which foster an innovative atmosphere within an enterprise. In order to benchmark innovation performance, the BRITE project conducted a survey in 2004 into the nature, incidence and variety of technological and organisational innovations in various sectors of the industry. With some exceptions, the survey found that clients and consultants engaged in significantly higher levels of innovation than did suppliers, main contractors or trade contractors. Within the industry sectors those organisations classified as high innovators favoured the adoption of advanced management practices and had formal evaluation systems in place to judge their progress. They reported significant positive impacts on their profitability from innovation and can therefore provide instructive examples for the rest of the industry to follow.

  20. Intraspecific variation in desiccation survival time of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito eggs of Australian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faull, Katherine J; Williams, Craig R

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes preferentially oviposit in natural and artificial receptacles where their eggs are able to withstand drying as water levels fluctuate. Desiccation-resistant eggs also increase the potential for establishment in non-native habitats while providing logistical impediments to control programs. Viability and mean survival times of eggs stored under three dryness conditions for up to 367 days were investigated among three field-derived colonies of Australian Ae. aegypti to understand variation in desiccation survival. Further investigations compared egg survival between an established colony and its wild counterpart. Our results confirmed that Ae. aegypti eggs can withstand desiccation for extended periods of time with approximately 2-15% egg viability recorded after one year and viability remaining above 88% under all conditions through 56 days. Intraspecific variations in egg survival times were recorded, suggesting local adaptation while each of the colonies demonstrated a consistent preference for higher humidity. Egg volume varied between the populations, suggesting a relationship between egg volume and survival time, with the marginally larger eggs (Charters Towers and Innisfail) having greater desiccation resistance over the range of conditions. The strong survivorship of Charters Towers eggs in dry, warm conditions demonstrates the adaptive significance of a desiccation-resistant egg.

  1. The Impact of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 on the Health and Wellbeing of Australian Adults.

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    Crawford, Hilda A; Barton, Belinda; Wilson, Meredith J; Berman, Yemima; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J; Morrison, Patrick J; North, Kathryn N

    2015-12-01

    The complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are widespread, unpredictable and variable and each person's experience of this disorder is unique. However, few studies have addressed the impact of NF1 from an individual's perspective. This qualitative study aims to identify the ways in which NF1 impacts upon affected Australian adults. Sixty adults with NF1, with a range of disease severity and visibility participated in a semi-structured interview about the ways in which NF1 impacted upon their life and health. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Results indicated that NF1 impacts upon affected adults in five major ways: 1) cosmetic burden of disease 2) learning difficulties 3) concerns about the risk of passing NF1 to offspring 4) uncertain disease progression, and 5) pain. Participants identified the aspects of NF1 that bothered them the most, creating a hierarchy of NF1 concerns within the cohort. Importantly, mildly affected adults shared many of the same concerns as those more severely affected. This study enhances our current understanding of the impact of NF1 in adulthood, and augments existing recommendations for the care of these patients.

  2. Diversity of Virulence Factors Associated with West Australian Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Isolates of Human Origin

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    Charlene Babra Waryah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive array of virulence factors associated with S. aureus has contributed significantly to its success as a major nosocomial pathogen in hospitals and community causing variety of infections in affected patients. Virulence factors include immune evading capsular polysaccharides, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, and teichoic acid in addition to damaging toxins including hemolytic toxins, enterotoxins, cytotoxins, exfoliative toxin, and microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM. In this investigation, 31 West Australian S. aureus isolates of human origin and 6 controls were analyzed for relative distribution of virulence-associated genes using PCR and/or an immunoassay kit and MSCRAMM by PCR-based typing. Genes encoding MSCRAMM, namely, Spa, ClfA, ClfB, SdrE, SdrD, IsdA, and IsdB, were detected in >90% of isolates. Gene encoding α-toxin was detected in >90% of isolates whereas genes encoding β-toxin and SEG were detectable in 50–60% of isolates. Genes encoding toxin proteins, namely, SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEH, SEI, SEJ, TSST, PVL, ETA, and ETB, were detectable in >50% of isolates. Use of RAPD-PCR for determining the virulence factor-based genetic relatedness among the isolates revealed five cluster groups confirming genetic diversity among the MSSA isolates, with the greatest majority of the clinical S. aureus (84% isolates clustering in group IIIa.

  3. The Impact and Effect of Learning 2.0 Programs in Australian Public Libraries

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    Michael Stephens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – With adoption of the program world-wide, the Learning 2.0 model has been lauded by library professionals as a mechanism to educate library staff and transform libraries. This study, part of the 2009 CAVAL Visiting Scholar project, seeks to measure the impact and legacy of the model within Australian public libraries to understand what benefits, changes and effects occur.Methods – A national Web-based survey for those who had participated in a learning 2.0 program.Results – The national survey had 384 respondents, and a total of 64 respondents were identified as the public library staff data set for this article. Public library staff reported success in the program and described feelings of increased confidence, inclusivity, and a move to use emerging technologies as part of library service.Conclusion– The analysis yields the following thematic areas of impact and effect:personal practice is enhanced with knowledge and confidence; impact is mainly personal, but organisational changes may follow; the library is using the tools to varying degrees of success, and organizational blocks prevent use of tools. These finding offer evidence that Learning 2.0 programs can have a positive effect on library staff and subsequently on the organization itself.

  4. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

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    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural language semantics in linguistics and in philosophy and logic. With Montague as a central but not solo player in the story, I reflect on crucial developments in the 1960's and 70's in linguistics and philosophy, and the growth of formal semantics and formal pragmatics from there. I discuss innovations, key players, and leading ideas that shaped the development of formal semantics and its relation to syntax, to pragmatics, and to the philosophy of language in its early years, and some central aspects of its early impact on those fields.ReferencesAbbott, B. 1999. ‘The formal approach to meaning: Formal semantics and its recent developments’. Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai119, no. 1: 2–20. https://www.msu.edu/~abbottb/formal.htm.Ajdukiewicz, K. 1960. Je¸zyk i Poznanie (Language and Knowledge. Warsaw.Bach, E. 1968. ‘Nouns and Noun Phrases’. In E. Bach & R.T. Harms (eds. ‘Universals in Linguistic Theory’, 90–122. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Bach, E. 1989. Informal Lectures on Formal Semantics. New York: State University of New York Press.Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954a. ‘Logical syntax and semantics’. Language 30: 230–237.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410265Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954b. ‘Indexical Expressions’. Mind 63: 359–379.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/LXIII.251.359Bar-Hillel, Y. 1963. ‘Remarks on Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language’. In P. A. Schilpp (ed. ‘The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap’, 519–543. LaSalle, Illinois / London: Open

  5. The origin of the medium OSL component in West Australian quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L., E-mail: wxl@loess.llqg.ac.cn [SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 (China); Key Laboratory of Western Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering, Ministry of Education of China and Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, Shaanxi (China); Du, J.H. [SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 (China); Key Laboratory of Western Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering, Ministry of Education of China and Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, Shaanxi (China); Adamiec, G. [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics—Centre for Science and Education, ul. Konarskiego 22B, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wintle, A.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DB (United Kingdom); McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3ER (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of a coarse-grained sedimentary quartz from West Australia was investigated. Observations of OSL and TL (thermoluminescence) were made following a series of experiments using different heating and optical bleaching conditions, and with optical stimulation at several different temperatures. Analysis of the fast and medium OSL components suggests that the medium OSL component observed after heating at 260 °C is a by-product of the production of the fast component, and both of them have as their original source the 325 °C TL trap. During fast OSL production following irradiation and preheating, some of the electrons evicted into the conduction band are re-trapped in an intermediate trap corresponding to the 170 °C TL peak; from here they are instantaneously stimulated to give rise to the medium OSL signal when the blue light stimulation is switched on, and subsequently result in the residual recuperated TL after the blue light is switched off. The kinetic properties of the medium OSL component are determined by the properties of both the 170 °C and 325 °C TL traps in contrast to the conventional interpretation of the medium component being derived from an independent source trap. Therefore, the 170 °C TL trap also plays unexpected roles in quartz OSL production with elevated stimulation temperatures (e.g. 125 °C or 130 °C, currently used for OSL dating), while the 110 °C TL trap and its influences are being avoided. - Highlights: • Quartz medium OSL component is a by-product of fast OSL component production. • Medium component is mediated by the 170 C TL peak. • Phototransfer is responsible for the medium OSL.

  6. The impact of Health Information Technology (I-HIT) Scale: the Australian results.

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    Cook, Robyn; Foster, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    One of role of the nurse in the clinical setting is that of co-ordinating communication across the healthcare team. On a daily basis nurses interact with the person receiving care, their family members, and multiple care providers thus placing the nurse in the central position with access to a vast array of information on the person. Through this nurses have historically functioned as "information repositories". With the advent of Health Information Technology (HIT) tools there is a potential that HIT could impact interdisciplinary communication, practice efficiency and effectiveness, relationships and workflow in acute care settings [1][3]. In 2005, the HIMSS Nursing Informatics Community developed the I-HIT Scale to measure the impact of HIT on the nursing role and interdisciplinary communication in USA hospitals. In 2007, nursing informatics colleagues from Australia, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, Scotland and the USA formed a research collaborative to validate the I-HIT in six additional countries. This paper will discuss the background, methodology, results and implications from the Australian I-HIT survey of over 1,100 nurses. The results are currently being analyzed and will be presented at the conference.

  7. The Impact of Collegiality amongst Australian Accounting Academics on Work-Related Attitudes and Academic Performance

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    Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…

  8. Impact origin of the Sudbury structure: Evolution of a theory

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    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the origin, development, and present status of the widely accepted theory, proposed by Robert S. Dietz in 1962, that the Sudbury structure was formed by meteoritic or asteroidal impact. The impact theory for the origin of the Sudbury structure seems supported by a nearly conclusive body of evidence. However, even assuming an impact origin to be correct, at least three major questions require further study: (1) the original size and shape of the crater, before tectonic deformation and erosion; (2) the source of the melt now forming the Sudbury Igneous Complex; and (3) the degree, if any, to which the Ni-Cu-platinum group elements are meteoritic. The history of the impact theory illustrates several under-appreciated aspects of scientific research: (1) the importance of cross-fertilization between space research and terrestrial geology; (2) the role of the outsider in stimulating thinking by insiders; (3) the value of small science, at least in the initial stages of an investigation, Dietz's first field work having been at his own expense; and (4) the value of analogies (here, between the Sudbury Igneous Complex and the maria), which although incorrect in major aspects, may trigger research on totally new lines. Finally, the Sudbury story illustrates the totally unpredictable and, by implication, unplannable nature of basic research, in that insight to the origin of the world's then-greatest Ni deposit came from the study of tektites and the Moon.

  9. The Impacts of English Colonial Terrorism and Genocide on Indigenous/Black Australians

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    Asafa Jalata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article critically explores the essence of colonial terrorism and its consequences on the indigenous people of Australia during their colonization and incorporation into the European-dominated racialized capitalist world system in the late 18th century. It uses multidimensional, comparative methods, and critical approaches to explain the dynamic interplay among social structures, human agency, and terror to explain the connection between terrorism and the emergence of the capitalist world system or globalization. Raising complex moral, intellectual, philosophical, ethical, and political questions, this article explores the essence, roles, and impacts of colonial terrorism on the indigenous Australians. First, the article provides background historical and cultural information. Second, it conceptualizes and theorizes colonial terrorism as an integral part of the capitalist world system. Specifically, it links capitalist incorporation and colonialism and various forms of violence to terrorism. Third, the article examines the structural aspects of colonial terrorism by connecting it to some specific colonial policies and practices. Finally, it identifies and explains different kinds of ideological justifications that the English colonial settlers and their descendants used in committing crimes against humanity.

  10. Tackle and impact detection in elite Australian football using wearable microsensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; McLean, Owen C; Breed, Ray V P; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a wearable microsensor device (MinimaxX(TM) S4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, VIC, Australia) to automatically detect tackles and impact events in elite Australian football (AF) was assessed during four matches. Video observation was used as the criterion measure. A total of 352 tackles were observed, with 78% correctly detected as tackles by the manufacturer's software. Tackles against (i.e. tackled by an opponent) were more accurately detected than tackles made (90% v 66%). Of the 77 tackles that were not detected at all, the majority (74%) were categorised as low-intensity. In contrast, a total of 1510 "tackle" events were detected, with only 18% of these verified as tackles. A further 57% were from contested ball situations involving player contact. The remaining 25% were in general play where no contact was evident; these were significantly lower in peak Player Load™ than those involving player contact (P < 0.01). The tackle detection algorithm, developed primarily for rugby, was not suitable for tackle detection in AF. The underlying sensor data may have the potential to detect a range of events within contact sports such as AF, yet to do so is a complex task and requires sophisticated sport and event-specific algorithms.

  11. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searles Andrew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora, it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'. It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA' will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC'-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent animportant precedent in a global strategy by industry oncost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also beof great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  12. Rifting of the northern margin of the Australian continent and the origin of some microcontinents in Eastern Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigram, C. J.; Panggabean, H.

    1984-08-01

    Continental Australia is bounded on the east, south and west sides by passive margins, and the geological histories of these are well documented (Falvey and Mutter, 1981). The northern margin of the Australian continent is now an active collision margin. Its previous history as a passive margin has rarely been examined. This paper shows how the Late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic sequence which forms the northern margin of the Australian continent, in the island of New Guinea, is readily related to the tectonic stages of a rift-drift sequence. Rifting (start of breakup) began at about 230 m.y. ago at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The onset of seafloor spreading is marked by a post-breakup unconformity and ranges in age along the northern margin of the continent, from 185 m.y. in Papua New Guinea to 170 m.y. in Irian Jaya. From there the age of the post-breakup unconformity continues to young in a southwesterly direction along the western margin of the Australian continent reflecting the opening of the Indian Ocean off Western Australia. The timing of the onset of spreading in central Papua New Guinea is consistent with the timing of the initiation of spreading in the proto-Pacific ocean proposed by Nur and Ben Avraham (1977). By the end of the Jurassic the northern margin of the Australian continent faced a seaway which linked the proto-Indian and proto-Pacific oceans. This newly formed ocean was separated from the pre-existing oceans of the Neo-Tethys and Panthalassa by a screen of continents or microcontinents. The identity of this screen is discussed and it is suggested that part of it is preserved in the microcontinents of Eastern Indonesia.

  13. Global Corporations "R" Us? The Impacts of Globalisation on Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Graham; Poole, David

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the rise of entrepreneurialism in Australian universities as one response to globalization. Examines its positive and negative effects upon educational standards, academic morale, and structure of academic work. Highlights areas of fundamental change in the sector, including changes in university missions and culture and the uneven…

  14. The Impact of Organisational Change on the Nature and Extent of Training in Australian Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Oczkowski, Edward; Noble, Charles; Macklin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating the relationship between the introduction of new management practices and the training provided by Australian enterprises for their employees. The new management practices investigated include teamworking, total quality management, lean production, business process re-engineering and the learning…

  15. Measuring workplace trauma response in Australian paramedics: an investigation into the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Hogan,1 Shane Costello,1 Malcolm Boyle,2 Brett Williams2 1Faculty of Education, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia Introduction: Investigation into the psychological effects of violence toward health care workers and its associated trauma is increasing. The Impact of Event Scale (IES provides a measure of current, subjective, emotional distress symptomatic of a specific traumatic event. However, its validity among paramedics is largely unknown. Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the IES with a sample of Australian paramedics. Methods: The study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the 15-item IES with a sample of Australian paramedics using Exploratory Factor Analysis with model fit statistics as found in confirmatory analysis. Results: Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation supported the hypothesis that a two-factor solution would provide the best fit of the data. Procrustes rotation provided further support for this hypothesis indicating that the factors, labeled “Intrusion” and “Avoidance”, as well as the individual items of the 12-item final model, were a good fit to an ideal solution. Conclusion: The revision of the scale has improved its validity for use in the general population of paramedics, improving the potential for its use in trauma-related research. Keywords: impact of event scale, psychometrics, paramedics, occupational violence, PTSD

  16. Market Structure Differences Impacting Australian Iron Ore and Metallurgical Coal Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking relies on iron ore and metallurgical coal as main ingredients, the trade of which is hypothesized to theoretically change in tandem. However, strong correlation is not evident in historical trade prices of steelmaking inputs. To determine causes to this occurrence, the market factors that influence the Australian iron ore and metallurgical coal industries were studied. Data was collected over the past decade for worldwide resource production and trade quantities of crude steel, iron ore, and metallurgical coal. The data was analysed to reveal trends, allowing examination of the macroeconomic trade of metallurgical coal and iron ore with relation to worldwide and country specific steel production. It was determined that the influential growth of China’s steel production has spurred the growth of worldwide iron ore demand, which was met with increased production and supply, from Australia. The increased metallurgical coal demand has been met with increased production within China locally. Measures of supply elasticity were created for worldwide iron ore and metallurgical coal trade, where comparisons between Australia’s industries to the relevant greatest competitor were examined. The results, along with respective resource production data, highlighted the elevated competitive position that Australian iron ore producers enjoy compared to metallurgical coal producers. Trade characteristics revealed the different market structures that iron ore and metallurgical coal industries operate in, prompting a discussion of the effects these markets have on the two Australian industries.

  17. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487 to identify (a breakfast skippers and (b breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i non-cereal and (ii cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14–16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p < 0.001, while no significant differences were observed for mean body mass index (BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference and physical activity level across the categories. Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children’s diets.

  18. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Kim, Jean; Sritharan, Nilani; Petocz, Peter

    2016-08-10

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2-16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i) non-cereal and (ii) cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14-16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children's diets.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Research: A Case Study of the LSAY Research Innovation and Expansion Fund. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the framework developed by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) for measuring research impact to assess the outcomes of the research and activities funded under the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Research Innovation and Expansion Fund (RIEF). LSAY provides a rich…

  20. Modeling the impact of Australian Plate drift on Southern Hemisphere climate and environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Botao; ZHAO Ping; JIAN Zhimin; HE Jinhai

    2005-01-01

    Using a global atmosphere-ocean coupled model with the present-day and 14 MaB.P. oceanic topography respectively, two experiments are implemented to investigate the effect of different locations of Australian Plate on the atmospheric circulation in middle-high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. The results show that when Australian Plate lay south at 14 MaB.P., both anticyclone circulations in the subtropical oceans and cyclone circulation around 60°-70°S are strengthened. Subtropical highs and circumpolar low pressure appear stronger, which results in much stronger Antarctic Oscillation and shorter period of Antarctic Oscillation Index (AOI) at 14 MaB.P. The rainfall and the surface air temperature also change correspondingly. The precipitation decreases around 40°S and increases around 60°-70°S, and the surface air temperature rises in high latitudes of the South Pacific and descends over the Weddell Sea and its north side. Besides, due to the changes of the temperatures and winds, Antarctic sea ice coverage also changes with its increasing in the Ross Sea and its west regions and decreasing in the Weddell Sea.

  1. New constraints on the origin of the Australian Great Barrier Reef: Results from an international project of deep coring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ConsortiumGreat Barrier Reef Drilling, International

    2001-06-01

    Two new boreholes provide the first direct evidence of the age of the Australian Great Barrier Reef. An inner shelf sequence (total depth, 86 m; basal age = 210 ± 40 ka) comprises a dominantly siliciclastic unit (thickness ˜52 86 m), overlain by four carbonate units (total thickness 0 34 m). A shelf-edge and slope sequence (total depth 210 m) reveals three major sections: (1) a lower section of resedimented flows deposited on a lower slope, (2) a mid-section including intervals of corals, rhodoliths, and calcarenites with low- angle graded laminae, and (3) an upper section of four shelf- margin coral-reef units separated by karst surfaces bearing paleosols. Sr isotope and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that the central Great Barrier Reef is relatively young (post Brühnes-Matuyama boundary time), and our best estimate for the onset of reef growth on the outer barrier system is ca. 600 ± 280 ka. This date suggests that reef initiation may have been related to the onset of full eccentricity-dominated glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillation as inferred from large-amplitude “saw-tooth” 100 k.y. δ18O cycles (after marine isotope stage 17), rather than to some regional environmental parameter. A major question raised by our study is whether reef margins globally display a similar growth history. The possibility of a global reef initiation event has important implications for basin to shelf partitioning of CaCO3, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and global temperature change during Quaternary time.

  2. The impact of genetics on retail meat value in Australian lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-07-01

    Lean (muscle), fat, and bone composition of 1554 lamb carcasses from Maternal, Merino and Terminal sired lambs was measured using computed tomography scanning. Lamb sires were diverse in their range of Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT). Lean value, representing predicted lean weight multiplied by retail value, was determined for lambs at the same carcass weight or the same age. At the same carcass weight, lean value was increased the most by reducing sire PFAT, followed by increasing PEMD and PWWT. However for lambs of the same age, increasing sire PWWT increased lean value the most. Terminal sired lambs, on average, had greater lean value irrespective of whether comparisons were made at the same age or weight. Lean value was greater in Merino compared to Maternal sired lambs at equal carcass weight, however the reverse was true when comparisons were made at the same age.

  3. Learning about knowledge management for improving environmental impact assessment in a government agency: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Luis Enrique; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2011-09-01

    How does knowledge management (KM) by a government agency responsible for environmental impact assessment (EIA) potentially contribute to better environmental assessment and management practice? Staff members at government agencies in charge of the EIA process are knowledge workers who perform judgement-oriented tasks highly reliant on individual expertise, but also grounded on the agency's knowledge accumulated over the years. Part of an agency's knowledge can be codified and stored in an organizational memory, but is subject to decay or loss if not properly managed. The EIA agency operating in Western Australia was used as a case study. Its KM initiatives were reviewed, knowledge repositories were identified and staff surveyed to gauge the utilisation and effectiveness of such repositories in enabling them to perform EIA tasks. Key elements of KM are the preparation of substantive guidance and spatial information management. It was found that treatment of cumulative impacts on the environment is very limited and information derived from project follow-up is not properly captured and stored, thus not used to create new knowledge and to improve practice and effectiveness. Other opportunities for improving organizational learning include the use of after-action reviews. The learning about knowledge management in EIA practice gained from Western Australian experience should be of value to agencies worldwide seeking to understand where best to direct their resources for their own knowledge repositories and environmental management practice.

  4. The Impact of Low Muscle Mass Definition on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sarcopenia is the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function. The aim of this study was to establish cutoffs for low muscle mass using three published methods and to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Australians. Methods. Gender specific cutoffs levels were identified for low muscle mass using three different methods. Low grip strength was determined using established cutoffs of <30 kg for men and <20 kg for women to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. Results. Gender specific cutoffs levels for low muscle mass identified were (a <6.89 kg/m2 for men and <4.32 kg/m2 for women, <2 standard deviation (SD of a young reference population; (b <7.36 kg/m2 for men and <5.81 kg/m2 for women from the lowest 20% percentile of the older group; and (c <−2.15 for men and <−1.42 for women from the lowest 20% of the residuals of linear regressions of appendicular skeletal mass, adjusted for fat mass and height. Prevalence of sarcopenia in older (65 years and older people by these three methods for men was 2.5%, 6.2%, and 6.4% and for women 0.3%, 9.3%, and 8.5%, respectively. Conclusions. Sarcopenia is common but consensus on the best method to confirm low muscle mass is required.

  5. Impact of adolescent peer aggression on later educational and employment outcomes in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-08-01

    This study used prospective birth cohort data to analyse the relationship between peer aggression at 14 years of age and educational and employment outcomes at 17 years (N = 1091) and 20 years (N = 1003). Participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories of peer aggression. Involvement in peer aggression was reported by 40.2% (10.1% victims; 21.4% perpetrators; 8.7% victim-perpetrators) of participants. Participants involved in any form of peer aggression were less likely to complete secondary school. Perpetrators and victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to be in the 'No Education, Employment or Training' group at 20 years of age. This association was explained by non-completion of secondary school. These findings demonstrate a robust association between involvement in peer aggression and non-completion of secondary school, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of poor educational and employment outcomes in early adulthood.

  6. Consumer trust in the Australian food system - The everyday erosive impact of food labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Emma; Webb, Trevor; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Wilson, Annabelle M

    2016-08-01

    Consumer trust in food system actors is foundational for ensuring consumer confidence in food safety. As food labelling is a direct communication between consumers and food system actors, it may influence consumer perceptions of actor trustworthiness. This study explores the judgements formed about the trustworthiness of the food system and its actors through labelling, and the expectations these judgements are based on. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 Australian consumers were conducted. Theoretical sampling focussed on shopping location, dietary requirements, rurality, gender, age and educational background. The methodological approach used (adaptive theory) enabled emerging data to be examined through the lens of a set of guiding theoretical concepts, and theory reconsidered in light of emerging data. Food labelling acted as a surrogate for personal interaction with industry and government for participants. Judgements about the trustworthiness of these actors and the broader food system were formed through interaction with food labelling and were based on expectations of both competence and goodwill. Interaction with labelling primarily reduced trust in actors within the food system, undermining trust in the system as a whole. Labelling has a role as an access point to the food system. Access points are points of vulnerability for systems, where trust can be developed, reinforced or broken down. For the participants in this study, in general labelling demonstrates food system actors lack goodwill and violate their fiduciary responsibility. This paper provides crucial insights for industry and policy actors to use this access point to build, rather than undermine, trust in food systems.

  7. Impacts of electricity markets on solar revenues. An Australian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesz, Jennifer J.; Gilmore, Joel B.; Buchanan, Melinda; Vanderwaal, Ben; Rose, Ian A. [ROAM Consulting Energy Modelling Expertise, Fortitude Valley, QLD (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on modelling to determine the most significant factors influencing solar generator revenues. The Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) is used as a case study. The most significant driver of variations in solar revenues from year to year and region to region is found to be pool prices (more than variations in solar resource). Peak pool prices (8am-6pm) are found to be a good indicator of solar revenues on a $/MWh basis. Generation during summer periods is particularly important, with a signficant proportion of annual solar revenues being earned during a small number of high priced summer events. Based upon forrecast pool prices, the regions Queensland and New South Wales are predicted to be optimal regions for solar development, but it is emphasised that pool price forecasts depend upon a wide range of input assumptions with high uncertainty. Finally, time of day correlations suggest that solar generators should be able to achieve significantly higher revenues than wind generators on a S/MWh basis, which should lead to higher valued Power Purchase Agreements for solar generators. (orig.)

  8. A cluster randomised trial to assess the impact of clinical pathways on AMI management in rural Australian emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Pamela C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in rural Australia are more likely to die in hospital following an acute myocardial infarction than those living in major cities. While several factors, including time taken to access hospital care, contribute to this risk, it is also partially attributable to the lower uptake of evidence-based guidelines for the administration of thrombolytic drugs in rural emergency departments where up to one-third of eligible patients do not receive this life-saving intervention. Clinical pathways have the potential to link evidence to practice by integrating guidelines into local systems, but their impact has been hampered by variable implementation strategies and sub-optimal research designs. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a five-step clinical pathways implementation process on the timely and efficient administration of thrombolytic drugs for acute myocardial infarctions managed in rural Australian emergency departments. Methods/Design The design is a two-arm, cluster-randomised trial with rural hospital emergency departments that treat and do not routinely transfer acute myocardial infarction patients. Six rural hospitals in the state of Victoria will participate, with three in the intervention group and three in the control group. Intervention hospitals will participate in a five-step clinical pathway implementation process: engagement of clinicians, pathway development according to local resources and systems, reminders, education, and audit and feedback. Hospitals in the control group will each receive a hard copy of Australian national guidelines for chest pain and acute myocardial infarction management. Each group will include 90 cases to give a power of 80% at 5% significance level for the two primary outcome measures: proportion of those eligible for thrombolysis receiving the drug and time to delivery of thrombolytic drug. Discussion Improved compliance with thrombolytic guidelines via

  9. Research That Counts: OECD Statistics and "Policy Entrepreneurs" Impacting on Australian Adult Literacy and Numeracy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses research that has impacted on Australia's most recent national policy document on adult literacy and numeracy, the National Foundation Skills Strategy (NFSS). The paper draws in part on Lingard's 2013 paper, "The impact of research on education policy in an era of evidence-based policy", in which he outlines the…

  10. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  11. The Impact of Professional Development and Indigenous Education Officers on Australian Teachers' Indigenous Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Han, Feifei

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of professional development (PD) in Indigenous teaching on teachers' psychological and behavioural aspects, and Indigenous students' learning engagement. Adopting a multiple-indicator-multiple-indicator-cause model, frequency of PD was found to have positive paths to teachers' self-concept in Indigenous teaching…

  12. Stock market synchronicity: an alternative approach to assessing the information impact of Australian IFRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; A. Hodgson

    2012-01-01

    How has the mandatory adoption in 2005 of International Financial Reporting Standards in (IFRS) affected information flow for investors in Australia? This paper investigates impact by examining synchronicity issues. Morck et al. (2000) label the degree to which stock prices depend upon market and in

  13. The impact of diabetes prevention on labour force participation and income of older Australians: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, diabetes is estimated to affect 246 million people and is increasing. In Australia diabetes has been made a national health priority. While the direct costs of treating diabetes are substantial, and rising, the indirect costs are considered greater. There is evidence that interventions to prevent diabetes are effective, and cost-effective, but the impact on labour force participation and income has not been assessed. In this study we quantify the potential impact of implementing a diabetes prevention program, using screening and either metformin or a lifestyle intervention on individual economic outcomes of pre-diabetic Australians aged 45-64. Methods The output of an epidemiological microsimulation model of the reduction in prevalence of diabetes from a lifestyle or metformin intervention, and another microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, of health and the associated impacts on labour force participation, personal income, savings, government revenue and expenditure were used to quantify the estimated outcomes of the two interventions. Results An additional 753 person years in the labour force would have been achieved from 1993 to 2003 for the male cohort aged 60-64 years in 2003, if a lifestyle intervention had been introduced in 1983; with 890 person years for the equivalent female group. The impact on labour force participation was lower for the metformin intervention, and increased with age for both interventions. The male cohort aged 60-64 years in 2003 would have earned an additional $30 million in income with the metformin intervention, and the equivalent female cohort would have earned an additional $25 million. If the lifestyle intervention was introduced, the same male and female cohorts would have earned an additional $34 million and $28 million respectively from 1993 to 2003. For the individuals involved, on average, males would have earned an additional $44,600 per year and females an additional $31

  14. Origin of impact melt rocks in the Bununu howardite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L. C.; Hewins, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Bununu howardite is a polymict regolith breccia which contains impact melt that is largely restricted to a 1-cm thick intrusion containing residual glass. As in Malvern, the melt rock contains melt with meteoritic Ni-Co contents. The cooling rate, interpreted for forming glass from this composition, is a few tenths of a degree per minute. The intrusive melts rock, which is a feature unique to Bununu, may indicate that Bununu was consolidated at the time of impact melting.

  15. Australian Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  16. Potential impact of dietary choices on phosphorus recycling and global phosphorus footprints: the case of the average Australian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Metson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in human diets, population increase, changes in farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are however threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption because the world’s main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are two-fold: First, dietary choices affects a person or region’s ‘phosphorus footprint’ – the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta, and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g. potential for recycling, dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution towards phosphorus sustainability. In an average Australian city for example, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (8% increase. However such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident’s annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management.

  17. Evaluating the health impacts of participation in Australian community arts groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Berman, Naomi; Curry, Steve; Joubert, Lindy; Johnson, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of three well-established community arts programmes in Victoria, Australia, on the mental health and well-being outcomes of participants typically from disadvantaged backgrounds during 2006-07. It employs a theoretical framework that reconciles evidence-based practice in health and the phenomenological nature of community arts practice. Self-determination theory (SDT) was used to do this with SDT-derived psychometric instruments [arts climate and Basic Psychological Needs Scales (BPNS)]. Self-administered surveys using these instruments as well as a measure of social support were undertaken on two occasions. Two overlapping but distinct samples were defined and analysed cross-sectionally. These were a (pre-)survey at the commencement of rehearsals for the annual performance (n = 103) and a (post-)survey following the performance (n = 70). The most significant change (MSC) technique was used to study the arts-making process and how it contributes to outcomes. Using these mixed-methods approach, impacts on the climate of the arts organizations, participant access to supportive relationships and participant's mental health and well-being were studied. There were positive changes in the BPNS (p = 0.00), as well as its autonomy (p = 0.04) and relatedness (p = 0.00) subscales. Social support increased from 65.3% in the pre-survey to 82.4% in the post-survey (p = 0.03). MSC data indicated that the supportive, collaborative environment provided by the arts organizations was highly valued by participants and was perceived to have mental health benefits.Overall, the study demonstrated the potential health promoting effects of community arts programmes in disadvantaged populations. Its multi-method approach should be further studied in evaluating other community arts programmes.

  18. The Impact of Changes to the Unemployment Rate on Australian Disability Income Insurance Claim Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Khemka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the extent to which claim incidence in Disability Income Insurance (DII is affected by changes in the unemployment rate in Australia. Using data from 1986 to 2001, we fit a hurdle model to explore the presence and magnitude of the effect of changes in unemployment rate on the incidence of DII claims, controlling for policy holder characteristics and seasonality. We find a clear positive association between unemployment and claim incidence, and we explore this further by gender, age, deferment period, and occupation. A multinomial logistic regression model is fitted to cause of claim data in order to explore the relationship further, and it is shown that the proportion of claims due to accident increases markedly with rising unemployment. The results suggest that during periods of rising unemployment, insurers may face increased claims from policy holders with shorter deferment periods for white-collar workers and for medium and heavy manual workers. Our findings indicate that moral hazard may have a material impact on DII claim incidence and insurer business in periods of declining economic conditions.

  19. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulholland Kim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. Methods We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Results Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003. After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p ≤ 0.001 amongst Iraqi refugees. Qualitative data revealed that TPV refugees generally felt socially isolated and lacking in control over their life circumstances, because of their experiences in detention and on a temporary visa. This sense of powerlessness and, for some, an implicit awareness they were being denied basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Conclusion Government asylum policies

  20. Origin and Impact of Quality Standards on Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana VIcher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the path that the notion quality -in its current meaning- has followed within public administration. It reviews the origin and changes that the concept has undergone. Particularly, it emphasizes the facts and the context which enabled quality to raise as a transformation axis which foresaw a substantial improvement in the way of providing services, from the changes made to internal public administration processes, following with the application of the procedures which profit organizations used to improve their Performance efficiency,and ending with the quality charters of the service. In this vein, is also highlights the work performed by international organizations which have promoted models and quality standards, with particular emphasis on the International Organization for Standardization ISO, to know their nature and sources of egitimacy and authority to certify public administration. Finally, we review the implementation of quality and standards of quality in the Mexican public administration.

  1. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhausen, J.; Stoeblen, F.; Mueller, R.D. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Dominguez-Fernandez, E. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of General Surgery; Henseke, P. [Nycomed-Amersham Arzneimittel GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  2. Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  3. A New "ERA" of Women and Leadership: The Gendered Impact of Quality Assurance in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Briony

    2015-01-01

    Quality assurance policies and practices are critical to the performance of Australian universities both in terms of national funding and international prestige and are redefining the future of the academic enterprise. Quality assurance is not merely the systematic measurement of quality. It is a political and heuristic process, which has…

  4. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  5. Developing a Dynamic Microsimulation Model of the Australian Health System: A Means to Explore Impacts of Obesity over the Next 50 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Lymer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Health of the ageing population has the potential to place considerable pressure on future government spending. Further, the impacts of the obesity epidemic have the potential to place additional pressure on government health budgets. In response to such fiscal concerns in Australia, a dynamic microsimulation model, APPSIM, has been developed at the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM. The health module was developed to allow consideration of health behaviours within the context of an ageing population and the resultant health profile of the population. Also included in the modelling is the associated use of health services and their costs. All health variables used were imputed onto the 2001 basefile derived from the 1 percent unit record file of the 2001 Australian census. Transition equations of these variables were estimated to allow projections over time. In this paper, the model has been used to look at the impacts of obesity on the Australian population health profile and associated health expenditure. In the scenario, removal of obesity from the population leads to a simulated population with a better health profile but showed only marginal changes in relative health expenditure.

