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Sample records for australian impact origin

  1. Structure and origin of Australian ring and dome features with reference to the search for asteroid impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Ring, dome and crater features on the Australian continent and shelf include (A) 38 structures of confirmed or probable asteroid and meteorite impact origin and (B) numerous buried and exposed ring, dome and crater features of undefined origin. A large number of the latter include structural and geophysical elements consistent with impact structures, pending test by field investigations and/or drilling. This paper documents and briefly describes 43 ring and dome features with the aim of appraising their similarities and differences from those of impact structures. Discrimination between impact structures and igneous plugs, volcanic caldera and salt domes require field work and/or drilling. Where crater-like morphological patterns intersect pre-existing linear structural features and contain central morphological highs and unique thrust and fault patterns an impact connection needs to tested in the field. Hints of potential buried impact structures may be furnished by single or multi-ring TMI patterns, circular TMI quiet zones, corresponding gravity patterns, low velocity and non-reflective seismic zones.

  2. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Ancestral Origin of Australian Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Joukhadar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a global wheat collection using in-silico chromosome painting based on SNP genotyping. The global collection involved 2,335 wheat accessions which was divided into 23 different geographical subpopulations. However, the whole set was reduced to 1,544 accessions to increase the differentiation and decrease the admixture among different global subpopulations to increase the power of the painting analysis. Our analysis revealed that the structure of Australian wheat germplasm and its geographic ancestors have changed significantly through time, especially after the Green Revolution. Before 1920, breeders used cultivars from around the world, but mainly Europe and Africa, to select potential cultivars that could tolerate Australian growing conditions. Between 1921 and 1970, a dependence on African wheat germplasm became more prevalent. Since 1970, a heavy reliance on International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT germplasm has persisted. Combining the results from linkage disequilibrium, population structure and in-silico painting revealed that the dependence on CIMMYT materials has varied among different Australian States, has shrunken the germplasm effective population size and produced larger linkage disequilibrium blocks. This study documents the evolutionary history of wheat breeding in Australia and provides an understanding for how the wheat genome has been adapted to local growing conditions. This information provides a guide for industry to

  3. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  4. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

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    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  5. Australian climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessy, K.; Fitzharris, B.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report on impacts, adaptation and vulnerability made the following conclusions about Australia (Hennessy et al., 2007): Regional climate change has occurred. Since 1950, there has been 0.7 0 C warming, with more heat waves, fewer frosts, more rain in north-west Australia, less rain in southern and eastern Australia, an increase in the intensity of Australian droughts and a rise in sea level of about 70 mm. Australia is already experiencing impacts from recent climate change. These are now evident in increasing stresses on water supply and agriculture, changed natural ecosystems, and reduced seasonal snow cover. Some adaptation has already occurred in response to observed climate change. Examples come from sectors such as water, natural ecosystems, agriculture, horticulture and coasts. However, ongoing vulnerability to extreme events is demonstrated by substantial economic losses caused by droughts, floods, fire, tropical cyclones and hail. The climate of the 21st century is virtually certain to be warmer, with changes in extreme events. Heat waves and fires are virtually certain to increase in intensity and frequency. Floods, landslides, droughts and storm surges are very likely to become more frequent and intense, and snow and frost are very likely to become less frequent. Large areas of mainland Australia are likely to have less soil moisture. Potential impacts of climate change are likely to be substantial without further adaptation; As a result of reduced precipitation and increased evaporation, water security problems are projected to intensify by 2030 in southern and eastern Australia; Ongoing coastal development and population growth, in areas such as Cairns and south-east Queensland, are projected to exacerbate risks from sea level rise and increases in the severity and frequency of storms and coastal flooding by 2050. Significant loss of biodiversity is projected to occur by 2020 in some ecologically rich

  6. Which health conditions impact on productivity in working Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Ware, Robert S; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2011-03-01

    To identify health conditions associated with productivity loss in working Australians, adjusting for comorbidity, demographics, and work-related characteristics. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit study cross-sectional screening data set was used to identify health-related productivity losses in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. Data collected with the World Health Organisation Health and Productivity Questionnaire were analyzed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively. Health conditions impacted on both presenteeism and absenteeism. Drug and alcohol problems and psychological distress had a greater impact on absenteeism and presenteeism than other investigated health conditions. Demographic characteristics, health status (comorbidity), and work-related characteristics all impacted significantly on both absenteeism and presenteeism. Mental health conditions contributed more strongly to productivity loss than other investigated health conditions.

  7. Danish and Australian Television: The Impact of Format Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2007-01-01

    influences local television markets and leads to changes according to local competitive, financial, cultural and political conditions. It explores the impact of format adaptation on Danish and Australian prime-time schedules between 1995 and 2004/05, and its effect on local content and genres among the main...

  8. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians

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    Darren Curnoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins.

  9. Impact microcrater morphology on Australian microtektites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Khedekar, V.D.

    ). Timing of ImpactsThe small microtektites, which have the largest numberof erosive craters, seem to have been caught in a dense swarm of fast-moving projectiles in the mm and sub-m sizes. Thatlarge microtektites have fewer craters and that those... existing models on impacts, Prasad and Sudhakar (1998)suggested that differential velocities between the ejecta ofdifferent sizes leads to collisions, and further, multiplesequential impacts in the dense swarm add to the number of impacts on each...

  10. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Potential Impact of Digital Currencies on the Australian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Mustafa; Gardiner, Michael; Lane, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Crypto-currencies like Bitcoins are relatively recent phenomena on the online Internet landscape and an emerging force in the financial sector. While not conforming to traditional institutional practices, they are gaining increasing acceptance as viable commercial currencies. In this conceptual paper we discuss the potential impact of digital currency technology on the Australian economy, including the (i) payments sector, (ii) retail sector, and (iii) banking sector; and explore potential wa...

  12. Mitochondrial genome sequencing reveals potential origins of the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei infesting two iconic Australian marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Tamieka A; Shao, Renfu; Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M; Charleston, Michael; Martin, Alynn; Whiteley, Pam; Holme, Roz; Carver, Scott; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2017-11-28

    Debilitating skin infestations caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, have a profound impact on human and animal health globally. In Australia, this impact is evident across different segments of Australian society, with a growing recognition that it can contribute to rapid declines of native Australian marsupials. Cross-host transmission has been suggested to play a significant role in the epidemiology and origin of mite infestations in different species but a chronic lack of genetic resources has made further inferences difficult. To investigate the origins and molecular epidemiology of S. scabiei in Australian wildlife, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of S. scabiei from diseased wombats (Vombatus ursinus) and koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) spanning New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, and compared them with the recently sequenced mitochondrial genome sequences of S. scabiei from humans. We found unique S. scabiei haplotypes among individual wombat and koala hosts with high sequence similarity (99.1% - 100%). Phylogenetic analysis of near full-length mitochondrial genomes revealed three clades of S. scabiei (one human and two marsupial), with no apparent geographic or host species pattern, suggestive of multiple introductions. The availability of additional mitochondrial gene sequences also enabled a re-evaluation of a range of putative molecular markers of S. scabiei, revealing that cox1 is the most informative gene for molecular epidemiological investigations. Utilising this gene target, we provide additional evidence to support cross-host transmission between different animal hosts. Our results suggest a history of parasite invasion through colonisation of Australia from hosts across the globe and the potential for cross-host transmission being a common feature of the epidemiology of this neglected pathogen. If this is the case, comparable patterns may exist elsewhere in the 'New World'. This work provides a basis for expanded molecular studies into

  13. Genetic detection and characterization of atypical bovine pestiviruses in foetal bovine sera claimed to be of Australian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Larska, M; Giammarioli, M; De Mia, G M; Cardeti, G; Zhou, W; Alenius, S; Belák, S; Liu, L

    2013-06-01

    Two European laboratories independently detected atypical bovine pestiviral nucleic acids in three commercial batches of foetal bovine serum (FBS) that was claimed by the producers to be of Australian origin. Additional batches of FBS were obtained directly from Australia to exclude possible contamination of the Australian FBS with that of South American origin during manufacturing/packaging in European countries. RT-PCR amplification of partial 5'untranslated region and the complete N(pro) gene yielded a specific band with expected size, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Bayesian analysis of sequence data demonstrated a closer phylogenetic relation of the newly detected atypical bovine pestiviruses to those of South American origin, which were related to the recognized bovine pestivirus species, bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Taken together, the results indicated the presence of atypical bovine pestiviruses in the Australian FBS, and most likely in Australian Continent. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Pleistocene extinction of genyornis newtoni: human impact on australian megafauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller; Magee; Johnson; Fogel; Spooner; McCulloch; Ayliffe

    1999-01-08

    More than 85 percent of Australian terrestrial genera with a body mass exceeding 44 kilograms became extinct in the Late Pleistocene. Although most were marsupials, the list includes the large, flightless mihirung Genyornis newtoni. More than 700 dates onGenyornis eggshells from three different climate regions document the continuous presence of Genyornis from more than 100,000 years ago until their sudden disappearance 50,000 years ago, about the same time that humans arrived in Australia. Simultaneous extinction of Genyornis at all sites during an interval of modest climate change implies that human impact, not climate, was responsible.

  15. A bicontinental origin of polyploid Australian/New Zealand Lepidium species (Brassicaceae)? Evidence from genomic in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Tom; Mandáková, Terezie; Lysak, Martin A; Mummenhoff, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    Incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear DNA phylogenies, and single additive nucleotide positions in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of polyploid Australian/New Zealand (NZ) Lepidium species have been used to suggest a bicontinental hybrid origin. This pattern was explained by two trans-oceanic dispersals of Lepidium species from California and Africa and subsequent hybridization followed by homogenization of the ribosomal DNA sequence either to the Californian (C-clade) or to the African ITS-type (A-clade) in two different ITS-lineages of Australian/NZ Lepidium polyploids. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to unravel the genomic origin of polyploid Australian/NZ Lepidium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes was applied to test the purported ITS evolution, and to facilitate chromosome counting in high-numbered polyploids. In Australian/NZ A-clade Lepidium polyploids, GISH identified African and Australian/NZ C-clade species as putative ancestral genomes. Neither the African nor the Californian genome were detected in Australian/NZ C-clade species and the Californian genome was not detected in Australian/NZ A-clade species. Five of the eight polyploid species (from 7x to 11x) displayed a diploid-like set of rDNA loci. Even the undecaploid species Lepidium muelleriferdinandi (2n = 11x = 88) showed only one pair of each rDNA repeat. In A-clade allopolyploids, in situ rDNA localization combined with GISH corroborated the presence of the African ITS-type. The nuclear genomes of African and Australian/NZ C-clade species were detected by GISH in allopolyploid Australian/NZ Lepidium species of the A-clade, supporting their hybrid origin. The presumed hybrid origin of Australian/NZ C-clade taxa could not be confirmed. Hence, it is assumed that Californian ancestral taxa experienced rapid radiation in Australia/NZ into extant C-clade polyploid taxa followed by hybridization with African species. As a

  16. Growth and quality of australian cedar saplings originated from different multiclonal minigarden systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forestry researchers often evaluate minicutting vegetative propagation of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata as a viable technique for this species. However, the adoption of minigarden systems for commercial propagation still requires viability and quality testing of saplings produced after multiple harvests. In the present work, we evaluate survival, growth, and quality of Australian cedar saplings grown from minicuttings originating from multiple harvests of ministumps planted in gutter or tube systems. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial treatment structure (two minigarden systems and four minicutting harvests. For the gutter system, six minicutting harvests were performed 50, 86, 115, 149, 177 and 212 days after planting ministumps, whereas for the tube system, four harvests were performed 115, 149, 177 and 212 days after planting ministumps. At the end of each sapling production cycle (105 days after each minicutting harvest, saplings were evaluated for survival, foliar area, dry mass of aerial parts, number and length of adventitious roots, dry mass of the root system, height to diameter ratio, ratio between the dry mass of aerial parts and dry mass of root system, and Dickson’s Quality Index. Sapling survival was not affected by minigarden system, except for a reduction observed in fourth cycle saplings from the tube system. Sapling quality was also similar between systems. However, sapling growth potential decreased with production cycle, indicating that ministumps lose vigor with multiple harvests.

  17. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF CONTINENTAL BIOTAS: SPECIATION AND HISTORICAL CONGRUENCE WITHIN THE AUSTRALIAN AVIFAUNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracraft, Joel

    1986-09-01

    Factors governing the origin and evolution of continental biotas were investigated using an analysis of speciation patterns within the Australian avifauna. Phylogenetic relationships within seven lineages of birds were analyzed by numerical cladistic techniques applied to data sets of morphological characters. These relationships revealed extensive congruence among the spatial and temporal histories of lineages whose species are endemic to common areas of endemism. A general hypothesis is constructed to explain this congruence in which widespread biotas are postulated to have been partitioned into areas of endemism by the origin of geomorphological and/or ecological-climatic barriers. Congruence in these phylogenetic patterns of differentiation suggests the following historical pattern of interrelationships for areas of endemism along the northern and eastern coasts of Australia: (Kimberley Plateau + Arnhem Land) + ([New Guinea + Cape York Peninsula] + [Atherton Plateau + Eastern Coastal Rainforest]). Likewise, this study indicates that the arid interior avifauna was segregated into two closely related biotas (Eastern and Western Desert biotas) by the Eyrean Barrier. These biotas are, in turn, related to a more mesic avifauna that was itself subdivided into areas of endemism located in the Southwest and Southeast corners of the continent. © 1986 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. NAVIGATING BETWEEN ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS IDENTITY: HERITAGE LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE AMONG YOUNG AUSTRALIANS OF INDONESIAN ORIGIN

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    Ahmad Bukhori Muslim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For ethnic minority groups, speaking a heritage language signifies belonging to their country of origin and enriches the dominant culture. The acculturation of major ethnic groups in Australia – Greek, Italian, Chinese, Indian and Vietnamese – has been frequently studied, but a minor one like Indonesian has not. Through semi-structured interviews at various places and observations at cultural events, the study explores the contextual use, meaning and perceived benefits of Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language among Indonesian families and how this practice influences the young participants’ (18-26 years old identification with Indonesia, the origin country of their parents, and Australia, their current culture of settlement. The findings suggest that Bahasa Indonesia serves as a marker of ethnic and religious identity glued in family socialization. Parents believe that not only does the language signify their Indonesian ethnic identity, but also provides a means for socializing family values, and is beneficial for educational purposes and future career opportunities. However, parents face a dilemma whether to focus on ethnic or religious identity in socializing the use of Bahasa Indonesia. Interestingly, most young participants demonstrate a more global worldview by embracing both Indonesian and Australian values. How religious identity relates to more global worldview should be addressed more comprehensively in future studies.

  19. The impact of leadership coaching in an Australian healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Anthony M; Studholme, Ingrid; Verma, Raj; Kirkwood, Lea; Paton, Bronwyn; O'Connor, Sean

    2017-04-10

    Purpose There is limited empirical literature on the effectiveness of leadership coaching in healthcare settings. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of leadership coaching for individuals implementing strategic change in the Australian public health system. Design/methodology/approach Using a within-subjects (pre-post) design, participants ( n=31) undertook six one-hour coaching sessions. Coaching was conducted by professional leadership coaches. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Findings Participation was associated with significant improvements in goal attainment, solution-focused thinking, leadership self-efficacy, perspective-taking capacity, self-insight and resilience, and ambiguity tolerance. There were significant reductions in stress and anxiety. The benefits of coaching transferred from the workplace to the home. Many participants reported being able to use insights gained in coaching in their personal lives, and reported better work/life balance, less stress and better quality relationships at home. Originality/value Few studies have provided evaluation of leadership coaching in healthcare setting. Leadership coaching in the public health system may be an important methodology for facilitating goal attainment and fostering resilience in this vital social sector, benefiting workers in the health services, their families and ultimately their patients and the broader community.

  20. Past processes in peats : untangling the origin of dried peat in the Australian alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, S.P.P.; Tisdall, J.M.; Jacobsen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Peat soils form where decomposition is hindered, often by a combination of cold and wet conditions, such that production of organic matter outweighs decomposition. Such conditions are rare in the hot, dry continent of Australia. Consequently peat barely features on a map of Australian soils, though small areas are noted to occur in the alps and along the humid east coast. It is pertinent to ask several questions about the origin of peat in the alps. Is dried peat a remnant of bog peat? And if so, when did bogs drain to form dried peat? The study site, on Wellington Plains in the south-east Gippsland Alps, contains a substantial area of bog peat and extensive areas of dried peat. AMS radiocarbon dating of surface, base and, for the bog peat only, mid-profile peat samples, was carried out at ANSTO. 14 C dating enabled us to look at the initiation of peat accumulation, but the change from bog peat to dried peat is thought to have occurred more recently, since the introduction of stock to the alps. The short half-life of 210 Pb (22.6 years) and the constant supply from the upper atmosphere makes 210 Pb an appropriate technique to investigate this time frame. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Cultural Modulation and The Zero Originality Clause of Remix Culture in Australian Contemporary Art

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    Ross Rudesch Harley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian media artists particularly have been engaged in using found-footage strategies — as evidenced by work made over the past three decades and included in recent retrospective exhibitions such as 'SynCity: Remixing three generations of sample culture' (2006. Armed with techniques of cut and copy, these artists purposefully manipulate and hack found material for their own strategic purposes. In doing so, they dislocate archival material from its original techno-cultural location and re-animate global popular culture in their own personal/local style. Artists have always been plugged into archives, whether it be for inspiration, research purposes, or as a source of raw material. The present digitisation of archives into web databases and peer-to-peer networks has further accelerated this relationship of storage and cultural exchange. Tracing a conceptual bass-line that can be followed from the avant-garde filmmakers of the 20s, Situationist détournement and Burroughs’ cut-up techniques of the 1960s, 1980s Super8 strategies, contemporary VJ culture, creative commons, wikimedia, open source and P2P networks, this article lays out some of the stakes involved in remixing the archive in the bit-torrent age.

  2. Impacts and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    As living creatures, all of us have some interest in the question of how life originated. To some, the question is more religious than scientific; nonetheless, a small but dedicated group of scientists spend their careers trying to answer it from a rational standpoint. Logically, the question can be broken down into the three standard divisions of any mystery: When did life originate? Where did it originate? And how did it originate? Of these three sub-questions the last is by far the most difficult and I will make no attempt to address it here. I will however take a personal look at the two easier parts of the problem. In particular, I will outline my current view of the physical environment of the early Earth, and I will try to show how observations of other solar system bodies, especially our own Moon, provide clues as to when and where life could have originated.

  3. Continental drift and plateau uplift control origination and evolution of Asian and Australian monsoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Dong, Buwen; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Smith, Robin S; Guo, Qingchun

    2017-01-13

    Evolutions of Asian and Australian monsoons have important significance for understanding the past global change but are still a controversial subject. Here, we explore systematically the effects of plate movement and plateau uplift on the formation and evolution of the Asian and Australian monsoons by numerical simulations based on land-sea distributions and topographic conditions for five typical geological periods during the Cenozoic. Our results suggest that the timings and causes of formation of the monsoons in South Asia, East Asia and northern Australia are different. The Indian Subcontinent, which was located in the tropical Southern Hemisphere in the Paleocene, was influenced by the austral monsoon system simulated at that time. Once it moved to the tropical Northern Hemisphere in the Eocene, the South Asian monsoon established and remained persistently thereafter. However, the monsoons of East Asia and northern Australia did not appear until the Miocene. The establishment of the simulated low-latitude South Asian (northern Australian) monsoon appeared to have strongly depended on the location of mainland India (Australia), associated with northward plate motion, without much relation to the plateau uplift. On the contrary, the establishment of the mid-latitude East Asian monsoon was mainly controlled by the uplift of Tibetan plateau.

  4. Impacts of the Madden-Julian oscillation on Australian rainfall and circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, M.C.; Hendon, H.H.; Cleland, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Donald, A.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of the Madden¿Julian oscillation (MJO) on Australian rainfall and circulation are examined during all four seasons. The authors examine circulation anomalies and a number of different rainfall metrics, each composited contemporaneously for eight MJO phases derived from the real-time

  5. Australian community members' attitudes toward climate change impacts at the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena J. vanRiper; Gerard Kyle; Jee In Yoon; Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-01-01

    This research identified homogenous groups of Australian community members that share similar attitudes toward climate change impacts within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of adult residents living near the GBRWHA (n = 1,623) in order to assess public awareness of climate change, concern about...

  6. Overview of the industry and social impacts of the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, R

    2011-07-01

    The equine influenza (EI) outbreak occurred at the worst time of the year as far as the horse industry was concerned. All horse sports and horse breeds had events planned in the spring, including those relating to qualification for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. These were all disrupted and many were cancelled. The social and industry impacts were extensive, and included difficulties related to communication, animal welfare, vaccination, movement restrictions, economics, as well as the psychological stresses experienced by those involved, especially those for whom their primary source of income was horse related. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Evaluation of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale in an Australian preschool child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, P; Klobas, E

    2015-09-01

    Early childhood caries has significant impacts on children and their families. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument for capturing the complex dimensions of preschool children's oral health. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument among Australian preschool children. Parents/children dyads (n = 286) participating in a treatment trial on early childhood caries completed the scale at baseline, and 33 parents repeated the questionnaire 2-3 weeks later. The validity and reliability of the ECOHIS was determined using tests for convergent and discriminant validity, internal reliability of the instrument and test-retest reliability. Scale impacts were strongly correlated with global oral health ratings (Spearman's correlations; r = 0.51, total score; r = 0.43, child impact; and r = 0.49, family impact; p childhood caries among Australian preschool children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural language semantics in linguistics and in philosophy and logic. With Montague as a central but not solo player in the story, I reflect on crucial developments in the 1960's and 70's in linguistics and philosophy, and the growth of formal semantics and formal pragmatics from there. I discuss innovations, key players, and leading ideas that shaped the development of formal semantics and its relation to syntax, to pragmatics, and to the philosophy of language in its early years, and some central aspects of its early impact on those fields.ReferencesAbbott, B. 1999. ‘The formal approach to meaning: Formal semantics and its recent developments’. Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai119, no. 1: 2–20. https://www.msu.edu/~abbottb/formal.htm.Ajdukiewicz, K. 1960. Je¸zyk i Poznanie (Language and Knowledge. Warsaw.Bach, E. 1968. ‘Nouns and Noun Phrases’. In E. Bach & R.T. Harms (eds. ‘Universals in Linguistic Theory’, 90–122. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Bach, E. 1989. Informal Lectures on Formal Semantics. New York: State University of New York Press.Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954a. ‘Logical syntax and semantics’. Language 30: 230–237.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410265Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954b. ‘Indexical Expressions’. Mind 63: 359–379.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/LXIII.251.359Bar-Hillel, Y. 1963. ‘Remarks on Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language’. In P. A. Schilpp (ed. ‘The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap’, 519–543. LaSalle, Illinois / London: Open

  9. Two layers of Australian impact ejecta in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Gupta, S.M.; Kodagali, V.N.

    this core is higher than that of AAS 4/6. The tektite compositions from both locations fall withinthe microtektite compositions from the respective sites. This is seen clearly in the major oxide versus silica plots (Fig. 3).The soda potash contents... circle). Bottom right: Soda-potash plots of the 2 tektites (flangedbutton and tektite fragment) and microtektites from the 2 cores AAS 4/6 and AAS 22/3. Two layers of Australasian impact ejecta in the Indian Ocean? 1379they were discovered. Care...

  10. Climate change and long-term fire management impacts on Australian savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven I; Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B

    2015-02-01

    Tropical savannas cover a large proportion of the Earth's land surface and many people are dependent on the ecosystem services that savannas supply. Their sustainable management is crucial. Owing to the complexity of savanna vegetation dynamics, climate change and land use impacts on savannas are highly uncertain. We used a dynamic vegetation model, the adaptive dynamic global vegetation model (aDGVM), to project how climate change and fire management might influence future vegetation in northern Australian savannas. Under future climate conditions, vegetation can store more carbon than under ambient conditions. Changes in rainfall seasonality influence future carbon storage but do not turn vegetation into a carbon source, suggesting that CO₂ fertilization is the main driver of vegetation change. The application of prescribed fires with varying return intervals and burning season influences vegetation and fire impacts. Carbon sequestration is maximized with early dry season fires and long fire return intervals, while grass productivity is maximized with late dry season fires and intermediate fire return intervals. The study has implications for management policy across Australian savannas because it identifies how fire management strategies may influence grazing yield, carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions. This knowledge is crucial to maintaining important ecosystem services of Australian savannas. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Impact of falls on mental health outcomes for older adult mental health patients: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Karen Ruth; Wynaden, Dianne Gaye

    2016-02-01

    Sustaining a fall during hospitalization reduces a patient's ability to return home following discharge. It is well accepted that factors, such as alteration in balance, functional mobility, muscle strength, and fear of falling, are all factors that impact on the quality of life of elderly people following a fall. However, the impact that falls have on mental health outcomes in older adult mental health patients remains unexplored. The present study reports Health of the Nation Outcome Scale scores for people over the age of 65 (HoNOS65+), which were examined in a cohort of 65 patients who sustained a fall and 73 non-fallers admitted to an older adult mental health service (OAMHS). Results were compared with state and national HoNOS65+ data recorded in Australian National Outcome Casemix Collection data to explore the effect that sustaining a fall while hospitalized has on mental health outcomes. Australian state and national HoNOS65+ data indicate that older adults generally experience improved HoNOS65+ scores from admission to discharge. Mental health outcomes for patients who sustained a fall while admitted to an OAMHS did not follow this trend. Sustaining a fall while admitted to an OAMHS negatively affects discharge mental health outcomes. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  12. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices: An exploratory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content.

  13. Rapid and repeated origin of insular gigantism and dwarfism in Australian tiger snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, J Scott; Scott, Ian A W; Hayes, Christine

    2005-01-01

    It is a well-known phenomenon that islands can support populations of gigantic or dwarf forms of mainland conspecifics, but the variety of explanatory hypotheses for this phenomenon have been difficult to disentangle. The highly venomous Australian tiger snakes (genus Notechis) represent a well-known and extreme example of insular body size variation. They are of special interest because there are multiple populations of dwarfs and giants and the age of the islands and thus the age of the tiger snake populations are known from detailed sea level studies. Most are 5000-7000 years old and all are less than 10,000 years old. Here we discriminate between two competing hypotheses with a molecular phylogeography dataset comprising approximately 4800 bp of mtDNA and demonstrate that populations of island dwarfs and giants have evolved five times independently. In each case the closest relatives of the giant or dwarf populations are mainland tiger snakes, and in four of the five cases, the closest relatives are also the most geographically proximate mainland tiger snakes. Moreover, these body size shifts have evolved extremely rapidly and this is reflected in the genetic divergence between island body size variants and mainland snakes. Within south eastern Australia, where populations of island giants, populations of island dwarfs, and mainland tiger snakes all occur, the maximum genetic divergence is only 0.38%. Dwarf tiger snakes are restricted to prey items that are much smaller than the prey items of mainland tiger snakes and giant tiger snakes are restricted to seasonally available prey items that are up three times larger than the prey items of mainland tiger snakes. We support the hypotheses that these body size shifts are due to strong selection imposed by the size of available prey items, rather than shared evolutionary history, and our results are consistent with the notion that adaptive plasticity also has played an important role in body size shifts. We suggest

  14. Impact of teamwork on missed care in four Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rose; Rahman, Asheq; Courtney, Mary; Chalmers, Cheyne

    2017-01-01

    Investigate effects of teamwork on missed nursing care across a healthcare network in Australia. Missed care is universally used as an indicator of quality nursing care, however, little is known about mitigating effects of teamwork on these events. A descriptive exploratory study. Missed Care and Team Work surveys were completed by 334 nurses. Using Stata software, nursing staff demographic information and components of missed care and teamwork were compared across the healthcare network. Statistical tests were performed to identify predicting factors for missed care. The most commonly reported components of missed care were as follows: ambulation three times per day (43·3%), turning patient every two hours (29%) and mouth care (27·7%). The commonest reasons mentioned for missed care were as follows: inadequate labour resources (range 69·8-52·7%), followed by material resources (range 59·3-33·3%) and communication (range 39·3-27·2%). There were significant differences in missed care scores across units. Using the mean scores in regression correlation matrix, the negative relationship of missed care and teamwork was supported (r = -0·34, p teamwork alone accounted for about 9% of missed nursing care. Similar to previous international research findings, our results showed nursing teamwork significantly impacted on missed nursing care. Teamwork may be a mitigating factor to address missed care and future research is needed. These results may provide administrators, educators and clinicians with information to develop practices and policies to improve patient care internationally. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: → Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. → Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. → Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. → Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. → At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  16. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Fayet-Moore; Jean Kim; Nilani Sritharan; Peter Petocz

    2016-01-01

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with br...