  6. The Impact of Age Pension Eligibility Age on Retirement and Program Dependence: Evidence from an Australian Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir Atalay; Garry F. Barrett

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the effect of the financial incentives created by social security systems on the retirement behaviour of individuals requires exogenous variation in program parameters. In this paper we study the 1993 Australian Age Pension reform which increased the eligibility age for women to access the social security benefit. We find economically significant responses to the increase in the Age Pension eligibility age. An increase in the eligibility age of 1 year induced a decline in retireme...

  7. Impact of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of sheep, and the role of advanced molecular tools for exploring epidemiology and drug resistance - an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Florian; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-05-27

    Parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of small ruminants and other livestock have major economic impacts worldwide. Despite the impact of the diseases caused by these nematodes and the discovery of new therapeutic agents (anthelmintics), there has been relatively limited progress in the development of practical molecular tools to study the epidemiology of these nematodes. Specific diagnosis underpins parasite control, and the detection and monitoring of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites, presently a major concern around the world. The purpose of the present article is to provide a concise account of the biology and knowledge of the epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes (order Strongylida), from an Australian perspective, and to emphasize the importance of utilizing advanced molecular tools for the specific diagnosis of nematode infections for refined investigations of parasite epidemiology and drug resistance detection in combination with conventional methods. It also gives a perspective on the possibility of harnessing genetic, genomic and bioinformatic technologies to better understand parasites and control parasitic diseases.

  8. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Hayashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m3 forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  9. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Aiko; Crombie, Andrew; Lacey, Ernest; Richardson, Anthony J; Vuong, Daniel; Piggott, Andrew M; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf

    2016-03-16

    Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m³) forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm) of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  10. Consumers’ Knowledge about Product’s Country-of-Origin and Its Impact upon Sensorical Product Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vukasovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine consumer perceptions of food products regarding the knowledge about the product’s origin and the potential impact on the sensorical evaluation of other product properties. The research results represent a deeper investigation of the impact of origin on consumer perceptions. An integrated approach to the research of impacts of product origin was chosen in order to form interlinks between knowledge about product origin and its other sensorical properties.

  11. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  12. The impact of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists' specialist examinations on trainee learning and wellbeing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J M; Henning, M; Butler, R; Thompson, A

    2014-11-01

    Assessment is an essential component of any medical specialist training program and should motivate trainees to acquire and retain the knowledge and skills essential for specialist practice, and to develop effective approaches to learning, essential for continuous professional development. Ideally, this should be achieved without creating an unreasonable burden of assessment. In this qualitative study we sought to investigate the underlying processes involved in trainees' preparation for Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists' examinations, focusing on how the examinations helped trainees to learn the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists' curriculum, and to identify any potential areas for improvement. We also explored the effect the examinations had on trainees' lives, to identify if the examinations were a potential threat to their wellbeing. Using a phenomenological approach and purposive sampling, we conducted semi-structured interviews with post-fellowship trainees (n=20) selected from three different regions, with sampling continuing to achieve data saturation. We undertook a thematic analysis of the transcribed interview data utilising a general inductive approach. Our preliminary data suggest that, while the examinations are an important extrinsic motivator to learn and important for professional development, interviewees described many test-driven learning strategies, including rote learning and memorising past examination questions. A strong theme was the considerable impact on participants' relationships and social activities for prolonged periods. Our findings support further research in this area and, in particular, into alternative testing strategies that might increase the proportion of time spent in useful study while decreasing less useful study time.

  13. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, Christopher G.; Butler, Paul; Horner, Jonathan; Carter, Brad; Wright, Duncan; Jones, H. R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Radial velocity searches for exoplanets have undergone a revolution in recent years: now precisions of 1 m/s or better are being demonstrated by many instruments, and new purpose-built spectrographs hold the promise of bringing Earth-mass planets into the realm of secure detectability. In the "race to the bottom," it is critical not to overlook the impact of long-running planet search programs that continue to hold the advantage of time. We highlight the continuing impact of the 18-year Anglo-Australian Planet Search: the characterisation of long-period giant planets, and the insights into the occurrence rate of Jupiter and Saturn analogs. To fully understand the origins of planetary systems and the fundamental question of how common (or rare) the architecture of the Solar system is in the Galaxy, we must continue these "legacy" surveys to probe ever-larger orbital separations.

  14. Identification of the impact of crime on physical activity depends upon neighbourhood scale: multilevel evidence from 203,883 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Equivocal findings on crime as a deterrent for physical activity may be due to effects of geographic scale on exposure measurement. To investigate this hypothesis, physical activity was measured in 203,883 Australians and linked to standardised crime counts within small ('Census Collection Districts'; approx. 330 residents) and larger areas ('Statistical Local Areas'; approx. 32,000 residents). A median rate ratio of 2.26 indicated substantive geographic variation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Adjusting for confounders, multilevel negative binomial regression reported lower MVPA with more crime consistently in small, but not in larger areas. Reducing small pockets of local crime may encourage more physically active lifestyles.

  15. Losing the Quality Battle in Australian Education for Librarianship: A Decade on. (An Update on the Original Article by Ross Harvey, "Losing the Quality Battle in Australian Education for Librarianship". "The Australian Library Journal", 50 No. 1, 2001: 15-22.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    The Editor of "ALJ" has invited me to comment on my 2001 article "Losing the quality battle in Australian education for librarianship" (Harvey 2001). The article was prompted by a period I spent as a visiting professor in the Department of Information Studies at UCLA (the University of California Los Angeles) and was written while I was there.…

  16. Impact of solar system exploration on theories of chemical evolution and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devincenzi, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The impact of solar system exploration on theories regarding chemical evolution and the origin of life is examined in detail. Major findings from missions to Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan are reviewed and implications for prebiotic chemistry are discussed. Among the major conclusions are: prebiotic chemistry is widespread throughout the solar system and universe; chemical evolution and the origin of life are intimately associated with the origin and evolution of the solar system; the rate, direction, and extent of prebiotic chemistry is highly dependent upon planetary characteristics; and continued exploration will increase understanding of how life originated on earth and allow better estimates of the likelihood of similar processes occurring elsewhere.

  17. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  18. Modeling the cadmium balance in Australian agricultural systems in view of potential impacts on food and water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, W. de, E-mail: wim.devries@wur.nl [Alterra-Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Sustainable Agriculture Flagship, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia); University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    The historical build up and future cadmium (Cd) concentrations in top soils and in crops of four Australian agricultural systems are predicted with a mass balance model, focusing on the period 1900–2100. The systems include a rotation of dryland cereals, a rotation of sugarcane and peanuts/soybean, intensive dairy production and intensive horticulture. The input of Cd to soil is calculated from fertilizer application and atmospheric deposition and also examines options including biosolid and animal manure application in the sugarcane rotation and dryland cereal production systems. Cadmium output from the soil is calculated from leaching to deeper horizons and removal with the harvested crop or with livestock products. Parameter values for all Cd fluxes were based on a number of measurements on Australian soil–plant systems. In the period 1900–2000, soil Cd concentrations were predicted to increase on average between 0.21 mg kg{sup −1} in dryland cereals, 0.42 mg kg{sup −1} in intensive agriculture and 0.68 mg kg{sup −1} in dairy production, which are within the range of measured increases in soils in these systems. Predicted soil concentrations exceed critical soil Cd concentrations, based on food quality criteria for Cd in crops during the simulation period in clay-rich soils under dairy production and intensive horticulture. Predicted dissolved Cd concentrations in soil pore water exceed a ground water quality criterion of 2 μg l{sup −1} in light textured soils, except for the sugarcane rotation due to large water leaching fluxes. Results suggest that the present fertilizer Cd inputs in Australia are in excess of the long-term critical loads in heavy-textured soils for dryland cereals and that all other systems are at low risk. Calculated critical Cd/P ratios in P fertilizers vary from < 50 to > 1000 mg Cd kg P{sup −1} for the different soil, crop and environmental conditions applied. - Highlights: • Cadmium concentrations in soils and plants

  19. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success: methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speight Jane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will provide insights into how Australians manage their diabetes, the support they receive and the impact of diabetes on their lives, as well as to use the data to validate new diabetes outcome measures. Methods/design The survey was designed to include a core set of self-report measures, as well as modules specific to diabetes type or management regimens. Other measures or items were included in only half of the surveys. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS database. An online version of the survey was advertised nationally. A total of 3,338 eligible Australians took part; most (70.4% completed the postal survey. Respondents of both diabetes types and genders, and of all ages, were adequately represented in both the postal and online survey sub-samples. More people with type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes took part in Diabetes MILES--Australia (58.8% versus 41.2%. Most respondents spoke English as their main language, were married/in a de facto relationship, had at least a high school education, were occupied in paid work, had an annual household income > $AUS40,000, and lived in metropolitan areas. Discussion A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and

  20. THE IMPACT OF ORIGIN ON CREATING A CULT BRAND: THE CASE OF APPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Daniela N. CONSTANTIN; Roxana-Denisa G. STOENESCU

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a cult brand for a more accurate understanding of the extreme loyalty that consumers show towards specific brands. The article focuses on the brand Apple and it explores the elements for which it is considered a cult brand and the impact of its origin on sustaining its cult appeal. Based on the fact that many brands rely on emotional characteristics to obtain consumers’ interest and attention, the country responsible for their conception is usually a warra...

  1. Country of Origin Labeling: Evaluating the Impacts on U.S. and World Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Keithly G.; Somwaru, Agapi; Whitaker, James B.

    2009-01-01

    A provision of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 requires country of origin labeling (COOL) for certain agricultural commodities. To comply with the law, producers, processors, and retailers face additional production costs associated with labeling, separating, and tracking commodities. Using estimated costs provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), we simulate the impacts of mandatory COOL on U.S. and global agricultural markets usi...

  2. Apollo 14 glasses of impact origin and their parent rock types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E. C. T.; Best, J. B.; Minkin, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Eight chemical groups can be recognized on the basis of studies of more than 200 Apollo 14 glass particles of impact origin. It is found that the major rock type of a highland site is dominated by annealed noritic rocks rather than by anorthosites as previously suggested. Both mafic and salic rock types are associated with the noritic rocks. A number of tables are provided showing the chemical composition of the minerals investigated.

  3. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, John P Y; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  4. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Risk Management of Information Systems in Australian Residential Aged Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David; Ma, Jun; Yang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    To obtain indications of the influence of electronic health records (EHR) in managing risks and meeting information system accreditation standard in Australian residential aged care (RAC) homes. The hypothesis to be tested is that the RAC homes using EHR have better performance in meeting information system standards in aged care accreditation than their counterparts only using paper records for information management. Content analysis of aged care accreditation reports from the Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency produced between April 2011 and December 2013. Items identified included types of information systems, compliance with accreditation standards, and indicators of failure to meet an expected outcome for information systems. The Chi-square test was used to identify difference between the RAC homes that used EHR systems and those that used paper records in not meeting aged care accreditation standards. 1,031 (37.4%) of 2,754 RAC homes had adopted EHR systems. Although the proportion of homes that met all accreditation standards was significantly higher for those with EHR than for homes with paper records, only 13 RAC homes did not meet one or more expected outcomes. 12 used paper records and nine of these failed the expected outcome for information systems. The overall contribution of EHR to meeting aged care accreditation standard in Australia was very small. Risk indicators for not meeting information system standard were no access to accurate and appropriate information, failure in monitoring mechanisms, not reporting clinical incidents, insufficient recording of residents' clinical changes, not providing accurate care plans, and communication processes failure. The study has provided indications that use of EHR provides small, yet significant advantages for RAC homes in Australia in managing risks for information management and in meeting accreditation requirements. The implication of the study for introducing technology innovation in RAC in

  5. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Y Arnould

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus was investigated. For 9 (25% of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability. A total of 26 (72% individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35% of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  6. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Origin and time-space distribution of hydrothermal systems in east-central Australian sedimentary basins: Constraints from illite geochronology and isotope geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, I. Tonguç

    2016-04-01

    Some well-known precious mineral deposits and hydrocarbon resources occur extensively in east-central Australian sedimentary Basins. The metal occurrences are abundant in northwestern and eastern part of Queensland, whereas no significant deposits are known in large areas further south, which may, however, be hidden beneath the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary basins. Important hydrocarbon resources exist within the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks at relatively shallow depths, of which the distribution represent zones of high paleo-geothermal gradients. This study examines the time-space distribution in relation to the regional tectonic history of concealed metal deposits and areas of high paleo-geothermal gradient leading to hydrocarbon maturation. To this end, authigenic illitic clay minerals representing various locations and stratigraphic depths in east-central Australia were investigated, of which the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar geochronology and stable isotope geochemistry assist in delineating zones of hydrothermal systems responsible for hydro-carbon maturation/migration and potentially ore deposition. The Late Carboniferous - Early Permian crustal extension that affected large areas of eastern Australia and led to the epithermal mineralisations (e.g., the Drummond Basin) is also recorded in northern South Australia and southwest Queensland. A Late Triassic - Early Jurassic tectonic event being responsible for coal maturation and gas generation in the Bowen Basin and the epithermal mineralisation in the North Arm goldfield in SE Queensland likewise affected the areas much further west in Queensland. Some illites from the basement in outback Queensland and fault gouges from the Demon Fault in NE New South Wales yield younger Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar ages indicating the effect of hydrothermal processes as a result of a Middle-Upper Jurassic tectonic event. The majority of illite samples from the crystalline basement rocks, Permian Cooper Basin, and Jurassic

  8. The Impact of Country-of-Origin, Ethnocentrism and Animosity on Product Evaluation: Evidence from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tana Cristina LICSANDRU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is to identify whether product country image influences consumption patterns and purchase decisions of Romanian consumers, as well as to identify stereotypes regarding foreign products. Furthermore, the study aims to provide clear evidence regarding Romanian consumers’ ethnocentric tendencies and the countries towards which they exhibit animosity feelings. Research Methodology/Approach: Quantitative data collection method applied on Romanian consumers, with a sample consisting of 150 respondents, living in Bucharest, answering a tested self-administered questionnaire based on the CETSCALE. Findings: The results of the research show that country of origin impacts product evaluation, with a significantly high difference between domestic products (Romania and those from three foreign countries (Russia, Hungary and South Korea. The results suggest that the level of consumer ethnocentrism is low among Romanians, but they do exhibit certain animosity tendencies towards Russia and Hungary with substantive demographic differences identified. Originality/value: The research is the first of its kind conducted among Romanians, adding knowledge to the country-of-origin topic, as well as regarding consumer ethnocentrism and animosity issues. Practical implications: This research is of interest to those looking to export to Romania. It provides clear insight regarding the Romanian consumers’ perceptions regarding foreign products, their ethnocentric tendencies and the potential animosity feelings that they are exhibiting. Furthermore, it offers an useful tool for market segmentation. Keywords: international business, consumer behaviour, country-of-origin, ethnocentrism, animosity.

  9. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  10. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  11. Research about the Impact of Coke Thermal Performance When Distributing Australian Coke%配入澳煤对焦炭热性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明远; 纪长洋; 万红兵; 蒋成

    2012-01-01

    The impact of coke thermal performance when distributing Australian coke can be researched, according to existing coking coal blending coal plant chongqing small coke oven blending test,coke thermal performance test, coke microcrystalline structure experiment.The results show that different blending option, coke microcrystalline structure and thermal properties are different.If increase the quantity of the Macao coal, in the little change of the thermal properties of coke, the production cost can be reduced greatly.%通过对重钢焦化厂焦化配煤煤种进行特性检测,小焦炉配煤试验,焦炭热性能检测试验及焦炭微晶结构分析,研究澳媒对焦炭热性能的影响。结果表明,澳煤的技术指标接近焦煤,在配煤方案中可代替部分肥煤或焦煤。配入20%左右的澳煤,相应降低肥煤和焦煤配入比例所得到的焦炭其热性能较稳定。

  12. Getting it right: the impact of a continuing medical education program on hepatitis B knowledge of Australian primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robotin MC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Robotin,1,2 Yumi Patton,3 Jacob George1,4 1School of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cancer Council New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 3Faculty of Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Storr Liver Unit, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia Introduction: In Australia, chronic hepatitis B (CHB disproportionately affects migrants born in hepatitis B endemic countries, but its detection and management in high risk populations remains suboptimal. We piloted a primary care based program for CHB detection and management in an area of high disease prevalence in Sydney, Australia. Prior to its launch, all local general practitioners were invited to take part in a continuing medical education (CME program on hepatitis B diagnosis and management. Material and methods: Preceding each CME activity, participants completed an anonymous survey recording demographic data and hepatitis B knowledge, confidence in CHB management, and preferred CME modalities. We compared knowledge scores of first-time and repeat attendees. Results: Most participants (75% were males, spoke more than one language with their patients (91%, self-identified as Asian-Australians (91%, and had graduated over 20 years previously (69%. The majority (97% knew what patient groups require CHB and hepatocellular cancer screening, but fewer (42%–75% answered hepatitis B management and vaccination questions correctly. Knowledge scores were not significantly improved by seminar attendance and the provision of hepatitis B resources. At baseline, participants were fairly confident about their ability to screen for CHB, provide vaccinations, and manage CHB. This did not change with repeat attendances, and did not correlate with survey outcomes. Large group CMEs were the preferred learning modality. Discussion: Knowledge gaps in hepatitis B diagnosis and management translate into missed opportunities to screen for

  13. The anti-DNA antibody: origin and impact, dogmas and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekvig, Ole P

    2015-09-01

    The inclusion of 'the anti-DNA antibody' by the ACR and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) as a criterion for systemic lupus erythematosus does not convey the diverse origins of these antibodies, whether their production is transient or persistent (which is heavily influenced by the nature of the inducing antigens), the specificities exerted by these antibodies or their clinical impact-or lack thereof. A substantial amount of data not considered in clinical medicine could be added from basic immunology evidence, which could change the paradigms linked to what 'the anti-DNA antibody' is, in a pathogenic, classification or diagnostic context.

  14. The origin of the moon and the single impact hypothesis. III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, W.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Melosh, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations of the single-impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon were performed using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code developed by Benz et al. (1986). Results are presented from calculations of a relatively low-level collision with an impactor mass in the range 6-8 x 10 to the 26th g. Several runs of the calculations are conducted for this mass range with variations in the SPH code, the equation of state, and the initial planetary models. The effects of these variations are compared. It is found that the orbiting mass is injected by gravitational torques.

  15. Shared origin for seven of Mars Trojans - impact ejecta from Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, David; Jacobson, Seth A.; Aharonson, Oded

    2016-10-01

    Seven out of nine Mars Trojans belong to an orbital grouping that started to spread about 109 years ago (Cuk et al. 2015). We spectrally observed two of them (311999 and 385250) using the IRTF telescope and found that both present an identical olivine-rich reflectance spectrum, that is similar to the reflectance spectrum of (5261) Eureka, the largest of these seven Trojans (Rivkin et al. 2007). These measurements confirm the shared origin of the seven. Moreover, olivine-rich reflectance spectra is rare within asteroids, but is visible in numerous locations on Mars and is found within SNC meteorites that are argued to originate from Mars (Chassigny, ALHA77005; McSween 1985). This spectral resemblance encourages us to suggest that the seven Trojans are impact ejecta from Mars' plutonic rock. We will present dynamical calculations showing how the impact ejecta could have been caught in L5 and that there are enough size-relevant craters on Mars surface to produce these seven Trojans.

  16. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  17. The Calvin 28 cryptoexplosive disturbance, Cass County, Michigan: Evidence for impact origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Randall L.

    1988-01-01

    The Calvin 28 cryptoexplosive disturbance is an isolated, nearly circular subsurface structure of Late Ordovician age in southwestern Michigan. The structure is defined by 107 wells, is about 7.24 km in diameter and consists of a central dome, an annular depression and an encircling anticlinal rim. Seismic and geophysical well log data confirm that an intricate system of faults and structural derangement exists within the structure. Deformation decreases with depth and distance from the structure. U.S.G.S. topographic maps and aerial imagery show the structure is reflected as a subtle surface topographic rise controlling local drainage. Igneous or diapiric intrusion and solution collapse are rejected as possible origins for Calvin 28 on the basis of stratigraphic, structural and geophysical evidence. A volcanic origin is inconsistent with calculated energy requirements and an absence of igneous material. Although shock-metamorphic features are unidentified, microbreccias occur in deep wells that penetrate the structure. Morphology and structural parameters support an impact origin.

  18. Geophysical characterization of two circular structures at Bajada del Diablo (Patagonia, Argentina): Indication of impact origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezzi, Claudia B.; Orgeira, María Julia; Acevedo, Rogelio D.; Ponce, Juan Federico; Martinez, Oscar; Rabassa, Jorge O.; Corbella, Hugo; Vásquez, Carlos; González-Guillot, Mauricio; Subías, Ignacio

    2012-02-01

    An impact origin has been proposed for the circular structures found in Bajada del Diablo, Patagonia, Argentina. Taking into account its extension and the number of impact structures, Bajada del Diablo would be the largest meteoritic impact areas known on Earth, being an extremely interesting area for the research of impact events and processes. Moreover, the global distribution of known impact structures shows a surprising asymmetry. Particularly, South America has only seven described areas. It is evident that this situation is an artifact, highlighting the importance of intensifying the research in the least studied areas such as Argentina. Circular structures in Bajada del Diablo have been identified on two rock types: the Quiñelaf eruptive complex and Pampa Sastre Formation. In the first case, circular structures are placed in olivine basalts. On the other hand, Pampa Sastre Formation (late Pliocene/early Pleistocene) corresponds to conglomerate layers with basalt clasts boulder and block in size in a coarse sandy matrix. With the aim of further the investigation of the proposed impact origin for these circular structures, we carried out detailed topographic, magnetic and electromagnetic ground surveys in two circular structures ("8" and "A") found in Pampa Sastre conglomerates. Both circular structures are simple, bowl-shaped with rim diameters of 300 m and maximum depths of 10 m. They have been partially filled in by debris flows from the rims and wind-blown sands. Two preliminary magnetic profiles have also been carried out in circular structure "G" found in Quiñelaf basalts. The magnetic anomalies show a circular pattern with a slightly negative and relatively flat signal in the circular structures' bases. Furthermore in the circular structures' rims, high-amplitude, conspicuous and localized (short wavelength) anomalies are observed. Such large amplitude and short wavelength anomalies are not detected outside the circular structures. For all used

  19. The impact of origin region and internal migration on Italian fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael White

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of population distribution on fertility in a nationally representative sample. We exploit detailed life-history data to conduct an event-history analysis of transition to first birth, examining mechanisms that might link migration and fertility: socialization, adaptation, selection, and disruption. Our multivariate analysis examines various socio-demographic traits, the place of birth, and interregional migration. Differences by region and migration stream are partly explained by compositional factors, such as female employment, union type, and education. The analysis presents much evidence for demographic selection and socialization and less for adaptation or disruption. The persistence of the region of origin differentials points to the continuing importance of the context.

  20. Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B

    2016-10-27

    The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the origin of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant impact event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact model for the origin of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a 'palaeo-barometer' to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.

  1. Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-10-01

    The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the origin of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant impact event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact model for the origin of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a ‘palaeo-barometer’ to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.

  2. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  3. THE IMPACT OF ORIGIN ON CREATING A CULT BRAND: THE CASE OF APPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Daniela N. CONSTANTIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concept of a cult brand for a more accurate understanding of the extreme loyalty that consumers show towards specific brands. The article focuses on the brand Apple and it explores the elements for which it is considered a cult brand and the impact of its origin on sustaining its cult appeal. Based on the fact that many brands rely on emotional characteristics to obtain consumers’ interest and attention, the country responsible for their conception is usually a warranty for quality and respect, features transferred to consumers. Through an exploratory research, based on investigation of secondary information as a data collection method, the research focuses on Apple's corporate mythology, its brand name, its geographical provenance and also the community surrounding it. The results of the study revealed that brand origin had a major role in creating the image that Apple sustained in the last decades, the conclusion reinforced the idea that on a solid foundation can be built a complex structure.

  4. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  5. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  6. Origin and impact of recombination via charge transfer excitons in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallermann, Markus; da Como, Enrico; Feldmann, Jochen

    2010-03-01

    To further advance the performances of organic photovoltaic cells a thorough understanding of loss mechanisms in polymer/fullerene blends is mandatory. Recombination via charge transfer excitons (CTEs) appears to be a fundamental loss, potentially impacting the open circuit voltage (VOC) and the short circuit current (ISC) of cells. We unravel the origin of CTEs forming in polymer/fullerene blends and discuss their importance in recombination processes considering binding energy [1], polymer conformation [2], and energetic position. CTE photoluminescence (PL) is observed in material combinations such as P3HT and PPV blended with fullerene acceptors. By combining electron microscopy and PL spectroscopy, we show that CTE recombination is only slightly influenced by the mesoscopic morphology, whereas strongly by the polymer chain conformation [2]. By shifting the orbital energies of the fullerene, we tune the CTE PL characteristics. High energy CTE emission results in cells with a beneficial increase in VOC. On the other hand, high energy CTE emission leads to a more efficient recombination impacting directly the ISC. The results highlight a fundamental limit in the efficiency of organic solar cells with CTE recombination. [1] Hallermann et al. APL 2008 [2] Hallermann et al. AFM 2009

  7. Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2008-08-19

    The past decade has witnessed a quantum leap in our understanding of the origins, diffusion, and impact of early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin. In large measure these advances are attributable to new methods for documenting domestication in plants and animals. The initial steps toward plant and animal domestication in the Eastern Mediterranean can now be pushed back to the 12th millennium cal B.P. Evidence for herd management and crop cultivation appears at least 1,000 years earlier than the morphological changes traditionally used to document domestication. Different species seem to have been domesticated in different parts of the Fertile Crescent, with genetic analyses detecting multiple domestic lineages for each species. Recent evidence suggests that the expansion of domesticates and agricultural economies across the Mediterranean was accomplished by several waves of seafaring colonists who established coastal farming enclaves around the Mediterranean Basin. This process also involved the adoption of domesticates and domestic technologies by indigenous populations and the local domestication of some endemic species. Human environmental impacts are seen in the complete replacement of endemic island faunas by imported mainland fauna and in today's anthropogenic, but threatened, Mediterranean landscapes where sustainable agricultural practices have helped maintain high biodiversity since the Neolithic.

  8. A symbiotic view of the origin of life at hydrothermal impact crater-lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sankar

    2016-07-27

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. The theory suffers from the 'concentration problem' of cosmic and terrestrial biomolecules because of the vastness of the Eoarchean global ocean. An attractive alternative site would be highly sequestered, small, hydrothermal crater-lakes that might have cradled life on early Earth. A new symbiotic model for the origin of life at hydrothermal crater-lakes is proposed here. Meteoritic impacts on the Eoarchean crust at the tail end of the Heavy Bombardment period might have played important roles in the origin of life. Impacts and collisions that created hydrothermal crater lakes on the Eoarchean crust inadvertently became the perfect crucibles for prebiotic chemistry with building blocks of life, which ultimately led to the first organisms by prebiotic synthesis. In this scenario, life arose through four hierarchical stages of increasing molecular complexity in multiple niches of crater basins. In the cosmic stage (≥4.6 Ga), the building blocks of life had their beginnings in the interstellar space during the explosion of a nearby star. Both comets and carbonaceous chondrites delivered building blocks of life and ice to early Earth, which were accumulated in hydrothermal impact crater-lakes. In the geologic stage (∼4 Ga), crater basins contained an assortment of cosmic and terrestrial organic compounds, powered by hydrothermal, solar, tidal, and chemical energies, which drove the prebiotic synthesis. At the water surface, self-assembled primitive lipid membranes floated as a thick oil slick. Archean Greenstone belts in Greenland, Australia, and South Africa possibly represent the relics of these Archean craters, where the oldest fossils of thermophilic life (∼3.5 Ga) have been detected. In the chemical stage, monomers such as nucleotides and amino acids were selected from random assemblies of the prebiotic soup; they were

  9. The relative impact of a vegetable-rich diet on key markers of health in a cohort of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ross; Bilgin, Ayse; Zeuschner, Carol; Guy, Trish; Pearce, Robyn; Hokin, Bevan; Ashton, John

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a widespread health problem in Australia. Overweight in childhood can lead to adult overweight and the development of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Effective strategies for reducing childhood obesity are urgently required. A vegetarian diet has been shown to be an effective prophylactic to many lifestyle diseases in the adult population and may therefore be beneficial in children. However the metabolic demands of adolescents are different to adults and the impact of a vegetarian diet on CVD markers in this demographic is not certain. We compared key physiological and biochemical markers of health against responses to a modified, Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) using one-way and two-way Analysis of Variance. 215 adolescents (14-15 yrs) from 5 Adventist secondary schools in the Sydney and Hunter regions of New South Wales, Australia, participated in this study. Adolescents consuming predominantly vegetarian foods showed significantly better scores on markers of cardiovascular health, including, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, Cholesterol/High density lipoprotein ratio and low density lipoprotein. Adolescents consuming nuts more than once per week, also showed lower scores for BMI and serum glucose irrespective of their vegetarian status. Markers of general health including haemoglobin and average height were not different between groups; however a lower serum level of vitamin B12 was apparent in the vegetarian cohort. Surprisingly, exercise on its own was not statistically associated with any of the risk factors tested suggesting that diet may be the most significant factor in promoting health in this age group.

  10. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  11. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Howland

    Full Text Available Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1 density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2 grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  12. Awareness of Stress-Reduction Interventions on Work Attitudes: The Impact of Tenure and Staff Group in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA) and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees' reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1) perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2) job satisfaction for employees with 0-19 years of tenure; (3) trust in senior management for employees with 6-19 years of tenure; and (4) affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6-10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20-38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual issues in organizational

  13. Awareness of stress-reduction interventions on work attitudes: the impact of tenure and staff group in Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees’ reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1 perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2 job satisfaction for employees with 0–19 years of tenure; (3 trust in senior management for employees with 6–19 years of tenure; and (4 affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6–10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20–38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual

  14. Forecasting Tourist Arrivals in Greece and the Impact of Macroeconomic Shocks from the Countries of Tourists’ Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Gounoploulos, D.; Petmezas, D.; Santamaria, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper generates short-term forecasts on tourist arrivals in Greece and performs impulse response analysis to measure the impact of macroeconomic shocks from the origin country on future tourism demand. We find the ARIMA (1, 1, 1) model outperforms exponential smoothing models in forecasting the direction of one year out of sample forecasts. However, this does not translate into point forecasting accuracy. Impulse response analysis on the impact of unemployment and tourists’ cost of livin...

  15. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Gillian A.; Carpenter, Julia G. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Rd, Yallambie, 3085, Victoria (Australia); Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, GPO Box 461, Darwin, 0801 Northern Territory (Australia); Johansen, Mathew P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental impact assessments conducted for Australian mine sites involving naturally occurring radioactive material require an assessment of radiation doses to wildlife. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo}) are pivotal in these assessments and previous reviews have identified a need for a more complete and consolidated database of Australian-specific CR{sub wo} that could be used. Concern had also been expressed by some stakeholders in Australia about the suitability of the default CR{sub wo} values provided in standard biota dose models (e.g., ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, ICRP framework) for Australian wildlife and environmental conditions. In order to address these concerns and support the implementation of best-practice standards in environmental radiological assessment, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), with support from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), undertook an evaluation of existing data relating to wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments. CR{sub wo} values were calculated using data from a range of original sources. These included scientific journal publications, technical reports from Australian government organisations, site-specific data from mining operators and data from baseline environmental surveys undertaken during the 1970's and 1980's. The Australian data previously included in the international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD, www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org) were also reviewed and updated. This paper discusses the data analysis process and associated uncertainties. CR{sub wo} values are reported for uranium, thorium, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 for a range of endemic and introduced wildlife, with a focus on plants and animals from both terrestrial and freshwater environments where uranium mining has been proposed or undertaken. This has resulted in the calculation of more than 500 CR{sub wo} values for inclusion in the database

  16. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  17. Anglo-Australian Observatory August 2009 newsletter

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbie, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The August 2009 edition of the AAO newsletter contains articles on observations of the lunar impact of the Kaguya satellite, mapping the ISM towards Omega Centauri, early results from the Anglo-Australian Rocky Planet search, details of a new AAOmega observing mode, the new telescope control system and a number of regular features.

  18. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with draft…

  19. Evaluating the impact of a fungal-origin chitosan preparation on Brettanomyces bruxellensis in the context of wine aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Nardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brettanomyces bruxellensis and the consequences of its development in wines are a continuous threat for wine quality. In this context, chitosan of fungal origin was introduced as a new tool to control B. bruxellensis in the context of winemaking. Recent studies have showed the impact of a fungal origin chitosan application on wines contaminated with B. bruxellensis, leading to the elimination of B. bruxellensis cells. In these studies, the chitosan preparation was added, the wine racked off after 10 days and the efficiency of the treatment was evaluated in a short delay after the treatment. This study focused on the evaluation of the impact of different addition protocols of an enological chitosan preparation on B. bruxellensis population evolution and volatile phenols content along the aging, up to 9 months. The results confirm the interest of fungal origin chitosan as a preventive tool to control B. bruxellensis in the context of wine aging.

  20. Library Research, Luxury or Necessity? Comments on the Original Article by Carmel Maguire, "Library Research, Luxury or Necessity?" "The Australian Library Journal", 22 No. 4: 152-157, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    I am grateful to the Editor for giving me excuse to delve into the fossil record. I confidently hope that my article was written before most of The Australian Library Journal's present readership was born. I am happy to stay with my pragmatic attempt at a definition of research as an intensified search undertaken with the hope of finding something…

  1. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  2. The Impact of Origin and Host Country Schooling on the Economic Performance of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the economic returns to schooling acquired in the country of origin and the country of destination. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands, which contain direct measures of pre- and post migration schooling. It is studied whether the returns to origin-country…

  3. Responses to Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae by several commercial strains of Australian and North American honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of varroa (Varroa destructor, Anderson & Trueman. 2000) on Australian beekeeping and agriculture depends in part on the levels of resistance to this parasite expressed by Australian commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera). The responses of seven lines of Australian honey bees to ...

  4. The Month-of-the-year Effect in the Australian Stock Market: A Short Technical Note on the Market, Industry and Firm Size Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marrett

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This short note examines the month-of-the-year effect in Australian daily returns using a regression-basedapproach. The results indicate that marketwide returns are significantly higher in April, July and Decembercombined with evidence of a small cap effect with systematically higher returns in January, August, andDecember. The analysis of the sub-market returns is also supportive of disparate month-of-the-year effects.However, only in the case of small cap firms and the telecoms industry do these coincide with the higherreturns associated with the January effect as typified in work elsewhere.This

  5. Impact of Roasting on Identification of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Origin: A Chemometric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Monica; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Bordiga, Matteo; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-08-19

    Hazelnuts belonging to different cultivars or cultivated in different geographic areas can be differentiated by their chemical profile; however, the roasting process may affect the composition of raw hazelnuts, thus compromising the possibility to identify their origin in processed foods. In this work, we characterized raw and roasted hazelnuts (Tonda Gentile Trilobata, TGT, from Italy and from Chile, Tonda di Giffoni from Italy, and Tombul from Turkey), as well as hazelnuts isolated from commercial products, with the aim to discriminate their cultivar and origin. The chemometric evaluation of selected chemical parameters (proximate composition, fatty acids, total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and protein fingerprint by SDS-PAGE) permitted us to identify hazelnuts belonging to different cultivars and, concerning TGT samples, their different geographic origin. Also commercial samples containing Piedmontese TGT hazelnuts were correctly assigned to TGT cluster. In conclusion, even if the roasting process modifies the composition of roasted hazelnuts, this preliminary model study suggests that the identification of their origin is still possible.