  17. Climate Change and Long-Term Fire Management Impacts on Australian Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, S.; Higgins, S. I.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical savannas cover a large proportion of the Earth's land surface and many people are dependent on the ecosystem services that savannas supply. Their sustainable management is therefore crucial. Due to the complexity of vegetation dynamics, the impacts of climate change and land use on savannas are highly uncertain. Here, we use a dynamic vegetation model, the aDGVM, to project how climate change and fire management influence vegetation in northern Australian savannas in 2100. We show that under future climate conditions, vegetation can store more carbon than under ambient conditions, despite substantial changes in fire regimes. Changes in rainfall seasonality influence future carbon storage but do not turn vegetation into a carbon source, suggesting that CO2 fertilization is the main driver of vegetation change. The application of prescribed fires with varying return intervals and burning season, influences vegetation dynamics and fire induced carbon and greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon sequestration is maximized with early dry season fires and long fire return intervals, grass productivity is maximized with late dry season fires at an intermediate fire return intervals. The study has implications for management policy across Australian savannas because it can contribute to identifying fire management strategies that optimize grazing yield, carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions. This knowledge is crucial to maintain important ecosystem services of Australian savannas.

  18. Fluctuations in money availability within an income cycle impacts diet quality of remote Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Pekarsky, Brita Ak; Ferguson, Megan M; O'Dea, Kerin; Brimblecombe, Julie K

    2017-06-01

    To consider the plausible nutritional impacts of fluctuations in money availability within an income cycle for remote Indigenous Australians. Community-level dietary intake (energy, micro/macronutrients) and expenditure on foods and beverages (F&B) were estimated over one year for three remote Indigenous Australian communities (Northern Territory, Australia) using monthly F&B transaction data. F&B that were likely to be consumed during a period within an income cycle when money was relatively limited (low money period (LMP) foods) were identified by panel consensus and scenario modelling was conducted to simulate the nutritional outcomes of a range of F&B selection responses to having an LMP. All scenarios resulted in reduced diet quality during the LMP relative to overall average diet values. Protein and fat energy percentages were reduced and carbohydrate energy percentage increased. Despite reduced expenditure, declines in energy intake were typically buffered due to the reduced energy cost ($AU/MJ) of the LMP diet. The micronutrient profile of the LMP diet was substantially poorer, such that additional key micronutrients dropped below population-weighted Estimated Average Requirements/Adequate Intakes. The modelling undertaken herein suggests that even a short period of low money within an income cycle may noticeably contribute to the reduced diet quality of remote Indigenous Australians and exacerbate lifestyle disease risk. Dietary strategies that are designed to respond to diets and expenditure during different income cycle periods, rather than the overall average diet and expenditure, should be considered for improving diet quality and reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in remote Indigenous Australians.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Acceptability, feasibility and impact of routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Acceptability, feasibility and impact of routine screening to detect undiagnosed HIV infection in 17 - 24-month-old children in the western sub-district of Cape Town. Michael Levin, Hlengani Mathema, Kathryn Stinson, Karen Jennings. Objectives. To explore the acceptability and feasibility of routine.

  20. The global financial crisis: origin, contagion and impacts on Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The financial crisis that erupted in September 2008—following more than two years of financial turmoil has become global crisis for the world economy. An attempt is made in this study to assess the possible causes of the origin, contagion and impact of the current global financial crisis with particular emphasis on Africa and ...

  1. The origin of the medium OSL component in West Australian quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.L.; Du, J.H.; Adamiec, G.; Wintle, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of a coarse-grained sedimentary quartz from West Australia was investigated. Observations of OSL and TL (thermoluminescence) were made following a series of experiments using different heating and optical bleaching conditions, and with optical stimulation at several different temperatures. Analysis of the fast and medium OSL components suggests that the medium OSL component observed after heating at 260 °C is a by-product of the production of the fast component, and both of them have as their original source the 325 °C TL trap. During fast OSL production following irradiation and preheating, some of the electrons evicted into the conduction band are re-trapped in an intermediate trap corresponding to the 170 °C TL peak; from here they are instantaneously stimulated to give rise to the medium OSL signal when the blue light stimulation is switched on, and subsequently result in the residual recuperated TL after the blue light is switched off. The kinetic properties of the medium OSL component are determined by the properties of both the 170 °C and 325 °C TL traps in contrast to the conventional interpretation of the medium component being derived from an independent source trap. Therefore, the 170 °C TL trap also plays unexpected roles in quartz OSL production with elevated stimulation temperatures (e.g. 125 °C or 130 °C, currently used for OSL dating), while the 110 °C TL trap and its influences are being avoided. - Highlights: • Quartz medium OSL component is a by-product of fast OSL component production. • Medium component is mediated by the 170 C TL peak. • Phototransfer is responsible for the medium OSL

  2. Suicide prevention and method restriction: evaluating the impact of limiting access to lethal means among young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    Given the finite resources allocated to suicide prevention, it is necessary to direct resources into interventions that are most likely to have an impact. This article tests for possible impacts on youth suicides of a cost-intensive Australian policy change (increased firearms restriction) that limited access to a means of suicide. Suicide rates by different age groups and methods were examined for structural breaks, using Zivot-Andrews and Quandt tests. No breakpoint was found in firearm suicide among Australian youth around the time of the 1996 legislative changes. Method restriction in the form of firearms legislation could not be tied to a corresponding impact on youth suicide.

  3. An Investigation of the impact of interest rates and interest rate volatility on Australian financial sector stock return distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faff, R.; Kremmer, M.; Hodgson, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper extends the existing literature by analysing the dual impact of changes in the interest rate and interest rate volatility on the distribution of Australian financial sector stock returns. In addition, a multivariate GARCH-M model is used to analyse the impact of deregulation on the

  4. Vulnerability of Australian agriculture to climate change: sequencing impacts over IPCC trajectories for adaptation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallawaarachchi, Thilak; Hodges, Andrew; Wicks, Santhi; Kokic, Phil; Nelson, Rohan

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Agricultural systems are susceptible to adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. While the degree of vulnerability is a function of the magnitude and the rate of variation in climate exposure, agricultural systems with a stronger adaptive capacity are likely to be less vulnerable to climate change. In preparing the agriculture sector for ongoing climate change, adaptation planning to moderate potential impacts and to take advantage of opportunities, has emerged as an effective strategic response. Global climate change scenarios developed by the IPCC indicate that changes in climate may alter the production potential of agriculture across many regions. Wide regional variability in productivity, extensive land use and the dominance in rural economies across Australia could expose agriculture to considerable risks from climate change impacts. In many cases these risks could cascade across a range of sectors and vary overtime, reflecting the capacity of exposed enterprises to adapt to a changing climate by taking advantage of opportunities. Effective planning of adaptation responses will require integrated assessments of regional vulnerability to climate risks over IPCC projection trajectories. In this paper, we present a method for estimating and mapping vulnerability to climate risks at the regional level, and apply this method to examine the vulnerability of Australian agriculture to climate change, focusing on case studies drawn from dryland broadacre and irrigated horticulture industries. In developing a conceptual framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation options, the paper provides a review of key approaches used globally for the assessment of vulnerability to climate change in agriculture. It presents an approach to link global climate change scenario-based projections for assessing economic impacts on industries and regions through a process that maps climate risks to factors contributing

  5. ON A GIANT IMPACT ORIGIN OF CHARON, NIX, AND HYDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canup, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that Charon was formed as a result of a large, grazing collision with Pluto that supplied the Pluto-Charon system with its high angular momentum. It has also been proposed that Pluto's small outer moons, Nix and Hydra, formed from debris from the Charon-forming impact, although the viability of this scenario remains unclear. Here I use smooth particle hydrodynamics impact simulations to show that it is possible to simultaneously form an intact Charon and an accompanying debris disk from a single impact. The successful cases involve colliding objects that are partially differentiated prior to impact, having thin outer ice mantles overlying a uniform composition rock-ice core. The composition of the resulting debris disks varies from a mixture of rock and ice (similar to the bulk composition of Pluto and Charon) to a pure ice disk. If Nix and Hydra were formed from such an impact-generated disk, their densities should be less than or similar to that of Charon and Pluto, and the small moons could be composed entirely of ice. If they were instead formed from captured material, a mixed rock-ice composition and densities similar to that of Charon and Pluto would be expected. Improved constraints on the properties of Nix and Hydra through occultations and/or the New Horizons encounter may thus help to distinguish between these two modes of origin, particularly if the small moons are found to have ice-like densities.

  6. Conditions for Australian consent to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This article contains the text of the statement by the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the House of Representatives, Noember 1980, on conditions for Australian consent to the reprocessing of nuclear material of Australian origin

  7. Distributional effects of the Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) through wholesale and retail electricity price impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cludius, Johanna; Forrest, Sam; MacGill, Iain

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) has spurred significant investment in renewable electricity generation, notably wind power, over the past decade. This paper considers distributional implications of the RET for different energy users. Using time-series regression, we show that the increasing amount of wind energy has placed considerable downward pressure on wholesale electricity prices through the so-called merit order effect. On the other hand, RET costs are passed on to consumers in the form of retail electricity price premiums. Our findings highlight likely significant redistributive transfers between different energy user classes under current RET arrangements. In particular, some energy-intensive industries are benefiting from lower wholesale electricity prices whilst being largely exempted from contributing to the costs of the scheme. By contrast, many households are paying significant RET pass through costs whilst not necessarily benefiting from lower wholesale prices. A more equitable distribution of RET costs and benefits could be achieved by reviewing the scope and extent of industry exemptions and ensuring that methodologies to estimate wholesale price components in regulated electricity tariffs reflect more closely actual market conditions. More generally, these findings support the growing international appreciation that policy makers need to integrate distributional assessments into policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • The Australian RET has complex yet important distributional impacts on different energy users. • Likely wealth transfers from residential and small business consumers to large energy-intensive industry. • Merit order effects of wind likely overcompensate exempt industry for contribution to RET costs. • RET costs for households could be reduced if merit order effects were adequately passed through. • Need for distributional impact assessments when designing and implementing clean energy policy

  8. The Shallowater aubrite: Evidence for origin by planetesimal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, K.; Ntaflos, Th.; Taylor, G.J.; Brearley, A.J.; Newsom, H.E.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors argue that Shallowater did not form on the aubrite parent body but represents yet an additional, fourth enstatite meteorite body. They further argue that its peculiar composition, texture, and cooling history can best be explained by an origin involving a low-velocity collision and break-up of a molten or partly molten asteroid, consisting largely of a melt of MgSiO 3 composition, with a solid, enstatite meteorite-like object. The fragments of liquid cooled very fast (hundreds of degrees per hour) due to incorporation of >20% cold projectile debris. The fragments reassembled while their temperature was somewhere above 712 degree C, and deeply buried objects cooled very slowly ( 6 y) from 712 to 680 degree C. Subsequent excavation by impact(s) accounts for fast cooling (>0.5 degree C/day) from 680 degree C

  9. Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (Pchildren, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians.

  10. The Psychosocial Impact of Cleft in a Western Australian Cohort Across 3 Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Wendy; Selvey, Linda A; Harper, Craig; Persson, Martin; Robinson, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Management of a cleft of the lip and/or palate (CL/P) involves a multidisciplinary team approach lasting from birth to potentially postskeletal maturity. This condition is complex, with both medical and psychosocial implications that may place individuals with a cleft at higher risk of developing psychosocial problems. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a sample from the Western Australian cleft population comprising 3 age groups: child (n = 100), adolescent (n = 101), and adult (n = 158). Public speaking, being photographed, special relationships, and participation in school were identified as the areas most impacted by having a cleft. Hearing and speech were reported to have a higher importance than facial and dental appearance. Participants rated support given to them by their parents as the most important, with high ratings for treatment providers. For teasing, the impact of cleft was significantly higher among participants with cleft lip and palate for both the adolescent and adult age groups. There was little significant difference by gender across the variables, which suggests that males are just as likely to require support as females. The impact of a cleft across multiple psychosocial domains needs to be recognized and addressed as part of craniofacial team care across age groups.

  11. Impact of oral disease on quality of life in the US and Australian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E; Slade, Gary D; Lim, Sungwoo; Reisine, Susan T

    2009-04-01

    The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) evaluated oral health quality of life for the first time using a previously untested subset of seven Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questions, i.e. the NHANES-OHIP. (i) To describe the impact of dental conditions on quality of life in the US adult population; (ii) to evaluate construct validity and adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP in NHANES 2003-2004 and a comparable Australian survey. In the cross-sectional NHANES 2003-2004 survey of a nationally representative sample of US adults (n=4907), prevalence was quantified as the proportion of adults who reported experiencing one or more impacts fairly often or very often within the past year. Construct validity was tested by comparing prevalence estimates across categories of sociodemographic, dental health and utilization characteristics known to vary in oral health. In 2002, Australian cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of adults (n=2644), adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP questions were tested with reference to a slightly modified version of the OHIP-14 questions. NHANES-OHIP prevalence estimates were markedly similar in the United States (15.3%) and Australia (15.7%). In the US construct, validity was evidenced by higher NHANES-OHIP scores among groups with greater levels of tooth loss, perceived treatment need and problem-oriented visiting and with lack of private dental insurance and low income. In Australia, prevalence for the NHANES-OHIP closely resembled prevalence estimates of the modified OHIP-14. Both varied to a similar degree across levels of tooth loss, perceived treatment need, problem-oriented visiting, and private dental insurance and income, demonstrating adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP as a brief independent instrument. There was acceptable construct validity and adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP questionnaire. In the United States, the impact of oral disease disproportionately affected disadvantaged groups, a finding

  12. On the impact origin of Phobos and Deimos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genda, Hidenori; Hyodo, Ryuki; Chanorz, Sebastian; Rosenblatt, Pascal

    2017-10-01

    Phobos and Deimos, the two small satellites of Mars, are thought either to be captured asteroids or to have accreted in an impact-induced debris disk. Recently, we succeeded in making them in a framework of the giant impact scenario [1]. In our canonical simulation, large moons form from the material in the dense inner disk and then migrate outwards due to gravitational interactions with the remnant disk. As the large inner moons migrate outward, their orbital resonances sweep up and gather materials distributed within a thin outer disk, facilitating accretion of two small satellites whose sizes are similar to Phobos and Deimos. The large inner moons fall back to Mars after about 5 million years due to tidal pull of Mars, and the two small outer satellites evolve into current Phobos- and Deimos-like orbits.In addition, we recently perform high-resolution SPH giant impact simulations using sophisticated equation of states (M-ANEOS). We investigate the thermodynamic and physical aspects of the impact-induced disk [2], such as degrees of melting and vaporization of materials, mixing ratio of Mars and impactor’s materials, and expected particle sizes that form Phobos and Deimos. Our results will give useful information for planning a future sample return mission to Martian moons, such as JAXA’s MMX (Martian Moons eXploration) mission.[1] Rosenblatt, P., Charnoz, S., Dunseath, K.M., Terao-Dunseath, M., Trinh, A., Hyodo, R., Genda, H., Toupin, S., 2016. Accretion of Phobos and Deimos in an extended debris disc stirred by transient moons. Nature Geoscience 9, 581-583.[2] Hyodo, R., Genda, H., Charnoz, S., Rosenblatt, P., 2017, On the impact origin of Phobos and Deimos I: Thermodynamic and physical aspects. ApJ accepted (arXiv:1707.06282).