  6. Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and impact-shock synthesis of organic molecules - An inventory for the origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of organic-rich comets, carbonaceous asteroids, and interplanetary dust particles and of impact shock-synthesized organics in the atmosphere to the origin of life on earth is studied and quantitatively compared with the principal non-heavy-bombardment sources of prebiotic organics. The results suggest that heavy bombardment before 3.5 Gyr ago either produced or delivered quantities of organics comparable to those produced by other energy sources.

  7. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  8. Deep neck space abscesses of dental origin: the impact of Streptococcus group Milleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andrej; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, there has been rising interest in Streptococcus group Milleri (SM) because high mortality rates have been related to it. In case of deep neck infections (DNI), whatever the origin, mortality rates as high as 26% were reported. But there are no data available for DNI with SM of purely dental origin. The aim of our article was to describe and analyse DNI of purely dental origin involving on one hand SM and on the other hand infections without presence of SM. We compared these two groups and statistically investigated if there were differences in clinical presentation (age, mouth opening, length of hospital stay, laboratory parameters) or clinical behaviour (re-operation, re-hospitalisation, secondary osteomyelitis, stay at intensive care, length of antibiotic treatment, presence of resistances against antibiotics, incapacity to work). For this, we retrospectively searched medical records of our institution for all purulent DNI treated from 2004 till 2012. We found 81 patients meeting all inclusion criteria. Thirty-four patients had involvement of SM, 47 did not. The only statistically significant difference between the SM group and the non-SM group was the length of incapacity to work. All other parameters were non-significant. Furthermore, there were no fatalities. In conclusion, the clinical importance of this article is that patients with deep neck abscesses of purely dental origin involving SM do not need more or different care when compared to all other DNI of dental origin.

  9. The Impact of Generation and Country of Origin on the Mental Health of Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, Shirin; Wheaton, Blair

    2011-01-01

    The authors reexamine the study of generational differences in adjustment among the children of immigrants by arguing that the country of origin defines and shapes the adaptation process across generations. Using a sample of children in Toronto, the authors demonstrate that generational differences in the mental health of children occur only in…

  10. The origin of Pasteurella multocida impacts pathology and inflammation when assessed in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne E.; Chadfield, Mark S.; Sorensen, Dorte B.

    2016-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions of Pasteurella multocida isolates of different origin were studied in a mouse model, focusing on pathology, bacterial load and expression of the metalloproteinase MMP9 and its inhibitor TIMP1. Intranasal inoculation with one of three doses (10(6), 10(4), 10(2) CFU...

  11. The Impact of Type of Examples on Originality: Explaining Fixation and Stimulation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogué, Marine; Kazakçi, Akin; Hatchuel, Armand; Le Masson, Pascal; Weil, Benoit; Poirel, Nicolas; Cassotti, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    There are obstacles to creativity: one of them is called fixation effect, the fact that some knowledge about existing or obvious solutions is spontaneously activated and constrains the generation of new solutions. Converging evidence in cognitive psychology has indicated that the ability to generate original ideas can be limited by recently…

  12. A Splendid Gift from the Earth: The Origins and Impact of the Avermectins (Nobel Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ōmura, Satoshi

    2016-08-22

    Japanese soil was the origin of one of the most important drugs of the world: ivermectin. No other drug has such importance for the health of millions of people, particularly in the poor regions of the world. The discovery of the parent compounds of the avermectines is described first hand by S. Ōmura.

  13. The impact of origin and host country schooling on the economic performance of immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the economic returns to schooling acquired in the country of origin and the country of destination. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands, which contain direct measures of pre- and post-migration schooling. It

  14. The impact of origin- and host-country schooling on the economic performance of immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the economic returns to schooling acquired in the country of origin and the country of destination. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands, which contain direct measures of pre- and post-migration schooling. It

  15. On the origin and composition of Theia: Constraints from new models of the Giant Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Matthias M M; Wieler, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the isotopic composition of Theia, the proto-planet which collided with the Earth in the Giant Impact that formed the Moon, could provide interesting insights on the state of homogenization of the inner solar system at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation. We use the known isotopic and modeled chemical compositions of the bulk silicate mantles of Earth and Moon and combine them with different Giant Impact models, to calculate the possible ranges of isotopic composition of Theia in O, Si, Ti, Cr, Zr and W in each model. We compare these ranges to the isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites, Mars, and other solar system materials. In the absence of post-impact isotopic re-equilibration, the recently proposed high angular momentum models of the Giant Impact ("impact-fission", Cuk & Stewart, 2012; and "merger", Canup, 2012) allow - by a narrow margin - for a Theia similar to CI-chondrites, and Mars. The "hit-and-run" model (Reufer et al., 2012) allows for a Theia similar to enstatit...

  16. Impact-driven planetary desiccation: The origin of the dry Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosawa, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    The fate of surface water on Venus is one of the most important outstanding problems in comparative planetology. Here a new concept is proposed to explain water removal on a steam-covered proto Venus, referred to as impact-driven planetary desiccation. Since a steam atmosphere is photochemically unstable, water vapor dissociates into hydrogen and oxygen. Then, hydrogen escapes easily into space through hydrodynamic escape driven by strong extreme ultraviolet radiation from the young Sun. The focus is on the intense impact bombardment during the terminal stage of planetary accretion as generators of a significant amount of reducing agent. The fine-grained ejecta remove the residual oxygen, the counter part of escaped hydrogen, via the oxidation of iron-bearing rocks in a hot atmosphere. Thus, hypervelocity impacts cause net desiccation of the planetary surface. I constructed a stochastic cratering model using a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the cumulative mass of nonoxidized, ejected rocks due to the int...

  17. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  18. Numerical simulation of drop impact on a thin film: the origin of the droplets in the splashing regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Che, Zhizhao; Ismail, Renad; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    Drop impact on a liquid layer is a feature of numerous multiphase flow problems, and has been the subject of numerous theoretical, experimental and numerical investigations. In the splashing regime, however, little attention has been focused on the origin of the droplets that are formed during the splashing process. The objective of this study is to investigate this issue numerically in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying splashing as a function of the relevant system parameters. In contrast to the conventional two-phase flow approach, commonly used to simulate splashing, here, a three-dimensional, three-phase flow model, with adaptive, unstructured meshing, is employed to study the liquid (droplet) - gas (surrounding air) - liquid (thin film) system. In the cases to be presented, both liquid phases have the same fluid property, although, clearly, our method can be used in the more general case of two different liquids. Numerical results of droplet impact on a thin film are analysed to determine whether the origin of the droplets following impact corresponds to the mother drop, or the thin film, or both. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  19. Cleopatra crater on Venus: Venera 15/16 data and impact/volcanic origin controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basilevsky, A.T. (Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (USSR)); Ivanov, B.A. (Schmidt Institute of Earth Physics (USSR))

    1990-02-01

    Cleopatra structure is a 100-km diameter feature having a morphology similar to that of double-ring basins of the Moon and Mercury and dissimilar to that of volcanic calderas on Mars, Earth, and Venus. The 2.4-km depth of Cleopatra is anomalously large compared to venusian and terrestrial impact craters of equivalent diameters. An impartial summary of the situation is as follows: if Cleopatra is a volcanic caldera, it is a strange caldera, if Cleopatra is an impact crater, it is a strange crater.

  20. The Impact of Country-of-Origin Information on Consumer Perception of Environment-Friendly Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni Cicia; Luigi Cembalo; Teresa del Giudice; Riccardo Scarpa

    2011-01-01

    The intense process of internationalization of the food market is giving rise to new competitive scenarios. Growing market shares on the part of new export countries, along with other consumer and retail issues, impose different marketing policies for agri-food products. In particular, greater consumer awareness of environmental and health issues is changing the structure of demand for fresh products. In the past, the country of origin and a good quality/price ratio were the main strategic st...

  1. Origin and emplacement of impactites in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J.W.; Gohn, G.S.; Powars, D.S.; Edwards, L.E.

    2007-01-01

    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure, located on the Atlantic margin of Virginia, may be Earth's best-preserved large impact structure formed in a shallow marine, siliciclastic, continental-shelf environment. It has the form of an inverted sombrero in which a central crater ???40 km in diameter is surrounded by a shallower brim, the annular trough, that extends the diameter to ???85 km. The annular trough is interpreted to have formed largely by the collapse and mobilization of weak sediments. Crystalline-clast suevite, found only in the central crater, contains clasts and blocks of shocked gneiss that likely were derived from the fragmentation of the central-uplift basement. The suevite and entrained megablocks are interpreted to have formed from impact-melt particles and crystalline-rock debris that never left the central crater, rather than as a fallback deposit. Impact-modified sediments in the annular trough include megablocks of Cretaceous nonmarine sediment disrupted by faults, fluidized sands, fractured clays, and mixed-sediment intercalations. These impact-modified sediments could have formed by a combination of processes, including ejection into and mixing of sediments in the water column, rarefaction-induced fragmentation and clastic injection, liquefaction and fluidization of sand in response to acoustic-wave vibrations, gravitational collapse, and inward lateral spreading. The Exmore beds, which blanket the entire crater and nearby areas, consist of a lower diamicton member overlain by an upper stratified member. They are interpreted as unstratified ocean-resurge deposits, having depositional cycles that may represent stages of inward resurge or outward anti-resurge flow, overlain by stratified fallout of suspended sediment from the water column. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. The Australian National University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2007-01-01

    The Australian National University was established by Federal Parliament in 1946 with a mission to bring credit to the nation and to be one of the world’s great universities.It was the country’s only full-time research university at the time,and had no undergraduate teaching responsibilities.

  3. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  4. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    such as fairness, openness and egalitarianism effectively enhances cosmopolitan outlooks. It identifies the mechanisms through which these same virtues are mobilized to rationalize the failure to actualize cosmopolitanism in everyday practice. We argue that Australianness understood as the popular ‘fair...

  5. Hardening: Australian for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    defence.gov.au 38 ibid: no page no. 39 ibid: no page no. 40 Aldo Borgu , The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Australian Strategic...Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2002. Borgu Aldo, The Defence Capability Review 2003: A Modest and Incomplete Review. Canberra

  6. Impact melting of frozen oceans on the early Earth: implications for the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, J. L.; Bigham, C.; Miller, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Without sufficient greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the early Earth would have become a permanently frozen planet because the young Sun was less luminous than it is today. Several resolutions to this faint young Sun-frozen Earth paradox have been proposed, with an atmosphere rich in CO2 being the one generally favored. However, these models assume that there were no mechanisms for melting a once frozen ocean. Here we show that bolide impacts between about 3.6 and 4.0 billion years ago could have episodically melted an ice-covered early ocean. Thaw-freeze cycles associated with bolide impacts could have been important for the initiation of abiotic reactions that gave rise to the first living organisms.

  7. Cleopatra crater on Venus - Venera 15/16 data and impact/volcanic origin controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, B. A.

    1990-02-01

    The morphology and morphometry of the 100-km diameter, 2.4-km deep Cleopatra crater on Venus are examined using Venera 15/16 images. The Cleopatra crater is compared to circular structures on Venus, Mercury, Mars, the earth and the moon. Consideration is given to the possible causes for the genesis of the Cleopatra crater. It is concluded that Cleopatra has a clear impact basin morphology with an anomalous crater depth.

  8. The Impact of Country-of-Origin Information on Consumer Perception of Environment-Friendly Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The intense process of internationalization of the food market is giving rise to new competitive scenarios. Growing market shares on the part of new export countries, along with other consumer and retail issues, impose different marketing policies for agri-food products. In particular, greater consumer awareness of environmental and health issues is changing the structure of demand for fresh products. In the past, the country of origin and a good quality/price ratio were the main strategic strengths for gaining and maintaining international market shares. Nowadays, market shares are gained by moving towards new product attributes, namely environmental friendliness and food safety. This paper draws attention to new, more successful marketing strategies. The case study is the German cherry tomato market. Our analysis of German consumer preferences on stated choice data produces interesting insights. Product attributes related to the environment are found to be relevant to forming consumer preferences. As these are termed "faith" attributes, we speculate that German consumers refer to product origin country as a proxy of its environmental aspects. Two separate competitive segments emerge, one with a higher level of environmental quality, namely Germany and Italy, and the other comprising Turkey, Spain, France and Holland.

  9. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

    2009-01-01

    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  10. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

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    Sarkar BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

  11. Evidence for an 800 km Diameter Impact Structure in Meridiani Planum and Associated Channels and Basins: A Connection with the Origin of the Hematite Deposits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, H. E.; Barber, C. A.; Schelble, R. T.; Hare, T. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Sutherland, V.; Gordon, H.; Thorsos, I. E.; Livingston, A.; Lewis, K.

    2003-01-01

    Topographic evidence for the existence of an early 800 km diameter multi-ringed impact structure, and evidence for fluvial and lacustrine environments in Meridiani Planum suggests a connection with the origin of the hematite deposits present in the region.

  12. Origin of the Sudbury Complex by meteoritic impact: Neodymium isotopic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggart, B.E.; Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    Samarium-neodymium isotopic data on whole rocks and minerals of the Sudbury Complex in Canada gave an igneous crystallization age of 1840 ?? 21 ?? 106 years. The initial epsilon neodymium values for 15 whole rocks are similar to those for average upper continental crust, falling on the crustal trend of neodymium isotopic evolution as defined by shales. The rare earth element concentration patterns of Sudbury rocks are also similar to upper crustal averages. These data suggest that the Sudbury Complex formed from melts generated in the upper crust and are consistent with a meteoritic impact.

  13. Metabolites of Microbial Origin with an Impact on Health: Ochratoxin A and Biogenic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe; Corbo, Maria R.; Sinigaglia, Milena; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Safety and quality are significant challenges for food; namely, safety represents a big threat all over the world and is one of the most important goal to be achieved in both Western Society and Developing Countries. Wine safety mainly relies upon some metabolites and many of them are of microbial origin. The main goal of this review is a focus on two kinds of compounds (biogenic amines and mycotoxins, mainly Ochratoxin A) for their deleterious effects on health. For each class of compounds, we will focus on two different traits: (a) synthesis of the compounds in wine, with a brief description of the most important microorganisms and factors leading this phenomenon; (b) prevention and/or correction strategies and new trends. In addition, there is a focus on a recent predictive tool able to predict toxin contamination of grape, in order to perform some prevention approaches and achieve safe wine. PMID:27092133

  14. Impact of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X

    2016-02-01

    Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation.

  15. Impact of Inorganic Arsenicals on Vegetative Growth of Two Pakistani Origins Sunflower Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Imran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenicals impact on vegetative growth of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cultivars (FH-385 as Hybrid 1 and FH-405 as Hybrid 2 was monitored. Various levels of two different sodium salts of arsenic, namely, sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4·7H2O as source of As5+ and sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 as source of As3+, were used to evaluate the effect of arsenic on plant water relation parameters. Significant stress effects were found when arsenic was higher in concentrations (>60 mg/kg soil of both salts as compared to control plants. Genotype FH-405 showed higher levels for shoot and root length, water contents, number of leaves, and leaf area, which indicates well adaptation of this cultivar in arsenic contaminated environment. T5 (100 mg/kg of both salts showed notable stressful impacts as compared to low arsenic concentrations (20, 40 mg/kg and especially control plants in case of all morphophysiological parameters of sunflower cultivars.

  16. The occurrence of dauciform roots amongst Western Australian reeds, rushes and sedges, and the impact of phosphorus supply on dauciform-root development in Schoenus unispiculatus (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Michael W; Dixon, Kingsley W; Lambers, Hans

    2005-03-01

    * The incidence of species that develop specialised 'dauciform' lateral roots, which are hypothesised to be important for phosphorus (P) acquisition, is uncertain. We investigated their occurrence in Australian reed, rush and sedge species, grown at low P concentration in nutrient solution, and studied the response of Schoenus unispiculatus (Cyperaceae) to a range of P concentrations. * We assessed the fraction of root biomass invested in dauciform roots, their respiration and net P-uptake rate, and the P status of roots and leaves. * Dauciform-root development occurred only in particular genera of Cyperaceae when grown at low P supply. Increased P supply was associated with increased growth of S. unispiculatus and increased leaf [P]. Dauciform-root growth was reduced by increased P supply, and reduced P uptake co-occurred with the complete suppression of dauciform roots. * The P-induced suppression of dauciform roots in Cyperaceae is similar to that observed for proteoid roots in members of Proteaceae and Lupinus albus. The response of dauciform roots to altered P supply and their absence from root systems of some sedge species are discussed in terms of managed and natural systems.

  17. The origin of the moon and the single-impact hypothesis III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, W; Cameron, A G; Melosh, H J

    1989-01-01

    In previous papers in this series the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method (SPH) has been used to explore the conditions in which a major planetary collision may have been responsible for the formation of the Moon. In Paper II (W. Benz, W.L. Slattery, and A.G.W. Cameron 1987, Icarus 71, 30-45) it was found that the optimum conditions were obtained when the mass ratio of the impactor to the protoearth was 0.136. In the present paper we investigate the importance of the equation of state by running this optimum case several times and varying the equation of state and other related parameters. The two equations of state compared are the Tillotson (used in the previous papers) and the CHART D/CSQ ANEOS. Because of differences in these equations of state, including the fact that different types of rocks were used in association with each, it was not possible to prepare initial planetary models that were comparable in every respect, so several different simulations were necessary in which different planetary parameters were matched between the equations of state. We also used a new version of the SPH code. The results reaffirmed the previous principal conclusions: the collisions produced a disk of rocky material in orbit, with most of the material derived from the impacting object. These results indicate that the equation of state is not a critical factor in determining the amount of material thrown into orbit. This confirms the conclusions of Paper II that gravitational torques, and not pressure gradients, inject the orbiting mass. However, the way this mass is distributed in orbit is affected by the equation of state and the choice of rock material, the Tillotson equation for granite giving slightly larger mean orbital radius for the particles left in orbit than the ANEOS dunite for the same impact parameter. We also find, compared to Paper II, that in all subsequent cases the new SPH code leads to a slightly less extended prelunar accretion disk. We think this is

  18. ‘The Scandinavian Report: its origins and impact on the Kilkenny Design Workshops’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Walker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Design in Ireland: Report of the Scandinavian Design Group in Ireland in 1962 has been described as providing the catalyst for change in the approach to design in Ireland. The Report was commissioned by the Irish Export Board and the Scandinavian Design Group was formed for this purpose. It stimulating protracted debate on design education in Ireland, and also afforded a reason for the establishment of the Kilkenny Design Workshops. This paper, which draws on unpublished material from a number of archives, will provide a brief overview of the Report and the rational for commissioning it, followed by an examination of government interventions to improve design standards in Ireland from the founding of the State until the 1960s. It will examine the origins of Scandinavian influence on the evolution of public policy on design in Ireland, question if the Report expanded the discourse on design in industry in Ireland and assess its influence during the early years of the Workshops.

  19. Framing choice: The origins and impact of consumer rhetoric in US health care debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy S

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the origins of consumerist discourse in health care from a communication perspective via a historical textual analysis of health writing in popular magazines from 1930 to 1949. The focus is on Consumers Union's Consumer Reports and the American Medical Association's lay health magazine, Hygeia. Findings from Consumer Reports show that the consumer movement of the 1930s-40s staunchly advocated for universal health insurance. Whereas consumer rights language nowadays tends towards individual choice and personal responsibility, consumerism in health care during that era articulated ideas about consumer citizenship, framing choice and responsibility in collectivist terms and health care as a social good. This paper also illuminates the limits and weaknesses of a central tenet in consumerism-freedom of choice-by analyzing stories in Hygeia about the doctor-patient relationship. A textual analysis finds that the AMA's justification in the 1930s-40s against socialized medicine, i.e., the freedom to choose a doctor, was in practice highly controlled by the medical profession. Findings show that long before the rhetoric of the "empowered consumer" became popular, some patients exercised some choice even in an era when physicians achieved total professional dominance. But these patients were few and tend to occupy the upper socioeconomic strata of US society. In reality choice was an illusion in a fee-for-service era when most American families could not afford the costs of medical care.

  20. Nature, Origin, Potential Composition, and Climate Impact of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Thomason, L. W.; Natarajan, M.; Bedka, K.; Wienhold, F.; Bian J.; Martinsson, B.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations from SAGE II and CALIPSO indicate that summertime aerosol extinction has more than doubled in the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) since the late 1990s. Here we show remote and in-situ observations, together with results from a chemical transport model (CTM), to explore the likely composition, origin, and radiative forcing of the ATAL. We show in-situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter, which support the high levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. We also show in situ measurements from aircraft, which indicate a predominant carbonaceous contribution to the ATAL (Carbon/Sulfur ratios of 2- 10), which is supported by the CTM results. We show that the peak in ATAL aerosol lags by 1 month the peak in CO from MLS, associated with deep convection over Asia during the summer monsoon. This suggests that secondary formation and growth of aerosols in the upper troposphere on monthly timescales make a significant contribution to ATAL. Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations provide evidence that deep convection over India is a significant source for ATAL through the vertical transport of pollution to the upper troposphere.

  1. Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease: Impact of early life stress in humans and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M O; Cohn, D M; Loria, A S

    2017-03-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that environmental insults during childhood programs the individual to develop chronic disease in adulthood. Emerging epidemiological data strongly supports that early life stress (ELS) given by the exposure to adverse childhood experiences is regarded as an independent risk factor capable of predicting future risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal models utilizing chronic behavioral stress during postnatal life, specifically maternal separation (MatSep) provides a suitable tool to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The purpose of this review is to highlight current epidemiological studies linking ELS to the development of cardiovascular disease and to discuss the potential molecular mechanisms identified from animal studies. Overall, this review reveals the need for future investigations to further clarify the molecular mechanisms of ELS in order to develop more personalized therapeutics to mitigate the long-term consequences of chronic behavioral stress including cardiovascular and heart disease in adulthood.

  2. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  3. Impact of the Swap It, Don't Stop It Australian National Mass Media Campaign on Promoting Small Changes to Lifestyle Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Grunseit, Anne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bellew, William; Briggs, Megan; Bauman, Adrian E

    2016-12-01

    Mass media campaigns aimed at influencing lifestyle risk factors are one way that governments are attempting to address chronic disease risk. In Australia, a national campaign aimed at encouraging Australians to make changes in lifestyle-related behaviors was implemented from 2008 to 2011. The first phase, Measure Up (2008-2009), focused on why lifestyle changes are needed by increasing awareness of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease risk. The second phase, Swap It, Don't Stop It (2011), emphasized how adults can change their behaviors. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (after the campaign) were undertaken in July and November 2011 to evaluate the Swap It, Don't Stop It campaign and included measures of campaign awareness and lifestyle-related behavior change. Survey participants (N = 5,097) were similar across the two survey periods. Prompted campaign awareness was 62% (16% for unprompted awareness); females, younger respondents (18-44 years), those in paid employment, and those who spoke English at home were more likely to report prompted/unprompted campaign awareness. Moreover, 16% of survey respondents reported any swapping behavior in the previous 6 months, with the majority (14%) reporting only one swap; younger respondents and those in paid employment were significantly more likely to report having implemented a swapping behavior. The campaign achieved modest population awareness but demonstrated limited effect in terms of nudging behaviors. This evaluation indicates that encouraging swapping behaviors as a prelude to lifestyle change may not result from a mass media campaign alone; a comprehensive multicomponent population approach may be required.

  4. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  5. Origin and history of chondrite regolith, fragmental and impact-melt breccias from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I.; Keil, K.; Wieler, R.; San Miguel, A.; King, E. A.

    1990-06-01

    Six ordinary chondrite breccias from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (Spain), are described and classified as follows: the solar gas-rich regolith breccia Oviedo (H5); the premetamorphic fragmental breccias Cabezo de Mayo (type 6, L-LL), and Sevilla (LL4); the fragmental breccias Canellas (H4) and Gerona (H5); and the impact melt breccia, Madrid (L6). It is confirmed that chondrites with typical light-dark structures and petrographic properties typical of regolith breccias may (Oviedo) or may not (Canellas) be solar gas-rich. Cabezo de Mayo and Sevilla show convincing evidence that they were assembled prior to peak metamorphism and were equilibrated during subsequent reheating. Compositions of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in host chondrite and breccia clasts in Cabezo de Mayo are transitional between groups L and LL. It is suggested, based on mineralogic and oxygen isotopic compositions of host and clasts, that the rock formed on the L parent body by mixing, prior to peak metamorphism. This was followed by partial equilibrium of two different materials: the indigenous L chondrite host and exotic LL melt rock clasts.

  6. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

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    Yan Sun

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids. However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x and tetraploid (EU4x cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x cytotype from the introduced North American (NA range in competition with EU (old or NA (new neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range.

  7. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range.

  8. Dust Infall Onto Phobos and Deimos Can Explain Their Carbonaceous Reflectance Signature, Perhaps Overlying a Mars-Impact-Origin Core: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Cintala, M.; Steele, A.; Welzenbach, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Discussions of Phobos' and Deimos' (henceforth P&D) origin(s) include an unresolved conflict: dynamical studies which favor coalescence of the moons from a large impact on Mars [1,2], versus reflectance spectroscopy of the moons showing a carbonaceous composition that is not consistent with martian surface materials [3-5]. One way to reconcile this discrepancy is to consider the combined options of a Mars impact origin for Phobos and Deimos, followed by deposition of carbon-rich materials by interplanetary dust particle (IDP) infall. This is significant because, unlike asteroidal bodies, P&D experience a high IDP flux due to their location in Mars' gravity well. We present some relatively simple, initial calculations which indicate that accreted carbon may be sufficient to produce a surface with sufficient added carbon to account for P&D's reflectance spectra. If this is true, then a major objection to an impact origin for P&D is resolved.

  9. An original experiment to determine impact of catch crop introduction in a crop rotation on N2O production fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallec, Tiphaine; Le Dantec, Valérie; Zawilski, Bartosz; Brut, Aurore; Boussac, Marion; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The raise in N2O concentration from the preindustrial era (280 ppb) to nowadays (324 ppb) is estimated to account for approximately 6% of the predicted global warming (IPCC 2014). Worldwide, soils are considered to be the dominant source of N2O, releasing an estimated 9.5 Tg N2O-N y-1 (65% of global N2O emissions), of which 36.8% are estimated to originate from agricultural soils (IPCC 2001). Most N2O originating from agricultural soils is a by- or end-product of nitrification or denitrification. The fate of N2O produced by microbiological processes in the subsoil is controlled by biotic (crop species, occurring soil organic matter, human pressure via mineral and organic nitrogen fertilisation) and abiotic (environmental conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, pH, etc.) factors. In cropland, contrary to forest and grassland, long bare soil periods can occurred between winter and summer crops with a high level of mineral (fertilizer) and organic (residues) nitrogen remaining in the soil, causing important emissions of carbon and nitrogen induced by microbial activities. Introduction of catch crop has been identified as an important mitigation option to reduce environmental impact of crops mainly thanks to their ability to increase CO2 fixation, to decrease mineral nitrogen lixiviation and also reduce the potential fate of N2O production. Uncertainty also remains about the impact of released mineral nitrogen coming from crushed catch crop on N2O production if summer crop seedling and mineral nitrogen release are not well synchronized. To verify those assumptions, a unique paired-plot experiment was carried in the south-west of France from September 2013 to august 2014 to test impact of management change on N2O budget and production dynamic. A crop plot was divided into two subplots, one receiving a catch crop (mustard), the other one remaining conventionally managed (bare-soil during winter). This set-up allowed avoiding climate effect. Each subplot was

  10. Impact of the origin of sinus node artery on recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-jun; CHEN Ke; TANG Ri-bo; gANG Cai-hua; Edmundo Patricio Lopes Lao; YAN Qian; HE Xiao-nan

    2013-01-01

    Background Major atrial coronary arteries,including the sinus node artery (SNA),were commonly found in the areas involved in atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation and could cause difficulties in achieving linear block at the left atrial (LA) roof.The SNA is a major atrial coronary artery of the atrial coronary circulation.This study aimed to determine impact of the origin of SNA on recurrence of AF after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with paroxysmal AF.Methods Seventy-eight patients underwent coronary angiography for suspected coronary heart disease,followed by catheter ablation for paroxysmal AF.According to the origin of SNA from angiographic findings,they were divided into right SNA group (SNA originating from the right coronary artery) and left SNA group (SNA originating from the left circumflex artery).Guided by an electroanatomic mapping system,circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA) was performed in both groups and PVI was the procedural endpoint.All patients were followed up at 1,3,6,9 and 12 months post-ablation.Recurrence was defined as any episode of atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATAs),including AF,atrial flutter or atrial tachycardia,that lasted longer than 30 seconds after a blanking period of 3 months.Results The SNA originated from the right coronary artery in 34 patients (43.6%) and the left circumflex artery in 44 patients (56.4%).Freedom from AF and antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) at 1 year was 67.9 % (53/78) for all patients.After 1 year follow-up,79.4% (27/34) in right SNA group and 59.1% (26/44) in left SNA group (P=0.042) were in sinus rhythm.On multivariate analysis,left atrium size (HR=1.451,95%CI:1.240-1.697,P <0.001) and a left SNA (HR=6.22,95%CI:2.01-19.25,P=0.002)were the independent predictors of AF recurrence.Conclusions The left SNA is more frequent in the patients with paroxysmal AF.After one year follow-up,the presence of a left SNA was identified as an independent predictor of AF recurrence after CPVA in

  11. MinUrals: Mineral resources of the Urals -- origin, development, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistel, J. M.; Minurals Team

    2003-04-01

    The MinUrals project (supported by the European Commission under the 5th F.P.- INCO2 - contract ICA2-CT-2000-10011) is focusing on the South Urals mining sector, in order to improve local socio-economic conditions, through: 1) The reinterpretation of the geodynamics of South Urals and of the different types of ore deposits and the development of tools for mineral exploration (new geophysical and geochemical technology). The convergence setting and the formation of arc, fore-arc and back-arc systems explain the volcano-sedimentary and structural features. This geodynamic setting largely controls the distribution and characteristics of the different types of mineralisation; 2) The evaluation of local mining-related risks to the environment, with a development of methodologies for assessing and reducing the environmental impact and localizing areas of high metal potential/low environmental constraints. Three pilote sites were investigated: Sibay and Uchaly (with mining installations), and Karabash (with mining installations and smelter); 3) The implementation of a Geographical Information System taking into account the mineral potential and the environmental constraints that, through data ranking and combining the key parameters of the areas with high metal potential and environmental constraints, will enable the production of a Mineral Potential and Environmental Constraints Map of the South Urals; 4) The elaboration of recommendations for a suitable environmentally-aware mining-industry legislation, based on a comparison with the European legislation, to be adressed to the Commission on the demarcation of powers and subjects between the federal government, governments of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local authorities. More information can be found on the project web sites [http://minurals.brgm.fr] or [http://www.nhm.ac.uk/mineralogy/minurals/minurals.htm] or [http://www.anrb.ru/geol/MinUrals] or [http://minurals.ilmeny.ac.ru] MinUrals Team (*): Aug

  12. Origins of a 350-kilobase genomic duplication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its impact on virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Pilar; Rog, Anya; Moolji, Jalal-ud-din; Radomski, Nicolas; Fallow, Ashley; Leon-Solis, Lizbel; Bowes, Julia; Behr, Marcel A; Reed, Michael B

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the evolution and impact on virulence of a 350-kb genomic duplication present in the most recently evolved members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East Asian lineage. In a mouse model of infection, comparing HN878 subclones HN878-27 (no duplication) and HN878-45 (with the 350-kb duplication) revealed that the latter is impaired for in vivo growth during the initial 3 weeks of infection. Furthermore, the median survival time of mice infected with isolate HN878-45 is significantly longer (77 days) than that of mice infected with HN878-27. Whole-genome sequencing of both isolates failed to reveal any mutational events other than the duplication that could account for such a substantial difference in virulence. Although we and others had previously speculated that the 350-kb duplication arose in response to some form of host-applied selective pressure (P. Domenech, G. S. Kolly, L. Leon-Solis, A. Fallow, M. B. Reed, J. Bacteriol. 192: 4562-4570, 2010, and B. Weiner, J. Gomez, T. C. Victor, R. M. Warren, A. Sloutsky, B. B. Plikaytis, J. E. Posey, P. D. van Helden, N. C. Gey van Pittius, M. Koehrsen, P. Sisk, C. Stolte, J. White, S. Gagneux, B. Birren, D. Hung, M. Murray, J. Galagan, PLoS One 7: e26038, 2012), here we show that this large chromosomal amplification event is very rapidly selected within standard in vitro broth cultures in a range of isolates. Indeed, subclones harboring the duplication were detectable after just five rounds of in vitro passage. In contrast, the duplication appears to be highly unstable in vivo and is negatively selected during the later stages of infection in mice. We believe that the rapid in vitro evolution of M. tuberculosis is an underappreciated aspect of its biology that is often ignored, despite the fact that it has the potential to confound the data and conclusions arising from comparative studies of isolates at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels.

  13. A tool to evaluate patients' experiences of nursing care in Australian general practice: development of the Patient Enablement and Satisfaction Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, Jane; Banfield, Michelle; Parker, Rhian

    2014-01-01

    Australian health policy initiatives have increasingly supported the employment of nurses in general practice. An understanding of the impact of nursing care on patients in this setting is integral to assuring quality, safety and a patient-centred focus. The aim was to develop a survey to evaluate the satisfaction and enablement of patients who receive nursing care in Australian general practices. The survey was to be simple to administer and analyse, ensuring practicality for use by general practice nurses, doctors and managers. Two validated instruments formed the basis of the Patient Enablement and Satisfaction Survey (PESS). This survey was refined and validated for the Australian setting using focus groups and in-depth interviews with patients, and feedback from general practice nurses. Test-retest and alternate form methods were used to establish the survey's reliability. Feedback resulted in 14 amendments to the original draft survey. Questions that demonstrated a strong positive correlation for the test-retest and alternate form measures were included in the final survey. The PESS is a useful, practical tool for the evaluation of nursing care in Australian general practice, its validity and reliability established through a patient-centred research approach, reflective of the needs of patients accessing nursing services in this setting.

  14. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO. Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4.C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  15. The impact of population-based disease management services for selected chronic conditions: the Costs to Australian Private Insurance - Coaching Health (CAPICHe study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrnes Joshua M

    2012-02-01

    available in late 2013. Discussion If positive, CAPICHe will represent a potentially cost-effective strategy to improve health outcomes in higher risk individuals with a chronic condition, in a private health insurance setting. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12611000580976

  16. Australian University International Student Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  17. The Australian Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Howe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients recently became the target of an unprecedented internet campaign by an individual who disagrees with the content and conclusions of a paper published in the journal last year, viz. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased” by Alan W. Barclay and Jennie Brand-Miller, Nutrients 2011, 3, 491–504. Regrettably, his criticism has extended to the journal and its peer review processes for permitting publication of the article. [...

  18. GLBTIQ Teachers in Australian Education Policy: Protections, Suspicions, and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Gray, Emily; Harris, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of human rights on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status by the United Nations has led to the development of new policies concerning homophobia and transphobia in educational contexts. This paper examines new Australian education policies impacting gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer…

  19. Ethical Blind Spots in Leading for Learning: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the dynamics by which exposure to a moral rationale is given expression in schools, and how this is perceived as impacting on teaching, leadership practice and student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 11 Australian schools were part of a project in which they were supported in applying a…

  20. The Australian Environment: Visions, Imperatives and Classroom Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fien, John

    1988-01-01

    Explores five alternative visions of the Australian environment through a brief environmental history. Presents imperatives for geography education to help students become socially responsible and ecologically sensitive including: (1) developing an environmental ethic; (2) teaching about the impact of the political economy on the environment; and…

  1. Influence of Northwest Cloudbands on Southwest Australian Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Telcik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest cloudbands are tropical-extratropical feature that crosses the Australian continent originating from Australia’s northwest coast and develops in a NW-SE orientation. In paper, atmospheric and oceanic reanalysis data (NCEP and Reynolds reconstructed sea surface temperature data were used to examine northwest cloudband activity across the Australian mainland. An index that reflected the monthly, seasonal, and interannual activity of northwest cloudbands between 1950 and 1999 was then created. Outgoing longwave radiation, total cloud cover, and latent heat flux data were used to determine the number of days when a mature northwest cloudband covered part of the Australian continent between April and October. Regional indices were created for site-specific investigations, especially of cloudband-related rainfall. High and low cloudband activity can affect the distribution of cloudbands and their related rainfall. In low cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands were mostly limited to the south and west Australian coasts. In high cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands penetrated farther inland, which increased the inland rainfall. A case study of the southwest Australian region demonstrated that, in a below average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall was limited to the coast. In an above average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall occurred further inland.