  13. Evaluating an impact origin for Mercury's high-magnesium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Abramov, Oleg; James, Peter B.; Klima, Rachel L.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2017-03-01

    During its four years in orbit around Mercury, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft's X-ray Spectrometer revealed a large geochemical terrane in the northern hemisphere that hosts the highest Mg/Si, S/Si, Ca/Si, and Fe/Si and lowest Al/Si ratios on the planet. Correlations with low topography, thin crust, and a sharp northern topographic boundary led to the proposal that this high-Mg region is the remnant of an ancient, highly degraded impact basin. Here we use a numerical modeling approach to explore the feasibility of this hypothesis and evaluate the results against multiple mission-wide data sets and resulting maps from MESSENGER. We find that an 3000 km diameter impact basin easily exhumes Mg-rich mantle material but that the amount of subsequent modification required to hide basin structure is incompatible with the strength of the geochemical anomaly, which is also present in maps of Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer data. Consequently, the high-Mg region is more likely to be the product of high-temperature volcanism sourced from a chemically heterogeneous mantle than the remains of a large impact event.Plain Language SummaryDuring its four years in orbit around Mercury, chemical measurements from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft revealed a large region of unusual composition relative to the rest of the planet. Its elevated magnesium abundance, in particular, led to the name of the "high-magnesium region" (HMR). High magnesium abundance in rock can be an indicator of its origin, such as high-temperature volcanism. Although the HMR covers approximately 15% of Mercury's surface, its origin is not obvious. It does roughly correspond to a depression with thin crust, which previously led to the hypothesis that it is an ancient impact crater that was large enough to excavate mantle material, which, in rocky planets, is rich in magnesium relative to their

  14. Testing and Resilience of the Impact Origin of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Canup, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The leading hypothesis for the origin of the Moon is the giant impact model, which grew out of the post-Apollo science community. The hypothesis was able to explain the high E-M system angular momentum, the small lunar core, and consistent with the idea that the early Moon melted substantially. The standard hypothesis requires that the Moon be made entirely from the impactor, strangely at odds with the nearly identical oxygen isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, compositions that might be expected to be different if Moon came from a distinct impactor. Subsequent geochemical research has highlighted the similarity of both geochemical and isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, and measured small but significant amounts of volatiles in lunar glassy materials, both of which are seemingly at odds with the standard giant impact model. Here we focus on key geochemical measurements and spacecraft observations that have prompted a healthy re-evaluation of the giant impact model, provide an overview of physical models that are either newly proposed or slightly revised from previous ideas, to explain the new datasets.

  15. The Impact of Collegiality amongst Australian Accounting Academics on Work-Related Attitudes and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…

  16. What research impacts do Australian primary health care researchers expect and achieve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Richard L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Funding for research is under pressure to be accountable in terms of benefits and translation of research findings into practice and policy. Primary health care research has considerable potential to improve health care in a wide range of settings, but little is known about the extent to which these impacts actually occur. This study examines the impact of individual primary health care research projects on policy and practice from the perspective of Chief Investigators (CIs. Methods The project used an online survey adapted from the Buxton and Hanney Payback Framework to collect information about the impacts that CIs expected and achieved from primary health care research projects funded by Australian national competitive grants. Results and Discussion Chief Investigators (CIs provided information about seventeen completed projects. While no CI expected their project to have an impact in every domain of the framework used in the survey, 76% achieved at least half the impacts they expected. Sixteen projects had published and/or presented their work, 10 projects included 11 doctorate awards in their research capacity domain. All CIs expected their research to lead to further research opportunities with 11 achieving this. Ten CIs achieved their expectation of providing information for policy making but only four reported their research had influenced policy making. However 11 CIs achieved their expectation of providing information for organizational decision making and eight reported their research had influenced organizational decision making. Conclusion CIs reported that nationally funded primary health care research projects made an impact on knowledge production, staff development and further research, areas within the realm of influence of the research team and within the scope of awareness of the CIs. Some also made an impact on policy and organizational decision-making, and on localized clinical practice and service

  17. Psychosocial factors impacting on life transitions among young adults with type 2 diabetes: an Australian - Danish qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, B; Terkildsen Maindal, H; Livingston, P; Dunning, T; Lorentzen, V

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence is increasing rapidly worldwide with a significant increase in young adults. There is limited information about psychosocial and service needs of this group. To explore similarities and differences in how psychosocial factors impact on Australian and Danish young adults with T2DM and to identify unmet support needs during life transitions. A qualitative approach was adopted using thematic content analysis of 26 in-depth semi-structured interviews. An inductive descriptive content analysis was undertaken using a comparative coding system. Eligible participants were from Australia (12) and Denmark (14), aged 19-42 years who had T2DM for more than 10 months. In general, they reported diabetes management was difficult during transitions and diabetes self-care routines had to change to accommodate life changes. The underpinning sense of 'uncertainty' initiated by life transitions caused guilt that often resulted in low self-worth, anxiety and depression, which in turn had a negative impact on social and professional relationships. The participants emphasised the importance of connectedness to social networks, particularly with T2DM peers, and the need for flexible access to health professionals, age-specific tailored support and lower costs for Australians. Australian participants were more concerned than Danish participants about the cost associated with diabetes care and their ability to stay employed; hence, they were reluctant to disclose diabetes at work. T2DM had a similar impact on life transitions of Australian and Danish young adults with T2DM, suggesting health care needs to encompass managing life transitions. Participants had to cope with uncertainty and the impact of people's responses to diabetes, particularly at work and in relationships. Health professionals are urged to integrate these factors in care plans and education, which must be individualised and focus on the psychosocial aspects that operate during life

  18. The Impacts of English Colonial Terrorism and Genocide on Indigenous/Black Australians

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    Asafa Jalata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article critically explores the essence of colonial terrorism and its consequences on the indigenous people of Australia during their colonization and incorporation into the European-dominated racialized capitalist world system in the late 18th century. It uses multidimensional, comparative methods, and critical approaches to explain the dynamic interplay among social structures, human agency, and terror to explain the connection between terrorism and the emergence of the capitalist world system or globalization. Raising complex moral, intellectual, philosophical, ethical, and political questions, this article explores the essence, roles, and impacts of colonial terrorism on the indigenous Australians. First, the article provides background historical and cultural information. Second, it conceptualizes and theorizes colonial terrorism as an integral part of the capitalist world system. Specifically, it links capitalist incorporation and colonialism and various forms of violence to terrorism. Third, the article examines the structural aspects of colonial terrorism by connecting it to some specific colonial policies and practices. Finally, it identifies and explains different kinds of ideological justifications that the English colonial settlers and their descendants used in committing crimes against humanity.

  19. The asteroid impact connection of planetary evolution with special reference to large Precambrian and Australian impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2014-01-01

    When in 1981 Louis and Walter Alvarez, the father and son team, unearthed a tell-tale Iridium-rich sedimentary horizon at the 65 million years-old Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio, Italy, their find heralded a paradigm shift in the study of terrestrial evolution.  Since the 1980s the discovery and study of asteroid impact ejecta in the oldest well-preserved terrains of Western Australia and South Africa, by Don Lowe, Gary Byerly, Bruce Simonson, Scott Hassler, the author and others, and the documentation of new exposed and buried impact structures in several continents, have led to a resurgence of the idea of the catastrophism theory of Cuvier, previously largely supplanted by the uniformitarian theory of Hutton and Lyell. Several mass extinction of species events are known to have occurred in temporal proximity to large asteroid impacts, global volcanic eruptions and continental splitting. Likely links are observed between asteroid clusters and the 580 Ma acritarch radiation, end-Devonian extinction, ...

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of Indoor Smoking Bans on Air Quality in Australian Licensed Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Margaret Elissa

    The quality of indoor air in Australian buildings is unknown due to limited published data. The assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in hospitality environments is of special concern because they are frequented by sensitive populations such as the elderly, children, and people with pre-existing health conditions, who may be at risk of developing adverse health reactions if the IAQ is poor. As of 2010, all Australian states and territories have introduced legalisation banning smoking in enclosed public places, including licensed clubs. This project has evaluated the impact of indoor smoking bans on air quality inside and outside of Australian licensed clubs. In doing this it has identified emerging IAQ issues in post smoking ban environments, and documented the airborne concentrations of previously unstudied air contaminants such as particulate matter with a 50% cut-point diameter of 1.0 ?m (PM1.0) and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH) in the indoor smoking areas of Australian licensed clubs. The study involved collecting approximately 400 hours of air quality data, of which 200 hours was collected before bans and 200 hrs was collected after smoking bans were introduced in licensed clubs located within two local government districts of South Eastern Australia. Clubs 1 to 7 were located in the one district and Clubs 8 to 11 in the other district. Club 4 dropped out following the pre ban monitoring, and the results were omitted from analysis. The air quality parameters measured inside include particulate matter with a 50% cut-point diameter of 2.5 mum (PM2.5), PPAH, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide mu(CO2), temperature and humidity. The air quality parameters measured outside were PM2.5, CO2, temperature and humidity. Each of the parameters were monitored for 4 hour periods on 4 occasions in each club both before, and after the introduction of indoor smoking bans. Additional monitoring of indoor concentrations of PM1.0, nicotine and PM2

  1. Advertising of fast food to children on Australian television: the impact of industry self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana A; King, Lesley; Grunseit, Anne; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy

    2011-07-04

    To assess the impact of the quick-service restaurant industry (QSRI) self-regulatory initiative on fast-food advertising to children on Australian commercial television. Analysis of advertisements for foods on the three main free-to-air commercial television channels (channels 7, 9 and 10) in Sydney, Australia, over 4 days in both May 2009 and April 2010 in terms of: number of advertisements; types of food (coded core [healthy] foods, non-core [unhealthy] foods, miscellaneous foods; or fast foods); whether advertised meals were intended for children; whether advertisements were broadcast during children's peak viewing times; and whether the company in question was a signatory to the QSRI initiative. Change in the mean frequency and rate of food advertisements per hour from 2009 to 2010; change in the types of fast-food meals (healthier alternatives [at least one nutrient-dense, low-energy food considered part of a healthy diet for children], non-core [high in undesirable nutrients and not considered part of a healthy diet for children], and other) being advertised; and proportion of children's energy requirements provided by fast-food meals. From 2009 to 2010, the mean frequency of fast-food advertisements increased from 1.1 to 1.5 per hour. While non-core fast foods comprised a lesser share of fast-food advertising in 2010 than 2009, the mean frequency at which they were advertised during times when the largest numbers of children were watching television remained the same (1.3 per hour in both 2009 and 2010). Family meals advertised for children's consumption in 2010 provided energy far in excess of children's requirements. Children's exposure to unhealthy fast-food advertising has not changed following the introduction of self-regulation, and some fast foods advertised for children's consumption contain excessive energy. The limited impact of self-regulation suggests that governments should define the policy framework for regulating fast-food advertising to

  2. Australian Academic Librarians’ Experience of Evidence Based Practice Involves Empowering, Intuiting, Affirming, Connecting, Noticing, and Impacting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Marie Muellenbach

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Miller, F., Partridge, H., Bruce, C., Yates, C., & Howlett, A. (2017. How academic librarians experience evidence-based practice: A grounded theory model. Library & Information Science Research, 39(2, 124-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2017.04.003 Abstract Objective – To explore and enhance the understanding of how Australian library and information science (LIS practitioners experience or understand evidence based practice (EBP within the context of their day-to-day professional work. Design – Constructivist grounded theory methodology. Setting – University libraries in Queensland, Australia. Subjects – 13 academic librarians. Methods – Researchers contacted academic librarians by email and invited each participant to take part in a 30-60 minute, semi-structured interview. They designed interview questions to allow participants to explain their process and experience of EBP. Main results – This study identified six categories of experience of EBP using a constructivist grounded theory analysis process. The categories are: Empowering; Intuiting; Affirming; Connecting; Noticing; and Impacting. Briefly, empowering includes being empowered, or empowering clients, colleagues, and institutions through improved practice or performance. Intuiting includes being intuitive, or using one’s own intuition, wisdom, and understanding, of colleagues and clients’ behaviours to solve problems and redesign services. Affirming includes being affirmed through sharing feedback and using affirmation to strengthen support for action. Connecting includes being connected, and building connections, with clients, colleagues, and institutions. Noticing includes being actively aware of, observing, and reflecting on clients, colleagues, and literature within and outside of one’s own university, and noticing patterns in data to inform decision-making. Impacting includes being impactful, or having a visible impact, on clients, colleagues

  3. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searles Andrew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora, it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'. It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA' will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC'-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent animportant precedent in a global strategy by industry oncost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also beof great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  4. The Australian experience following plain packaging: the impact on tobacco branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Brands are critical to tobacco marketing. Industry stakeholders predicted that plain packaging, by removing key tangible branding dimensions, would restrict new products and brand differentiation. However, manufacturers respond innovatively to limit regulatory impact. This study investigates brand strategy following plain packaging's introduction to Australia. Brand portfolios were determined using 2006-15 tobacco ingredient reports. These detail the brand and variant names sold and are provided annually as part of a voluntary agreement between the Australian Government and leading manufacturers. Post-plain packaging brand ranges were verified using retail price lists and a supermarket retail audit using a method used previously to verify a period of pre-plain packaging data. The verification process identified some data inaccuracies from one manufacturer which resulted in the issuing of corrected data. After plain packaging the leading manufacturers continued with extensive brand ranges differentiated by price. All launched new products. While total brand numbers fell from 29 to 24, the mean number of variants for the leading 12 brands grew from 8.9 to 9.7. Substantial variant name modifications occurred with 50 new or modified names in 2012-13. Among leading brands, the incidence of variant colour names increased from 49.5 to 79.3%. New brands and variants were not inhibited by the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. After plain packaging, leading brand variant numbers expanded by 9 to 116 and colour variant names increased by 73.6% and became the norm-lighter colours (blue, gold and silver) dominated, perpetuating notions of less harmful cigarettes. [Correction added on 09 September 2016, after first online publication: The figures in the last sentence of the Abstract are now corrected from 'expanded by 116' to 'expanded by 9 to 116'.]. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2016-08-01

    The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session.

  6. Origin,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  7. Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Rachel; Humphreys, John S; Kinsman, Leigh; Buykx, Penny; Asaid, Adel; Tuohey, Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a) Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care); (b) Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction); and (c) Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability). Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how; what benefits have been realised and for whom; the level of

  8. The Impact of Urban Growth and Climate Change on Heat Stress in an Australian City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S.; Mcalpine, C. A.; Thatcher, M. J.; Salazar, A.; Watson, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Over half of the world's population lives in urban areas. Most people will therefore be exposed to climate change in an urban environment. One of the climate risks facing urban residents is heat stress, which can lead to illness and death. Urban residents are at increased risk of heat stress due to the urban heat island effect. The urban heat island is a modification of the urban environment and increases temperatures on average by 2°C, though the increase can be much higher, up to 8°C when wind speeds and cloud cover are low. The urban heat island is also expected to increase in the future due to urban growth and intensification, further exacerbating urban heat stress. Climate change alters the urban heat island due to changes in weather (wind speed and cloudiness) and evapotranspiration. Future urban heat stress will therefore be affected by urban growth and climate change. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of urban growth and climate change on the urban heat island and heat stress in Brisbane, Australia. We used CCAM, the conformal cubic atmospheric model developed by the CSIRO, to examine temperatures in Brisbane using scenarios of urban growth and climate change. We downscaled the urban climate using CCAM, based on bias corrected Sea Surface Temperatures from the ACCESS1.0 projection of future climate. We used Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 for the periods 1990 - 2000, 2049 - 2060 and 2089 - 2090 with current land use and an urban growth scenario. The present day climatology was verified using weather station data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. We compared the urban heat island of the present day with the urban heat island with climate change to determine if climate change altered the heat island. We also calculated heat stress using wet-bulb globe temperature and apparent temperature for the climate change and base case scenarios. We found the urban growth scenario increased present day temperatures by 0.5°C in the

  9. Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buykx Penny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care; (b Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction; and (c Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability. Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how

  10. Origin of spray formation during impact on heated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Limbeek, Michiel A J; Hoefnagels, Paul B J; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-10-25

    In many applications, it is crucial to control the heat transfer rate of impacting drops on a heated plate. When the solid exceeds the so-called Leidenfrost temperature, an impacting drop is prevented from contacting the plate by its own evaporation. But the decrease in the resulting cooling efficiency of the impacting drop is yet not quantitatively understood. Here, we experimentally study the impact of such water drops on smooth heated surfaces of various substances. We demonstrate that, in contrast to previous results for other liquids, water exhibits spray in the vertical direction when impacting sapphire and silicon. We show that this typical spray formation during impact is a result of the local cooling of the plate. This is surprising since these two materials were considered to remain isothermal during the impact of mm-sized droplets. We conclude and explain that the thermal time scale of the system is not solely determined by the thermal properties of the solid, but also by those of the liquid. We also introduce a dimensionless number comparing the thermal time scale and the dynamic time scale with which we can predict the spraying behaviour at impact.

  11. Origin of spray formation during impact on heated surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Limbeek, Michiel A.J.; Hoefnagels, Paul B.J.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    In many applications, it is crucial to control the heat transfer rate of impacting drops on a heated plate. When the solid exceeds the so-called Leidenfrost temperature, an impacting drop is prevented from contacting the plate by its own evaporation. But the decrease in the resulting cooling

  12. Measuring workplace trauma response in Australian paramedics: an investigation into the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Hogan,1 Shane Costello,1 Malcolm Boyle,2 Brett Williams2 1Faculty of Education, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia Introduction: Investigation into the psychological effects of violence toward health care workers and its associated trauma is increasing. The Impact of Event Scale (IES provides a measure of current, subjective, emotional distress symptomatic of a specific traumatic event. However, its validity among paramedics is largely unknown. Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the IES with a sample of Australian paramedics. Methods: The study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the 15-item IES with a sample of Australian paramedics using Exploratory Factor Analysis with model fit statistics as found in confirmatory analysis. Results: Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation supported the hypothesis that a two-factor solution would provide the best fit of the data. Procrustes rotation provided further support for this hypothesis indicating that the factors, labeled “Intrusion” and “Avoidance”, as well as the individual items of the 12-item final model, were a good fit to an ideal solution. Conclusion: The revision of the scale has improved its validity for use in the general population of paramedics, improving the potential for its use in trauma-related research. Keywords: impact of event scale, psychometrics, paramedics, occupational violence, PTSD

  13. Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dupavillon , Jacqueline L; Gillanders , Bronwyn M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant in the Southern hemisphere is proposed. In addition, the effects of different...

  14. Market Structure Differences Impacting Australian Iron Ore and Metallurgical Coal Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking relies on iron ore and metallurgical coal as main ingredients, the trade of which is hypothesized to theoretically change in tandem. However, strong correlation is not evident in historical trade prices of steelmaking inputs. To determine causes to this occurrence, the market factors that influence the Australian iron ore and metallurgical coal industries were studied. Data was collected over the past decade for worldwide resource production and trade quantities of crude steel, iron ore, and metallurgical coal. The data was analysed to reveal trends, allowing examination of the macroeconomic trade of metallurgical coal and iron ore with relation to worldwide and country specific steel production. It was determined that the influential growth of China’s steel production has spurred the growth of worldwide iron ore demand, which was met with increased production and supply, from Australia. The increased metallurgical coal demand has been met with increased production within China locally. Measures of supply elasticity were created for worldwide iron ore and metallurgical coal trade, where comparisons between Australia’s industries to the relevant greatest competitor were examined. The results, along with respective resource production data, highlighted the elevated competitive position that Australian iron ore producers enjoy compared to metallurgical coal producers. Trade characteristics revealed the different market structures that iron ore and metallurgical coal industries operate in, prompting a discussion of the effects these markets have on the two Australian industries.

  15. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhausen, J.; Stoeblen, F.; Mueller, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  16. Drop the Salt! Assessing the impact of a public health advocacy strategy on Australian government policy on salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Kennington, Sarah; Neal, Bruce; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) launched a campaign to encourage the Australian government to take action to reduce population salt intake. The objective of the present research was to assess the impact of the Drop the Salt! campaign on government policy. A review of government activities related to salt reduction was conducted and an advocacy strategy implemented to increase government action on salt. Advocacy actions were documented and the resulting outcomes identified. An analysis of stakeholder views on the effectiveness of the advocacy strategy was also undertaken. Settings Advocacy activities were coordinated through AWASH at the George Institute for Global Health in Sydney. All relevant State and Federal government statements and actions were reviewed and thirteen stakeholders with known interests or responsibilities regarding dietary salt, including food industry, government and health organisations, were interviewed. Stakeholder analysis affirmed that AWASH influenced the government's agenda on salt reduction and four key outputs were attributed to the campaign: (i) the Food Regulation Standing Committee discussions on salt, (ii) the Food and Health Dialogue salt targets, (iii) National Health and Medical Research Council partnership funding and (iv) the New South Wales Premier's Forum on Fast Foods. While it is not possible to definitively attribute changes in government policy to one organisation, stakeholder research indicated that the AWASH campaign increased the priority of salt reduction on the government's agenda. However, a coordinated government strategy on salt reduction is still required to ensure that the potential health benefits are fully realised.

  17. Mental health at the intersections: the impact of complex needs on police contact and custody for Indigenous Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovs, Julian; Dowse, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience significant social risk, vulnerability and disadvantage. Nowhere is this more starkly demonstrated than in the levels of contact that Indigenous Australians have with the criminal justice system, particularly the police. Utilizing a linked dataset of extant criminal justice, human and health service administrative data in New South Wales (NSW) Australia, this paper explores patterns of police contact and custody for a cohort of Indigenous males with complex needs. Four significant factors are identified that alone or in combination appear to impact on the frequency with which these men experience police contact and custody, including young age at first police contact, experiencing out of home care as a child, alcohol misuse, and limited locational mobility. Whilst it might be expected that the presence of mental ill-health and/or cognitive disability would be a key predictor of the frequency and intensity of police contact and custody, the findings suggest rather that the presence of multiple disadvantages beginning in the early years and compounding throughout individuals' lives, in which mental illness may or may not be a factor, is more significant than the presence of any one diagnosis in precipitating police contact and custody for this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-06-01

    To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia's five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

  19. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-04-18

    Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Data were collected from 1,139 Australians regarding types of racial discrimination experienced, settings for these incidents, response mechanisms and psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6) Psychological Distress Scale. Age, education, religion, gender, visibility and rurality were all significantly associated with differences in the frequency of experiencing racial discrimination. Experiencing racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. Mental health impacts were not associated with the type of discriminatory experience, but experiencing racial discrimination in shops and in employment and government settings was associated with being above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. One out of twelve response mechanisms was found to be associated with lower stress following a discriminatory incident. Study results indicate that poorer mental health was associated with the volume of discrimination experienced, rather than the type of experience. However, the impact of experiencing discrimination in some settings was shown to be particularly associated with high or very high psychological distress. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent the occurrence of racism have more potential to increase mental health in racial and ethnic minority communities than interventions that work with individuals in response to experiencing racism.

  20. Microanalysis of Hypervelocity Impact Residues of Possible Interstellar Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Rhonda M.; Achilles, Cheri; Allen, Carlton; Anasari, Asna; Bajt, Sasa; Bassim, Nabil; Bastien, Ron S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, Janet; Brenker, Frank E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Stardust spacecraft deployed two collector trays, one dedicated to the collection of dust from Comet Wild 2, and the other for the capture of interstellar dust (ISD). The samples were returned successfully to Earth in 2006, and now provide an unprecedented opportunity for laboratory-based microanalysis of materials from the outer solar system and beyond. Results from the cometary sample studies have demonstrated that Wild 2 contains much more refractory condensate material and much less pristine extra-solar material than expected, which further indicates that there was significant transport of inner solar system materials to the Kuiper Belt in the early solar system [1]. The analysis of the interstellar samples is still in the preliminary examination (PE) phase, due to the level of difficulty in the definitive identification of the ISD features, the overall low abundance, and its irreplaceable nature, which necessitates minimally invasive measurements [2]. We present here coordinated microanalysis of the impact features on the Al foils, which have led to the identification of four impacts that are possibly attributable to interstellar dust. Results from the study of four ISD candidates captured in aerogel are presented elsewhere [2].

  1. High penetration wind generation impacts on spot prices in the Australian national electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, Nicholas J.; Boerema, Nicholas D.; MacGill, Iain F.; Outhred, Hugh R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores wind power integration issues for the South Australian (SA) region of the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) by assessing the interaction of regional wind generation, electricity demand and spot prices over 2 recent years of market operation. SA's wind energy penetration has recently surpassed 20% and it has only a limited interconnection with other regions of the NEM. As such, it represents an interesting example of high wind penetration in a gross wholesale pool market electricity industry. Our findings suggest that while electricity demand continues to have the greatest influence on spot prices in SA, wind generation levels have become a significant secondary influence, and there is an inverse relationship between wind generation and price. No clear relationship between wind generation and demand has been identified although some periods of extremely high demand may coincide with lower wind generation. Periods of high wind output are associated with generally lower market prices, and also appear to contribute to extreme negative price events. The results highlight the importance of electricity market and renewable policy design in facilitating economically efficient high wind penetrations. - Highlights: → In South Australia (SA) wind generation is having an influence on market prices. → Little or no correlation is found between wind generation and demand. → Wind farms in SA are receiving a lower average price than in other States. → The results highlight the importance of appropriate electricity market design.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Research: A Case Study of the LSAY Research Innovation and Expansion Fund. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the framework developed by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) for measuring research impact to assess the outcomes of the research and activities funded under the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Research Innovation and Expansion Fund (RIEF). LSAY provides a rich…

  3. Impact of an Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration on Scabies Prevalence in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Thérèse M; Speare, Richard; Cheng, Allen C; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Holt, Deborah C; Currie, Bart J; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Bundhala, Leanne; Mulholland, Eddie; Chatfield, Mark; Andrews, Ross M

    2015-10-01

    Scabies is endemic in many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with 69% of infants infected in the first year of life. We report the outcomes against scabies of two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured scabies prevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined disease acquisition and treatment failures. Scabies infestations were diagnosed clinically with additional laboratory investigations for crusted scabies. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 2-3 weeks if scabies was diagnosed, others followed a standard alternative algorithm. We saw >1000 participants at each population census. Scabies prevalence fell from 4% at baseline to 1% at month 6. Prevalence rose to 9% at month 12 amongst the baseline cohort in association with an identified exposure to a presumptive crusted scabies case with a higher prevalence of 14% amongst new entries to the cohort. At month 18, scabies prevalence fell to 2%. Scabies acquisitions six months after each MDA were 1% and 2% whilst treatment failures were 6% and 5% respectively. Scabies prevalence reduced in the six months after each MDA with a low risk of acquisition (1-2%). However, in a setting where living conditions are conducive to high scabies transmissibility, exposure to presumptive crusted scabies and population mobility, a sustained reduction in prevalence was not achieved. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register (ACTRN-12609000654257).