  2. Disentangling the impacts of climate and human colonization on the flora and fauna of the Australian arid zone over the past 100 ka using stable isotopes in avian eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Magee, John W.; Gagan, Michael K.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the Quaternary, the flora and fauna of Australia evolved and adapted to the high-amplitude, low- and high-frequency climate changes that characterized the ice-age cycles. However, during the last glacial cycle, between ∼120 and 15 ka, unprecedented irreversible changes in flora and fauna occurred, and in that same interval modern humans established their first firm presence in the landscape. Disentangling the impacts of the first-order trend toward a colder, drier planet through the Late Quaternary from the impacts of human colonization has been challenging, from both the chronological and paleoenvironmental perspectives. We utilize the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen preserved in near-continuous time series of Dromaius (emu) eggshell from five regions across Australia to provide independent reconstructions of ecosystem status and climate over the past 100 ka. Carbon isotopes are determined by the diet consumed by the female bird, whereas oxygen isotopes record the status of local moisture balance in the months prior to breeding. Together, δ13C and δ18O provide ecosystem status and climate from the same dated sample, reducing correlation uncertainties between proxies. Combined with recent improvements in the chronologies of Late Quaternary shorelines fringing inland lake basins and deflation during arid times, these data collectively reaffirm that Australia generally became increasingly, albeit irregularly, drier from the last interglaciation through to the last glacial maximum. Dromaius eggshell δ18O documents peak aridity between 30 and 15 ka, but shows no evidence of exceptional climate change between 60 and 40 ka. In contrast, Dromaius δ13Cdiet documents an irreversible loss of the majority of palatable summer-rainfall-related C4 grasses across the Australian arid zone between 50 and 45 ka, about the same time that the giant megafaunal bird, Genyornis, became extinct, and coincident with human dispersal across the continent. Our data

  3. Does the sedimentology of the Chelmsford formation provide evidence for a meteorite impact origin of the Sudbury structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D. G. F.

    1992-01-01

    The post-'event' fill of the Paleoproterozoic Sudbury Basin consists of at least 600 m of deep-water mudrocks of the Onwatin Formation, overlain by 850 m of lithic-arkosic muddy sandstones in the Chelmsford Formation. While mudstones of the Onwatin reflect deposition in a deep-water, anoxic setting, there is no clear evidence of local breccias, conglomerates, or sand bodies to support the concept that the basin was protected by the steep walls of an impact crater. Carbonates in the basal, Vermillion Member are of sedimentary exhalitive origin and were not derived from a shallow marine shelf. Turbidites in the Chelmsford Formation show no evidence of centripetal fill as might be expected from a restricted, circular basin. They appear to have been emplaced by predominantly southwesterly flowing turbidity currents, which showed little to no deflection along the depositional axis of an elongate foreland basin that developed in front of the rising Penokean mountain chain. While the presence of minor sandstone-filled fractures in parts of the Chelmsford Formation suggests the presence of north- or south-directed paleoslopes, no evidence is seen to support the existence of subbasins or a central uplift within the Sudbury Basin. While tilt-corrected paleocurrent orientations are ambiguous, due to postdepositional shortening of strata during cleavage development, strain correction of the observations makes little difference to the net, south-southwest-directed paleoflow.

  4. Impact regimes and post-formation sequestration processes: implications for the origin of heavy noble gases in terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Picaud, Sylvain; Schmitt, Bernard; Marquer, Didier; Horner, Jonathan; Thomas, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The difference between the measured atmospheric abundances of neon, argon, krypton and xenon for Venus, the Earth and Mars is striking. Because these abundances drop by at least two orders of magnitude as one moves outward from Venus to Mars, the study of the origin of this discrepancy is a key issue that must be explained if we are to fully understand the different delivery mechanisms of the volatiles accreted by the terrestrial planets. In this work, we aim to investigate whether it is possible to quantitatively explain the variation of the heavy noble gas abundances measured on Venus, the Earth and Mars, assuming that cometary bombardment was the main delivery mechanism of these noble gases to the terrestrial planets. To do so, we use recent dynamical simulations that allow the study of the impact fluxes of comets upon the terrestrial planets during the course of their formation and evolution. Assuming that the mass of noble gases delivered by comets is proportional to rate at which they collide with the t...

  5. Information preferences for the evaluation of coastal development impacts on ecosystem services: A multi-criteria assessment in the Australian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marre, Jean-Baptiste; Pascoe, Sean; Thébaud, Olivier; Jennings, Sarah; Boncoeur, Jean; Coglan, Louisa

    2016-05-15

    Ecosystem based management requires the integration of various types of assessment indicators. Understanding stakeholders' information preferences is important, in selecting those indicators that best support management and policy. Both the preferences of decision-makers and the general public may matter, in democratic participatory management institutions. This paper presents a multi-criteria analysis aimed at quantifying the relative importance to these groups of economic, ecological and socio-economic indicators usually considered when managing ecosystem services in a coastal development context. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied within two nationwide surveys in Australia, and preferences of both the general public and decision-makers for these indicators are elicited and compared. Results show that, on average across both groups, the priority in assessing a generic coastal development project is for the ecological assessment of its impacts on marine biodiversity. Ecological assessment indicators are globally preferred to both economic and socio-economic indicators regardless of the nature of the impacts studied. These results are observed for a significantly larger proportion of decision-maker than general public respondents, questioning the extent to which the general public's preferences are well reflected in decision-making processes.

  6. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aborig- inal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral ...

  7. Controlling Non-Point Source Pollution in Australian Agricultural Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. GOURLEY; A. RIDLEY

    2005-01-01

    The Australian farming sector is continuing to intensify, particularly within 300 km of the east and southern coastlines.In the future there will be fewer and larger farms, which will use more fertilizer, support more stock, grow more monoculture crops, and utilise more marginal soils. This is likely to increase the major environmental impacts of soil degradation, salt,nutrient and sediment contamination of waterways, and greenhouse gas emissions. Australian national water policy continues to focus on land, stream and groundwater salinity issues, although there is now a greater recognition of the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agriculture. The general philosophy of policy for dealing with nonpoint source pollution has been towards a voluntary rather than regulatory approach, with state and national governments supporting a range of programs to encourage sustainable agricultural practices. A catchment (watershed) based approach,through the use of integrated catchment management plans, is the primary way that non-point source pollution is addressed at the farm and local level. At an industry level, cotton, grains, meat, sugarcane and dairy amongst others, as well as the Australian fertilizer industry, have responded to non-point source issues by investing in research and development, and developing codes of practice aimed at abating these environmental impacts. Understanding the economic, social, political and cultural contexts of farming as well as the environmental impacts of agriculture are very important in determining the appropriateness of policy responses for Australian farming systems.

  8. Family caregivers: Russian-speaking Australian women's access to welfare support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-09-01

    In Australia, rapid population ageing, and government efforts to support people who are chronically ill, elderly or with disabilities to live in their own homes, has led to the primary responsibility of care being undertaken by families. Through its social policies, the Australian government provides income and other types of support to informal caregivers. This article explores how Australian social policy and women's understanding of their roles impact on their access to welfare support. Qualitative research was conducted in Melbourne between February and June 2006. In-depth interviews were undertaken with eight Russian-speaking women involved in caregiving, purposively recruited through ethnic associations, and with four community service providers. Women based their expectations of the gendered and private nature of their role on the social policies in countries of their origin and, hence, did not attempt to access welfare support unless they were referred by health and welfare professionals. In addition, poor referral by professionals, influenced by past societal attitudes that caregiving is a gendered role, contributed to women's limited access to welfare benefits. Changes in the implementation of social policy are proposed to increase caregivers' access to welfare support and efficient utilisation of existing resources.

  9. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  10. Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Brad; McKenzie, Jane; McIntosh, Rebecca; Baylis, Alastair; Morrissey, Adam; Calvert, Norna; Haase, Tami; Berris, Mel; Dowie, Dave; Shaughnessy, Peter D; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements.

  11. Elasticity of Export Demand for Australian Sugar: Accounting for Regional and Seasonal Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Longmire, James L.; Males, Warren P.

    1997-01-01

    The elasticity of export demand for Australian sugar is an important measure for devising sugar export marketing strategies and considering the impact of various policies on the industry. Updated and more explicit elasticities of export demand for Australian sugar are reported in this paper. The elasticities are calculated using an adaptation of the formula approach published by Cronin (1979). Initially elasticities are reported for Australia without accounting for regional and seasonal effec...

  12. From 'White Australia' to 'part of Asia': recent shifts in Australian immigration policy towards the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, J

    1995-01-01

    This article examines migration policy in Australia with reference to the "White Australia" policy prior to 1975 and the multicultural policy thereafter. Mass immigration has not caused major social tensions. Mass tourism has been welcomed. Australian attitudes have changed from fear of massive numbers of Asians and mass poverty and ignorance to multiculturalism. Suspicious attitudes toward Asians, however, are still present among a minority of Australians. The most influential arguments against Asians are the concerns about employment of new arrivals and the environmental impact of an increasing population. Although there are many cultural differences, Australia is linked to Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines in that all have a history of British or American influence. Educated Indians and Sri Lankans are linked to Australians by their common language and Christian religion. The integration of Asians in the business and financial community holds the potential for economic gain over the years. The author finds that the Australian relationship to Asia is more acceptable in public arenas than the comparable changing relationship between Britain and Europe. The roots of a Whites-only policy extend back to 1901, when the Commonwealth Immigration Restriction Act was ratified. The exclusion of non-European immigrants was not specified in the law. The mechanism for exclusion was included in the law. Undesirable immigrants could be excluded. Under mass migration programs after 1947 the population of non-English speaking Europeans increased. By 1973 government shifted from an assimilationist approach to a multicultural approach due to pressure from the Department of Foreign Affairs. Numerous historical events occurring during 1942-80 drew Australia out of its isolationist position in the world. At present about 25% of the total population are of non-British origin. Over 900,000 would have been excluded under the old migration policy. In 1991, 665,315 persons were born

  13. Healthcare and complicity in Australian immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Australian immigration detention has received persistent criticism since its introduction almost 25 years ago. With the recent introduction of offshore processing, these criticisms have intensified. Riots, violence, self-harm, abuse and devastating mental health outcomes are all now well documented, along with a number of deaths. Clinicians have played a central role working in these environments, faced with the overarching issue of delivering healthcare while facilitating an abusive and harmful system. Since the re-introduction of offshore processing a number of authors have begun to discuss the possibility of a boycott. While taking such action may lead to change, further discussion is needed, not only in relation to the impact of a boycott, but whether it is possible for clinicians to engage with this system in more productive, ethical ways. This article utilises a framework proposed by Lepora and Goodin (On complicity and compromise, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013) that provides a structured approach to examine complicity and seeks to explore how clinicians have engaged with Australian immigration detention and ultimately whether they should continue to do so.

  14. Increased auctioning in the EU ETS and trade in guarantees of origin for renewables: a comparison of the impact on power sector producer rents

    OpenAIRE

    Ragwitz, Mario; Resch, Gustav; Schleich, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission is currently reviewing two major policy instruments which will pose major economic challenges and opportunities for EU power producers. First, the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is likely to include a high percentage of auctioning. Second, support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources may involve open private-actor trade of guarantees of origins (GO). This paper provides a first coarse comparison of the impacts of these policy changes on pow...

  15. Country of origin effect and the impact of brand nationality on the perception of quality in the luxury goods market

    OpenAIRE

    Dittertová, Silvie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Master's Thesis is to investigate the attitudes of high net worth individuals toward country of origin information within the luxury goods market with respect to the quality of the products. The primary method used for the research is qualitative research based on in-depth interviews. Based on these in-depth interviews, the thesis demonstrates the synergy between the literature on country of origin and luxury goods and the consumers' quality perception on luxury based on c...

  16. Impact microcrater morphology on Australian microtektites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Khedekar, V.D.

    due to collision during the rock’s ballistic trajectory tothe eventual site of recovery. Further, in contrast to the datapresented here, Schneider and Horz’s (1974) data did not show any size differentiation between the pit craters and thepitless...

  17. Potential influence of selection criteria on the demographic composition of students in an Australian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puddey Ian B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to 1999 students entering our MBBS course were selected on academic performance alone. We have now evaluated the impact on the demographics of subsequent cohorts of our standard entry students (those entering directly from high school of the addition to the selection process of an aptitude test (UMAT, a highly structured interview and a rural incentive program. Methods Students entering from 1985 to 1998, selected on academic performance alone (N = 1402, were compared to those from 1999 to 2011, selected on the basis of a combination of academic performance, interview score, and UMAT score together with the progressive introduction of a rural special entry pathway (N = 1437. Results Males decreased from 57% to 45% of the cohort, students of NE or SE Asian origin decreased from 30% to 13%, students born in Oceania increased from 52% to 69%, students of rural origin from 5% to 21% and those from independent high schools from 56% to 66%. The proportion of students from high schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage remained unchanged at approximately 10%. The changes reflect in part increasing numbers of female and independent high school applicants and the increasing rural quota. However, they were also associated with higher interview scores in females vs males and lower interview scores in those of NE and SE Asian origin compared to those born in Oceania or the UK. Total UMAT scores were unrelated to gender or region of origin. Conclusions The revised selection processes had no impact on student representation from schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage. However, the introduction of special entry quotas for students of rural origin and a structured interview, but not an aptitude test, were associated with a change in gender balance and ethnicity of students in an Australian undergraduate MBBS course.

  18. Environment and morphology in Australian Aborigines: a re-analysis of the Birdsell database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Ian; Bulbeck, David

    2007-09-01

    Pursuant to his major research interest in the cultural ecology of hunter-gatherers, Birdsell collected an unparalleled body of phenotypic data on Aboriginal Australians during the mid twentieth century. Birdsell did not explicitly relate the geographic patterning in his data to Australia's climatic variation, instead arguing that the observable differences between groups reflect multiple origins of Australian Aborigines. In this article, bivariate correlation and multivariate analyses demonstrate statistically significant associations between climatic variables and the body build of Australians that are consistent with the theoretical expectations of Bergmann's and Allen's rules. While Australian Aborigines in comparison to Eurasian and New World populations can be generally described as long-headed, linear in build, and characterized by elongated distal limbs, the variation in this morphological pattern across the continent evidently reflects biological adaptation to local Holocene climates. These results add to a growing body of evidence for the role of environmental selection in the development of modern human variation.

  19. Stable isotope and trace metal compositions of Australian prawns as a guide to authenticity and wholesomeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J F; Tinggi, U; Yang, X; Fry, B

    2015-03-01

    This research has explored the potential of stable isotope and trace metal profiles to distinguish Australian prawns from prawns imported from neighbouring Asian countries. Australian prawns were collected mostly from the Brisbane area. Strong differences in Australian vs. imported prawns were evident from both the isotope and trace element data, with the differences most likely occurring because imported prawns are typically reared in aquaculture facilities and frozen prior to sale in Australia. The aquaculture origins are characterised by comparatively; low δHVSMOW, δ(13)CVPDB values, low concentrations of arsenic, zinc and potassium, and high water contents (>80%). Relatively high arsenic and cadmium contents were found within Australian prawns, but the concentrations did not exceed local human health guidelines.

  20. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  1. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jingjing; Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.

  2. Austrade Commissioner Tells Australian Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; Jingjing; Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      As a large country with 7.69 million sq.km, is Australia a vast market for Chinese products such as cars and some traditional arts and crafts as people expect? With such questions bear in mind, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mrs.Liu Bing, Commissioner of The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade). Let's hear what she said.……

  3. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  4. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  5. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  6. The impact of storytelling on the consumer brand experience: The case of a firm-originated story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundqvist, A.; Liljander, V.; Gummerus, J.; Riel, A.C.R. van

    2013-01-01

    Stories fascinate people and are often more easily remembered than facts. Much has been written about the power of stories in branding, but very little empirical evidence exists of their effects on consumer responses. In the present study, we investigate how a firm-originated story influences consum

  7. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  8. Distribution, Origin, and Realtions to Flow of Salty Ground Water Along the Western Margin of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure in Eastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, R.; Bruce, S.

    2002-05-01

    The Chesapeake Bay impact structure closely coincides with parts of some aquifers in eastern Virginia that contain saltwater as much as 30 miles landward of the coast. The impact structure has thereby been inferred to play some role in controlling the presence of this "inland saltwater wedge", which formed under unstressed conditions prior to present-day ground-water withdrawals. That the impact severely disrupted the previously stratified sediments casts doubt on conceptualizations of a regionally contiguous, vertically layered system of aquifers and confining units. In addition, large and increasing ground-water withdrawals have resulted in continuing water-level declines and altered flow directions that create the potential for saltwater intrusion. Hence, the origin and emplacement of the saltwater must be known to predict its reaction to stresses being placed upon the flow system. Specific conductances and concentrations of chloride in ground water along the western margin of the impact structure reflect a transitional interface between freshwater to the west and seawater to the east that coincides aerially with the margin of the impact structure. Ratios of bromide to chloride and chlorine-36 to total chloride, and of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, indicate chloride to have originated primarily from mixing of freshwater and seawater across the interface. In addition, deep ground water east of the interface having specific conductances which exceed that of seawater likely resulted from partial evaporation of seawater, either (1) in restricted coastal environments under arid conditions, (2) by rapid vaporization caused by the impact event, and (or) (3) by residual heat and associated hydrothermal activity following the impact. Mixing of freshwater and seawater has been theorized to take place in a "differential flushing" manner that left residual seawater to form the saltwater wedge. Seawater emplaced during inundation of the land surface persisted around

  9. Australian heroin seizures and the causes of the 2001 heroin shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiggens, John

    2008-08-01

    This paper uses Australian heroin seizure data, along with estimates of the size of the Australian heroin market to evaluate the impact of drug law enforcement on the 2001 Australian heroin shortage from the percentage of the market seized. It also critically examines international heroin production trends and published reports on the causes of the Australian heroin shortage. Its conclusion is that previous studies may have overstated the success of drug law enforcement and that the most likely explanation for Australia's 2001 heroin shortage was a significant decline in heroin production world-wide, due to a general move away from heroin production in the countries of Southeast Asia and the prohibition on opium growing by the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

  10. Competition and Efficiency: Overseas Students and Technical Efficiency in Australian and New Zealand Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Malcolm; Doucouliagos, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Economic theory suggests that competitive pressures will impact on organisational efficiency. In recent years, universities in Australia and New Zealand have faced increased competition for students. The aim of this paper is to explore the efficiency of Australian and New Zealand public universities and to investigate the impact of competition for…

  11. Hybrid origins of Australian honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increased globalisation and homogenisation the maintenance of genetic integrity of local populations of agriculturally important species is of increasing concern. The honey bee provides an interesting perspective as it is both domesticated and wild, with a large native range and much larger int...

  12. Giant impacts in the Saturnian System: a possible origin of diversity in the inner mid-sized satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Sekine, Yasuhito

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that Titan and the mid-sized regular satellites around Saturn were formed in the circum-Saturn disk. Thus, if these mid-sized satellites were simply accreted by collisions of similar ice-rock satellitesimals in the disk, the observed wide diversity in density (i.e., the rock fraction) of the Saturnian mid-sized satellites is enigmatic. A recent circumplanetary disk model suggests satellite growth in an actively supplied circumplanetary disk, in which Titan-sized satellites migrate inward by interaction with the gas and are eventually lost to the gas planet. Here we report numerical simulations of giant impacts between Titan-sized migrating satellites and smaller satellites in the inner region of the Saturnian disk. Our results suggest that in a giant impact with impact velocity > 1.4 times the escape velocity and impact angle of ~45 degree, a smaller satellite is destroyed, forming multiple mid-sized satellites with a very wide diversity in satellite density (the rock fraction = 0-92 wt%...

  13. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  14. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  15. EXTERNAL MIGRATION AS HAVING ROMANIA AS A COUNTRY ORIGIN – A FEW STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ELEMENTS AND IMPACT ON LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Andrei CIOCĂNESCU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the following article is to present, based on the Eurostat and INS research, the structure of the Romanian immigrants according to age and sex. The second objective of this article is to show the impact that the external migration phenomenon has on labour market at national level.The approaches are quantitative and specific elements of the descriptive statistics and more advanced procedures of the analysis of the bounds between variables are being used.

  16. Australian network of magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.

    Six magnetic observatories are presently operated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), with assistance from various other organizations. Variometer recordings are made of three or more elements of the field at minute intervals, and absolute measurements are made weekly. There are four observatories on the continent (Canberra, Gnangara, Charters Towers, and Learmonth), one on Macquarie Island, and one at Mawson Station in eastern Antarctica (Figure 1). In addition, semiweekly absolute observations of the field (D, H, and F) are made at the other two permanent Australian Antarctic bases (Casey and Davis). A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (EDA Electronics, Toronto , Canada) is operated independently by the Upper Atmosphere Physics group at Davis. Monthly mean values, K indices, and information about magnetic disturbances are published monthly in the BMR Geophysical Observatory Report.

  17. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  18. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  19. Contemporary Australian writers and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to see just how much travel writing, writing which does not exclusively belong to the travel sub-genre of "creative non-fiction", and also how many non-Australian locales, with emphasis on European and Asian ones, there are in the recent contemporary Australian writing since the 1960s. This perhaps speaks about a certain preoccupation or downright trait in the Australian national character. Perhaps, it is a reflection of a particular condition of being "down under", itself derived from "a tradition of colonialism and post-colonialism; from geographical location, both a deterrent and a spur; from post-Romantic literary tradition, coinciding with the early years of white settlement; and from the universal lure of ideas of travel, never more flourishing than at the present" (Hergenhan, Petersson xiii. Tourism is an increasingly global phenomenon to some extent shaping the physical reality as well as the spiritual world of the people involved in it. Within this globalization process, with the prospect of "cyber" travel, there is, however, always an individual "national" experience of the country of destination that a literary traveller puts into words, an experience which is typical and conditioned by specific socio-political and cultural circumstances.

  20. Impact-melt origin for the Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites: implicatiions for impact processes beyond the Earth--Moon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floran, R J; Caulfield, J B.D.; Harlow, G E; Prinz, M

    1978-05-01

    The Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites are interpreted to be clast-laden impact melts that crystallized from immiscible silicate, metallic (Fe-FeS) liquids. The existence of silicate melts is shown by intergranular basaltic textures. Metallic melts are inferred on the basis of smooth boundaries between metal and troilite and the occurrence of troilite as anastomosing areas that radiate outward into the silicate fractions. These relations suggest that troilite crystallized after silicates, concentrating as a late-stage residuum. Evidence for impact melting includes: diversity and abundance of clast types (mineral, metal, lithic) in various stages of recrystallization and assimilation; differences in mineral chemistries between clasts and igneous-textured matrix silicates; unusual metal plus silicate bulk composition. Silicate clasts consist primarily of orthopyroxene and minor olivine with a range of Fe/Fe + Mg ratios, anorthitic plagioclase, and rare orthopyroxenite (diogenite) fragments. Substantial amounts of Fe-Ni metal were melted during the impact events and minor amounts were incorporated into the melts as clasts. The clast populations suggest that at least four rock types were melted and mixed: (a) diogenite, (b) a plagioclase-rich source, possibly cumulate eucrite, (c) dunite, and (d) metal. Most orthopyroxene appears to have been derived from fragmentation of diogenites. Orthopyroxene (En/sub 82-61/) and olivine (Fo/sub 86-67/) clasts include much material unsampled as individual meteorites and probably represent a variety of source rocks.

  1. Impact of information on intentions to vaccinate in a potential epidemic: Swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Luchini, Stéphane; Massoni, Sébastien; Vergnaud, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination campaigns to prevent the spread of epidemics are successful only if the targeted populations subscribe to the recommendations of health authorities. However, because compulsory vaccination is hardly conceivable in modern democracies, governments need to convince their populations through efficient and persuasive information campaigns. In the context of the swine-origin A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, we use an interactive study among the general public in the South of France, with 175 participants, to explore what type of information can induce change in vaccination intentions at both aggregate and individual levels. We find that individual attitudes to vaccination are based on rational appraisal of the situation, and that it is information of a purely scientific nature that has the only significant positive effect on intention to vaccinate.

  2. The Australian Telecentre Program: A New Approach to Technology Transfer and Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crellin, Ian R.

    Telecottages originated in Scandinavia in the 1980s in an attempt to reverse the decline of isolated communities by giving them access to information and services, facilities for training and distance education, and the opportunity to produce income through telecommuting. In 1992-1993, the Australian government began funding the Telecentre…

  3. [Organization, availability and possibility of analysis of disaster data of climate related origin and its impacts on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Barcellos, Christovam; Barros, Heglaucio da Silva; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal de; Pedroso, Marcel de Moraes

    2014-09-01

    The occurrence of disasters is often related to unforeseeable able natural processes. However, the analysis of major databases may highlight seasonal and long-term trends, as well as some spatial patterns where risks are concentrated. In this paper the process of acquiring and organizing climate-related disaster data collected by civil protection institutions and made available by the Brazilian Climate and Health Observatory is described. Preliminary analyses show the concentration of disasters caused by heavy rainfall events along the Brazilian coastline especially during the summer. Droughts have longer duration and extent, affecting large areas of the south and northeast regions of the country. These data can be used to analyze and monitor the impact of extreme climatic events on health, as well as identify the vulnerability and climate deteminants.

  4. Merger rates of double neutron stars and stellar origin black holes: The Impact of Initial Conditions on Binary Evolution Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E

    2015-01-01

    The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations and eccentricities) are indispensable input for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor 10-100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a fac...

  5. Australian Writing and the Contemporary: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annee Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s geographical location (within ‘Asia’—seen as a negative into the twenty-first century when the nation defined itself as culturally and aspirationally linked to the major Euro-American metropolitan cultural centres (the ‘West’—must now be reevaluated. After two hundred years of white settlement and of turning its back on the region in which it is located, some Australian writers are writing texts that illuminate an aspect of Australian literature that is in transition, becoming, by definition, in, of, and with the region as well as in, of, and with present time. Art historian Terry Smith’s theory of the three currents of contemporary art, particularly the third current, suggests a new paradigm, a potential break from modernism, and a different kind of entanglement and interconnection in a world that is witnessing shifts in world power, voluntary and involuntary mass movements of people, and real time global communication technologies. Adrian Snodgrass and David Coyne’s application of hermeneutical theory to the architectural design studio via the metaphor of excursion and return illuminates some imaginative intersections, understandings and energies in three texts by Australian authors—Michelle De Kretser, Chi Vu and Jennifer Mackenzie. In Smith’s terms too, the texts perform original leaps of the imagination in their diversity, freshness, and ability to surprise and invite questions about literature’s potential to stir up prior understandings and invite new ways of being in the present. In terms of Giorgio Agamben’s definition of the contemporary, the three texts bring the reader to a plurality and intercultural connectedness that we have yet to fully recognise and live. They represent a line of flight towards a literary imaginary in Australian writing that is contemporary, locally grounded, but also regionally and globally entangled.

  6. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the philosophy

  7. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  8. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  9. Repeated evolution of carnivory among Indo-Australian rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kevin C; Achmadi, Anang S; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2016-03-01

    Convergent evolution, often observed in island archipelagos, provides compelling evidence for the importance of natural selection as a generator of species and ecological diversity. The Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) is the world's largest island system and encompasses distinct biogeographic units, including the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves, which together bracket the oceanic archipelagos of the Philippines and Wallacea. Each of these biogeographic units houses numerous endemic rodents in the family Muridae. Carnivorous murids, that is those that feed on animals, have evolved independently in Sunda, Sulawesi (part of Wallacea), the Philippines, and Sahul, but the number of origins of carnivory among IAA murids is unknown. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of carnivorous murids of the IAA, combined with estimates of ancestral states for broad diet categories (herbivore, omnivore, and carnivore) and geographic ranges. These analyses demonstrate that carnivory evolved independently four times after overwater colonization, including in situ origins on the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul. In each biogeographic unit the origin of carnivory was followed by evolution of more specialized carnivorous ecomorphs such as vermivores, insectivores, and amphibious rats.

  10. Matter of Life & Death: The impact of environmental conditions on the origins of stars and supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Borm, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that some very large supermassive black holes (SMBHs) already existed less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. Explaining the formation and growth of the 'seeds' of these SMBHs is quite challenging. We explore the formation of such seeds in the direct collapse scenario. Using 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the impact of turbulence and rotation on the fragmentation behavior of collapsing primordial gas in the presence of a strong UV radiation background, which keeps the gas hot. Additionally, we explore different ways in which the collapsing gas may be able to stay hot, and thus limit fragmentation. Using a one-zone model, we examine the interplay between magnetic fields, turbulence, and a UV radiation background. Feedback processes from stars and black holes shape the interstellar medium (ISM) out of which new generations of luminous objects form. To understand the properties of these objects, e.g. the stellar initial mass function, it is vital to have knowledge of th...

  11. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  12. Fire in Australian Savannas: from leaf to landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Savanna ecosystems comprise 22% of the global terrestrial surface and 25% of Australia (almost 1.9 million km2) and provide significant ecosystem services through carbon and water cycles and the maintenance of biodiversity. The current structure, composition and distribution of Australian savannas have co-evolved with fire, yet remain driven by the dynamic constraints of their bioclimatic niche. Fire in Australian savannas influences both the biophysical and biogeochemical processes at multiple scales from leaf to landscape. Here we present the latest emission estimates from Australian savanna biomass burning and their contribution to global greenhouse gas budgets. We then review our understanding of the impacts of fire on ecosystem function and local surface water and heat balances, which in turn influence regional climate. We show how savanna fires are coupled to the global climate through the carbon cycle and fire regimes. We present new research that climate change is likely to alter the structure and function of savannas through shifts in moisture availability and increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), in turn altering fire regimes with further feedbacks to climate. We explore opportunities to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from savanna ecosystems through changes in savanna fire management.

  13. Rickettsial Diseases of Military Importance: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Frances

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The threat of rickettsial diseases to Australian Defence Force (ADF personnel is reviewed, focusing on the historical impact and epidemiology of these diseases. Scrub typhus, a mite borne disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi is historically the most important rickettsial disease, and continues to cause morbidity in ADF personnel today. The historical occurrence of tick typhus, murine typhus, epidemic typhus and Q fever has been limited, and modern diagnostic tools and antibiotic therapy mean that their impact is minimal. Deployment of troops to endemic areas, bioterrorism and exposure during humanitarian missions mean that rickettsial diseases will remain a threat to ADF personnel. Several rickettsial diseases have the potential to impact on military deployments. This article is a review of the information concerning the ecology, epidemiology and historical impact of rickettsial diseases on the Australian Defence Force (ADF personnel in peace and in wartime. Probably the most widespread and important rickettsial disease is scrub typhus, while diseases such as tick typhus, murine typhus, epidemic typhus and Q fever have been of lesser importance.

  14. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  15. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  16. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  17. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  18. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  19. Ni/S/Cl systematics and the origin of impact-melt glasses in Martian meteorite Elephant Moraine 79001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Donovan, John J.; Vicenzi, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Martian meteorite Elephant Moraine A79001 (EET 79001) has received considerable attention for the unusual composition of its shock melt glass, particularly its enrichment in sulfur relative to the host shergottite. It has been hypothesized that Martian regolith was incorporated into the melt or, conversely, that the S-enrichment stems from preferential melting of sulfide minerals in the host rock during shock. We present results from an electron microprobe study of EET 79001 including robust measurements of major and trace elements in the shock melt glass (S, Cl, Ni, Co, V, and Sc) and minerals in the host rock (Ni, Co, and V). We find that both S and major element abundances can be reconciled with previous hypotheses of regolith incorporation and/or excess sulfide melt. However, trace element characteristics of the shock melt glass, particularly Ni and Cl abundances relative to S, cannot be explained either by the incorporation of regolith or sulfide minerals. We therefore propose an alternative hypothesis whereby, prior to shock melting, portions of EET 79001 experienced acid-sulfate leaching of the mesostasis, possibly groundmass feldspar, and olivine, producing Al-sulfates that were later incorporated into the shock melt, which then quenched to glass. Such activity in the Martian near-surface is supported by observations from the Mars Exploration Rovers and laboratory experiments. Our preimpact alteration model, accompanied by the preferential survival of olivine and excess melting of feldspar during impact, explains the measured trace element abundances better than either the regolith incorporation or excess sulfide melting hypothesis does.

  20. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  1. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  2. Bernstein Revisited: The Recontextualisation of Equity in Contemporary Australian School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughland, Tony; Sriprakash, Arathi

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on the sociology of Basil Bernstein to show how his detailed theories of "recontextualisation" and the "pedagogic device" provide useful analytic levers to examine the politics of educational change. We focus on recent policy developments that have significantly impacted Australian school education: the…

  3. Influences of Marriage, Motherhood, and Other Life Events on Australian Women's Employment Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Melissa; Lucke, Jayne; Lee, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The study contributes to the understandings of how women negotiate work and family over the life course by investigating what factors impact young women's aspirations for full time, part-time, and other forms of work. Using data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) with its nationally representative sample of Australian…

  4. Creating Opportunities: Good Practice in Small Business Training for Australian Rural Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lyn; Daws, Leonie; Wood, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    To overcome barriers to participation in small business training faced by rural Australian women, training needs and delivery issues were identified and a good practice matrix was developed with the following components: marketing, content, delivery, support, impact, and innovation. Underlying principles included unique needs, diversity, use of…

  5. Sequencing of Australian wild rice genomes reveals ancestral relationships with domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozynska, Marta; Copetti, Dario; Furtado, Agnelo; Wing, Rod A; Crayn, Darren; Fox, Glen; Ishikawa, Ryuji; Henry, Robert J

    2016-11-27

    The related A genome species of the Oryza genus are the effective gene pool for rice. Here, we report draft genomes for two Australian wild A genome taxa: O. rufipogon-like population, referred to as Taxon A, and O. meridionalis-like population, referred to as Taxon B. These two taxa were sequenced and assembled by integration of short- and long-read next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to create a genomic platform for a wider rice gene pool. Here, we report that, despite the distinct chloroplast genome, the nuclear genome of the Australian Taxon A has a sequence that is much closer to that of domesticated rice (O. sativa) than to the other Australian wild populations. Analysis of 4643 genes in the A genome clade showed that the Australian annual, O. meridionalis, and related perennial taxa have the most divergent (around 3 million years) genome sequences relative to domesticated rice. A test for admixture showed possible introgression into the Australian Taxon A (diverged around 1.6 million years ago) especially from the wild indica/O. nivara clade in Asia. These results demonstrate that northern Australia may be the centre of diversity of the A genome Oryza and suggest the possibility that this might also be the centre of origin of this group and represent an important resource for rice improvement.

  6. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in IndigenousAustralians with diabetes in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To perform a systematic review of reportedneonatal and pregnancy outcomes of IndigenousAustralians with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP).METHODS: Electronic searches of PubMed and Web ofScience were carried out. Articles were selected if theycontained original data on DIP outcomes in IndigenousAustralians. There were no specific exclusion criteria.RESULTS: A total of eight articles, predominantly fromQueensland and Western Australia were identifiedonce inclusion criteria were applied. Birth data frommidwifery registries or paper charts encompassingyears 1985-2008 were used. A total of 465591 pregnantwomen with and without DIP were included in the eightstudies, with 1363 being Indigenous women with DIP.Indigenous Australians experienced increased ratesof many known adverse outcomes of DIP including:macrosomia, caesarean section, congenital deformities,low birth weight, hypoglycaemia, and neonatal trauma.There were regional differences among IndigenousAustralians, particularly regional/remote vs metropolitanpopulations where the regional/remote data showedworse outcomes. Two of the articles did not note adifference between Aboriginals and Caucasians inthe rates of measured adverse outcome. Studiesvaried significantly in size, measured outcomes, andsubsequent analysis.CONCLUSION: The health disparities between IndigenousAustralians and non-Indigenous Australiansare further evidenced by poorer outcomes in DIP.This has broader implications for Indigenous health ingeneral.