  4. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  5. Evaluation of impact of 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine following 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Australian Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Chiu, Clayton; Menzies, Rob; Lehmann, Deborah; Cook, Heather; Giele, Carolien; Krause, Vicki; McIntyre, Peter

    2015-11-27

    High incidence and serotype diversity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Indigenous children in remote Australia led to rapid introduction of 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (7vPCV) at 2, 4 and 6 months in 2001, followed by 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV) in the second year of life. All other Australian children were offered 3 doses of 7vPCV without a booster from 2005. This study evaluated the impact of the unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule of 7vPCV followed by the 23vPPV booster among Indigenous Australian children. Changes in IPD incidence derived from population-based passive laboratory surveillance in Indigenous children vaccine introduction period (Indigenous 1994-2000; non-Indigenous 2002-2004) to the post-vaccine period (2008-2010 in both groups) using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) stratified by age into serotype groupings of vaccine (7v and 13vPCV and 23vPPV) and non-vaccine types. Vaccine coverage was assessed from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register. At baseline, total IPD incidence per 100,000 was 216 (n=230) in Indigenous versus 55 (n=1993) in non-Indigenous children. In 2008-2010, IRRs for 7vPCV type IPD were 0.03 in both groups, but for 23v-non7v type IPD 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.8) in Indigenous versus 3.1 (95% CI 2.5-3.7) in non-Indigenous, difference driven primarily by serotype 19A IPD (IRR 0.6 in Indigenous versus 4.3 in non-Indigenous). For non-7vPCV type IPD overall, IRR was significantly higher in those age-eligible for 23vPPV booster compared to those younger, but in both age groups was lower than for non-Indigenous children. These ecologic data suggest a possible "serotype replacement sparing" effect of 23vPPV following 7vPCV priming, especially for serotype 19A with supportive evidence from other immunogenicity and carriage studies. Applicability post 10vPCV or 13v PCV priming in similar settings would depend on local serotype distribution of IPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Percentile ranks and benchmark estimates of change for the Health Education Impact Questionnaire: Normative data from an Australian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald R Elsworth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Participant self-report data play an essential role in the evaluation of health education activities, programmes and policies. When questionnaire items do not have a clear mapping to a performance-based continuum, percentile norms are useful for communicating individual test results to users. Similarly, when assessing programme impact, the comparison of effect sizes for group differences or baseline to follow-up change with effect sizes observed in relevant normative data provides more directly useful information compared with statistical tests of mean differences and the evaluation of effect sizes for substantive significance using universal rule-of-thumb such as those for Cohen’s ‘d’. This article aims to assist managers, programme staff and clinicians of healthcare organisations who use the Health Education Impact Questionnaire interpret their results using percentile norms for individual baseline and follow-up scores together with group effect sizes for change across the duration of typical chronic disease self-management and support programme. Methods: Percentile norms for individual Health Education Impact Questionnaire scale scores and effect sizes for group change were calculated using freely available software for each of the eight Health Education Impact Questionnaire scales. Data used were archived responses of 2157 participants of chronic disease self-management programmes conducted by a wide range of organisations in Australia between July 2007 and March 2013. Results: Tables of percentile norms and three possible effect size benchmarks for baseline to follow-up change are provided together with two worked examples to assist interpretation. Conclusion: While the norms and benchmarks presented will be particularly relevant for Australian organisations and others using the English-language version of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, they will also be useful for translated versions as a guide to the

  7. Australian private midwives with hospital visiting rights in Queensland: Structures and processes impacting clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, J; Brittain, H; Gamble, J

    2017-12-01

    Reporting the outcomes for women and newborns accessing private midwives with visiting rights in Australia is important, especially since this data cannot currently be disaggregated from routinely collected perinatal data. 1) Evaluate the outcomes of women and newborns cared for by midwives with visiting access at one Queensland facility and 2) explore private midwives views about the structures and processes contributing to clinical outcomes. Mixed methods. An audit of the 'all risk' 529 women receiving private midwifery care. Data were compared with national core maternity variables using Chi square statistics. Telephone interviews were conducted with six private midwives and data analysed using thematic analysis. Compared to national data, women with a private midwife were significantly more likely to be having a first baby (49.5% vs 43.6% p=0.007), to commence labour spontaneously (84.7% vs 52.7%, pfundamental to achieving quality outcomes. Midwives valued the governance processes embedded around the model. Private midwives with access to the public system is safe. Ensuring national data collection accurately captures outcomes relative to model of care in both the public and private sector should be prioritised. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of adolescent peer aggression on later educational and employment outcomes in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-08-01

    This study used prospective birth cohort data to analyse the relationship between peer aggression at 14 years of age and educational and employment outcomes at 17 years (N = 1091) and 20 years (N = 1003). Participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories of peer aggression. Involvement in peer aggression was reported by 40.2% (10.1% victims; 21.4% perpetrators; 8.7% victim-perpetrators) of participants. Participants involved in any form of peer aggression were less likely to complete secondary school. Perpetrators and victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to be in the 'No Education, Employment or Training' group at 20 years of age. This association was explained by non-completion of secondary school. These findings demonstrate a robust association between involvement in peer aggression and non-completion of secondary school, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of poor educational and employment outcomes in early adulthood. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of open boundary forcing on forecasting the East Australian Current using ensemble data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandery, Paul A.; Sakov, Pavel; Majewski, Leon

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the performance of an eddy resolving regional ocean forecasting system of the East Australian Current (EAC) for both ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a focus on open boundary model nesting solutions. The performance of nesting into a global re-analysis; nesting into the system's own analysis; and nesting into a free model is quantified in terms of forecast innovation error. Nesting in the global reanalysis is found to yield the best results. This is closely followed by the system that nests inside its own analysis, which seems to represent a viable practical option in the absence of a suitable analysis to nest within. Nesting into a global reanalysis without data assimilation and nesting into an unconstrained model were both found to be unable to constrain the mesoscale circulation at all times. We also find that for a specific interior area of the domain where the EAC separation takes place, there is a mixture of results for all the systems investigated here and that, whilst the application of EnKF generates the best results overall, there are still times when not even this method is able to constrain the circulation in this region with the available observations.

  10. The impact of low muscle mass definition on the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Solomon; Appleton, Sarah; Adams, Robert; Chapman, Ian; Wittert, Gary; Visvanathan, Thavarajah; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function. The aim of this study was to establish cutoffs for low muscle mass using three published methods and to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Australians. Gender specific cutoffs levels were identified for low muscle mass using three different methods. Low grip strength was determined using established cutoffs of standard deviation (SD) of a young reference population; (b) <7.36 kg/m(2) for men and <5.81 kg/m(2) for women from the lowest 20% percentile of the older group; and (c) <-2.15 for men and <-1.42 for women from the lowest 20% of the residuals of linear regressions of appendicular skeletal mass, adjusted for fat mass and height. Prevalence of sarcopenia in older (65 years and older) people by these three methods for men was 2.5%, 6.2%, and 6.4% and for women 0.3%, 9.3%, and 8.5%, respectively. Sarcopenia is common but consensus on the best method to confirm low muscle mass is required.

  11. The Impact of Low Muscle Mass Definition on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sarcopenia is the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function. The aim of this study was to establish cutoffs for low muscle mass using three published methods and to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Australians. Methods. Gender specific cutoffs levels were identified for low muscle mass using three different methods. Low grip strength was determined using established cutoffs of <30 kg for men and <20 kg for women to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. Results. Gender specific cutoffs levels for low muscle mass identified were (a <6.89 kg/m2 for men and <4.32 kg/m2 for women, <2 standard deviation (SD of a young reference population; (b <7.36 kg/m2 for men and <5.81 kg/m2 for women from the lowest 20% percentile of the older group; and (c <−2.15 for men and <−1.42 for women from the lowest 20% of the residuals of linear regressions of appendicular skeletal mass, adjusted for fat mass and height. Prevalence of sarcopenia in older (65 years and older people by these three methods for men was 2.5%, 6.2%, and 6.4% and for women 0.3%, 9.3%, and 8.5%, respectively. Conclusions. Sarcopenia is common but consensus on the best method to confirm low muscle mass is required.

  12. Learning about knowledge management for improving environmental impact assessment in a government agency: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Luis Enrique; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2011-09-01

    How does knowledge management (KM) by a government agency responsible for environmental impact assessment (EIA) potentially contribute to better environmental assessment and management practice? Staff members at government agencies in charge of the EIA process are knowledge workers who perform judgement-oriented tasks highly reliant on individual expertise, but also grounded on the agency's knowledge accumulated over the years. Part of an agency's knowledge can be codified and stored in an organizational memory, but is subject to decay or loss if not properly managed. The EIA agency operating in Western Australia was used as a case study. Its KM initiatives were reviewed, knowledge repositories were identified and staff surveyed to gauge the utilisation and effectiveness of such repositories in enabling them to perform EIA tasks. Key elements of KM are the preparation of substantive guidance and spatial information management. It was found that treatment of cumulative impacts on the environment is very limited and information derived from project follow-up is not properly captured and stored, thus not used to create new knowledge and to improve practice and effectiveness. Other opportunities for improving organizational learning include the use of after-action reviews. The learning about knowledge management in EIA practice gained from Western Australian experience should be of value to agencies worldwide seeking to understand where best to direct their resources for their own knowledge repositories and environmental management practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of drought on the association between food security and mental health in a nationally representative Australian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Berry, Helen; Dinh, Huong; O'Brien, Léan; Walls, Helen L

    2014-10-24

    The association between food insecurity and mental health is established. Increasingly, associations between drought and mental health and drought and food insecurity have been observed in a number of countries. The impact of drought on the association between food insecurity and mental health has received little attention. Population-based study using data from a nationally representative panel survey of Australian adults in which participants report behaviour, health, social, economic and demographic information annually. Exposure to drought was modelled using annual rainfall data during Australia's 'Big Dry'. Regression modelling examined associations between drought and three indicative measures of food insecurity and mental health, controlling for confounding factors. People who reported missing meals due to financial stress reported borderline moderate/high distress levels. People who consumed below-average levels of core foods reported more distress than those who consumed above the average level, while people consuming discretionary foods above the average level reported greater distress than those consuming below the threshold. In all drought exposure categories, people missing meals due to cost reported higher psychological distress than those not missing meals. Compared to drought-unadjusted psychological distress levels, in most drought categories, people consuming higher-than-average discretionary food levels reported higher levels of distress. Exposure to drought moderates the association between measures of food insecurity and psychological distress, generally increasing the distress level. Climate adaptation strategies that consider social, nutrition and health impacts are needed.

  14. Research That Counts: OECD Statistics and "Policy Entrepreneurs" Impacting on Australian Adult Literacy and Numeracy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses research that has impacted on Australia's most recent national policy document on adult literacy and numeracy, the National Foundation Skills Strategy (NFSS). The paper draws in part on Lingard's 2013 paper, "The impact of research on education policy in an era of evidence-based policy", in which he outlines the…

  15. Estimated impacts of alternative Australian alcohol taxation structures on consumption, public health and government revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Byrnes, Joshua M; Cobiac, Linda J; Vandenberg, Brian; Vos, Theo

    2013-11-04

    To examine health and economic implications of modifying taxation of alcohol in Australia. Economic and epidemiological modelling of four scenarios for changing the current taxation of alcohol products, including: replacing the wine equalisation tax (WET) with a volumetric tax; applying an equal tax rate to all beverages equivalent to a 10% increase in the current excise applicable to spirits and ready-to-drink products; applying an excise tax rate that increases exponentially by 3% for every 1% increase in alcohol content above 3.2%; and applying a two-tiered volumetric tax. We used annual sales data and taxation rates for 2010 as the base case. Alcohol consumption, taxation revenue, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted and health care costs averted. In 2010, the Australian Government collected close to $8.6 billion from alcohol taxation. All four of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise were shown to save money and more effectively reduce alcohol-related harm compared with the 2010 base case. Abolishing the WET and replacing it with a volumetric tax on wine would increase taxation revenue by $1.3 billion per year, reduce alcohol consumption by 1.3%, save $820 million in health care costs and avert 59 000 DALYs. The alternative scenarios would lead to even higher taxation receipts and greater reductions in alcohol use and harm. Our research findings suggest that any of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise would be a cost-effective health care intervention; they thus reinforce the evidence that taxation is a cost-effective strategy. Of all the scenarios, perhaps the most politically feasible policy option at this point in time is to abolish the WET and replace it with a volumetric tax on wine. This analysis supports the recommendation of the National Preventative Health Taskforce and the Henry Review towards taxing alcohol according to alcohol content.

  16. The impact of infrared radiation in flight control in the Australian "firebeetle" Merimna atrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Hinz

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR receptors are rare in insects and have only been found in the small group of so-called pyrophilous insects, which approach forest fires. In previous work the morphology of the IR receptors and the physiology of the inherent sensory cells have been investigated. It was shown that receptors are located on the thorax and the abdomen respectively and show an astounding diversity with respect to structure and the presumed transduction mechanism. What is completely missing, however, is any behavioral evidence for the function of the IR receptors in pyrophilous insects. Here we describe the responses of the Australian "firebeetle", Merimna atrata to IR radiation. Beetles in a restrained flight were laterally stimulated with IR radiation of an intensity 20% above a previously determined electrophysiological threshold of the IR organs (40 mW/cm2. After exposure, beetles always showed an avoidance response away from the IR source. Reversible ablation experiments showed that the abdominal IR receptors are essential for the observed behavior. Tests with weaker IR radiation (11.4 mW/cm2 also induced avoidance reactions in some beetles pointing to a lower threshold. In contrast, beetles were never attracted by the IR source. Our results suggest that the IR receptors in Merimna atrata serve as an early warning system preventing an accidental landing on a hot surface. We also tested if another fire specific stimulus, the view of a large smoke plume, influenced the flight. However, due to an unexpected insensitivity of the flying beetles to most visual stimuli results were ambiguous.