  7. Fire in Australian Savannas: from leaf to landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, J.; Hutley, L. B.; Tapper, N. J.; Cernusak, L. A.; Lynch, A. H.; Görgen, K.; Abramson, D.; Uotila, P.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical savanna ecosystems account for 11.5% of the global landscape (Scholes and Hall 1996). Up to 75% of this landscape burns annually (Hao et al. 1990) and 50% of all biomass burning in tropical regions originates from savannas (Hao and Liu 1994). The wet-dry tropics of northern Australia feature extensive tracts of savanna vegetation which occupy approximately 2 million km2. This area is equivalent to 12% of the world's tropical savanna estate, making this savanna biome of global significance. Fire is arguably the greatest natural and anthropogenic environmental disturbance in this region. Vast tracts are burnt each year by pastoralists, aboriginal landholders and conservation managers (Russell-Smith et al. 2000; Williams et al. 2002). Fire in Australian savannas, results in a scorched canopy that dramatically reduces the green Leaf Area Index (LAI) and blackens the soil. These surface changes are likely to result in altered energy partitioning (enhanced sensible heat flux) and shifts in albedo. In addition, the aerodynamic and biological properties of the ecosystem may change, affecting surface-atmosphere coupling. For example, a loss of canopy leaf area due to fire could reduce canopy photosynthesis and evapotranspiration, greatly influencing post-fire fluxes of water and carbon. We measured radiative, energy and carbon exchanges over unburned and burned open forest savanna at Howard Springs, Darwin, Australia. Fire affected the radiative balance immediately following fire through the consumption of the grass-dominated understorey and blackening of the surface. Albedo was halved following fire (0.12 to 0.06). A moderate intensity fire resulted in a comprehensive canopy scorch and almost complete leaf drop in the weeks following fire. The shutdown of most leaves within the canopy reduced transpiration and altered energy partitioning. Leaf death and shedding also resulted in a cessation of ecosystem carbon uptake and the savanna turned from a sink to a source

  8. Australians Abroad: Narrative Paths and Divagations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Nooy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although commonly characterized as an immigrant nation, Australia has been shaped just as importantly by the overseas journeys of its people, and the liminal experiences thus provided have not only been self-defining and defining of the other, but at times nation-defining. This special issue proposes a multidisciplinary analysis of Australian travellers and expatriates past and present: the reasons for and destinations of their travel, its impact on their identity, the roles they play, their writings and reflections, their linguistic and intercultural competence. Clusters of travellers to particular destinations give rise to narrative patterns which solidify into templates, the narrative equivalent of the beaten track. The essays that follow highlight both discursive grooves and off-piste accounts that challenge the patterns. In both cases, the emphasis in the essays is on the travellers’ active engagement in the experience and on their negotiation of existing discourses. For even those who follow the trail invest it with personal meanings.

  9. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship.

  10. Brief communication "Does the Eltanin asteroid tsunami provide an alternative explanation for the Australian megatsunami hypothesis?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dominey-Howes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Australian megatsunami hypothesis has been developed over two decades. It charts repeated inundation of the South East Australian coast during the Holocene by bolide impact megatsunamis. The most enigmatic evidence for these proposed events are high elevation cliff-top boulders. There is however an absence of known sources for these megatsunamis, and as such we question whether the researchers may have the correct mechanism but the wrong events. Given the low denudation rates of this passive, intraplate environment, we suggest that boulder emplacement may have been solely the result of the much older Eltanin asteroid tsunami about 2.5 Ma ago.

  11. Modelling seasonality in Australian building approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry M Karamujic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of seasonal influences on Australian housing approvals, represented by the State of Victoria[1] building approvals for new houses (BANHs. The prime objective of BANHs is to provide timely estimates of future residential building work. Due to the relevance of the residential property sector to the property sector as whole, BANHs are viewed by economic analysts and commentators as a leading indicator of property sector investment and as such the general level of economic activity and employment. The generic objective of the study is to enhance the practice of modelling housing variables. In particular, the study seeks to cast some additional light on modelling the seasonal behaviour of BANHs by: (i establishing the presence, or otherwise, of seasonality in Victorian BANHs; (ii if present, ascertaining is it deterministic or stochastic; (iii determining out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications; and (iv speculating on possible interpretation of the results. To do so the study utilises a structural time series model of Harwey (1989. The modelling results confirm that the modelling specification allowing for stochastic trend and deterministic seasonality performs best in terms of diagnostic tests and goodness of fit measures. This is corroborated with the analysis of out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications, which showed that the models with deterministic seasonal specification exhibit superior forecasting capabilities. The paper also demonstrates that if time series are characterized by either stochastic trend or seasonality, the conventional modelling approach[2] is bound to be mis-specified i.e. would not be able to identify statistically significant seasonality in time series.According to the selected modeling specification, factors corresponding to June, April, December and November are found to be significant at five per cent level

  12. Impact of Brassica and Lucerne Finishing Feeds and Intramuscular Fat on Lamb Eating Quality and Flavor. A Cross-Cultural Study Using Chinese and Non-Chinese Australian Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Watkins, Peter; Ball, Alex; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Sewell, James; Ortuño, Jordi; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2016-09-14

    Use of forage brassicas (Brassica napus) and lucerne (alfalfa; Medicago sativa) as ruminant feeds has been linked to unacceptable flavors in sheepmeat. Lambs from low and high intramuscular fat sires were allocated to one of four finishing feeds-perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), lucerne, and two brassica forages-for a 6 week period. Grilled loins (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum) were subjected to chemical and sensory analysis by a trained panel and also evaluated by non-Chinese and Chinese background Australian consumers. Consumer liking was similar for both groups, and liking was highest for the brassica- and lucerne-finished lamb, especially from high intramuscular fat sires. No evidence of a distinctive lucerne- or brassica-induced flavor taint was measured by the trained panel or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The diets influenced the composition of lipids and branched-chain fatty acids in the subcutaneous fat, and the concentration of total branched-chain fatty acids was positively correlated with flavor and overall liking. Significantly higher levels of key aroma volatiles were measured in the higher fat samples.

  13. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  14. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  15. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  16. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  17. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  18. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADF Australian Defence Force COLA cost of living adjustment CPI consumer price index CSB career status bonus CSS...will help you build a Lego city; however, mum will still need to change the nappies. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION...by Disney and Johnson (2001) and the World Bank (Pordes, 1994). There have also been various papers and reviews about Australian and U.S. military

  19. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  20. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  1. Psychometric testing of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Profession Students' version with Australian paramedic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Boyle, Malcolm; Dousek, Simon

    2013-03-01

    Evidence now suggests that improved empathic behaviors can have a positive impact on healthcare outcomes. Therefore, having psychometrically-sound empathy scales is important for healthcare educators. In this study, the factor structure of the 20-item Jefferson Scale Empathy-Health Profession Students' version, when completed by a group of undergraduate paramedic students from a large Australian university, was investigated. Data from the Scale completed by 330 paramedic students were analyzed using principal components analysis followed by a maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis to test goodness of fit to the sample data. Two factors emerged from the principal components analysis, "compassionate care" and "perspective taking", accounting for 44.2% of the total variance. The 17-item two-factor model produced good model fit and good reliability estimates. Three of the original items did not fit the model. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggest that the 17-item Jefferson Scale Empathy-Health Profession Students' version is a valid and reliable measure for undergraduate paramedic students' empathy levels.

  2. Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef; Bergmann, Raymond; Mikkelsen, Rene; Zeilstra, Christiaan; Meer, van der Devaraj; Versluis, Michel

    2004-01-01

    A lot of information on impacts of solid bodies on planets has been extracted from remote observations of impact craters on planetary surfaces; experiments however with large enough impact energies as compared to the energy stored in the ground are difficult. We approach this problem by downscaled e

  3. Low mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) suggests isolation and a founder effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSLYN SAW; NANCY M. ENDERSBY; STEPHEN W. MCKECHNIE

    2006-01-01

    Populations of Australian diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.), a serious pest of cruciferous crops, display extremely low levels of genetic differentiation across Australia and New Zealand sample locations, as determined previously using microsatellite markers. These data suggest high levels of contemporary gene flow that is consistent with Australian DBM being a vagile species. Here we examine Australian DBM samples for haplotype variation using the mitochondrial DNA sequences of a 257 bp fragment of the CO1 gene. We compare this variation to equivalent mtDNA sequence variation in samples from New Zealand, Kenya and Korea. Using 42 moths collected throughout Australia we show that Australian DBM have both low mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversities. The three Australian haplotypes detected are closely related and they cluster with the common haplotype group from Indonesia. In addition the Australian haplotype frequency distribution resembled more that from Indonesia than that from Kenya or Korea. These data are consistent with an original strong Australian/New Zealand founder effect, from a south-eastern Asian source, with subsequent continued isolation. In a single season, the frequency of PXMt01, the most common Australian haplotype, was estimated at 15 locations spread across southern Australia and New Zealand using a polymerase chain reaction BiPASA method. The PXMt01 haplotype frequency variation was heterogenous,suggesting a small degree of population isolation that was not detected using microsatellites.Differentiation was not a function of geographical distance. These data suggest transient and sporadic local colonisation events by small numbers of founding females.

  4. Distributional patterns and possible origin of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W. Nielson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a. when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary. Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126 are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76% of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian, from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities

  5. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  6. Loss of native rocky reef biodiversity in Australian metropolitan embayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Jemina F; Barrett, Neville S; Fowles, Amelia E; Hill, Nicole A; Cooper, Antonia T; Myers, Andrew P; Oh, Elizabeth S; Pocklington, Jacqui B; Thomson, Russell J

    2015-06-15

    Urbanisation of the coastal zone represents a key threat to marine biodiversity, including rocky reef communities which often possess disproportionate ecological, recreational and commercial importance. The nature and magnitude of local urban impacts on reef biodiversity near three Australian capital cities were quantified using visual census methods. The most impacted reefs in urbanised embayments were consistently characterised by smaller, faster growing species, reduced fish biomass and richness, and reduced mobile invertebrate abundance and richness. Reef faunal distribution varied significantly with heavy metals, local population density, and proximity to city ports, while native fish and invertebrate communities were most depauperate in locations where invasive species were abundant. Our study adds impetus for improved urban planning and pollution management practises, while also highlighting the potential for skilled volunteers to improve the tracking of changes in marine biodiversity values and the effectiveness of management intervention.

  7. Trends in social activism across Australian minority communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores trends in social activism across Australian ethnic minority communities over a ten year period (1999-2009 and its relationship to indicators of social cohesion. It explores the impact of social modernisation in enabling the facilitation of effective grassroots campaigns on issues relevant the communities', and how they may influence public policy. Consideration is afforded to the impact on community participation with the rise of security policy on the national agenda, and significant events on domestic and global scales over a period which encompassed extraordinary acts of terrorism, irregular arrivals of asylum seekers, and unparalleled political and community confutation. It is asserted that participation in social activism is an important indicator of political empowerment within the dominant political structure, and could suitably enrich research into social cohesion in Australia. Keywords: political participation, public policy, social activism, social cohesion, social modernisation

  8. Corrosive places, inhuman spaces: mental health in Australian immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Pauline; Warin, Megan

    2008-06-01

    Since their establishment in 1992, Australian Immigration Detention Centres have been the focus of increasing concern due to allegations of their serious impact on the mental health of asylum seekers. Informed by Foucault's treatise on surveillance and the phenomenological work of Casey, this paper extends the current clinical data by examining the architecture and location of detention centres, and the complex relationships between space, place and mental health. In spatialising these relationships, we argue that Immigration Detention Centres operate not only as Panopticons, but are embodied by asylum seekers as 'anti-places': as places that mediate and constitute thinned out and liminal experiences. In particular, it is the embodied effects of surveillance and suspended liminality that impact on mental health. An approach which locates the embodiment of place and space as central to the poor mental health of asylum seekers adds an important dimension to our understandings of (dis)placement and mental health in the lives of the exiled.

  9. Chinese Australian Urban Politics in the Context of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Tsen Kwok

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and the rise of East Asia have accelerated the migration of Chinese populations across the Asia-Pacific rim. Ethnic Chinese populations from highly diverse sub-ethnic, socio-economic and political backgrounds are increasingly aggregated in major cities throughout the region. Nonetheless, there remains insufficient attention to the implications of greater economic interdependence and accelerated population movement upon the political cultures of host nations such as Australia, especially in the context of ensuing spatial and economic concentrations of activity. Both articulate and interlocking relationships between political and economic fields exist in the metropolitan engagements of Chinese Australian community groups and associations. Many of these political dimensions extend into ‘formal’ modes of politics. Framed by urban regime theory and the broader notion of urban politics, this paper claims that network resource exchange within Chinese Australian communities are tied to ethnic economies, and in certain contexts global processes. These kinds of social dynamics have implications for the expression of diasporic Chinese affinity and constructions of Chineseness. Explorations of transnational political tensions, in fact, highlight the diversity and potential fragility of diasporic interdependence within ethnic Chinese communities – communities that are persistently refashioned through new waves of migration and from different points of origin. This paper seeks to advance these perspectives through a case study of a particular period of tension between two representative peak bodies in Brisbane, Queensland. Grounded in the testimony of elite political actors, it reflects upon the nature of ethnic Chinese community representation in contemporary Australia.

  10. Sea-change or Atrophy? The Australian Convict Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia vanden Driesen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an offshoot of a larger project which explored the possibility for the erstwhile settler-colonizer undergoing the sea-change into settler-indigene emergent through a study of selected novels of Patrick White. It became apparent to me that the convict figure, who played an ancillary role in these works, could lay claim to the status of white indigene well ahead of the main protagonist. Robert Hughes (in The Fatal Shore discredits the idea of any bonding between the convict and the Aborigine but acknowledges examples of “white blackfellas”—white men who had successfully been adopted into Aboriginal societies. Martin Tucker’s nineteenth century work, Ralph Rashleigh, offers surprising testimony of a creative work which bears this out in a context where Australian literature generally reflected the national amnesia with regard to the Aborigine and barely accorded them human status. Grenville’s The Secret River (2005, based broadly on the history of her own ancestor, appears to support Hughes’ original contention but is also replete with ambivalences that work against a simple resolution. This paper will explore some of the ambivalences, the ‘food for thought’ on aspects of the Australian experience highlighted by these literary texts, and glances briefly also at variations on the theme in Carey’s Jack Maggs and the The True Story of the Kelly Gang.

  11. Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Champion

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia (IPWEA has recently published the Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines. The Guidelines provide new assistance to link the technical (engineering and financial aspects of managing infrastructure and services, and to assist infrastructure owners such as local government to develop sustainable long-term asset and financial management plans. Financial management for long-life infrastructure assets (such as roads, water, sewerage, and stormwater networks, and community buildings is about ensuring sustainability in the provision of services required by the community. These new Guidelines offer advice for every organisation and individual with responsibility for the management of infrastructure assets. They assist in defining best practice approaches for: • Accounting for infrastructure • Depreciation, valuation, useful life, fair value • Managing financial sustainability • Integrating asset management planning and long term financial planning • Meeting requirements for financial reporting The project was a joint initiative of IPWEA and the National Local Government Financial Management Forum. A steering committee representing national and state governments, technical and financial professionals, local government associations and auditors oversaw it.

  12. Possible Impacts of Seismic Activity in Indian-Australian plate on the Western China Continent%印度-澳大利亚板块边界带强震活动与中国大陆西部强震活动的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志刚; 武艳强; 马宏生; 李志雄

    2011-01-01

    Earthquakes with magnitude greater than or equal 8.0 has being active in the global world since 2001. From the distribution of Ms≥7.5 earthquakes, these strong earthquakes are relatively concentrated in the western Pacific Seismic Belt and the Eurasian Seismic Zone, especially the boundary belt of convergence of India-Australian plate. Under this background, there were two earthquake of Ms≥8.0 occurred in western China. During 2009 there were more than 20 earthquakes of Ms≥7.0 in the whole world (as up to November 15), of which 15 still occurred in the Indian-Australian plate. So the spatial distribution of strong earthquake worldwide is still in the case as before. In this paper, based on the movement pattern of the India-Australia plate and related seismic research, using strain releases of strong earthquakes, we analyzed the possible impacts of each other between the seismic activity in western China, Indian plate and the Australian plate. The results show that there is a good correlation between the seismicity in western China and those in the boundary of Indian plate. Froml914 to 1993, five complete release time periods of strong earthquakes in western China have better correlations between the seismicity in western China and those in the boundary of Indian plate. And comparatively speaking,strong earthquake activities in western China is relatively impeded by a lag of 0~5 year,which maybe useful for tracking the trend of strong earthquakes in the China continent.%2001年以来全球8级地震呈现新的活跃态势,7.5级以上强震在空间上呈优势分布,强震相对集中在西太平洋地震带和欧亚地震带,印度-澳大利亚板块的汇聚边界带上尤为突出. 2009年全球发生20次7级以上强震,其中有15次发生在印度-澳大利亚板块,近期仍具有延续全球强震活动优势空间分布. 本文在以往关于印度-澳大利亚板块运动方式以及相关地震活动研究基础上,将印度-澳大利亚板块

  13. Someone Else's Story? Reflections on Australian Studies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask; Leer, Martin Hugo; Ward, Stuart James

    2004-01-01

    History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach......History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach...

  14. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Smith

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  15. Optical, physical and chemical characteristics of Australian continental aerosols: results from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radhi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust is one of the major components of the world's aerosol mix, having a number of impacts within the Earth system. However, the climate forcing impact of mineral dust is currently poorly constrained, with even its sign uncertain. As Australian deserts are more reddish than those in the Northern Hemisphere, it is important to better understand the physical, chemical and optical properties of this important aerosol. We have investigated the properties of Australian desert dust at a site in SW Queensland, which is strongly influenced by both dust and biomass burning aerosol.

    Three years of ground-based monitoring of spectral optical thickness has provided a statistical picture of gross aerosol properties. The aerosol optical depth data showed a clear though moderate seasonal cycle with an annual mean of 0.06 ± 0.03. The Angstrom coefficient showed a stronger cycle, indicating the influence of the winter-spring burning season in Australia's north. AERONET size distributions showed a generally bimodal character, with the coarse mode assumed to be mineral dust, and the fine mode a mixture of fine dust, biomass burning and marine biogenic material.

    In November 2006 we undertook a field campaign which collected 4 sets of size-resolved aerosol samples for laboratory analysis – ion beam analysis and ion chromatography. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of all filter samples, although elemental ratios were considered the most reliable output. Scatter plots showed that Fe, Al and Ti were well correlated with Si, and Co reasonably well correlated with Si, with the Fe/Al ratio somewhat higher than values reported from Northern Hemisphere sites (as expected. Scatter plots for Ca, Mn and K against Si showed clear evidence of a second population, which in some cases could be identified with a particular sample day or size fraction. These data may be used to attempt to build a signature of soil in this

  16. Bioelectromagnetics Research within an Australian Context: The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Sarah P.; Al Hossain, Md Shahriar; Bentvelzen, Alan; Elwood, Mark; Finnie, John; Horvat, Joseph; Iskra, Steve; Ivanova, Elena P.; Manavis, Jim; Mudiyanselage, Chathuranga Keerawella; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Martinac, Boris; McIntosh, Robert; McKenzie, Raymond; Mustapic, Mislav; Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Pirogova, Elena; Rashid, M. Harunur; Taylor, Nigel A.; Todorova, Nevena; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Vink, Robert; Wood, Andrew; Yarovsky, Irene; Croft, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone subscriptions continue to increase across the world, with the electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by these devices, as well as by related technologies such as Wi-Fi and smart meters, now ubiquitous. This increase in use and consequent exposure to mobile communication (MC)-related EMF has led to concern about possible health effects that could arise from this exposure. Although much research has been conducted since the introduction of these technologies, uncertainty about the impact on health remains. The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR) is a National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence that is undertaking research addressing the most important aspects of the MC-EMF health debate, with a strong focus on mechanisms, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and exposure dosimetry. This research takes as its starting point the current scientific status quo, but also addresses the adequacy of the evidence for the status quo. Risk communication research complements the above, and aims to ensure that whatever is found, it is communicated effectively and appropriately. This paper provides a summary of this ACEBR research (both completed and ongoing), and discusses the rationale for conducting it in light of the prevailing science. PMID:27690076

  17. Bioelectromagnetics Research within an Australian Context: The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Loughran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone subscriptions continue to increase across the world, with the electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by these devices, as well as by related technologies such as Wi-Fi and smart meters, now ubiquitous. This increase in use and consequent exposure to mobile communication (MC-related EMF has led to concern about possible health effects that could arise from this exposure. Although much research has been conducted since the introduction of these technologies, uncertainty about the impact on health remains. The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR is a National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence that is undertaking research addressing the most important aspects of the MC-EMF health debate, with a strong focus on mechanisms, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and exposure dosimetry. This research takes as its starting point the current scientific status quo, but also addresses the adequacy of the evidence for the status quo. Risk communication research complements the above, and aims to ensure that whatever is found, it is communicated effectively and appropriately. This paper provides a summary of this ACEBR research (both completed and ongoing, and discusses the rationale for conducting it in light of the prevailing science.

  18. The view from within and the view from without: Australian landscape research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Yencken

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available THE LANDSCAPE RESEARCH TASK in Australia is one that commands our attention. The Australian landscape, compared to that of other countries, is still not well understood scientifically as a rich and diverse biome, pragmatically as a productive base, or perceptually as a source of emotional support and inspiration. Australian society is multicultural and changing rapidly. There are complex and shifting strands of interwoven relationships-involving the people and the land-among the original occupiers, the children of European and other settlers and more recent migrants. There are important forces at work which are changing the way knowledge and information are generated, interpreted, shared and disseminated. These include powerful new technologies on the one hand and new epistemologies on the other. Australian landscape practice is young, unfocused and without a distinctive style or philosophy of its own. The discipline of landscape architecture lacks the intellectual depth needed to command respect in Australian society. Only through excellent research and fine writing will the schools of landscape architecture, those now in place and those emerging, respond to these issues in thoughtful ways, prepare students adequately, support and assist those in practice and contribute properly to the intellectual life and development of the country. To explore these issues this paper examines the realm of landscape research, discusses further the distinctive aspects of the landscape research task in Australia, reviews the research so far completed and looks at the route we might take in the future to develop a rich research culture.

  19. Australian paediatric hyperbaric oxygen therapy 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, G; Bennett, M; Thistlethwaite, K; Banham, N

    2013-01-01

    For a large number of ischaemic, infective, inflammatory or traumatic conditions, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is either the only treatment or an adjunct that significantly reduces morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this review is to identify clinical conditions treated in a paediatric population referred to Australian hyperbaric units. Secondary aims are to describe outcomes of treatment and detail any complications occurring during treatment or during transfer between units. This was a retrospective cohort study (January 1998-December 2011) of children treated at four Australian hyperbaric medical units. A total of 112 children underwent 1099 hyperbaric treatments for 14 indications. Ages were not normally distributed with a median age of 14 years (interquartile range 11-16; range 0.25-16 years). Treatments were completed as planned in 81.5% of cases with 25 patients' treatment terminated at the request of physicians, parents or patients. Complications relating to hyperbaric oxygen therapy occurred in 58 treatments (5.3%). Central nervous system oxygen toxicity occurred in 1:366 treatments. Our findings indicate that provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to children is feasible in major regional hyperbaric units and is associated with low complication rates. Management of children in an adult hyperbaric facility, however, requires significant cooperation between paediatric, intensive care and hyperbaric consultants, as the need for transfer to another hospital and prolonged transports often impacts on optimal ongoing surgical and intensive care management.

  20. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fading imperial glory, for sheer antiquity. Some looked for their own ancestors and family but most were satisfied to have their school lessons and imaginative reading validated by being there. The response they had to British history was an intensely emotional one: this article argues that it was a result not of imperial sentiment but of a desire for a deep and meaningful past.

  1. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  2. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  3. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  4. Will the new Australian health privacy law provide adequate protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, David; Hallit, George

    2002-01-01

    Amendments to the original Privacy Act (1988) come at a key point in time, as a national medical record system looms on the Australian horizon. Changes to The Privacy Act have the potential to define a level of information privacy prior to the implementation of such a system. We have therefore collected expert opinions on the ability of the Health Privacy Guidelines (enacted in December 2001 under The Privacy Act and hereafter more specifically known as Health Privacy Legislation) to ensure the privacy and security of patient information. We conclude that the legislation is flawed in its capacity to withstand an increasingly corporatised health sector. Deficiencies in consent requirements, together with feeble enforcement capabilities, mean The Legislation cannot effectively ensure that personally identifiable information will not end up in corporate third party hands. To significantly bolster the new legislation, we argue that it should be supplemented with explicit health data legislation and privacy auditing.

  5. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  6. Phenylphenalenones from the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel Anthony; Goble, David James; Silva, Claudio Andres; Urban, Sylvia

    2009-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex resulted in the isolation of three new phenylphenalenones, haemodorone (10), haemodorol (11), and haemodorose (12), together with the previously reported compounds 5, dilatrin (6), and xiphidone (8). The first complete 2D NMR characterization for all of the compounds isolated, including several chemical shift reassignments for dilatrin (6), is reported. In addition this is one of the few reports to discuss the isolation of new phenylphenalenones from an Australian medicinal plant. The crude extract of both the bulbaceous and aerial components of the plant exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity, and only the bulbs displayed potent cytotoxic activity.

  7. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research relations.......This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...

  8. Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, T J; Wilcox, Chris; Johns, Karen; Dann, P; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-15

    Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals. To understand the types of materials that result in entanglement and thus the potential impact of entangling items on marine wildlife, we analysed data collected from items in which Australian fur seals had been entangled in southern Victoria, Australia over a 15year period. From 1997 to 2012, 138 entangling items were removed from seals. The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour. In general, younger seals were more likely to be entangled than adults. Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it.

  9. Urban population vulnerability to climate extremes: mitigating urban heat through technology and water-sensitive urban design in Australian cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Australia recently endured what was arguably its worst drought in 200 years. The 'Millennium Drought' lasted from 1999 until 2009, producing acute water shortages for several major Australian cities. Towards the end of the drought an extreme heat wave with temperatures approaching 50 C claimed the lives of several hundred people in Melbourne and Adelaide. One outcome of the extreme conditions was that the spectre of climate change and its impacts became very real for most Australians and contributed to the 2007 signing of the Kyoto Protocol by the Australian Government. Issues of extreme heat and water security also led to increased interest in adapting Australian cities to climate change. These concerns ultimately led to the establishment of the Australian Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Water Sensitive Cities, a $110 million research initiative to utilise storm water in Australian cities to create cooler and more liveable environments with increased levels of water security. This paper provides an overview of the work being undertaken within the urban climate program of the CRC to identify heat-health vulnerability in our cities and to evaluate the efficacy of irrigated green infrastructure to produce more liveable environments. This papers discusses some of the early research outputs that involve measurement, modelling and remote sensing at a range of scales in Australian cities.

  10. Evaluation of Corporate Governance Measures: An Application to the Australian Higher Education SectorEvaluation of Corporate Governance Measures: An Application to the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra De Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Governance has emerged as a major concern in the higher education sector. Although evaluation of performance of governance is widely used in the private and public sectors, little attention has been given to the assessment of good governance practices in university contexts. The purpose of this paper was to describe the changes in government policy associated with the introduction of Governance Protocols that have impacted on the higher education sector and to answer the research question: do Australian Universities apply the best practice corporate governance measures?. Data for the study were compiled from annual reports and the Web pages of 37 publically funded universities in Australia and Selected Higher Education Statistics Collection. The assessment criteria were derived from the National Governance Protocols. Findings revealed that Australian universities as independent corporations apply the universal best practice corporate governance indicators as governance measures.

  11. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable.

  12. The ethical commitment of Australian radiographers: Does medical dominance create an influence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Sarah [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: s.lewis@fhs.usyd.edu.au; Heard, Robert [School of Behavioural and Community Health Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Robinson, John [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); White, Karolyn [Centre for Values and Ethics and the Law in Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Poulos, Ann [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)

    2008-05-15

    There is a lack of awareness and openness surrounding ethical debate in Diagnostic Radiography literature and culture, perpetuated in part by the historical growth of the technical realm of radiography, radiology and medicine. Hence, the impact of Australian radiographers' current level of professional autonomy, combined with the influence of medical dominance and radiographers' ethical commitment was undocumented. This study investigated the role, importance and attitudes of Australian radiographers towards ethics through a qualitative study following a grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Australian. A conceptual framework mapping the causal conditions affecting the ethical commitment was developed. This study argues that a number of internal and external variables weave an intricate fabric of poor identity, subservience and negative workplace culture. Australian radiographers, whist attempting to set a standard of ethical commitment, are hindered by difficulties of medical dominance, relatively poor professional autonomy and difficulty in accepting responsibility. The presence of private radiology enterprise and the association between patient referral and money has eroded the radiographer-patient relationship and introduced the potential for unethical practice in the radiographer-radiologist-referring practitioner relationship.

  13. Globalisation and Its Impact on VET. Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, Barry

    The impact of globalization on vocational education and training (VET) in Australia was examined through a literature review. Special attention was paid to the following topics: the growing export orientation in Australian industry (industrial growth in Australia's economy, growth in Australian exports, "knowledge intensity" in the…

  14. Globalisation and Its Impact on VET. Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, Barry

    The impact of globalization on vocational education and training (VET) in Australia was examined through a literature review. Special attention was paid to the following topics: the growing export orientation in Australian industry (industrial growth in Australia's economy, growth in Australian exports, "knowledge intensity" in the manufacturing…

  15. Does Professional Suitability Matter? A National Survey of Australian Counselling Educators in Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brear, Pamela D.; Dorrian, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    This Australian national study was undertaken to profile the unsuitable counselling student, and to achieve greater operational specificity to guide counselling educators who must make critical decisions that impact admittance to the counselling profession. Findings suggest that in every 25 students as many as three will have questionable…

  16. Gen Green: Changes in Australian Apprentices' and Trainees' Experience of Skills and Sustainability from 2008 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The Gen Green research in 2008 and 2011 indicates that skills for sustainability public policy and business initiatives are having an impact, but that young skilled Australians' high level of interest in sustainability skills is confounded by a lack of guidance and incentives from employers, the market and educators. The research indicates that,…

  17. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  18. Does Human-Induced Habitat Modification Influence the Impact of Introduced Species? A Case Study on Cavity-Nesting by the Introduced Common Myna ( Acridotheres tristis) and Two Australian Native Parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grarock, Kate; Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeffrey T.; Tidemann, Christopher R.

    2013-10-01

    Introduced species pose a major threat to biodiversity across the globe. Understanding the impact of introduced species is critical for effective management. Many species around the world are reliant on tree cavities, and competition for these resources can be intense: threatening the survival of native species. Through the establishment of 225 nest boxes, we examined the relationship between tree density and the abundance and nesting success of three bird species in Canberra, Australia. The common myna ( Acridotheres tristis) is an introduced species in Australia, and the crimson rosella ( Platycercus elegans) and eastern rosella ( Platycercus eximius) are native species. We then investigated the impact of common myna nest box occupation on crimson rosella and eastern rosella abundance. Tree density significantly influenced the abundance and cavity-nesting of all three species. Common myna abundance (birds per square kilometer) was greatest at low tree density sites (101.9 ± 22.4) and declined at medium (45.4 ± 10.1) and high (9.7 ± 3.6) tree density sites. The opposite pattern was observed for the crimson rosella, with greater abundance (birds per square kilometer) at high tree density sites (83.9 ± 9.3), declining over medium (61.6 ± 6.4) and low (31.4 ± 3.9) tree density sites. The eastern rosella was more abundant at medium tree density sites (48.6 ± 8.0 birds per square kilometer). Despite the strong influence of tree density, we found a significant negative relationship between common myna nest box occupancy and the abundance of the crimson rosella ( F 1,13 = 7.548, P = 0.017) and eastern rosella ( F 1,13 = 9.672, P < 0.001) at some sites. We also observed a slight increase in rosella nesting interruptions by the common myna at lower tree densities (high: 1.3 % ± 1.3, medium: 6.6 % ± 2.2, low: 12.7 % ± 6.2), although this increase was not statistically significant ( F 2,40 = 2.435, P = 0.100). Our study provides the strongest evidence to date for

  19. CMKb: a web-based prototype for integrating Australian Aboriginal customary medicinal plant knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Gaikwad, Jitendra; Khanna, Varun; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Jamie, Joanne; Kohen, Jim; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2008-01-01

    Background The customary medicinal plant knowledge possessed by the Australian Aboriginal people is a significant resource. Published information on it is scattered throughout the literature, in heterogeneous data formats, and is scattered among various Aboriginal communities across Australia, due to a multiplicity of languages. This ancient knowledge is at risk due to loss of biodiversity, cultural impact and the demise of many of its custodians. We have developed the Customary Medicinal Kno...

  20. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  1. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB...

  2. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  3. The Dawkins Reconstruction of Australian Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Grant

    Aspects of recent changes in Australian higher education are explored, with focus on the Dawkins Agenda, which is related to the current political and economic situation. Questions about the success of John Dawkins, Federal Minister for Employment, Education and Training, in regard to higher education are raised (why he has been successful and…

  4. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  5. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  6. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  7. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Ted

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this "market" agenda of government in terms of…

  8. The Reflexive Modernization of Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, David

    2004-01-01

    The profound changes occurring in Australian higher education are viewed here in the context of the social, cultural, political and economic effects of globalization. Particular attention is paid to providing a theoretical foundation for understanding these effects using the reflexive modernization perspective. Highlighted are some of the…

  9. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  10. Contributions to Indo-Australian Herpetology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1934-01-01

    A complete account of all the reptiles then known to occur in the Indo-Australian Archipelago was published by De Rooij in 1915 and 1917. Since this time several new species have been described, while others have been suppressed or revived. Also the problem of geographical variation begins to penetr

  11. The Australian species of Rhodamnia (Myrtaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, C.T.

    1937-01-01

    The genus Rhodamnia, founded by W. JACK (Malayan Miscellanies 1822) on the common Malayan R. cinerea, find its greatest development in the Australian and Papuan regions. DIELS (in LAUTERB., Beitr. Fl. Papuasien, V, ex ENGL., Bot. Jahrb. LVII, 360, 1922) recognizes five species, with a doubtful sixth

  12. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  13. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Point ( HACCP ) program, and use of the Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) decision-making tree (Australian Food and Grocery Council...to cow’s milk and beef meat proteins. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89 61-64. Emmett, S. E., et al. (1999) Perceived prevalence of peanut allergy in

  14. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  15. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)

    1983-11-01

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  16. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  17. Industrial Relations in Australian Tertiary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Keith

    1989-01-01

    A government official in industrial relations and former university administrator chronicles the emergence of unions in Australian universities and discusses the current state of academic trade unionism, focusing on the restructuring of the compensation system and the problems resulting from the process. (MSE)

  18. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  19. Prevalence of headache in Australian footballers

    OpenAIRE

    McCrory, P; Heywood, J.; Coffey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Methods: A prospective questionnaire based survey was performed on elite Australian footballers participating in a national competition. The survey was designed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for headache using standardised International Headache Society (HIS) criteria. Headache prevalence was compared with that of an age and sex matched community control population.