  17. A cluster randomised trial to assess the impact of clinical pathways on AMI management in rural Australian emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Pamela C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in rural Australia are more likely to die in hospital following an acute myocardial infarction than those living in major cities. While several factors, including time taken to access hospital care, contribute to this risk, it is also partially attributable to the lower uptake of evidence-based guidelines for the administration of thrombolytic drugs in rural emergency departments where up to one-third of eligible patients do not receive this life-saving intervention. Clinical pathways have the potential to link evidence to practice by integrating guidelines into local systems, but their impact has been hampered by variable implementation strategies and sub-optimal research designs. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a five-step clinical pathways implementation process on the timely and efficient administration of thrombolytic drugs for acute myocardial infarctions managed in rural Australian emergency departments. Methods/Design The design is a two-arm, cluster-randomised trial with rural hospital emergency departments that treat and do not routinely transfer acute myocardial infarction patients. Six rural hospitals in the state of Victoria will participate, with three in the intervention group and three in the control group. Intervention hospitals will participate in a five-step clinical pathway implementation process: engagement of clinicians, pathway development according to local resources and systems, reminders, education, and audit and feedback. Hospitals in the control group will each receive a hard copy of Australian national guidelines for chest pain and acute myocardial infarction management. Each group will include 90 cases to give a power of 80% at 5% significance level for the two primary outcome measures: proportion of those eligible for thrombolysis receiving the drug and time to delivery of thrombolytic drug. Discussion Improved compliance with thrombolytic guidelines via

  18. Study protocol--Indigenous Australian social networks and the impact on smoking policy and programs in Australia: protocol for a mixed-method prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom; Lovett, Ray; van der Sterren, Anke

    2013-09-24

    Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. Comprehensive tobacco control has reduced smoking rates in Australia from approximately 34 per cent in 1980 to 15 per cent in 2010. However, 46 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (Indigenous Australians) smoke on a daily basis, more than double the rate of non-Indigenous Australians. The evidence of effective tobacco control strategies for Indigenous Australians is relatively scarce. The aim of this study is to (i) explore the influences of smoking in Indigenous Australian people and to (ii) help inform and evaluate a multi-component tobacco control strategy. The study aims to answer the following questions:--do individuals' social networks influence smoking behaviours;--is there an association between various social and cultural factors and being a smoker or non-smoker; and--does a multi-component tobacco control program impact positively on tobacco behaviours, attitudes and beliefs in Indigenous Australians. Our prospective study will use a mixed-method approach (qualitative and quantitative), including a pre- and post-test evaluation of a tobacco control initiative. The study will explore the social and cultural context underlying Indigenous Australian tobacco use and associated factors which influence smoking behaviour. Primary data will be collected via a panel survey, interviews and focus groups. Secondary data will include de-identified PBS items related to smoking and also data collected from the Quitlines call service. Network analysis will be used to assess whether social networks influence smoking behaviours. For the survey, baseline differences will be tested using chi(2) statistics for the categorical and dichotomous variables and t-tests for the continuous variables, where appropriate. Grounded theory will be used to analyse the interviews and focus groups. Local Aboriginal community controlled organisations will partner in the study. Our study

  19. Constraining the Origin of Impact Craters on Al Foils from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Rhonda M.; Achilles, Cheri; Allen, Carlton; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, Sasa; Bassim, Nabil; Bastien, Ron S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, Janet; Brenker, Frank E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary examination (PE) of the aerogel tiles and Al foils from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector has revealed multiple impact features. Some are most likely due to primary impacts of interstellar dust (ISD) grains, and others are associated with secondary impacts of spacecraft debris, and possibly primary impacts of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) [1, 2]. The current focus of the PE effort is on constraining the origin of the individual impact features so that definitive results from the first direct laboratory analysis of contemporary ISD can be reported. Because crater morphology depends on impacting particle shape and composition, in addition to the angle and direction of impact, unique particle trajectories are not easily determined. However, elemental analysis of the crater residues can distinguish real cosmic dust from the spacecraft debris, due to the low cosmic abundance of many of the elements in the spacecraft materials. We present here results from the elemental analysis of 24 craters and discuss the possible origins of 4 that are identified as candidate ISD impacts

  20. Everyone Wins: A Mars-Impact Origin for Carbonaceous Phobos and Deimos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.; Steele, A.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of Phobos' and Deimos' origin(s) tend to feature an orthogonally opposed pair of observations: dynamical studies which favor coalescence of the moons from an orbital debris ring arising from a large impact on Mars; and reflectance spectroscopy of the moons that indicate a carbonaceous composition that is not consistent with Martian surface materials. One way to reconcile this discrepancy is to consider the option of a Mars-impact origin for Phobos and Deimos, followed by surficial decoration of carbon-rich materials by interplanetary dust particles (IDP). The moons experience a high IDP flux because of their location in Mars' gravity well. Calculations show that accreted carbon is sufficient to produce a surface with reflectance spectra resembling carbonaceous chondrites.

  1. Manipulating field dimensions during small-sided games impacts the technical and physical profiles of Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Fleay; Christopher, Joyce; Harry, Banyard; Carl, Woods T

    2018-01-04

    This study investigated the effect of manipulating field dimensions on the technical and physical profiles of Australian football (AF) players during small-sided games (SSGs). A total of 40 male players (23.9 ± 3.5 y) participated in three, five-a-side SSGs; defined as 'small' (20m x 30m; 600m), 'medium' (30m x 40m; 1200m), and 'large' (40m x 50m; 2000m). Notational analyses enabled the quantification of technical skill indicators, while physical activity profiles were measured using microtechnology, resulting in 18 criterion variables. A multivariate analysis of variance modelled the main effect of field dimension on the criterion variables. A significant main effect was observed (V = 1.032; F38, 102 = 2.863; P 4.16 m.s compared to the 'small' and 'medium' SSGs. These results provide AF coaches with insights into how task constraint manipulation impacts the technical and physical profiles of players during small-sided game-play. Thus, coaches and physical performance specialists could use this information to assist with the tactical periodisation of technical complexity and physical load at different phases of the AF season.

  2. The Mental Health Impact of Physical Appearance Concerns in the Context of Other Life Domains Among Australian Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick; Lyons, Anthony; van der Rest, Brittany

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have identified gay men as a high-risk population for body image disturbances. However, little research has examined the mental health impact of gay men's physical appearance concerns in the context of other major life domains. The present study addressed this gap by investigating how mental health outcomes (satisfaction with life, self-esteem, positive well-being, and psychological distress) were associated with satisfaction with and importance of physical appearance, work, family relationships, friendships, health and fitness, and sex life among Australian gay men aged 18-39. The possible moderating role of intimate relationship status was also examined. Results from an online survey revealed that greater satisfaction with physical appearance, work, family, and friendships all had similar positive associations with mental health. However, more importance placed on physical appearance was more consistently associated with poorer mental health compared with the subjective importance of other domains. Findings also indicated the associations between physical appearance satisfaction and life satisfaction, and between physical appearance importance and positive well-being, were weaker for those in relationships. Thus, physical appearance matters in gay men's lives, but was only one factor when considered in the broader context of other life areas that contributed to overall well-being. These findings suggest the need for a nuanced and contextualized understanding of how physical appearance concerns fit into gay men's lives.

  3. Potential Impact of Dietary Choices on Phosphorus Recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: The Case of the Average Australian City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, Geneviève S.; Cordell, Dana; Ridoutt, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world’s main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region’s “phosphorus footprint” – the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident’s annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management. PMID:27617261

  4. The impact of Australian legislative changes on synthetic cannabinoid exposures reported to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Rose; Brown, Jared A; Gunja, Naren; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2017-05-01

    The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre. A retrospective review of calls to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSWPIC). Cases occurring between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2015 with documented use of SCRAs were included. There were 146 exposures to SCRAs recorded in the NSWPIC database. Federal bans of specific SCRA compounds in 2011/2012 had little impact on call volumes. State-based legislation introduced in 2013 banning specific brand names of SCRA products was followed by a dramatic, sustained decrease in exposures. The most common symptoms reported with SCRA use were tachycardia, vomiting, drowsiness, anxiety/panic, decreased level of consciousness, chest pain, agitation, hallucinations, confusion, seizures and hypertension. Banning of specific brand names of SCRA (timed with raids and social media campaigns) appears effective at reducing SCRA exposures. We postulate that this raised awareness within the community of the illegality of these substances while also reducing supply through bricks-and-mortar shops. These results could help inform future legislative responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Terrestrial vertebrate fauna surveys for the preparation of environmental impact assessments; how can we do it better? A Western Australian example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Graham G.

    2007-01-01

    The Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) in 2002 released Position Statement, No. 3, Terrestrial Biological Surveys as an Element of Biodiversity Protection outlining how terrestrial fauna survey data are to be used and interpreted in the preparation of environmental impact assessments (EIA). In 2004, the EPA released its Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental Factors, Terrestrial Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment in Western Australia, No. 56. This paper briefly assesses the adequacy of recent terrestrial fauna surveys undertaken to support publicly released EIAs and indicates that the EPA is not always adhering to its own position and guidance statements. This paper argues that the current fauna survey guidelines are in need of improvement. The approach and requirements of some other Australian states are briefly assessed to identify similarities and where improvements can be made to the Western Australian (WA) guidelines. This paper concludes with suggestions on how the process and the guidelines in WA can be revised to more adequately assess the impact of developments on terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function. These suggestions may have relevance for other areas where fauna surveys are undertaken to support EIAs

  6. The Impact of Professional Development and Indigenous Education Officers on Australian Teachers' Indigenous Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Han, Feifei

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of professional development (PD) in Indigenous teaching on teachers' psychological and behavioural aspects, and Indigenous students' learning engagement. Adopting a multiple-indicator-multiple-indicator-cause model, frequency of PD was found to have positive paths to teachers' self-concept in Indigenous teaching…

  7. Stock market synchronicity: an alternative approach to assessing the information impact of Australian IFRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissessur, S.; Hodgson, A.

    2012-01-01

    How has the mandatory adoption in 2005 of International Financial Reporting Standards in (IFRS) affected information flow for investors in Australia? This paper investigates impact by examining synchronicity issues. Morck et al. (2000) label the degree to which stock prices depend upon market and

  8. What is the impact of diabetes for Australian Aboriginal women when pregnant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cynthia, Porter; Timothy, Skinner; Isabelle, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    The impact differential of diabetes for Aboriginal maternal and infant health outcomes is different to Caucasian outcomes. With maternal diabetes, Aboriginal infant's birth weight increases and stillbirth rate is 22/1000 for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 53/1000 for pre-existing diabete...

  9. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa; Allotey, Pascale; Mulholland, Kim; Markovic, Milica

    2009-02-03

    Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV) refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV) refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003). After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Government asylum policies and practices violating human rights norms are associated with demonstrable psychological health impacts. This link between policy, rights violations and health outcomes offers a framework for addressing the impact of socio-political structures on health.

  10. Time-calibrated phylogeny of the woody Australian genus Hakea (Proteaceae) supports multiple origins of insect-pollination among bird-pollinated ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Austin R; Milton, Ethan F; Jones, Eric H; Barker, Robyn M; Barker, William R; Weston, Peter H

    2012-03-01

    A past study based on morphological data alone showed that the means by which plants of the Australian genus Hakea reduce florivory is related to the evolution of bird pollination. For example, bird pollination was shown to have arisen only in insect-pollinated lineages that already produced greater amounts of floral cyanide, a feature that reduces florivory. We examine a central conclusion of that study, and a common assumption in the literature, that bird pollination arose in insect-pollinated lineages, rather than the reverse. We combined morphological and DNA data to infer the phylogeny and age of the Australian genus Hakea, using 9.2 kilobases of plastid and nuclear DNA and 46 morphological characters from a taxonomically even sampling of 55 of the 149 species. Hakea is rooted confidently in a position that has not been suggested before. The phylogeny implies that bird pollination is primitive in Hakea and that multiple shifts to insect pollination have occurred. The unexpectedly young age of Hakea (a crown age of ca. 10 Ma) makes it coincident with its primary bird pollinators (honeyeaters) throughout its history. Our study demonstrates that Hakea is an exception to the more commonly described shift from insect to bird pollination. However, we note that only one previous phylogenetic study involved Australian plants and their honeyeater pollinators and that our finding might prove to be more common on that continent.

  11. An Evaluation of the Impacts of Changing Firearms Legislation on Australian Female Firearm Homicide Victimization Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2017-09-01

    Reducing lethal violence against women requires comprehensive measures addressing individual, social, economic, cultural, and situational factors. Regarding situational factors, access to weapons-and firearm access in particular-has received notable research attention. However, most study comes from the United States of America, and findings may not apply elsewhere. The current study examines whether changing gun laws in Australia affected female firearm homicide victimization. Female firearm homicide victimization may have been affected; however, no significant impacts were found for male firearm homicide victimization. Findings suggest there may be value in preventing legal access to firearms by persons who have a history of intimate partner violence, although considerable further study is required.

  12. The combined impact of vineyard origin and processing winery on the elemental profile of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    The combined effects of vineyard origin and winery processing have been studied in 65 red wines samples. Grapes originating from five different vineyards within 40 miles of each other were processed in at least two different wineries. Sixty-three different elements were determined with inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and wines were classified according to vineyard origin, processing winery, and the combination of both factors. Vineyard origin as well as winery processing have an impact on the elemental composition of wine, but each winery and each vineyard change the composition to a different degree. For some vineyards, wines showed a characteristic elemental pattern, independent of the processing winery, but the same was found for some wineries, with similar elemental pattern for all grapes processed in these wineries, independent of the vineyard origin. Studying the combined effects of grapegrowing and winemaking provides insight into the determination of geographical origin of red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impacts of IOD, ENSO and ENSO Modoki on the Australian Winter Wheat Yields in Recent Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), two different types of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): canonical ENSO and ENSO Modoki, on the year-to-year winter wheat yield variations in Australia have been investigated. It is found that IOD plays a dominant role in the recent three decades; the wheat yield is reduced (increased) by -28.4% (12.8%) in the positive (negative) IOD years. Although the canonical ENSO appears to be responsible for the wheat yield variations, its influences are largely counted by IOD owing to their frequent co-occurrence. In contrast, the ENSO Modoki may have its distinct impacts on the wheat yield variations, but they are much smaller compared to those of IOD. Both the observed April-May and the predicted September-November IOD indices by the SINTEX-F ocean-atmosphere coupled model initialized on April 1st just before the sowing season explain ~15% of the observed year-to-year wheat yield variances. The present study may lead to a possible scheme for predicting wheat yield variations in Australia in advance by use of simple climate mode indices.