  20. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  1. Connected Speech Processes in Australian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, J. C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the role of Connected Speech Processes (CSP) in accounting for sociolinguistically significant dimensions of speech variation, and presents initial findings on the distribution of CSPs in the speech of Australian adolescents. The data were gathered as part of a wider survey of speech of Brisbane school children. (Contains 26 references.)…

  2. Adolescent Breakfast Skipping: An Australian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the findings of an Australian survey of adolescents concerning the extent of skipping breakfast. Finds that skippers are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body shape and to be on a diet to lose weight. Findings suggest that skipping breakfast is a matter of individual choice rather than a result of poverty. (Author/GCP)

  3. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  4. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... of pedagogues and in everyday life in daycare facilities. The competence term includes at least two discourses of interest; a pedagogical competence discourse and a political jurisdiction discourse which forms a distention between authenticity and competence. In order that pedagogues may regain their autonomy I...

  5. Impact of the Small Town Construction on Original Inhabitants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area--A Case Study in Lishu Village, Changling Town, Chongqing Municipality, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shao-quan; Chen Guo-jie; Chen Zhi-jian

    2003-01-01

    Based on the five-year long dynamic tracking and investigation of the peasant households of the Lishu village, the influences by small town construction on the economy and employment of the original peasant households are discussed. On the one hand, small town construction plays a positive role in adjustment of the industrial structure of the original peasant households and in the transfer of their employment towards non-agricultural industries. On the other hand the economic growth of the original peasant households is not so well sustainable, and is so fluctuating. Moreover,the unbalance of income distribution of the said households has been furthered, and small town construction has made the existing labor surplus of the original peasant households more serious, particularly the women labor surplus.

  6. Practicing Teachers’ Reflections: Indigenous Australian Student Mobility and Implications for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Moriarty

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructions of education historically have impacted adversely on marginalised Indigenous Australian students whose mobile lifestyles and cultural positioning challenge teachers’ social inclusion practices. This paper examines the preparation and capacity of pre-service teachers to engage with mobile Indigenous students and their communities. Evidence is drawn from practicing teachers who reflected on their experiences in working with Indigenous students and their communities since graduation and how their experiences, both pre- and post-graduation, impacted on their beliefs and practices. Individual interviews were conducted with four teachers who also participated in the first stage of the study as a group of 24 second year primary pre-service teachers at a regional Australian university. It was found that pre-service teachers representing a range of world views benefit from positive, scaffolded experiences that provide opportunities to develop practices that foster social justice and inclusion. The findings of this study have implications for providing pre-service teachers with opportunities to understand how historical factors impact on Indigenous student mobility in contemporary Australian educational settings and the development of socially inclusive pedagogical practices. Further longitudinal research to expand the evidence base around developing culturally-appropriate pedagogical practices in pre-service teachers is needed to support their transition into teaching.

  7. Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen E; Bolitho, Elizabeth E; Fox, Samantha

    2003-09-22

    It is now widely accepted that global climate change is affecting many ecosystems around the globe and that its impact is increasing rapidly. Many studies predict that impacts will consist largely of shifts in latitudinal and altitudinal distributions. However, we demonstrate that the impacts of global climate change in the tropical rainforests of northeastern Australia have the potential to result in many extinctions. We develop bioclimatic models of spatial distribution for the regionally endemic rainforest vertebrates and use these models to predict the effects of climate warming on species distributions. Increasing temperature is predicted to result in significant reduction or complete loss of the core environment of all regionally endemic vertebrates. Extinction rates caused by the complete loss of core environments are likely to be severe, nonlinear, with losses increasing rapidly beyond an increase of 2 degrees C, and compounded by other climate-related impacts. Mountain ecosystems around the world, such as the Australian Wet Tropics bioregion, are very diverse, often with high levels of restricted endemism, and are therefore important areas of biodiversity. The results presented here suggest that these systems are severely threatened by climate change.

  8. Ten Australian ICU nurses' perceptions of organisational restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Rochelle

    2004-02-01

    The Australian healthcare system underwent radical reform in the 1990s as economic rationalist policies were embraced. As a result, there was significant organisational restructuring within hospitals. Traditional indicators, such as nursing absenteeism and attrition, increase during times of organisational change. Despite this, nurses' views of healthcare reform are under-represented in the literature and little is known about the impact of organisational restructuring on perceived performance. This study investigated the perceived impact of organisational restructuring on a group of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' workplace performance. It employed a qualitative approach to collect data from a purposive sample of clinical nurses. The primary method of data collection was semi-structured interviews. Content analysis generated three categories of data. Participants identified constant pressure, inadequate communication and organisational components of restructuring within the hospital as issues that had a significant impact on their workplace performance. They perceived organisational restructuring was poorly communicated, and this resulted in an environment of constant pressure. Organisational components of restructuring included the subcategories of specialised service provision and an alternative administrative structure that had both positive and negative ramifications for performance. To date, there has been little investigation of nurses' perceptions of organisational restructure or the impact this type of change has in the clinical domain. Participants in this study believed reorganisation was detrimental to quality care delivery in intensive care, as a result of fiscal constraint, inadequate communication and pressure that influenced their workplace performance.

  9. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  10. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  11. The emergence of sarcoptic mange in Australian wildlife: an unresolved debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Tamieka A; Charleston, Michael; Martin, Alynn; Polkinghorne, Adam; Carver, Scott

    2016-06-02

    Due to its suspected increase in host range and subsequent global diversification, Sarcoptes scabiei has important implications at a global scale for wildlife conservation and animal and human health. The introduction of this pathogen into new locations and hosts has been shown to produce high morbidity and mortality, a situation observed recently in Australian and North American wildlife.Of the seven native animal species in Australia known to be infested by S. scabiei, the bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus) suffers the greatest with significant population declines having been observed in New South Wales and Tasmania. The origins of sarcoptic mange in Australian native animals are poorly understood, with the most consistent conclusion being that mange was introduced by settlers and their dogs and subsequently becoming a major burden to native wildlife. Four studies exist addressing the origins of mange in Australia, but all Australian S. scabiei samples derive from only two of these studies. This review highlights this paucity of phylogenetic knowledge of S. scabiei within Australia, and suggests further research is needed to confidently determine the origin, or multiple origins, of this parasite.At the global scale, numerous genetic studies have attempted to reveal how the host species and host geographic location influence S. scabiei phylogenetics. This review includes an analysis of the global literature, revealing that inconsistent use of gene loci across studies significantly influences phylogenetic inference. Furthermore, by performing a contemporary analytical approach on existing data, it is apparent that (i) new S. scabiei samples, (ii) appropriate gene loci targets, and (iii) advanced phylogenetic approaches are necessary to more confidently comprehend the origins of mange in Australia. Advancing this field of research will aid in understanding the mechanisms of spillover for mange and other parasites globally.

  12. Ammonium removal from high-strength aqueous solutions by Australian zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, D Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Sommer, Sven G; Jayasinghe, Guttila Y; J Scales, Peter; Chen, Deli

    2016-07-01

    Removal of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) particularly from sources which are highly rich in nitrogen is important for addressing environmental pollution. Zeolites, aluminosilicate minerals, are commonly used as commercial adsorbents and ion-exchange medium in number of commercial applications due to its high adsorption capacity of ammonium (NH4(+)). However, detailed investigations on NH4(+) adsorption and ion exchange capacities of Australian natural zeolites are rare, particularly under higher NH4(+) concentrations in the medium. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine NH4(+) adsorption characteristics of Australian natural zeolites at high NH4(+) concentrations with and without other chemical compounds in an aqueous solution. Results showed that initial NH4(+) concentration, temperature, reaction time, and pH of the solution had significant effects on NH4(+) adsorption capacity of zeolite. Increased retention time and temperature generally had a positive impact on adsorption. Freundlich model fitted well with adsorption process of Australian natural zeolites; however, Langmuir model had best fitted for the adsorption process of sodium (Na(+)) treated zeolites. NaCl treatment increased the NH4(+) adsorption capacity of Australian zeolites by 25% at 1000 mg-N, NH4(+) solution. The maximum adsorption capacity of both natural Australian zeolites and Na(+) treated zeolites were estimated as 9.48 and 11.83 mg-N/g, respectively, which is lower than many zeolites from other sources. Compared to the NH4(+) only medium, presence of other competitive ions and acetic acid in the medium (resembling composition in digested swine manure slurries) reduced NH4(+) removal of natural and Na(+) treated zeolites by 44% and 57%, respectively. This suggests detailed investigations are required to determine practically achievable NH4(+) -N removal potential of zeolites for applications in complex mediums such as animal manure slurries.

  13. Australian Carbon Price Mechanism and its Impact on Related Industries of Shenhua Group%澳大利亚碳价机制及其对神华集团相关行业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉; 陆兵

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with global climate change, Clean Energy Act will be implemented in Australia from July 1,2002. The main purpose of the law is to establish Carbon Price Mechanism. In this paper, the contents and scopes of Carbon Price Mechanism as well as government assistance program are presented. In combination with the business characteristics of Shenhua Group, an impact of Carbon Price Mechanism on related industries of Shenhua Group, such as coal, power generation and renewable energy, are analyzed briefly.%为应对全球气候变化,澳大利亚将于2012年7月1日实施《清洁能源法》,其核心是建立碳价机制。本文介绍了碳价机制的基本内容和征收范围以及政府援助计划,并结合神华集团的业务特点,简要分析了碳价机制对神华集团相关产业(煤炭、发电和再生能源)的影响。

  14. MEDIAMUSIC ORIGINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the origins of music in electronic regular broadcasting, which conditions have appeared in the XIX century. They stand out in the "telephone concerts", "phonograph concerts" and the proto-sound films (T.Edison, W.Dickson, Ch.Pathé, O.Messter. In the early twentieth century, a clear prototype of mediamusic playing by the music of "silent" films, which has been divided on the on-screen and offscreen sound layers, the method of compilation, the basics of synchronization between musical sound and off-music montage-structures. In addition, the origins of music of electronic mass media can be regarded as attempts to understand the "musical" noise features, which subsequently materialize in the phenomenon of "noisemusic" of media audio-score (L.Russolo, Ars.Avraamov, D.Vertov, W.Ruttmann, N.Voinov, P.Schaeffer. Are considered Russian, European and North American experiences.

  15. Mitochondrial origins.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, D.; Oyaizu, Y; Oyaizu, H; Olsen, G J; Woese, C R

    1985-01-01

    The 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas testosteroni have been determined to further delimit the origin of the endosymbiont that gave rise to the mitochondrion. These two prokaryotes represent the alpha and beta subdivisions, respectively, of the so-called purple bacteria. The endosymbiont that gave rise to the mitochondrion belonged to the alpha subdivision, a group that also contains the rhizobacteria, the agrobacteria, and the rickettsias--all prokary...

  16. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  17. Characteristics of the Onset of the Asian Summer Monsoon and the Importance of Asian-Australian "Land Bridge"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on summarizing previous achievements and using data as long and new as possible, the onset characteristics of Asian summer monsoon and the role of Asian-Australian "land bridge" in the onset of summer monsoon are further discussed. In particular, the earliest onset area of Asian summer monsoon is comparatively analyzed, and the sudden and progressive characteristics of the onset of summer monsoon in different regions are discussed. Furthermore, the relationships among such critical events during the onset of Asian summer monsoon as the splitting of subtropical high belt over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), the initiation of convection over Indo-China Peninsula, the westward advance, reestablishment of South Asian High, and the rapid northward progression of convection originated from Sumatra in early summer are studied. The important impact of the proper collocation of the latent heating over Indo-China Peninsula and the sensible heating over Indian Peninsula on the splitting of the subtropical high belt, the deepening of BOB trough, the activating of Sri Lanka vortex (twin vortexes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres),and the subsequent onset of South China Sea summer monsoon are emphasized.

  18. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  19. A short history of the Australian Society of Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennison, Linda

    2013-04-01

    (1990,) J Quirk (1998) and RE White (2012). In 1989 a motion was narrowly defeated to introduce a Fellows category of membership to the Society. In 2012 members attending the annual general meeting of the Society discussed the introduction of a Fellow category as an Award and members voted to continue discussion on this initiative. Federal Council initiated a Student Award in 1969 and over ensuing years a range of awards were initiated; JA Prescott Medal of Soil Science (1972), Australian Society of Soil Science Inc Publication Medal (1979), JK Taylor OBE Gold Medal in Soil Science (1984), CG Stephens PhD Award in Soil Science (2003), LJH Teakle Award (2010) along with the Society's conference presentation awards. Branches were busy during this time and hosted many activities including seminars, field trips and conferences for both members and those interested in soil science. By the early seventies several branches had conducted refresher courses and in 1974 the Society became incorporated. The Society hosted its first world congress, the 9th International Society of Soil Science Congress, in Adelaide in 1968 with 310 papers printed, 239 papers presented and 720 delegates. In contrast, 42 years later the 19th World Congress of Soil Science returned to Australia, where in Brisbane 1914 delegates from 68 countries were treated to 343 presentations, 1227 research posters, 8 keynote and 65 invited lead speakers. A commemorative stamp was produced for the first Congress and another stamp was created in 2007 to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Society. Originally Society conferences were held every four years however this was reduced to, and still remains, at two year intervals. An inaugural joint conference of the New Zealand Society of Soil Science and the Australian Society of Soil Science Inc. was held in Rotorua in November 1986. This paved the way for the series of joint national conferences between the two societies, the first one of which was held in Melbourne

  20. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  1. Australian Lasioglossum + Homalictus form a monophyletic group: resolving the "Australian enigma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, B N; Ji, S

    2001-04-01

    The bee genus Lasioglossum includes > 1,000 species of bees distributed on all continents except Antarctica. Lasioglossum is a major component of the bee fauna in the Holarctic, Ethiopian, and Asian regions and is an important group for investigating the evolution of social behavior in bees. Given its cosmopolitan distribution, the historical biogeography of the genus is of considerable interest. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the subgenera and species within Lasioglossum s.s., using DNA sequence data from a slowly evolving nuclear gene, elongation factor-1 alpha. The entire data set includes > 1,604 aligned nucleotide sites (including three exons plus two introns) for 89 species (17 outgroups plus 72 ingroups). Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses provide strong evidence that the primarily Indoaustralian subgenera (Homalictus, Chilalictus, Parasphecodes) form a monophyletic group. Bootstrap support for the Australian clade ranged from 73% to 77%, depending on the method of analysis. Monophyly of the Australian Lasioglossum suggests that a single colonization event (by way of Southeast Asia and New Guinea) gave rise to a lineage of > 350 native Indoaustralian bees. We discuss the implications of Australian monophyly for resolving the "Australian enigma"--the similarity in social behavior among the Australian halictine bees relative to that of Holarctic groups.

  2. The relative impact of country of origin and universal contingencies on internationalization strategies and corporate control in multinational enterprises : Worldwide and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harzing, A.W.; Sorge, A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the importance of country-of-origin effects and of universal contingencies such as industrial recipes in organizational practices at the international level of multinational enterprises. This is based on a study comparing European (Finnish, French, German, Dutch, Swiss, Swedish, British),

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Australian Diet—Comparing Dietary Recommendations with Average Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe for different food sectors. These data were augmented with food intake estimates from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. The GHGe of the average Australian diet was 14.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e per person per day. The recommended dietary patterns in the Australian Dietary Guidelines are nutrient rich and have the lowest GHGe (~25% lower than the average diet. Food groups that made the greatest contribution to diet-related GHGe were red meat (8.0 kg CO2e per person per day and energy-dense, nutrient poor “non-core” foods (3.9 kg CO2e. Non-core foods accounted for 27% of the diet-related emissions. A reduction in non-core foods and consuming the recommended serves of core foods are strategies which may achieve benefits for population health and the environment. These data will enable comparisons between changes in dietary intake and GHGe over time, and provide a reference point for diets which meet population nutrient requirements and have the lowest GHGe.

  4. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  5. Acceleration profiles in elite Australian soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, M C; Aughey, R J

    2013-01-01

    We quantified the acceleration and high-velocity running of elite Australian soccer players. We hypothesised that high-intensity activity would be underestimated when excluding acceleration during match analysis given its high metabolic demand and occurrence at low velocities. Player movements were observed from 29 players (forwards and central and wide defenders and midfielders) during domestic Australian competition using 5-Hz global positioning system. Effort occurrence were determined for high-velocity running, sprinting and maximal accelerations. The commencement and final velocity of maximal accelerations were also identified. Players undertook an 8~fold greater number of maximal accelerations than sprints per game (65±21 vs. 8±5). Of maximal accelerations ~98% commenced from a starting velocity lower than what would be considered high-velocity running while ~85% did not cross the high-velocity running threshold. The number of efforts performed in all categories were position dependent (Psprints compared to all other positions (Pdrills.

  6. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated) for distance educ...

  7. Management of psychosis in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Janice; Miller, Graeme; Ng, Anthea

    2006-03-01

    The BEACH program, a continuous national study of general practice activity in Australia, gives us an overview of consultations involving the management of psychoses. In this analysis we have included schizophrenia, affective disorders/bipolar, organic psychoses, and senile psychoses, with undefined psychosis and chronic brain syndrome grouped as 'other'. This synopsis provides a backdrop against which the theme articles in this issue of Australian Family Physician can be further considered.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Australian Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    gained experience in industrial and environmental chemistry with Pasminco . He undertakes chemical, microbiological and food technology research in...NAPOC QWG Engineer NBCD c/- DENGRS-A, HQ Engineer Centre, Liverpool Military Area, NSW 2174 Librarian, Australian Defence Force Academy Counsellor... NSW 2070 Directorate of Fleet Supply Services, Dept. of Defence (Navy), Campbell Park 3-1-5, Canberra ACT 2600 Assistant Chief Material - A (ACMAT-A

  9. Australian Eager to Enter China's LNG Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Han

    2002-01-01

    @@ Australian Trade Minister Mark Vaile made a trip to China, Japan and Republic of Korea in mid-April in an attempt to locate potential users for LNG from the northwestern continental shelf of the country.Australia has made tenacious efforts for the annual 3-million-ton LNG supply project in China's Guangdong Province. In addition, Australia also hopes to have more users in Japan and Republic of Korea.

  10. Chinese, Australian scholars meet in Beijing to probe sustainable ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Co-hosted by CAS, the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) and the Australian Academy of Science(AAS), a Sino-Australian Workshop on Sustaining Global Ecosystems convened from 8 to 10 August in Beijing. It brought together more than 100 participants from universities, research institutions, government departments and enterprises to discuss various ecological issues of global significance ranging from sustainable water, land, air and energy, to health and the environment.

  11. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  12. Science Education in Partnership: The 2002 Australian American Fulbright Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, E.; Oliver, C.; Wilmoth, K.; Vozzo, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Australian American Fulbright 2002 Symposium: Science Education in Partnership was held in parallel-in partnership-with the scientific meeting of the IAU 213 Bioastronomy 2002 Symposium: Life Among the Stars. In practice, the two meetings modeled partnership between educators and scientists, both professional events interacting while maintaining individual goals. Leading scientists attending the IAU meeting participated in the Fulbright with presentations based upon their work and their experiences. Educators and scientists interacted on how their work impacts science education and strategies for building direct connections between scientists and classrooms. Educators attending the Fulbright Symposium attended a number of scientific presentations in IAU meeting as well. A major issue in science education is teaching science in a way that is relevant to the student. Partnerships between scientists and teachers can provide real-life scientific research experience in the laboratory and the field for teachers and students. These partnerships enhance the quality of both teaching and learning, and engage students directly in projects and curricula that lead to a better understanding of the nature and practice of science. Scientists are often engaged in the development of new curricula as a part of the education and public outreach programs affiliated with research programs. Participants explored the similarities and differences between the approach to this endeavor in Australia and the US. Partnerships between all the professionals involved-scientists, teachers, and writers-creates an opportunity for innovative, cutting-edge research to reach the classroom. The excitement of seeking new knowledge, exploring the unknown, can motivate students to pursue science studies in high school and beyond at the university. Oral papers, posters and workshops presented the results of partnerships between scientists and educators in Australian and the USA as well as opportunities

  13. Mediatisation, Marginalisation and Disruption in Australian Indigenous Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry McCallum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers how changing media practices of minority groups and political and media elites impact on democratic participation in national debates. Taking as its case study the state-sponsored campaign to formally recognise Indigenous people in the Australian constitution, the article examines the interrelationships between political media and Indigenous participatory media—both of which we argue are undergoing seismic transformation. Discussion of constitutional reform has tended to focus on debates occurring in forums of influence such as party politics and news media that privilege the voices of only a few high-profile Indigenous media ‘stars’. Debate has progressed on the assumption that constitutional change needs to be settled by political elites and then explained and ‘sold’ to Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Our research on the mediatisation of policymaking has found that in an increasingly media-saturated environment, political leaders and their policy bureaucrats attend to a narrow range of highly publicised voices. But the rapidly changing media environment has disrupted the media-driven Recognise campaign. Vigorous public discussion is increasingly taking place outside the mainstream institutions of media and politics, while social media campaigns emerge in rapid response to government decisions. Drawing on a long tradition in citizens’ media scholarship we argue that the vibrant, diverse and growing Indigenous media sphere in Australia has increased the accessibility of Indigenous voices challenging the scope and substance of the recognition debate. The article concludes on a cautionary note by considering some tensions in the promise of the changing media for Indigenous participation in the national policy conversation.

  14. Establishment of an Australian National Genetic Heart Disease Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; McGaughran, Julie; Vohra, Jitendra; Weintraub, Robert G; Davis, Andrew; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2008-12-01

    A National Genetic Heart Disease Registry has recently been established, with the aim to enroll every family in Australia with a genetically determined cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmic disorder. The Registry seeks to further our understanding of the impact and burden of disease in this population; increase awareness and provide education to health professionals and families; and establish a large cardiac genetic cohort as a resource for approved research studies. The Registry is currently recruiting families with inherited cardiomyopathies (e.g. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) and primary arrhythmogenic disorders (e.g. long QT syndrome), with scope to expand this in the future. Affected individuals, as well as their first-degree (at-risk) family members are eligible to enroll. Participants are currently being recruited from cardiac genetics clinics in approved recruitment sites and hope to expand to other Australian centres including general cardiology practice in the future. A significant focus of the Registry is to improve understanding and create awareness of inherited heart diseases, which includes ensuring families are aware of genetic testing options and current clinical screening recommendations for at-risk family members. A Registry Advisory Committee has been established under the NHMRC Guidelines, and includes a representative from each major recruitment centre. This committee approves all decisions relating to the Registry including approval of research studies. A National Genetic Heart Disease Registry will provide a valuable resource to further our knowledge of the clinical and genetic aspects of these diseases. Since most of the current data about the prevalence, natural history and outcomes of genetic heart diseases has emanated from the United States and Europe, characterising these Australian populations will be of significant benefit, allowing for more informed and specific health care planning and resource provision.

  15. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  16. Impact of Origin and Biological Source on Chemical Composition, Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Properties of Some St. John’s Wort Species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae) from the Central Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Božin; Nebojša Kladar; Nevena Grujić; Goran Anačkov; Isidora Samojlik; Neda Gavarić; Branislava Srđenović Čonić

    2013-01-01

    The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John’s wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at ...

  17. Reframing the Australian nurse teacher competencies: do they reflect the 'REAL' world of nurse teacher practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Jacqui; Taylor, Christine; Roden, Janet; Blundell, Jennifer; Tolhurst, Gerda

    2011-04-01

    The Australian nurse teacher competencies were introduced in 1996; however, the researchers perceived that changes to the health care system and a nursing workforce shortage may have affected nurse teacher roles over the past decade. This study aimed to explore perceptions of nurse teachers on the applicability of the current Australian nurse teacher competencies to practice, and modify the nurse teacher competencies to better reflect current practice. Methodology utilized mixed methods, and data collection was via focus groups, telephone interviews, and survey data. Results revealed that participants were mostly positive about the original competency statements, although there were some variations between items. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data were: changing trends in health care; preparation for teaching; understanding of the competencies, contextual influences on education role; nurse teachers as change agents, and resource management. Conclusions were that the Australian nurse teacher competencies (1996) were reflective of the current generic roles of nurse teachers however some of the competencies needed reframing to meet the current needs of nurse teachers. However, changes needed to be made in areas such as reducing complex language, inclusion of technology, and cultural competencies. Nurse teachers were supportive of the research because they valued the teacher competencies for reflection on their practice and the development of portfolios, job descriptions and performance appraisals.

  18. Kim Scott’s Fiction within Western Australian Life-Writing: Voicing the Violence of Removal and Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Martin Renes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is nowadays evident that the West’s civilising, eugenic zeal have had a devastating impact on all aspects of the Indigenous-Australian community tissue, not least the lasting trauma of the Stolen Generations. The latter was the result of the institutionalisation, adoption, fostering, virtual slavery and sexual abuse of thousands of mixed-descent children, who were separated at great physical and emotional distances from their Indigenous kin, often never to see them again. The object of State and Federal policies of removal and mainstream absorption and assimilation between 1930 and 1970, these lost children only saw their plight officially recognised in 1997, when the Bringing Them Home report was published by the Federal government. The victims of forced separation and migration, they have suffered serious trans-generational problems of adaptation and alienation in Australian society, which have been not only documented from the outside in the aforementioned report but also given shape from the inside of and to Indigenous-Australian literature over the last three decades. The following addresses four Indigenous Western-Australian writers within the context of the Stolen Generations, and deals particularly with the semi-biographical fiction by the Nyoongar author Kim Scott, which shows how a very liminal hybrid identity can be firmly written in place yet. Un-writing past policies of physical and ‘epistemic’ violence on the Indigenous Australian population, his fiction addresses a way of approaching Australianness from an Indigenous perspective as inclusive, embracing transculturality within the nation-space.

  19. Wolf presence in the ranch of origin: impacts on temperament and physiological responses of beef cattle following a simulated wolf encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Reis, M M; Cappellozza, B I

    2013-12-01

    This experiment evaluated temperament, vaginal temperature, and plasma cortisol in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Angus-crossbreed cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center located near Burns, OR (CON; n = 50), and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; n = 50), were used. To date, grey wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple confirmed wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2012. Following a 50-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were ranked by temperament, BW, and BCS and allocated to 5 groups (d 0; 10 CON and 10 WLF cows/group). Groups were individually subjected to the experimental procedures on d 2 (n = 3) and d 3 (n = 2). Before the simulated wolf encounter, cow temperament was assessed and blood samples and vaginal temperatures (using intravaginal data loggers) were collected (presimulation assessments). Cows were then sorted by origin, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (10 WLF and 10 CON cows/pen), and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min, which consisted of 1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, 2) continuous reproduction of wolf howls, and 3) 3 leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, WLF and CON cows were commingled and returned to the handling facility for postsimulation assessments, which were conducted immediately after exposure to wolf-urine-saturated cotton plugs, wolf howl reproduction, and 20-s exposure to the 3 dogs while being restrained in a squeeze chute. Chute score, temperament score, and plasma cortisol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.01) from pre- to postsimulation assessment in WLF but did not change in CON cows (P ≥ 0.19). Exit velocity decreased (P

  20. Eat, drink and gamble: marketing messages about ‘risky’ products in an Australian major sporting series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the alcohol, gambling, and unhealthy food marketing strategies during a nationally televised, free to air, sporting series in Australia. Methods/approach Using the Australian National Rugby League 2012 State of Origin three-game series, we conducted a mixed methods content analysis of the frequency, duration, placement and content of advertising strategies, comparing these strategies both within and across the three games. Results There were a total of 4445 episodes (mean = 1481.67, SD = 336.58), and 233.23 minutes (mean = 77.74, SD = 7.31) of marketing for alcoholic beverages, gambling products and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages during the 360 minutes of televised coverage of the three State of Origin 2012 games. This included an average per game of 1354 episodes (SD = 368.79) and 66.29 minutes (SD = 7.62) of alcohol marketing; 110.67 episodes (SD = 43.89), and 8.72 minutes (SD = 1.29) of gambling marketing; and 17 episodes (SD = 7.55), and 2.74 minutes (SD = 0.78) of unhealthy food and beverage marketing. Content analysis revealed that there was a considerable embedding of product marketing within the match play, including within match commentary, sporting equipment, and special replays. Conclusions Sport is increasingly used as a vehicle for the promotion of range of ‘risky consumption’ products. This study raises important ethical and health policy questions about the extent and impact of saturation and incidental marketing strategies on health and wellbeing, the transparency of embedded marketing strategies, and how these strategies may influence product consumption. PMID:23914917

  1. Exploring the beliefs of Australian prefabricated house builders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale A Steinhardt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The housing sector accounts for a majority of newly constructed buildings. Prefabrication, defined as the factory construction of houses or significant components, is widely promoted as a means to improve efficiency. This paper focuses on the research questions: RQ1. What are the attitudes of builders towards prefabrication adoption? RQ2. What types of stakeholders do builders believe influence their adoption decisions? RQ3. What types of contextual influences do builders believe impact their adoption decisions? Current prefabrication research has focused on the advantages and disadvantages of prefabrication, without further unpacking the beliefs of stakeholders that underpin them. This paper addresses this gap and increases the understanding of beliefs that can frame interventions to increase the market penetration of prefabrication. Fourteen interviews with Australian prefabricators were undertaken as a Belief Elicitation Study. This qualitative methodology is framed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Results show that modern high-quality prefabricated housing has struggled to overcome historical stigma; improved construction speed has not and is not likely to translate to reduced totals costs for a majority of firms; and prefabrication adoption has been hindered by an almost completely unsupportive industry infrastructure. Recommendations are made to frame arguments in improving short-term outcomes for an industry driven by practical considerations. Future discourse must focus on cost impacts, financial security and risk reduction. Establishing networks of prefabricators that can build a strong, unified voice for the industry should be prioritised.

  2. Impact of dose-dense immunochemotherapy on prognosis of germinal center and non germinal center origin of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigacci, L; Puccini, B; Iovino, L; Martelli, M; Finolezzi, E; DI Lollo, S; Doria, M; Bosi, A

    2011-08-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Gene-expression profiling in DLCBL has brought insight into the biological heterogeneity of the disease. Two major subgroups have been identified: germinal center B (GCB) cell and non-germinal center (non-GCB). The aim of this study was to define retrospectively by immunohistochemistry the bcell origin of 69 patients treated with R-CHOP14 and to evaluate if dose-dense therapy could improve their clinical outcome. According to immunohistochemistry analysis 28 patients were derived from germinal center and 41 from non-germinal center. After a median period of observation of 46 months (range 3-101 months) the overall survival (OS) was 75% and progression-free survival (PFS) was 53% and no differences were observed according to cell origin. In conclusion, we can point out that intensification could enhance the efficacy of the R-CHOP regimen and improve overall survival in patients with non germinal lymphoma.

  3. Impact of origin and biological source on chemical composition, anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of some St. John's wort species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae) from the Central Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božin, Biljana; Kladar, Nebojša; Grujić, Nevena; Anačkov, Goran; Samojlik, Isidora; Gavarić, Neda; Conić, Branislava Srđenović

    2013-09-25

    The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John's wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at a local market and four Hypericum species autochtonous to the Balkan Peninsula (H. maculatum subsp. immaculatum, H. olympicum, H. richeri subsp. grisebachii and H. barbatum). All the examined extracts exhibited notable antioxidant potential, but in most of the cases indigenous Hypericum species expressed stronger effects compared to the original source of the drug, H. perforatum. The changes in the content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin, related to the source of the drug affected the investigated activities. Since all of the investigated species have shown prominent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in vitro activity, they could be further investigated as potential substances in preventing of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Revising Australian Pristomerus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cremastinae): species with a tooth on the hind femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfstein, Seraina

    2016-09-15

    The Australian insect fauna is among the least-well studied in the world, and conservative estimates state that 75% of the species still await description. In the more species-rich groups, this percentage might be even larger, which is certainly the case in parasitoid wasps which have received very little attention by taxonomists. The genus Pristomerus of the family Ichneumonidae is distributed worldwide, with most species found in the tropics. Its members attack concealed larvae of small Lepidoptera, and several species are used in biocontrol. Five species have been reported from Australia, all of them endemic, but many more undescribed species are present in various collections.        I here revise Australian Pristomerus, focussing on the species that bear a tooth on the ventral side of the hind femur. Twenty-two species are recorded, 19 of which are described as new: Pristomerus australiensis n. sp., P. bertschmanni n. sp., P. callitrinus n. sp., P. dundeei n. sp., P. flavicephalus n. sp., P. fourecksensis n. sp., P. gracilis n. sp., P. kakaduensis n. sp., P. laetus n. sp., P. luculentus n. sp., P. lunatus n. sp., P. mangiferus n. sp., P. merus n. sp., P. nedkellyi n. sp., P. pellicius n. sp., P. periculosus n. sp., P. stellatus n. sp., P. tenebrosus n. sp., and P. venustus n. sp. A dichotomous key and an online interactive key to the known Australian species with a tooth on the hind femur are provided, including photographs of all the species.        The origin of the considerable number of Australian Pristomerus species remains unclear. They might represent Southern relict elements with affinities to South American taxa, or their ancestors might have immigrated from the Paleotropics in more recent times; this question can only be solved with a dated phylogeny of the genus. However, support for a Palaeotropic origin of at least a good portion of the taxa comes from their current distribution, as the Australian Pristomerus are found to be most

  5. Revision of the Australian Union-Jack wolf spiders, genus Tasmanicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae, Lycosinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framenau, Volker W; Baehr, Barbara C

    2016-12-23

    The Australian wolf spider (Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833) genus Tasmanicosa Roewer, 1959 with Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905 as type species is revised to include 14 species: T. godeffroyi (L. Koch, 1865), comb. nov. (= Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.; = Lycosa zualella Strand, 1907, syn. nov.; = Lycosa woodwardi Simon, 1909, syn. nov.); T. fulgor sp. nov.; T. gilberta (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov.; T. harmsi sp. nov.; T. hughjackmani sp. nov.; T. kochorum sp. nov.; T. leuckartii (Thorell, 1870), comb. nov. (= Lycosa molyneuxi Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. musgravei (McKay, 1974) comb. nov.; T. phyllis (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov. (= Lycosa stirlingae Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. ramosa (L. Koch, 1877), comb. nov.; T. salmo sp. nov.; T. semicincta (L. Koch, 1877) comb. nov.; T. stella sp. nov.; and T. subrufa (Karsch, 1878) comb. nov. Within the Australian wolf spider fauna, the genus Tasmanicosa can be diagnosed by the distinct pattern of radiating light and dark lines forming a "Union-Jack" pattern on the carapace. Male pedipalp morphology identifies the genus as part of the subfamily Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 due to the presence of a transverse tegular apophysis with dorsal groove guiding the embolus during copulation. However, genital morphology is variable and a synapomorphy based on male pedipalp or female epigyne morphology could not be identified. Members of Tasmanicosa are comparatively large spiders (body length ca. 12-30 mm), that build a shallow burrow, which is sometimes covered with a flimsy trapdoor. Species of Tasmanicosa are largely a Bassian faunal element with preference for open woodlands and/or floodplains, although some species can be found into the semi-arid Australian interior. Two Australian wolf spider species may represent Tasmanicosa based on their original descriptions, but due to immature types in combination with the somatic similarities of all Tasmanicosa species, cannot be identified with certainty. They are therefore considered nomina dubia

  6. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  7. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  8. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  9. Two layers of Australian impact ejecta in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Gupta, S.M.; Kodagali, V.N.

    nodules are associated with the tektites which, although millions of years old, are invariably resting on recent sediments. Therefore, the mechanism that retains nodules at the seafloor also seems to be operative on the tektites, thus leading...

  10. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  11. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  12. Great Powers, National Interests, and Australian Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Australian Journal of Political Science 31, no.2 (July 1997): 169. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 22 March 2013). 331 Ann Capling, “Twenty...Australia in the Asia Pacific.” Australian Journal Of Political Science 32, no. 2 (July 1997): 169. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 22

  13. Australian Higher Education and the Relevance of Newman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Tony; Miller, Seumas

    1993-01-01

    John Henry Newman's conception of the university as a teaching institution in which the guiding concept is transmission of liberal knowledge is examined as it applies to the Australian context. The theory is seen as a useful starting point for developing a theory of the modern Australian university. (MSE)

  14. The Effect of Energy Srategy on Australian Economic Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    necessary for a green energy economy , a smart grid greatly improves the viability of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic...Australia’s energy economy to influence national policy. This paper examines the current Australian internal and external energy economies for...than many developed economies , while the expanding world energy market provides alternative customers if an Australian energy customer refused to

  15. What Do We Know about the Chancellors of Australian Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Bernard; Petzall, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    This research attempts to explore the key social characteristics and demographics of Australian chancellors to determine who they are and where they come from. The chancellor of an Australian university wields an enormous amount of power, from overseeing the appointment of the Vice-Chancellor (VC) to fulfilling various statutory requirements.…

  16. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  17. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  18. Educational Malpractice: American Trends and Implications for Australian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, P. W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Educational malpractice developments in America may affect legal accountability of Australian teachers and educational institutions. This paper discusses significant American cases and commentators' observations in the context of the Australian legal system. Teachers should embrace their widening legal responsibility in order to advance…

  19. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  20. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  1. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  2. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  3. The Teaching of First Year Economics in Australian Universities*

    OpenAIRE

    Nilss Olekalns

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys current pedagogical practice in the teaching of introductory macroeconomics and microeconomics in Australian universities. Survey results are presented detailing lecturers’ approaches to their teaching over 2001 and other aspects of their teaching environment. A comparison of the content and methodology of the main textbooks used in Australian introductory economic courses is also presented.

  4. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  5. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  6. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  7. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  8. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  9. The Truth That Will Set Us All Free: An Uncertain History of Memorials to Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aborigines and other Australians have not met with amity. Memorials to the Aboriginal people of Australia are not common and some of the more prominent are regularly damaged. Eddies of past tempests slap disturbingly at modern day memorials thousands of kilometres and several generations removed from the eye of furious storms. This article traces a difficult story of what seems at first sight to be blind racism, at a second sight, a rampant colonialism, and at a more reflective third, perhaps, the economy of the pastoralist and the farmer in deadly disharmony to that of the hunter gatherer. Whatever the origins, the consequences of conflict endure for centuries.

  10. Which values regarding nature and other species are we promoting in the Australian science curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano Rodriguez, Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Through a critical textual analysis of the content and structure of the new Australian science curriculum, in this paper I identify the values it encourages and those that are absent. I investigate whether the Australian science curriculum is likely to promote the attitudes needed to educate generations of children who act more responsibly with other species and the environment. Over the past decades, there has been an increasing awareness of the human impact on the environment and other species. Consistently, there is a growing awareness of the role of education in encouraging children to act in a more ethical, responsible, and caring way. However, it is still unclear as to whether national curricula can (or will aspire to) accomplish this. In Australia, a national science curriculum has been implemented. In this paper I argue that the Australian science curriculum is likely to miss the opportunity to cultivate values of care for nature and other species. Instead, it is likely to reinforce anthropocentric attitudes toward our natural environment. The importance of explicitly promoting values that encourage care and respect for all species and challenges anthropocentric views of other animals and nature are discussed.

  11. Assessing the Prison Experience for Australian First Peoples: A Prospective Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rynne

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Australian First Peoples hyperincarceration is concomitant with the trauma of historical and contemporary colonisation in perpetuating social dysfunction. Ongoing colonisation has been sustained by research that does not respect First Peoples epistemology, axiology, and ontology. Given this, the impact of prison quality and the potential association with First Peoples imprisonment and recidivism has been inadequately researched. Therefore there is a need to examine prison quality as experienced by Australian First Peoples. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise a decolonising prison quality research method that is respectful of and culturally sensitive to Australian First Peoples. The proposed method interfaces First Peoples yarning with Appreciative Inquiry. Underpinning the proposed method is that all researchers, First Peoples or non-Indigenous, are attuned to cultural awareness and sensitive to the engagement process. When yarning is interfaced with Appreciative Inquiry and the latter is modified in consultation with First Peoples input, the proposed research method empowers research participants, potentially contributing to de-colonisation.

  12. Potential effectiveness of specific anti-smoking mass media advertisements among Australian Indigenous smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S; Bowden, Jacqueline A; Bayly, Megan C; Sharplin, Greg R; Durkin, Sarah J; Miller, Caroline L; Givans, Sharon E; Warne, Charles D; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-12-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156 non-Indigenous smokers from South Australia were shown 10 anti-smoking advertisements representing a range of advertisements typically aired in Australia. Participants rated advertisements on a five-point Likert scale assessing factors including message acceptance and personalized effectiveness. On average, Indigenous people rated the mainstream advertisements higher than non-Indigenous people and were more likely to report that they provided new information. Advertisements with strong graphic imagery depicting the health effects of smoking were rated highest by Indigenous smokers. Advertisements featuring real people describing the serious health consequences of smoking received mixed responses. Those featuring an ill person were rated higher by Indigenous people than those featuring the family of the person affected by a smoking-related disease. With limited Indigenous-specific messages available and given the finite resources of most public health campaigns, exposure to mainstream strong graphic and emotive first-person narratives about the health effects of smoking are likely to be highly motivating for Indigenous smokers.

  13. Which values regarding nature and other species are we promoting in the Australian science curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano Rodriguez, Carolina

    2015-08-01

    Through a critical textual analysis of the content and structure of the new Australian science curriculum, in this paper I identify the values it encourages and those that are absent. I investigate whether the Australian science curriculum is likely to promote the attitudes needed to educate generations of children who act more responsibly with other species and the environment. Over the past decades, there has been an increasing awareness of the human impact on the environment and other species. Consistently, there is a growing awareness of the role of education in encouraging children to act in a more ethical, responsible, and caring way. However, it is still unclear as to whether national curricula can (or will aspire to) accomplish this. In Australia, a national science curriculum has been implemented. In this paper I argue that the Australian science curriculum is likely to miss the opportunity to cultivate values of care for nature and other species. Instead, it is likely to reinforce anthropocentric attitudes toward our natural environment. The importance of explicitly promoting values that encourage care and respect for all species and challenges anthropocentric views of other animals and nature are discussed.

  14. Conservation Status of the Australian Humpback Dolphin (Sousa sahulensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) were recently described as a new species endemic to northern Australia and potentially southern New Guinea. We assessed the species conservation status against IUCN Red List Criteria using available information on their biology, ecology and threatening processes. Knowledge of population sizes and trends across the species range is lacking. Recent genetic studies indicate Australian humpback dolphins live in small and relatively isolated populations with limited gene flow among them. The available abundance estimates range from 14 to 207 individuals and no population studied to date is estimated to contain more than 104 mature individuals. The Potential Biological Removal method indicates populations are vulnerable to even low rates of anthropogenic mortality. Habitat degradation and loss is ongoing and expected to increase across the species range in Australia, and a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is anticipated. Considering the available evidence and following a precautionary approach, we considered this species as Vulnerable under IUCN criterion C2a(i) because the total number of mature individuals is plausibly fewer than 10,000, an inferred continuing decline due to cumulative impacts, and each of the populations studied to date is estimated to contain fewer than 1000 mature individuals. Ongoing research efforts and recently developed research strategies and priorities will provide valuable information towards the future conservation and management of Australian humpback dolphins.

  15. An ecological approach to health promotion in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2010-03-01

    Poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities are a symptom of a disjuncture in the cultures of a disadvantaged (and only relatively recently enfranchised) minority population and a proportionally large, wealthy dominant immigrant population, problematic social policies and the legacy of colonialism. Developing effective health promotion interventions in this environment is a challenge. Taking an ecological approach, the objective of this study was to identify the key social, economic, cultural and environmental factors that contribute to poor hygiene in remote Aboriginal communities, and to determine approaches that will improve hygiene and reduce the burden of infection among children. The methods included a mix of quantitative and qualitative community-based studies and literature reviews. Study findings showed that a combination of crowding, non-functioning health hardware and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children. Also, models of health promotion drawn from developed and developing countries can be adapted for use in remote Australian Aboriginal community contexts. High levels of disadvantage in relation to social determinants of health underlie the problem of poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Measures need to be taken to address the immediate problems that impact on children's health-for example, by ensuring the availability of functional and adequate water and sanitation facilities-but these interventions are unlikely to have a major effect unless the underlying issues are also addressed.

  16. Calibration and validation of FLFArs -- a new flood loss function for Australian residential structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh Nafari, R.; Ngo, T.; Lehman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanisation, climate change and unsustainable developments are increasing the risk of floods. Flood is a frequent natural hazard that has significant financial consequences for Australia. The emergency response system in Australia is very successful and has saved many lives over the years. However, the preparedness for natural disaster impacts in terms of loss reduction and damage mitigation has been less successful. In this paper, a newly derived flood loss function for Australian residential structures (FLFArs) has been presented and calibrated by using historic data collected from an extreme event in Queensland, Australia, that occurred in 2013. Afterwards, the performance of the method developed in this work (contrasted to one Australian model and one model from USA) has been compared with the observed damage data collected from a 2012 flood event in Maranoa, Queensland. Based on this analysis, validation of the selected methodologies has been performed in terms of Australian geographical conditions. Results obtained from the new empirically based function (FLFArs) and the other models indicate that it is apparent that the precision of flood damage models is strongly dependent on selected stage damage curves, and flood damage estimation without model calibration might result in inaccurate predictions of losses. Therefore, it is very important to be aware of the associated uncertainties in flood risk assessment, especially if models have not been calibrated with real damage data.

  17. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  18. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  19. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  20. Building the Clinical Bridge: An Australian Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Wallis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin’s model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  1. Halictine social evolution: the Australian enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerer, G; Schwarz, M

    1976-10-22

    Australian halictines belong to the primitive genus Lasioglossum or related subgenera. The underground nests have lined cells in series or clusters and sometimes at the end of laterals. Two full generations per year are produced in the communal nests. Overwintered and newly emerged females form unique "pseudosocieties" rather than matrifilial societies along Holarctic patterns. Several Chilalictus species produce a "male caste" of big-headed, flightless males, in addition to normal individuals. Oviposition of unfertilized eggs on large pollen balls causes such allometric bees.

  2. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  3. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Nunan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated for distance education in university teaching and learning in Australia.

  4. Ciguatera: Australian perspectives on a global problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera is a global disease caused by the consumption of certain warm-water fish that have accumulated orally effective levels of sodium channel activator toxins (ciguatoxins) through the marine food chain. Symptoms of ciguatera arising from the consumption of ciguateric fish include a range of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. This review examines progress in our understanding of ciguatera from an Australian perspective, especially the laboratory-based research into the problem that was initiated by the late "Bob" Endean at the University of Queensland.

  5. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  6. Teaching evolution in the Australian classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozzo, Les

    A summary of the key issues of controversy encountered by science teachers in Australian classrooms. Evolution, cloning and gene manipulation, fertility control, artificial intelligence, irradiation of food, the use of nuclear energy, radiation from powerlines are some of the topics discussed and debated in classrooms. What are some of the difficulties encountered by teachers when students ask questions that raise moral dilemmas and challenges entrenched beliefs and views of the world. What are some of the teaching strategies used that deal with these difficulties.

  7. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  8. “Unwell while Aboriginal”: iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people. PMID:27313485

  9. Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport: The Perils of the ‘Panacea’ Proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Evans

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The argument that participation in sport among disadvantaged populations can produce positive outcomes in wide range of areas has been a consistent theme in academic literature. It is argued that sport participation can promote women’s empowerment, sexuality, lifestyle, peacemaking, youth development, poverty reduction and conflict resolution. Similarly, in Australia, participation in sport among Indigenous Australians has been proffered as a ‘panacea’ for many Indigenous problems; from promoting better health and education outcomes, to encouraging community building, good citizenship and entrepreneurship. Parallel to this has been a focus on documenting and analysing sport participation among Indigenous Australians in elite sport which often concludes that Indigenous Australians have an innate and ‘natural ability’ in sports. These two assumptions, first, that sport participation can help realise a wide range of positive social outcomes; and second, that Indigenous Australians are natural athletes, have driven significant public investment in numerous sport focused programs. This paper questions these assumptions and outlines some of the challenges inherent with an emphasis on sport as a solution to Indigenous disadvantage. We highlight how participation in sport has often been tied to ambitious, ill-defined and, in terms of evaluation, often elusive social outcome goals. Second, we also argue that there is limited research to indicate that participation in either elite or grassroots level sport has led to any discernible social progress in addressing inequality. We contrast historical Indigenous participation in a range of sporting codes to demonstrate the influence of factors beyond the ‘natural ability’ and ‘born to play’ propositions. Finally, we outline six ‘perils’ associated with viewing sport as a panacea; including how privileging sport can not only perpetuate disadvantage by reinforcing stereotypes and also

  10. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods: A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion: Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion: Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services

  11. Basaltic glass formed from hydrovolcanism and impact processes: Characterization and clues for detection of mode of origin from VNIR through MWIR reflectance and emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, W. H.; Wright, S. P.; Rogers, A. D.; Glotch, T. D.

    2016-09-01

    The CheMin X-ray diffraction instrument on-board the Curiosity rover in Gale crater has measured a consistent X-ray amorphous component in drill core samples examined to-date, clearly demonstrating that X-ray amorphous materials are a significant fraction of the martian surface layer. Glasses are potential components of this amorphous material and in this study, basaltic tephras from several hydro- and glaciovolcanic centers, as well as impact melts from India's Lonar Crater, were examined using thin section petrography, visible and near-infrared reflectance and mid-wave infrared emission spectroscopy as well as measuring major and minor element chemistry of representative samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The objectives of this study have been to look for distinguishing characteristics between volcanic and impact glasses and to determine features that indicate whether the glasses are fresh or altered using methods available on current and planned Mars rovers. Spectral features in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) that can be used as indicators of alteration include the development of hydration features at 1.9 and ∼3 μm and a feature attributed to ferric oxide development at 0.48 μm. In the mid-wave infrared, it was observed that glass-rich tephra field samples did not display a broad, disordered glass feature near 9-10 μm (as is observed in pristine basaltic glasses) but rather a doublet with centers near 9.5 and 11 μm attributed in earlier work to incipient devitrification into SiO4 chain and sheet structures respectively. A tentative observation was made that the Si-O bending feature, observed in all the sample spectra near 22 μm was broader in the hydro- and glaciovolcanic glass samples than in the impact glass samples. Hydro- and glaciovolcanic glass-rich tephra samples were used as library spectra in linear deconvolution analyses of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS TES) surface spectral types. These

  12. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

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    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  13. Phylogenetic analyses place the Australian monotypic Revwattsia in Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Meghan; Sundue, Michael; Barrington, David S

    2012-01-01

    Revwattsia fragilis (Watts) D.L. Jones (Dryopteridaceae), originally described as a Polystichum Roth by the pioneer Australian botanist Reverend W.W. Watts in 1914, is a rare epiphytic fern endemic to northeastern Queensland, Australia. Known from only a few populations, it is restricted to tropical rainforests in the Atherton Tablelands. We used the cpDNA markers psbA-trnH, rbcL, rbcL-accD, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF, and trnP-petG to infer the relationships of Revwattsia fragilis within Dryopteridaceae. Based on our molecular analysis, we were able to reject Watts's 1914 hypothesis of a close relationship to Polystichum. Its closest allies are a suite of Asian Dryopteris Adans. species including Dryopteris labordei, Dryopteris gymnosora, Dryopteris erythrosora and Dryopteris cystolepidota; maintaining Revwattsia renders Dryopteris paraphyletic. The epiphytic habit and distinctive long-creeping rhizome of Revwattsia appear to be autapomorphies and do not warrant its generic status. In the course of our investigation we confirmed that polyphyly of Dryopteris is also sustained by the inclusion of Acrorumohra (H.Itô) H.Itô, Acrophorus C.Presl, Arachniodes Blume, Diacalpe Blume, Dryopsis Holttum & P.J.Edwards, and Peranema D.Don. The epithet fragilis is occupied in Dryopteris, therefore we provide the name Dryopteris wattsiinom. nov. to accommodate Revwattsia fragilis in Dryopteris.

  14. Phylogenetic analyses place the Australian monotypic Revwattsia in Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan McKeown

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Revwattsia fragilis (Watts D.L. Jones (Dryopteridaceae, originally described as a Polystichum Roth by the pioneer Australian botanist Reverend W.W. Watts in 1914, is a rare epiphytic fern endemic to northeastern Queensland, Australia. Known from only a few populations, it is restricted to tropical rainforests in the Atherton Tablelands. We used the cpDNA markers psbA-trnH, rbcL, rbcL-accD, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF, and trnP-petG to infer the relationships of Revwattsia fragilis within Dryopteridaceae. Based on our molecular analysis, we were able to reject Watts’s 1914 hypothesis of a close relationship to Polystichum. Its closest allies are a suite of Asian Dryopteris Adans. species including D. labordei, D. gymnosora, D. erythrosora and D. cystolepidota; maintaining Revwattsia renders Dryopteris paraphyletic. The epiphytic habit and distinctive long-creeping rhizome of Revwattsia appear to be autapomorphies and do not warrant its generic status. In the course of our investigation we confirmed that polyphyly of Dryopteris is also sustained by the inclusion of Acrorumohra (H.ItôH.Itô, Acrophorus C.Presl, Arachniodes Blume, Diacalpe Blume, Dryopsis Holttum & P.J.Edwards, and Peranema D.Don. The epithet fragilis is occupied in Dryopteris, therefore we provide the name Dryopteris wattsii nom. nov. to accommodate R. fragilis in Dryopteris.

  15. Human artificial insemination by donor and the Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, G

    1985-03-01

    Findings from a national sample of 989 persons and an 'Opinion Leader' survey of 279 executive and ordinary members of 40 organizations identified as having an interest in AID showed that Australians overall approved of the procedure for helping infertile married couples, only 17% of the national sample unequivocally disapproving. Key variables in determining opinions on AID included age, education, country of origin, family status, religion and exposure to infertility. However only 15% of national respondents accepted that AID should be made available to any unmarried women on request although opinions were more evenly spread on its provision to unmarried women in a long-term relationship with a man. Over one-third of 'Opinion Leaders' believed that children should never be told of their AID conception, 13% that they should be given identifying and one third non-identifying information on the donor. A majority believed that AID should be directly carried out or supervised by doctors in hospital clinics. There was strong opposition to business or voluntary organization involvement. Suggestions for changes in the law, while emphasizing protection of donors, recipients, children, persons who ran AID programs and control over futuristic research activities, often showed a misunderstanding of the legal process. The major reasons for exclusion of donors were genetic defects and medical problems although many behavioural characteristics were mentioned. Views on recipients' rights to choose the sex of the AID child were marginally against the proposition.

  16. Muddy and dolomitic rip-up clasts in Triassic fluvial sandstones: Origin and impact on potential reservoir properties (Argana Basin, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henares, Saturnina; Arribas, Jose; Cultrone, Giuseppe; Viseras, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    The significance of rip-up clasts as sandstone framework grains is frequently neglected in the literature being considered as accessory components in bulk sandstone composition. However, this study highlights the great value of muddy and dolomitic rip-up clast occurrence as: (a) information source about low preservation potential from floodplain deposits and (b) key element controlling host sandstone diagenetic evolution and thus ultimate reservoir quality. High-resolution petrographic analysis on Triassic fluvial sandstones from Argana Basin (T6 and T7/T8 units) highlights the significance of different types of rip-up clasts as intrabasinal framework components of continental sediments from arid climates. On the basis of their composition and ductility, three main types are distinguished: (a) muddy rip-up clasts, (b) dolomitic muddy rip-up clasts and (c) dolomite crystalline rip-up clasts. Spatial distribution of different types is strongly facies-related according to grain size. Origin of rip-up clasts is related to erosion of coeval phreatic dolocretes, in different development stages, and associated muddy floodplain sediments. Cloudy cores with abundant inclusions and clear outer rims of dolomite crystals suggest a first replacive and a subsequent displacive growth, respectively. Dolomite crystals are almost stoichiometric. This composition is very similar to that of early sandstone dolomite cement, supporting phreatic dolocretes as dolomite origin in both situations. Sandstone diagenesis is dominated by mechanical compaction and dolomite cementation. A direct correlation exists between: (1) muddy rip-up clast abundance and early reduction of primary porosity by compaction with irreversible loss of intergranular volume (IGV); and (2) occurrence of dolomitic rip-up clasts and dolomite cement nucleation in host sandstone, occluding adjacent pores but preserving IGV. Both processes affect reservoir quality by generation of vertical and 3D fluid flow baffles and

  17. The impact of updated Zr neutron-capture cross sections and new asymptotic giant branch models on our understanding of the s process and the origin of stardust

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, Maria; Karakas, Amanda I; Milazzo, Paolo M; Kaeppeler, Franz; Davis, Andrew M; Savina, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    We present model predictions for the Zr isotopic ratios produced by slow neutron captures in C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of masses 1.25 to 4 Msun and metallicities Z=0.01 to 0.03, and compare them to data from single meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) and high-density graphite grains that condensed in the outflows of these stars. We compare predictions produced using the Zr neutron-capture cross section from Bao et al. (2000) and from n_TOF experiments at CERN, and present a new evaluation for the neutron-capture cross section of the unstable isotope 95Zr, the branching point leading to the production of 96Zr. The new cross sections generally presents an improved match with the observational data, except for the 92Zr/94Zr ratios, which are on average still substantially higher than predicted. The 96Zr/94Zr ratios can be explained using our range of initial stellar masses, with the most 96Zr-depleted grains originating from AGB stars of masses 1.8 - 3 Msun, and the others from either lowe...

  18. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

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    Ng Shu-Kay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  19. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis.

  20. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

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    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  1. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Day, Carolyn; Gilmour, Stuart; Hall, Wayne

    2006-05-02

    Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  2. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage"

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    Gilmour Stuart

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  3. "Open Relationships, De-Facto Marriages, or Shotgun Weddings?": The Convergence and Integration of Libraries and Computing/Information Technology Services within Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Identifies issues involved with the convergence and/or integration of library, computing, and information technology services in Australian universities. Investigates the impacts of integration of services on university libraries and their clients and recommends strategies for the successful management of convergence and integration involving…

  4. Geophysical and structural criteria for the identification of buried impact structures, with reference to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew; Uysal, I. Tonguç

    2013-10-01

    The discovery of large asteroid impact structures, likely and possible impact structures, onshore and offshore the Australian continent (Woodleigh [120 km; ~ 360 Ma], Gnargoo [75 km; Lower Permian — upper Cretaceous], Tookoonooka [55-65 km; ~ 125 Ma], Talundilly [~ 84 km; ~ 125 Ma], Mount Ashmore [> 100 km; end-Eocene] and Warburton twin structures [> 400 km; pre-end Carboniferous]) requires re-examination of the diagnostic criteria used for their identification. Bouguer anomalies of established impact structures (Chicxulub [170 km; 64.98 ± 0.05 Ma], Woodleigh impact structure and Gnargoo probable impact structure display a unique structural architecture where pre-impact structural ridges are intersected and truncated by the outer ring of the circular structure. Seismic reflection data outline circular central uplift domes, basement plugs and rim synclines. Sharp circular seismic tomography anomalies indicate low velocity columns under both the Woodleigh impact structure and Warburton probable impact, hinting at deep crustal fracturing. Deformed, curved and clouded intra-crystalline planar deformation features in quartz (Qz/PDFs), displaying Miller indices ({10-11}, {10-12}, {10-13}) diagnostic of shock metamorphism, abound around exposed established impact structures (Vredefort [298 km; 2023 ± 4 Ma], Sudbury [~ 250 km; 1850 ± 3 Ma], Charlevoix [54 km; 342 ± 15 Ma], Manicouagan [100 km; 214 ± 1 Ma]), Tookoonooka and Talundilly). Deformed Qz/PDFs allow recognition of shock metamorphism in buried impact structures, where original Qz/PDFs were bent, recrystallized and/or clouded during formation of the central uplift and hydrothermal activity triggered by the impact. Planar deformation in quartz can also occur in explosive pyroclastic units but are limited to Boehm lamella (Brazil twins) with single lamella sets {0001}. It has been suggested that a class of microstructures in quartz, referred to as metamorphic deformation lamella (Qz/MDL), occur in endogenic

  5. Renewable energy integration into the Australian National Electricity Market: Characterising the energy value of wind and solar generation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Boerema; Merlinde Kay; Iain MacGill

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how key characteristics of the underlying wind and solar resources may impact on their energy value within the Australian National Electricity Market(NEM). Analysis has been performed for wind generation using half hour NEM data for South Australia over the 2008-9 financial year. The potential integration of large scale solar generation has been modelled using direct normal solar radiant energy measurements from the Bureau of Meteorology for six sites across the NEM. For w...

  6. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  7. The impact of updated Zr neutron-capture cross sections and new asymptotic giant branch models on our understanding of the S process and the origin of stardust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Tagliente, Giuseppe [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Bari (Italy); Karakas, Amanda I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Milazzo, Paolo M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Käppeler, Franz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Davis, Andrew M. [The Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Savina, Michael R., E-mail: maria.lugaro@monash.edu, E-mail: giuseppe.tagliente@ba.infn.it, E-mail: amanda.karakas@anu.edu.au, E-mail: paolo.milazzo@ts.infn.it, E-mail: franz.kaeppeler@kit.edu, E-mail: a-davis@uchicago.edu, E-mail: msavina@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present model predictions for the Zr isotopic ratios produced by slow neutron captures in C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of masses 1.25-4 M {sub ☉} and metallicities Z = 0.01-0.03, and compare them to data from single meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) and high-density graphite grains that condensed in the outflows of these stars. We compare predictions produced using the Zr neutron-capture cross sections from Bao et al. and from n{sub T}OF experiments at CERN, and present a new evaluation for the neutron-capture cross section of the unstable isotope {sup 95}Zr, the branching point leading to the production of {sup 96}Zr. The new cross sections generally present an improved match with the observational data, except for the {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr ratios, which are on average still substantially higher than predicted. The {sup 96}Zr/{sup 94}Zr ratios can be explained using our range of initial stellar masses, with the most {sup 96}Zr-depleted grains originating from AGB stars of masses 1.8-3 M {sub ☉} and the others from either lower or higher masses. The {sup 90,} {sup 91}Zr/{sup 94}Zr variations measured in the grains are well reproduced by the range of stellar metallicities considered here, which is the same needed to cover the Si composition of the grains produced by the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr versus {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si positive correlation observed in the available data suggests that stellar metallicity rather than rotation plays the major role in covering the {sup 90,} {sup 91,} {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr spread.

  8. Slovenia as a locale in contemporary Australian verse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the writer Patrick White had worked on his novels for a short while also at Lake Bled in Slovenia at Hotel "Toplice", just like Agatha Christie did at Lake Bohinj, Slovenia has only recently come to feature in mainstream Australian literature, more precisely in contemporary Australian poetry. It should be stressed that Slovenia is thus no longer present only in Slovene migrant poetry written in Australia as has so far been the case: it entered the major contemporary Australian anthologies. This testifies to the fact that Slovenia no longer belongs to the uncharted part of Central Europe on the geographical and consequently also on the Australian literary map. Rather than that Slovenia increasingly makes part of an average Australian 'Grand Tour' travel itinerary in Europe; it has thus become present in the Australian cultural consciousness. In this light two recent Australian poems with Slovenia as a literary locale are discussed, Andrew Taylor's "Morning in Ljubljana" I and Susan Hampton's poem "Yugoslav Story".

  9. Original article The Me and My Disease Scale: measuring state hope and determining its impact on coping in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties, factor structure, measurement invariance, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Me and My Disease Scale – a tool for state hope measurement for adults suffering from chronic medical conditions. Participants and procedure Two clinical groups, patients with type 2 diabetes (DM (n = 278 just before and 1 month after introducing insulin treatment, and cardiac patients (n = 232 five days and one month after their first uncomplicated myocardial infarction (MI, participated in the study. Cognitive appraisal, emotions and depression (MI group were measured to establish the construct validity of the scale. Results A single-factor model which consisted of 4 items was established. The structure was characterized by good measurement model fit and satisfactory indicators of reliability for the MI subgroup. A less satisfactory model fit was obtained for the DM subgroup – this may point to the impact of specific medical conditions on the scale. Furthermore, the findings indicated metric invariance for the scale. The moderate correlations between hope and cognitive appraisal, emotion and depression confirm the construct validity of the scale. Conclusions The Me and My Disease Scale is characterized by satisfactory psychometric parameters and can be used in scientific research to measure hope as a dimension of cognition and to compare the relationships between hope and other variables in medical patients. However, caution should be taken during analysis when comparing means between clinical groups.

  10. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  11. Environmentally adjusted productivity measurement: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanere, Marthin; Fraser, Iain; Quazi, Ali; D'Souza, Clare

    2007-10-01

    This paper critically examines various methods for estimating productivity incorporating environmental effects for the Australian agricultural sector. The agricultural sector has been selected because of its strategic position in the economy of Australia. The findings of this study indicate that the application of environmentally adjusted productivity methods is a credible approach to measure productivity, in the context of sustainable development. Although the empirical findings of this research are case study specific, the results provide evidence supporting the adoption of these techniques to other sectors of the economy when measuring productivity and needing to be cognisant of sustainable development. The findings suggest that adjusting for the environmental impacts of soil erosion can result in higher or lower agricultural productivity depending on the assumptions we make regarding damage costs of erosion. It is argued in this paper that, for soil erosion in Australia, assumptions yielding higher productivity (i.e., upwardly adjusted) are justified. Finally, the findings of this study and the use of the methods presented point to important gaps in data availability. This gap needs to be addressed by policy makers if sustainable development objectives are to be credibly assessed using these techniques.

  12. Australian immunisation registers: established foundations and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, L K; Crawford, N W; Rowles, G; Buttery, J P

    2012-04-19

    The National Immunisation Program Schedule in Australia is formulated and funded nationally under the population-wide Medicare system. The policy is implemented by the eight state and territory jurisdictions. The national immunisation registers consist of the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR), and, more recently, the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. Moreover, a variety of jurisdiction-based registers and primary care practice software systems exist, which interact with the national registers. General practitioners can obtain reports listing patients under seven years attending their practice and recorded as 'not fully immunised', and immunisation coverage rates for their practice linked to government incentives through Medicare. A 2011 report documents national coverage of 91.8% fully immunised at 12 months, and 92.6% at 24 months. The HPV register provides information on vaccination coverage with the potential to link with a register of cervical cancer screening results. Limitations of current national register include inability to easily access immunisation histories beyond seven years of age, and issues of underreporting and timeliness, which impact significantly the immunisation coverage estimates. The linkage of these registers with healthcare outcome data will further enhance public health outcomes by enabling rapid, population-level vaccine safety and effectiveness investigations in a nation with a track record as an 'early adopter' of new childhood vaccines.

  13. Regional variation in social isolation amongst older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Beer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional studies globally has a strong focus on understanding the causes of variation in the economic performance and well-being of regions and this emphasis acknowledges that the strength of the local or regional economy plays a determinant role in shaping quality of life. Regional research has been less active in considering spatial variation in other factors that are critical to individual and societal well-being. For example, the regional studies community has been absent from the debate on the social determinants of health and how these influences vary spatially. This paper considers the results of a cross-sectional survey of Australians aged 65 years and over that focused on social connections and well-being. It examines regional variations in the incidence of social isolation within the older population. It finds that while the incidence of self-reported social isolation amongst older persons is broadly consistent with earlier studies, it demonstrates a spatial patterning that is unexpected. The paper considers community-building activities in addressing the impacts of social isolation, including the role of urban design, and suggests that there is a need to supplement the national overview presented there through more detailed studies focused on individual localities.

  14. Australian children's views about food advertising on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday

    2010-08-01

    This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers.

  15. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Aridification drove repeated episodes of diversification between Australian biomes: evidence from a multi-locus phylogeny of Australian toadlets (Uperoleia: Myobatrachidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catullo, Renee A; Scott Keogh, J

    2014-10-01

    Australia is a large and complex landmass that comprises diverse biomes ranging from tropical rainforests to harsh deserts. While Australian biotic diversity has evolved in response to landscape and climate changes, evidence of Miocene or later biome shifts are few. The Australo-Papuan endemic frog genus Uperoleia is widely distributed across mesic, monsoonal tropic and arid regions of Australia. Thus, it represents an ideal system to evaluate biome shifts as they relate to known landscape and climate history. We comprehensively sampled the distributional range of 25 described Uperoleia species and generated a detailed molecular phylogeny for the genus based on one mitochondrial and five nuclear loci. Our results support a single origin of monsoonal tropic taxa, followed by diversification within the region under the influence of the Australian monsoon. Molecular dating analyses suggest the major divergence between eastern mesic and monsoonal species occurred in the Miocene approximately 17million years ago, with repeated evolution of species from monsoonal biomes to arid or mesic biomes in the later Miocene, early Pliocene and at the beginning of the Pleistocene. Our detailed sampling helps to clarify the true distributions of species and contributes to on-going work to improve the taxonomy of the genus. Topological differences between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies within major clades suggest a history of mitochondrial introgression and capture, and reduce the ability to resolve close interspecific relationships.

  17. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  18. More Accounts of Meteoritic Events in the Oral Traditions of Indigenous Australians

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of natural events, such as fireballs and meteorite impacts, are found within Indigenous Australian oral traditions. Studies of oral traditions demonstrate that they extend beyond the realm of myth and legend; they contain structured knowledge about the natural world (science) as well as historic accounts of natural events and geo-hazards. These traditions could lead to the discovery of meteorites and impact sites previously unknown to Western science. In addition to benefiting the scientific study of meteoritics, this study can help social scientists better understand the nature and longevity of oral traditions and further support the growing body of evidence that oral traditions contain historical accounts of natural events. In a previous study led by the author in 2009, no meteorite-related oral traditions were identified that led to the discovery of meteorites and/or impact craters. This paper challenges those initial findings.

  19. Social Origin and Graduation Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960–1975. These are cohorts for whom university...

  20. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  1. The Australian experiment with ETS-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Hase, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    Land-mobile satellite propagation measurements were implemented at L Band (1.5 GHz) in South-Eastern Australia during an 11 day period in October 1988. Transmissions (CW) from both the Japanese ETS-5 and INMARSAT Pacific geostationary satellites were accessed. Previous measurements in this series were performed at both L Band (1.5 GHz) and UHF (870 MHz) in Central Maryland, North-Central Colorado, and the southern United States. The objectives of the Australian campaign were to expand the data base acquired in the U.S. to another continent, to validate a U.S. derived empirical model for estimating the fade distribution, to establish the effects of directive antennas, to assess the isolation between co- and cross-polarized transmissions, to derive estimates of fade as well as non-fade durations, and to evaluate diversity reception. All these objectives were met.

  2. Australian Coral as a Biomaterial: Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to produce effective implants, the materials used must be biocompatible. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive material similar to the mineral component of teeth and bone which is often used for orbital implants and bone graft applications. HAp can be manufactured from corals via hydrothermal conversion. Coral is particularly useful as a starting material for hydroxyapatite production because of its porous nature. When a porous structure is used tissue ingrowth can occur readily and hence an excellent mechanical bond can be achieved. A large pore size and a high degree of pore interconnections are desirable implant properties. In the present paper a comparison of the properties of four different species of Australian coral has been made to determine the most favourable species to use as a starting material for hydrothermal conversion.

  3. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  4. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  5. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  6. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2016-12-24

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of samples from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 48.2% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 22.8% of samples, followed by G2P[4] and G1P[8] (9% and 8% respectively). G3P[8] was further divided as equine-like G3P[8] (13.2% of all strains) and other wild-type G3P[8] (9.6%). This report highlights the continued predominance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. Genotype distribution was distinct between jurisdictions using RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq, while equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] were more common in the states and territories using Rotarix. This survey highlights the dynamic change in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, including the emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] as a major strain. The prolonged dominance of G12P[8] for a 4th consecutive year further illustrates the unexpected trends in the wild type rotaviruses circulating in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  7. The Performance of Western Australian Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Tull; Fred Affleck

    2008-01-01

    <正>The aim of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the performance of Western Australia’s port authorities.The context for this research is the report released in February 2006 by Access Economics (A scorecard of the design of economic regulation of infrastructure) for the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development.This report was critical of the regime for economic regulation of Western Australia’s ports,and by implication of the potential quality and efficiency of service delivery to their principal stakeholders.However,a reading of the Access Economics report and supporting data suggests that its analysis takes no account of the regulatory frameworks for port authorities in Western Austral ia(WA) contained in the Port Authorities Act 1999(WA) and elsewhere,or of the actual economic and physical performance of WA port authorities.In the light of this apparently flawed analysis of the effectiveness of port regulation in WA,it is timely to review the performance of ports under the current governance structures,and to place the Access Economics report in a broader empirical performance-based context. While there is no regime for direct regulation of access to WA’s port infrastructure,it is argued that provisions in WA’s legislation governing the management of ports provide much of the focus,transparency and accountability required of an adequate regulatory framework.The current dominant Australian model of public ownership,with ports acting as strategic managers subject to statutory and governmental oversight,offers a viable alternative to complete privatisation and specialised regulatory controls.Efficient ports arguably can emerge from a variety of institutional frameworks-there is no single ownership or administrative structure that fits all circumstances.

  8. Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahra, Monica M; Enriquez, Rodney P

    2014-12-31

    In 2013, there were 143 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network (NNN). This was the lowest number of laboratory confirmed IMD cases referred to the NNN since the inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed IMD is notifiable in Australia. There were 149 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2013. Meningococcal serogrouping was determined for 139/143 laboratory confirmed IMD cases; 74.8% (104 cases) were serogroup B infections; 5.8% (8 cases) were serogroup C infections; 8.6% (12 cases) were serogroup W135; and 10.8% (15 cases) were serogroup Y. Primary and secondary disease peaks were observed, respectively, in those aged 4 years or less, and in adolescents (15-19 years). Serogroup B cases predominated in all jurisdictions and age groups, except for those aged 65 years or over where serogroup Y predominated. The overall proportion and number of IMD caused by serogroup B decreased from previous years. The number of cases of IMD caused by serogroup C was low, and has been proportionally stable over recent years. The number of IMD cases caused by W135 and Y serogroups was similar to previous years but the proportion has increased with the overall reduction in numbers of IMD cases. Molecular typing was performed on 92 of the 93 IMD isolates, and 23 of the 50 cases confirmed by nucleic acid amplification testing. In 2013, the most common porA genotype circulating in Australia was P1.7-2,4. All IMD isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone; ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin was observed in 78.5% of isolates.

  9. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Suzie

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. During the survey period of 1 January to 31 December 2014, 1,022 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 733 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 480 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 253 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 733 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 29.6% of strains nationally. Genotype G1P[8] was the 2nd most common strain nationally, representing 22.9% of samples, followed by genotype G3P[8] (14.9%). This report highlights the continued significance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G1P[8] being the dominant genotype (29%) followed by G12P[8] as the 2nd most common genotype (26%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G1P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. The continuation of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the dynamic and diversity present in the wild-type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  10. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals.

  11. Grazing impacts on the susceptibility of rangelands to wind erosion: The effects of stocking rate, stocking strategy and land condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubault, Hélène; Webb, Nicholas P.; Strong, Craig L.; McTainsh, Grant H.; Leys, John F.; Scanlan, Joe C.

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 110 Mt of dust is eroded by wind from the Australian land surface each year, most of which originates from the arid and semi-arid rangelands. Livestock production is thought to increase the susceptibility of the rangelands to wind erosion by reducing vegetation cover and modifying surface soil stability. However, research is yet to quantify the impacts of grazing land management on the erodibility of the Australian rangelands, or determine how these impacts vary among land types and over time. We present a simulation analysis that links a pasture growth and animal production model (GRASP) to the Australian Land Erodibility Model (AUSLEM) to evaluate the impacts of stocking rate, stocking strategy and land condition on the erodibility of four land types in western Queensland, Australia. Our results show that declining land condition, over stocking, and using inflexible stocking strategies have potential to increase land erodibility and amplify accelerated soil erosion. However, land erodibility responses to grazing are complex and influenced by land type sensitivities to different grazing strategies and local climate characteristics. Our simulations show that land types which are more resilient to livestock grazing tend to be least susceptible to accelerated wind erosion. Increases in land erodibility are found to occur most often during climatic transitions when vegetation cover is most sensitive to grazing pressure. However, grazing effects are limited during extreme wet and dry periods when the influence of climate on vegetation cover is strongest. Our research provides the opportunity to estimate the effects of different land management practices across a range of land types, and provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of accelerated erosion resulting from pastoral activities. The approach could help further assessment of land erodibility at a broader scale notably if combined with wind erosion models.

  12. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).

  13. Does Further Education in Adulthood Improve Physical and Mental Health among Australian Women? A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Tooth

    Full Text Available We analyzed whether further education in young adult and mid-life [adult educational mobility] influences physical functioning and depressive symptoms in women.14247 women born 1973-78 (younger cohort and 13715 women born 1946-51 (mid-aged cohort from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were followed for 14-16 years. Measures were the Short-Form 36 Health Survey physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF and Centre for Epidemiologic Studies 10-item Depression Scale (CESD-10. Linear mixed modelling, accounting for time varying covariates, assessed the influence of further education on physical functioning and depressive symptoms over time. Sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of missing data was conducted using multiple imputation.Compared to younger women with a pre-existing high level of education, women gaining further education (up to age 39 years from low levels had lower SF-36 PF scores (poorer physical functioning (fully adjusted beta estimates (95%CIs -1.52 (-2.59, -0.44 while those gaining further education from middle to high levels showed equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.08 (-0.61, 0.44. A similar pattern was shown for CESD-10 scores (0.78 (0.29, 1.25; -0.02 (-0.26, 0.21, respectively where higher scores represented more depressive symptoms. For mid-age women, further education from a middle to high level resulted in equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.61 (-1.93,0.71 but higher CESD-10 scores (0.49 (0.11, 0.86, compared to highly educated women.Women who delay further education until they are aged between their 40s and 60s can improve or maintain their physical functioning but may have missed the critical time to minimise depressive symptomatology. Public health policy should focus on encouraging women to upgrade their educational qualifications earlier in life in order to potentially offset the negative associations between their initial lower socio-economic position class of origin and their mental health.

  14. A new method for extracting the ENSO-independent Indian Ocean Dipole: application to Australian region tropical cyclone counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Angelika; Maharaj, Angela M. [Macquarie University, Department of Environment and Geography, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Holbrook, Neil J. [University of Tasmania, School of Geography and Environmental Studies, Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    We introduce a simple but effective means of removing ENSO-related variations from the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in order to better evaluate the ENSO-independent IOD contribution to Australian climate - specifically here interannual variations in Australian region tropical cyclogensis (TCG) counts. The ENSO time contribution is removed from the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode index (DMI) by first calculating the lagged regression of the DMI on the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) index NINO3.4 to maximum lags of 8 months, and then removing this ENSO portion. The new ENSO-independent time series, DMI{sub NOENSO}, correlates strongly with the original DMI at r = 0.87 (significant at >99% level). Despite the strength of the correlation between these series, the IOD events classified based on DMI{sub NOENSO} provide important differences from previously identified IOD events, which are more closely aligned with ENSO phases. IOD event composite maps of SSTAs regressed on DMI{sub NOENSO} reveal a much greater ENSO-independence than the original DMI-related SSTA pattern. This approach is used to explore relationships between Australian region TCG and IOD from 1968 to 2007. While we show that both the DMI and DMI{sub NOENSO} have significant hindcast skill (on the 95% level) when used as predictors in a multiple linear regression model for Australian region annual TCG counts, the IOD does not add any significant hindcast skill over an ENSO-only predictor model, based on NINO4. Correlations between the time series of annual TCG count observations and ENSO + IOD model cross-validated hindcasts achieve r = 0.68 (significant at the 99% level). (orig.)

  15. Eastern Australian Coastal Behaviour in Response to Extreme Storm Climate Between 1600-1900 AD, Determined from a Coupled Climate Reconstruction and Coastal Morphodynamic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, I. D.; Browning, S. A.; Mortlock, T.

    2014-12-01

    A sustained morphodynamic reorganisation of the east Australian coast occurred over a large latitudinal gradient from subtropical Queensland (S 25°) to mid-latitude Bass Strait (S 40°) between ~1600 to 1900 CE. These changes indicate that a large-scale shift in the modal climate occurred together with changes in extreme storm frequency or clustering of East Coast Cyclones (ECC), when compared to the past century. ECC are complex subtropical weather systems that form off the east coast of Australia and/or travel parallel to the coast of Australia from south-east Queensland to Victoria. We investigate coastal evolution and the associated climate drivers using a novel combination of methods, including: LIDAR DEM and field mapping of coastal geology; a decadal-scale climate reconstruction of sea-level pressure, marine windfields, and paleo-storm synoptic type and frequency, using a paleoclimate data assimilation approach; together with wave transformation and coastal planform modelling for paleo-wave directions, and historical bathymetry. We present the morphodynamic response to changes in directional wave power, by linking the paleo-windfield reconstruction to wave transformation models. The combined methodology has illuminated the 'ultimate' storm impacts not seen in the past century, and defines the multi-decadal coastal system response and recovery to extreme storm sequences. Increased embaymentisation and anticlockwise rotation of embayed and barrier coast planform geometry; shifts in barrier-estuary-inlet configuration; and a ubiquitous foredune transgression, are shown to have occurred between ~1600 to 1800 CE. This was in response to a poleward shift in the subtropics and frequency of tradewind-driven wave climate, and tropical-origin storms. From 1800 to 1900 CE, an equatorward shift in the subtropics, and clustering of extratropical-origin storms drove an increase in the shoreface-littoral sediment budget and a clockwise coastline progradation. This

  16. Structural impediments to TQM in Australian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, P; Carnegie, M

    1995-01-01

    The culture of quality called for by total quality management (TQM) has much to recommend it. Australian experience, however, suggests that it is not something that can easily be added to the profession-based structures and cultures prevailing in most Australian hospitals. Implementing TQM is not just a matter of advocating it. The institutional transformation implied by TQM requires additional action on multiple fronts, both internal and external to the hospital.

  17. Measures of Buyer Concentration in the Australian Wool Market

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The study uses empirical measures of market concentration to examine buyer competition in wool between 1974 and 1992. Three measures of concentration are examined, concentration ratios, Herfindahl indices and Lorenz curves. Data from the Australian Council of Wool Exporters are used to obtain estimates of these measures over the sample period. The results indicate that the buying sector in the Australian wool market is relatively concentrated and calculation of Spearman correlation coefficien...

  18. Creating Royal Australian Navy Standard Operating Procedures using Flow Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    DST-Group-TR-3137 UNCLASSIFIED Acronyms 4TQ 4TQ Toolkit ABR Australian Book of Reference ADF Australian Defence Force BPMN Business...steps to perform the activity. Object Management Group’s (OMG) Business Process Model and Notation ( BPMN ) [10] is becoming the standard to use when...Department of Defence 10. Object Management Group, Business Process Model and Notation ( BPMN ), version 2.0. 2011, Object Management Group: http

  19. Records of Australian Fouling Organisms: Sessile Barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Dr. W.A. Newman) Laboratorio de Ensayo de Materiales e Investigaciones Tecnologicas (LEMIT), Argentina. (Attention: Dr. V. Rascio) Dept. of Zoology...AD-A105 265 MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) FIG B/1 RECORDS OF AUSTRALIAN FOULING ORGANISMS: SESSILE BARNACLES (CRU--ETC(U) APR 81 J A...SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORIES MELBOURNE, VICTORIA REPORT . MRL-R-809 RECORDS OF AUSTRALIAN FOULING ORGANISMS: SESSILE

  20. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 14, Number 2, Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Australian DEFENCESCIENCE BRIEFS DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research Extended range for Joint Direct Attack Munition Missile Approach...for ADF frontline aircraft DSTO and the Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding...and ANSTO Executive Director Mr Ian Smith signed the agreement in Sydney on 29 August. DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research

  1. Raja Junankar, Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    DOUGLAS, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The Economics of Immigration: Immigration and the Australian Economy is a compilation of academic articles written by P.N. Junankar and coauthors on the topic of immigration in Australia. From the effects of immigration on Australia’s economy to the Australian labor market environment immigrants encounter, this book addresses important questions regarding immigration that are relevant to any economy.Keywords. Australia, International migration, International economics.JEL. F00, F22,...

  2. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon Paul; Gates Peter; Swift Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone a...

  3. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  4. Contemporary challenges of the Australian international education industry: Analysis of a bureaucratic myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams, S M Riad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to respond to the contemporary issues of the International Education Industry (IEI and the long-term skill shortage goals, Australia amends the IEI and relevant immigration policy from time to time. Some of the amendments have been impacting the IEI and its stakeholders despondently. A literature review has been conducted to realize the contemporary challenges of the Australian IEI. The study shows that the lethargic impact of the continuous policy changes on the IEI and its stakeholders is resulting from a kind of bureaucratic myopia: the failure of setting a direction for international education. The findings outline the contemporary key challenges of the Australian IEI, surrounding to this myopia, where further deliberation is required. Also, the findings convey a message to developed or developing economies, who want to establish, maintain and enhance their international education industry, and to be vigilant against the prospective challenges of an IEI in order to smoothen a worthwhile experience of the stakeholders, associated with their IEI.

  5. “No More Boomerang”: Environment and Technology in Contemporary Aboriginal Australian Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based in oral traditions and song cycles, contemporary Aboriginal Australian poetry is full of allusions to the environment. Not merely a physical backdrop for human activities, the ancient Aboriginal landscape is a nexus of ecological, spiritual, material, and more-than-human overlays—and one which is increasingly compromised by modern technological impositions. In literary studies, while Aboriginal poetry has become the subject of critical interest, few studies have foregrounded the interconnections between environment and technology. Instead, scholarship tends to focus on the socio-political and cultural dimensions of the writing. How have contemporary Australian Aboriginal poets responded to the impacts of environmental change and degradation? How have poets addressed the effects of modern technology in ancestral environments, or country? This article will develop an ecocritical and technology-focused perspective on contemporary Aboriginal poetry through an analysis of the writings of three significant literary-activists: Jack Davis (1917–2000, Oodgeroo Noonuccal (1920–1993, and Lionel Fogarty (born 1958. Davis, Noonuccal, and Fogarty strive poetically to draw critical attention to the particular impacts of late modernist technologies on Aboriginal people and country. In developing a critique of invasive technologies that adversely affect the environment and culture, their poetry also invokes the Aboriginal technologies that sustained (and, in places, still sustain people in reciprocal relation to country.

  6. The Origin of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, W.; Anic, A.; Horner, J.; Whitby, J. A.

    Mercury's unusually high mean density has always been attributed to special circumstances that occurred during the formation of the planet or shortly thereafter, and due to the planet's close proximity to the Sun. The nature of these special circumstances is still being debated and several scenarios, all proposed more than 20 years ago, have been suggested. In all scenarios, the high mean density is the result of severe fractionation occurring between silicates and iron. It is the origin of this fractionation that is at the centre of the debate: is it due to differences in condensation temperature and/or in material characteristics (e.g. density, strength)? Is it because of mantle evaporation due to the close proximity to the Sun? Or is it due to the blasting off of the mantle during a giant impact?

  7. Managing Australian Defence Force Activities in Marine Protected Areas:Using Jervis Bay as a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Lees

    2008-01-01

    <正>Australian Defence Force has done training activities in marine areas even some marine protected areas for a long time.These activities may cause pollution to the environment and related animals both directly and indirectly.So it is necessary to do some research on the environmenta1 influence of ADF activities and try our best to protect the natural environment.In this essay,we take Jervis Bay Marine Park as a case study to study the methods of environmental management of Australian Defence Force Activities.Through our spot investigation,we found that the ADF has some special power in JBMP and their activities certainly did negative impact on not only the environment but also the surrounding communities.To solve these problems,the common citizens and the authority of ADF must shape a good relationship to reduce misunderstanding and the environmental management in Jervis Bay Marine Park should be increased in the future.

  8. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector; Spatialisation des impacts de la regulation economique de l'effet de serre d'origine agricole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2004-02-15

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  9. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE): Cloud and Rain Characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PT May; C Jakob; JH Mather

    2004-05-30

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Commission DG RTD-1.2, and several United States, Australian, Canadian, and European Universities. This experiment will be undertaken over a 4-week period in early 2006. January and February corresponds to the wet phase of the Australia monsoon. This season has been selected because, despite Darwin’s coastal location, the convection that occurs over and near Darwin at this time is largely of maritime origin with a large fetch over water

  10. Climate change risks and adaptation options across Australian seafood supply chains – A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already impacting the biology of the oceans and some dependent industries are in turn responding to these impacts. The development of response options for users of marine resources, such as fishers, is important in guiding adaptation efforts. However, harvesting fish is only the first step in a supply chain that delivers seafood to consumers. Impacts higher up the chain have seldom been considered in fisheries-climate research yet an understanding of these impacts and how climate risks and adaptation information are interpreted and used by stakeholders across the chain is vital for developing viable and sustainable adaptation options. We examined stakeholder perceptions of points where climate change impacts and adaptations currently occur, or may occur in the future, across the supply chains of several Australian fisheries (southern rock lobster, tropical rock lobster, prawn and aquaculture sectors (oyster, aquaculture prawn. We found that climate change impacts are well understood at the harvest stage and there is evidence of potential impacts and disruption to supply chains. Yet, there currently is no strong driver for change higher up the chain. Holistic adaptation planning along the supply chain, underpinned by targeted information and policy for the catch, processing and distribution, and marketing phases is needed. This effort is needed now, as some adaptation options have long lead times, and a delay in adaptation planning may limit future options. Given potential lead times and associated uncertainty, a risk-based approach is recommended with regard to adaptation planning for Australia’s seafood sector.

  11. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quester Pascale G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504, 2006 (n = 525, 2007 (n = 414 and 2008 (n = 464. Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  12. Comet and Meteorite Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  13. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  14. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural langu...

  15. Origin, Impact and Cost of Interface Instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemaekers, S.B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Third-party libraries are used frequently in modern software development. Websites that are visited millions of times a day often make heavy use of open-source software libraries. As a software developer, using these libraries has a number of advantages. Developers save time and effort because funct

  16. Magnetic Fields in Stars: Origin and Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, N

    2013-01-01

    Various types of magnetic fields occur in stars: small scale fields, large scale fields, and internal toroidal fields. While the latter may be ubiquitous in stars due to differential rotation, small scale fields (spots) may be associated with envelop convection in all low and high mass stars. The stable large scale fields found in only about 10 per cent of intermediate mass and massive stars may be understood as a consequence of dynamical binary interaction, e.g., the merging of two stars in a binary. We relate these ideas to magnetic fields in white dwarfs and neutron stars, and to their role in core-collapse and thermonuclear supernova explosions.

  17. A Sample from an Ancient Sea of Impact Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Sophisticated computer modeling of the formation of lunar multi-ringed basins by impact indicate that substantial volumes of impact melt are produced, leading to melt bodies hundreds of kilometers in diameter and tens of kilometers deep. The impressively large bodies of magma created by the impact of a projectile 50 to 300 kilometers across might have differentiated, producing a zoned body with denser minerals concentrated towards the bottom and less dense minerals concentrated near the top, a process called fractional crystallization. Marc Norman (Australian National University) and colleagues at the University of Tennessee and the Johnson Space Center have studied a sample (67955) collected in the lunar highlands during the Apollo 16 mission. The overall texture, composition, and mineralogy of a clast (a fragment) in the rock indicate that it formed as an accumulation of crystals from a magma that was enriched in trace elements. Mineral compositions and crystal intergrowths suggest a similar depth of origin to lunar igneous rocks that formed more than 10 kilometers deep in the lunar crust, implying an impact melt pool at least as deep. Such a deep melt pool would have formed in an impact basin the size of Orientale, a multi-ringed basin whose inner ring is 480 kilometers across. Norman and co-workers also determined from samarium and neodymium isotopes that the igneous clast is 4.2 billion years old, clearly older than the typical age of 3.8-3.9 billion years assigned to visible lunar basins. The authors conclude that the clast in 67955 is a sample of a differentiated impact melt sea formed in an impact basin on the nearside of the Moon 4.2 billion years ago. The rock was part of a pile of ejecta thrown to the Apollo 16 site, possibly by the impact event that excavated the Imbrium basin.

  18. Drought, drying and climate change: emerging health issues for ageing Australians in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Graeme; Hanna, Liz; Kelly, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Older Australians living in rural areas have long faced significant challenges in maintaining health. Their circumstances are shaped by the occupations, lifestyles, environments and remoteness which characterise the diversity of rural communities. Many rural regions face threats to future sustainability and greater proportions of the aged reside in these areas. The emerging changes in Australia's climate over the past decade may be considered indicative of future trends, and herald amplification of these familiar challenges for rural communities. Such climate changes are likely to exacerbate existing health risks and compromise community infrastructure in some instances. This paper discusses climate change-related health risks facing older people in rural areas, with an emphasis on the impact of heat, drought and drying on rural and remote regions. Adaptive health sector responses are identified to promote mitigation of this substantial emerging need as individuals and their communities experience the projected impact of climate change.

  19. Stochastically-forced Decadal Variability in Australian Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschetto, A.

    2015-12-01

    Iconic Australian dry and wet periods were driven by anomalous conditions in the tropical oceans, such as the worst short-term drought in the southeast in 1982 associated with the strong El Niño and the widespread "Big Wet" in 1974 linked with a La Niña event. The association with oceanic conditions makes droughts predictable to some extent. However, prediction can be difficult when there is no clear external forcing such as El Niños. Can dry spells be triggered and maintained with no ocean memory? In this study, we investigate the potential role of internal multi-century atmospheric variability in controlling the frequency, duration and intensity of long-term dry and wet spells over Australia. Two multi-century-scale simulations were performed with the NCAR CESM: (1) a fully-coupled simulation (CPLD) and (2) an atmospheric simulation forced by a seasonal SST climatology derived from the coupled experiment (ACGM). Results reveal that droughts and wet spells can indeed be generated by internal variability of the atmosphere. Those internally generated events are less severe than those forced by oceanic variability, however the duration of dry and wet spells longer than 3 years is comparable with and without the ocean memory. Large-scale ocean modes of variability seem to play an important role in producing continental-scale rainfall impacts over Australia. While the Pacific Decadal Oscillation plays an important role in generating droughts in the fully coupled model, perturbations of monsoonal winds seem to be the main trigger of dry spells in the AGCM case. Droughts in the mid-latitude regions such as Tasmania can be driven by perturbations in the Southern Annular Mode, not necessarily linked to oceanic conditions even in the fully-coupled model. The mechanisms behind internally-driven mega-droughts and mega-wets will be discussed.

  20. Russian-Australian Partnerships Fostering High School Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Graham

    A group of students from Knox Grammar School and Ravenswood School for Girls have just completed phase one of an exciting science project. For three years we have been working closely with the Russian Space Institute as they built, tested and finally launched a microsatellite from the shuttle Progress in March, this year. Our task was to build ground stations and test equipment so that after launch we would be able to receive telemetry and navigational data from the satellite. Sounds easy! What transpired was a three year journey through basic electronics, amateur radio and rocket science. Communication with the Russians was difficult but effective and despite many frustrations and delays, the first contact with the satellite made it all worthwhile. We spent many early morning and late nights during the school holidays listening to the ghostly sounds from 400 Km above us. Students needed to communicate by e-mail with non-English speaking rocket scientists on a daily basis to receive updated programmes, new data and new instructions. We ultimately managed to download about 50 files from the satellite and phase two of the project involving e-mail communication between Australian and Russian students is underway. I expect the project to continue for months ahead as we unravel and make sense of the reams of data about fluctuations in the magnetosphere over Europe and Australia. The scientific impact of the data, however, is secondary to the experiences that we have enjoyed. Space is suddenly relevant and much closer for these lucky students who spanned Grade 6 - Year 12.

  1. How might Australian rainforest cloud interception respond to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2013-02-01

    SummaryThe lower and upper montane rainforests in northern Queensland receive significant amounts of cloud interception that affect both in situ canopy wetness and downstream runoff. Cloud interception contributes 5-30% of the annual water input to the canopy and this increases to 40-70% of the monthly water input during the dry season. This occult water is therefore an important input to the canopy, sustaining the epiphytes, mosses and other species that depend on wet canopy conditions. The potential effect of climate change on cloud interception was examined using the relationship between cloud interception and cloud frequency derived from measurements made at four different rainforest locations. Any given change in cloud frequency produces a greater change in cloud interception and this 'amplification' increases from 1.1 to 1.7 as cloud frequency increases from 5% to 70%. This means that any changes in cloud frequency will have the greatest relative effects at the higher altitude sites where cloud interception is greatest. As cloud frequency is also a major factor affecting canopy wetness, any given change in cloud frequency will therefore have a greater impact on canopy wetness at the higher altitude sites. These changes in wetness duration will augment those due to changes in rainfall and may have important implications for the fauna and flora that depend on wet canopy conditions. We also found that the Australian rainforests may be more efficient (by ˜50% on average) in intercepting cloud water than American coniferous forests, which may be due to differences in canopy structure and exposure at the different sites.

  2. Deriving Multiple Benefits from Carbon Market-Based Savanna Fire Management: An Australian Example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Russell-Smith

    Full Text Available Carbon markets afford potentially useful opportunities for supporting socially and environmentally sustainable land management programs but, to date, have been little applied in globally significant fire-prone savanna settings. While fire is intrinsic to regulating the composition, structure and dynamics of savanna systems, in north Australian savannas frequent and extensive late dry season wildfires incur significant environmental, production and social impacts. Here we assess the potential of market-based savanna burning greenhouse gas emissions abatement and allied carbon biosequestration projects to deliver compatible environmental and broader socio-economic benefits in a highly biodiverse north Australian setting. Drawing on extensive regional ecological knowledge of fire regime effects on fire-vulnerable taxa and communities, we compare three fire regime metrics (seasonal fire frequency, proportion of long-unburnt vegetation, fire patch-size distribution over a 15-year period for three national parks with an indigenously (Aboriginal owned and managed market-based emissions abatement enterprise. Our assessment indicates improved fire management outcomes under the emissions abatement program, and mostly little change or declining outcomes on the parks. We attribute improved outcomes and putative biodiversity benefits under the abatement program to enhanced strategic management made possible by the market-based mitigation arrangement. For these same sites we estimate quanta of carbon credits that could be delivered under realistic enhanced fire management practice, using currently available and developing accredited Australian savanna burning accounting methods. We conclude that, in appropriate situations, market-based savanna burning activities can provide transformative climate change mitigation, ecosystem health, and community benefits in northern Australia, and, despite significant challenges, potentially in other fire-prone savanna

  3. Analysis of southeast Australian zooplankton observations of 1938-42 using synoptic oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Mark E.; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.

    2011-03-01

    The research vessel Warreen obtained 1742 planktonic samples along the continental shelf and slope of southeast Australia from 1938-42, representing the earliest spatially and temporally resolved zooplankton data from Australian marine waters. In this paper, Warreen observations along the southeast Australian seaboard from 28°S to 38°S are interpreted based on synoptic meteorological and oceanographic conditions and ocean climatologies. Meteorological conditions are based on the NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis Project; oceanographic conditions use Warreen hydrological observations, and the ocean climatology is the CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas. The Warreen observations were undertaken in waters on average 0.45 °C cooler than the climatological average, and included the longest duration El Niño of the 20th century. In northern New South Wales (NSW), week time-scale events dominate zooplankton response. In August 1940 an unusual winter upwelling event occurred in northern NSW driven by a stronger than average East Australian Current (EAC) and anomalous northerly winds that resulted in high salp and larvacean abundance. In January 1941 a strong upwelling event between 28° and 33°S resulted in a filament of upwelled water being advected south and alongshore, which was low in zooplankton biovolume. In southern NSW a seasonal cycle in physical and planktonic characteristics is observed. In January 1941 the poleward extension of the EAC was strong, advecting more tropical tunicate species southward. Zooplankton abundance and distribution on the continental shelf and slope are more dependent on weekly to monthly timescales on local oceanographic and meteorological conditions than continental-scale interannual trends. The interpretation of historical zooplankton observations of the waters off southeast Australia for the purpose of quantifying anthropogenic impacts will be improved with the use of regional hindcasts of synoptic ocean and atmospheric weather that can

  4. Injection Efficiency Monitor for the Australian Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassool R. P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Synchrotron AS is moving towards a continuous injection mode called top-up. During top-up the linac and booster synchrotron injection system will be in continuous operation rather than usedevery eight hours the way they are used at present. In order to monitor the performance of the injection system areal-time injection efficiency monitoring system has been developed. The system consists of several Fast CurrentTransformers [1] and matching digitisers [2] and is designed to count every beam pulse and measure the transmission efficiency through the whole accelerator complex. After calibrating the system using a properly matchedFaraday Cup at the electron gun, a transmission efficiency is then calculated at each stage of transferring the beamfrom 90 keV out of the gun to 3 GeV in the storage ring. The system is used to optimise the injection process inorder to maximise the injection efficiency and as an early warning system when equipment starts to fail and theinjection efficiency decreases.

  5. Effective teaching strategies in Australian multicultural classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芳卉

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction@@ Australia's population is increasingly culturally diverse.The diverse composition of the Australian population is reflected in the ACT.The 1991 census showed 65,739 people counted in the ACT were bern overseas,representing 23.5% of the population.Almost 10% of the respondents to the census came from non-English - speaking countries.(1) The results from the 2001 census showed that of the 4,645,000 people in Victoria,almost one quarter (23.4%) were born overseas,represented 208 countries and spoke 151 languages.English was spoken at home by 75.3% of Victorians.(2) These numbers are reflected in our schools because students come from many cultural,educational and language backgrounds.The increasingly muhieultural populations in our schools present many challenges for schools and teachers,with regards to inclusive teaching strategies,language differences,muhieuhural curricular practices,racism issues and numerous other factors.

  6. Malignant otitis externa: An Australian case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish a clinicopathological profile of malignant otitis externa (MOE) in an Australian tertiary referral institution. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort outcomes study. METHODS: 24 patients were identified with MOE between January 1998 and July 2007. Patients were classified into Radiological Grades I-IV. Laboratory investigations Including C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell count (WCC), glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and average glucose level over admission were recorded. RESULTS: Radiological Grade was significantly associated with duration of therapy (rank correlation 0.57, p = 0.004). CRP was a useful indicator confirming disease resolution. Diabetics with MOE had elevated average blood sugar levels during their Hospital admission (p < 0.001) and had poor overall glycaemic control represented by Elevated HBA1c scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malignant otitis externa is a rare disease, which is best managed in a multidisciplinary team setting. This practical grading system can be used to predict the duration of therapy at time of diagnosis, which enables the efficient utilisation of Hospital resources. Poorly controlled diabetics are more susceptible to developing. MOE than diabetics with satisfactory glycaemic control and may represent a subgroup of more brittle diabetics. CRP combined with appropriate clinical and radiological investigations is useful in assessing disease resolution.

  7. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  8. Australian Tropical Marine Micromolluscs: An Overwhelming Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter U. Middelfart

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the marine biodiversity of the tropics can be overwhelming, especially for the Mollusca, one of the largest marine phyla in the sea. With a diversity that can exceed macrofaunal richness in many groups, the micro/meiofaunal component is one of most overlooked biotas in surveys due to the time-consuming nature of collecting, sorting, and identifying this assemblage. We review trends in micromollusc research highlighting the Australian perspective that reveals a dwindling taxonomic effort through time and discuss pervasive obstacles of relevance to the taxonomy of micromolluscs globally. Since a high during the 1970s, followed by a smaller peak in 2000, in 2010 we observe a low in micromolluscan collection activity in Australia not seen since the 1930s. Although challenging, considered planning at each step of the species identification pathway can reduce barriers to micromolluscan research (e.g., role of types, dedicated sampling, integration of microscopy and genetic methods. We discuss new initiatives to trial these methods in Western Australia, an understudied region with high biodiversity, and highlight why micromolluscs are worth the effort. A number of important fields that would benefit from increased focus on this group (e.g., ecological gaps are considered. The methods and strategies for resolving systematic problems in micromolluscan taxonomy are available, only the desire and support to reverse the decline in knowledge remains to be found.

  9. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.

  10. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists – an Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professionalpractice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australianpharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-countermedications. This review aims to identify Australian studiesinvolving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing.Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacistprescribing were identified and considered in the context ofits implementation internationally. Australian studies havemainly focused on the attitudes of community and hospitalpharmacists towards such an expansion. Studies evaluatingthe views of Australian consumers and pharmacy clients werealso considered. The available Australian literature indicatedsupport from pharmacists and pharmacy clients for anexpanded pharmacist prescribing role, with preference fordoctors retaining a primary role in diagnosis. Australianpharmacists and pharmacy client’s views were also inagreement in terms of other key issues surrounding expandedpharmacist prescribing. These included the nature of anexpanded prescribing model, the need for additional trainingfor pharmacists and the potential for pharmacy clients gainingimproved medication access, which could be achieved withinan expanded role that pharmacists could provide. Currentevidence from studies conducted in Australia providesvaluable insight to relevant policymakers on the issue ofpharmacist prescribing in order to move the agenda ofpharmacist prescribing forwards.

  11. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: steve.androulakis@monash.edu [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  12. On the utility of data from the International HapMap Project for Australian association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovich, Jim; Cox, Charles J; Tan, Rachel B; Montgomery, Douglas S; Huxtable, Stewart J; Rubio, Justin P; Ehm, Margaret G; Johnson, Laura; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Speed, Terence P; Roses, Allen D; Bahlo, Melanie; Foote, Simon J

    2006-03-01

    We compare patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for 633 SNPs in two regions between samples collected in two Australian states and HapMap samples collected from Utah residents of Northern and Western (NW) European ancestry (CEU). Patterns of LD in the Australian and HapMap samples are similar, and tag SNPs chosen using HapMap genotypes perform almost as well on Australian samples as tags chosen using Australian genotypes.

  13. Geographic classification of spanish and Australian tempranillo red wines by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Cozzolino, D; Cynkar, W U; Gishen, M; Colby, C B

    2006-09-01

    Visible (vis) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was used to classify the geographical origin of commercial Tempranillo wines from Australia and Spain. Wines (n = 63) were scanned in the vis and NIR regions (400-2500 nm) in a monochromator instrument in transmission. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on PCA scores were used to classify Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. Full cross-validation (leave-one-out) was used as validation method when PCA and LDA classification models were developed. PLS-DA models correctly classified 100% and 84.7% of the Australian and Spanish Tempranillo wine samples, respectively. LDA calibration models correctly classified 72% of the Australian wines and 85% of the Spanish wines. These results demonstrate the potential use of vis and NIR spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics as a rapid method to classify Tempranillo wines accordingly to their geographical origin.

  14. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Walsh, Mark [Mater Hospital and Lady Cilento Children' s Hospital Medical Imaging Department, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Francis, Joshua R. [Royal Darwin Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Darwin (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment. (orig.)

  15. Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research: Creating Spaces for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides some background information about the Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research initiative: a joint program of work sponsored by the Australian Association for Research in Education and the Australian Council of Deans of Education. In addition, it offers some broader analysis of the contexts within which…

  16. The Australian Geography Competition: An Overview of Participation and Results 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Berg, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Geography Competition (AGC) was established in 1995 by the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland (RGSQ) and the Australian Geography Teachers' Association to promote the study of geography in Australian secondary schools and to reward student excellence in geographical studies. Initially focusing on students at the lower…

  17. Values-Based Education in Schools in the 2000s: The Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the teaching of values in Australian schools through a framework established by the Australian Federal government during the 2000s. This paper focuses on: the approaches employed by the Australian Federal government in the implementation of Values Education; and the application of cases of values-based education utilized by…

  18. Estimating the Social Rate of Return to Education for Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junankar, P. N.; Liu, J.

    2003-01-01

    Compares estimates of the social rate of return to education of Indigenous Australians with those of non-Indigenous Australians. Finds that social rate of return is higher for Indigenous Australians than for non-Indigenous. Draws implications for public policy. (Contains 4 tables and 32 references.)(PKP)

  19. The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous…

  20. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…