  14. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  15. Evaluating the health impacts of participation in Australian community arts groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Berman, Naomi; Curry, Steve; Joubert, Lindy; Johnson, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of three well-established community arts programmes in Victoria, Australia, on the mental health and well-being outcomes of participants typically from disadvantaged backgrounds during 2006-07. It employs a theoretical framework that reconciles evidence-based practice in health and the phenomenological nature of community arts practice. Self-determination theory (SDT) was used to do this with SDT-derived psychometric instruments [arts climate and Basic Psychological Needs Scales (BPNS)]. Self-administered surveys using these instruments as well as a measure of social support were undertaken on two occasions. Two overlapping but distinct samples were defined and analysed cross-sectionally. These were a (pre-)survey at the commencement of rehearsals for the annual performance (n = 103) and a (post-)survey following the performance (n = 70). The most significant change (MSC) technique was used to study the arts-making process and how it contributes to outcomes. Using these mixed-methods approach, impacts on the climate of the arts organizations, participant access to supportive relationships and participant's mental health and well-being were studied. There were positive changes in the BPNS (p = 0.00), as well as its autonomy (p = 0.04) and relatedness (p = 0.00) subscales. Social support increased from 65.3% in the pre-survey to 82.4% in the post-survey (p = 0.03). MSC data indicated that the supportive, collaborative environment provided by the arts organizations was highly valued by participants and was perceived to have mental health benefits.Overall, the study demonstrated the potential health promoting effects of community arts programmes in disadvantaged populations. Its multi-method approach should be further studied in evaluating other community arts programmes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Potential impact of dietary choices on phosphorus recycling and global phosphorus footprints: the case of the average Australian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Metson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in human diets, population increase, changes in farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are however threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption because the world’s main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are two-fold: First, dietary choices affects a person or region’s ‘phosphorus footprint’ – the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta, and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g. potential for recycling, dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution towards phosphorus sustainability. In an average Australian city for example, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (8% increase. However such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident’s annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management.

  17. Australian rural football club leaders as mental health advocates: an investigation of the impact of the Coach the Coach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, David; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Dobell, Jennifer; Anderson, Rosemary

    2010-05-19

    Mental ill health, especially depression, is recognised as an important health concern, potentially with greater impact in rural communities. This paper reports on a project, Coach the Coach, in which Australian rural football clubs were the setting and football coaches the leaders in providing greater mental health awareness and capacity to support early help seeking behaviour among young males experiencing mental health difficulties, especially depression. Coaches and other football club leaders were provided with Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training. Pre-post measures of the ability of those club leaders undertaking mental health training to recognise depression and schizophrenia and of their knowledge of evidence supported treatment options, and confidence in responding to mental health difficulties were obtained using a questionnaire. This was supplemented by focus group interviews. Pre-post questionnaire data from players in participating football clubs was used to investigate attitudes to depression, treatment options and ability to recognise depression from a clinical scenario. Key project stakeholders were also interviewed. Club leaders (n = 36) who were trained in MHFA and club players (n = 275) who were not trained, participated in this evaluation. More than 50% of club leaders who undertook the training showed increased capacity to recognise mental illness and 66% reported increased confidence to respond to mental health difficulties in others. They reported that this training built upon their existing skills, fulfilled their perceived social responsibilities and empowered them. Indirect benefit to club players from this approach seemed limited as minimal changes in attitudes were reported by players. Key stakeholders regarded the project as valuable. Rural football clubs appear to be appropriate social structures to promote rural mental health awareness. Club leaders, including many coaches, benefit from MHFA training, reporting increased skills and

  18. The Impact of Changes to the Unemployment Rate on Australian Disability Income Insurance Claim Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Khemka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the extent to which claim incidence in Disability Income Insurance (DII is affected by changes in the unemployment rate in Australia. Using data from 1986 to 2001, we fit a hurdle model to explore the presence and magnitude of the effect of changes in unemployment rate on the incidence of DII claims, controlling for policy holder characteristics and seasonality. We find a clear positive association between unemployment and claim incidence, and we explore this further by gender, age, deferment period, and occupation. A multinomial logistic regression model is fitted to cause of claim data in order to explore the relationship further, and it is shown that the proportion of claims due to accident increases markedly with rising unemployment. The results suggest that during periods of rising unemployment, insurers may face increased claims from policy holders with shorter deferment periods for white-collar workers and for medium and heavy manual workers. Our findings indicate that moral hazard may have a material impact on DII claim incidence and insurer business in periods of declining economic conditions.

  19. Potential climate change impacts on microbial distribution and carbon cycling in the Australian Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Claire; Thomson, Paul G.; Davidson, Andrew T.; Bowie, Andrew R.; van den Enden, Rick; Witte, Harry; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2011-11-01

    Changes in oceanic circulation and physiochemical parameters due to climate change may alter the distribution, structure and function of marine microbial communities, thereby altering the action of the biological carbon pump. One area of current and predicted future change is the sub-Antarctic zone (SAZ) to the southeast of Tasmania, Australia, where a southward shift in westerly winds appears to be forcing warmer and macronutrient-poor subtropical waters into the sub-Antarctic zone (SAZ). We investigated the impact of these subtropical waters on the microbial community of the SAZ on the SAZ-Sense cruise during the austral summer of 2007. The abundance of pico- and nanoeukaryotic algae, cyanobacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, bacteria and viruses was determined by flow cytometry at stations in the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ), the SAZ and in Subtropical Zone (STZ). Using cluster and similarity profile analyses on integrated microbial abundances over the top 200 m, we found that microbial communities located in the potential future SAZ to the southeast of Tasmania formed two distinct groups from those of the remainder of the SAZ and the PFZ. In the waters of the potential future SAZ, shallow mixed layers and increased iron concentrations elevated cyanobacterial, bacterial and viral abundances and increased percentage high DNA bacteria, resulting in communities similar to those of subtropical waters. Conversely, waters of the PFZ exhibited relatively low concentrations of autotrophic and heterotrophic microbes and viruses, indicative of the iron limitation in this region. A Distance Based Linear Model determined that salinity and nitrogen availability (nitrate, nitrite and ammonia concentrations) were the most influential environmental parameters over the survey, explaining 72% of the variation in microbial community structure. The microbial community of the potential future SAZ showed a shift away from particulate carbon export from the photic zone towards

  20. Australian fly-in, fly-out operations: Impacts on communities, safety, workers and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Rebecca R; Biggs, Herbert C; Rowland, Bevan

    2016-10-17

    hours, fatigue, turnover and job satisfaction are not new to the management of workers. However, FIFO workforces appear to be at an increased risk physically and mentally due to a culmination of other influences, such as extended and frequent periods of absence from friends and families which contribute to feelings of isolation and lowered psychological wellbeing. FIFO workers and their families, engage in a unique lifestyle, rarely are other workers subjected to long hours and compressed work weeks while separated or isolated from their families for extended periods of time. Recently, FIFO interest has shifted to understanding the influences on employee engagement, satisfaction, retention and safety. Considering the management of FIFO workforces from a holistic perspective incorporating all of the issues impacting on these workers may assist to ensure the challenges associated with FIFO employment are understood, addressed and communicated to workers and their families is crucial for safety and health.

  1. On the Impact Origin of Phobos and Deimos. II. True Polar Wander and Disk Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Genda, Hidenori; Charnoz, Sébastien

    2017-12-01

    Phobos and Deimos are the two small Martian moons, orbiting almost on the equatorial plane of Mars. Recent works have shown that they can accrete within an impact-generated inner dense and outer light disk, and that the same impact potentially forms the Borealis basin, a large northern hemisphere basin on the current Mars. However, there is no a priori reason for the impact to take place close to the north pole (Borealis present location), nor to generate a debris disk in the equatorial plane of Mars (in which Phobos and Deimos orbit). In this paper, we investigate these remaining issues on the giant impact origin of the Martian moons. First, we show that the mass deficit created by the Borealis impact basin induces a global reorientation of the planet to realign its main moment of inertia with the rotation pole (True Polar Wander). This moves the location of the Borealis basin toward its current location. Next, using analytical arguments, we investigate the detailed dynamical evolution of the eccentric inclined disk from the equatorial plane of Mars that is formed by the Martian-moon-forming impact. We find that, as a result of precession of disk particles due to the Martian dynamical flattening J 2 term of its gravity field and particle–particle inelastic collisions, eccentricity and inclination are damped and an inner dense and outer light equatorial circular disk is eventually formed. Our results strengthen the giant impact origin of Phobos and Deimos that can finally be tested by a future sample return mission such as JAXA’s Martian Moons eXploration mission.

  2. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulholland Kim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. Methods We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Results Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003. After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p ≤ 0.001 amongst Iraqi refugees. Qualitative data revealed that TPV refugees generally felt socially isolated and lacking in control over their life circumstances, because of their experiences in detention and on a temporary visa. This sense of powerlessness and, for some, an implicit awareness they were being denied basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Conclusion Government asylum policies

  3. Continental impacts of water development on waterbirds, contrasting two Australian river basins: Global implications for sustainable water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsford, Richard T; Bino, Gilad; Porter, John L

    2017-11-01

    The world's freshwater biotas are declining in diversity, range and abundance, more than in other realms, with human appropriation of water. Despite considerable data on the distribution of dams and their hydrological effects on river systems, there are few expansive and long analyses of impacts on freshwater biota. We investigated trends in waterbird communities over 32 years, (1983-2014), at three spatial scales in two similarly sized large river basins, with contrasting levels of water resource development, representing almost a third (29%) of Australia: the Murray-Darling Basin and the Lake Eyre Basin. The Murray-Darling Basin is Australia's most developed river basin (240 dams storing 29,893 GL) while the Lake Eyre Basin is one of the less developed basins (1 dam storing 14 GL). We compared the long-term responses of waterbird communities in the two river basins at river basin, catchment and major wetland scales. Waterbird abundances were strongly related to river flows and rainfall. For the developed Murray-Darling Basin, we identified significant long-term declines in total abundances, functional response groups (e.g., piscivores) and individual species of waterbird (n = 50), associated with reductions in cumulative annual flow. These trends indicated ecosystem level changes. Contrastingly, we found no evidence of waterbird declines in the undeveloped Lake Eyre Basin. We also modelled the effects of the Australian Government buying up water rights and returning these to the riverine environment, at a substantial cost (>3.1 AUD billion) which were projected to partly (18% improvement) restore waterbird abundances, but projected climate change effects could reduce these benefits considerably to only a 1% or 4% improvement, with respective annual recovery of environmental flows of 2,800 GL or 3,200 GL. Our unique large temporal and spatial scale analyses demonstrated severe long-term ecological impact of water resource development on prominent

  4. Allostatic load mediates the impact of stress and trauma on physical and mental health in Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyai, Zoltán; Berger, Maximus; Jawan, Isabella

    2016-02-01

    A considerable gap exists in health and social emotional well-being between Indigenous people and non-Indigenous Australians. Recent research in stress neurobiology highlights biological pathways that link early adversity and traumas as well as life stresses to ill health. We argue that the neurobiological stress response and its maladaptive changes, termed allostatic load, provide a useful framework to understand how adversity leads to physical and mental illness in Indigenous people. In this paper we review the biology of allostatic load and make links between stress-induced systemic hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes and physical and mental illnesses. Exposure to chronic stress throughout life results in an increased allostatic load that may contribute to a number of metabolic, cardiovascular and mental disorders that shorten life expectancy in Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. The Impact of Country-of-Origin, Ethnocentrism and Animosity on Product Evaluation: Evidence from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tana Cristina LICSANDRU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is to identify whether product country image influences consumption patterns and purchase decisions of Romanian consumers, as well as to identify stereotypes regarding foreign products. Furthermore, the study aims to provide clear evidence regarding Romanian consumers’ ethnocentric tendencies and the countries towards which they exhibit animosity feelings. Research Methodology/Approach: Quantitative data collection method applied on Romanian consumers, with a sample consisting of 150 respondents, living in Bucharest, answering a tested self-administered questionnaire based on the CETSCALE. Findings: The results of the research show that country of origin impacts product evaluation, with a significantly high difference between domestic products (Romania and those from three foreign countries (Russia, Hungary and South Korea. The results suggest that the level of consumer ethnocentrism is low among Romanians, but they do exhibit certain animosity tendencies towards Russia and Hungary with substantive demographic differences identified. Originality/value: The research is the first of its kind conducted among Romanians, adding knowledge to the country-of-origin topic, as well as regarding consumer ethnocentrism and animosity issues. Practical implications: This research is of interest to those looking to export to Romania. It provides clear insight regarding the Romanian consumers’ perceptions regarding foreign products, their ethnocentric tendencies and the potential animosity feelings that they are exhibiting. Furthermore, it offers an useful tool for market segmentation. Keywords: international business, consumer behaviour, country-of-origin, ethnocentrism, animosity.

  6. Motivation to Study Music in Australian Schools: The Impact of Music Learning, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Gary E.; Osborne, Margaret S.; Barrett, Margaret S.; Davidson, Jane W.; Faulkner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study extends an eight-country mapping exercise (McPherson & O'Neill, 2010; see "Research Studies in Music Education" issues 2010-2011) to include students' motivation to study music within the Australian context. It sought to determine whether music learners (students learning an instrument or voice), might be more motivated to…

  7. How the reverse supply chain impacts the financial performance of original equipment manufacturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel

    This thesis examines the financial impact of a firm’s reverse supply chain (RSC). Specifically, the thesis examines the two questions of how the RSC can contribute to the financial performance of the firm and which factors are decisive for the RSC’s financial contribution. The thesis focuses...... on original equipment manufacturers. The thesis results show that the RSC can contribute to the financial performance of the firm in more than 20 different ways, which the thesis defines as functions of the RSC. Examples of RSC-functions are 1) resale of recovered end-products to price-focused market segments...... in the firm’s primary markets, 2) resale to customers in new markets (in e.g. emerging economies), and 3) sale of used materials back the firm’s original material suppliers. The firm’ RSC can conduct several RSC-functions simultaneously and the financial benefits from operating these RSC-functions differ...

  8. Origin, extent and health impacts of air pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S.; Im, U.; Mezuman, K.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Africa produces about a third of the Earth's biomass burning aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles, their origin, chemical composition and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. These research questions motivated the NASA field campaign ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS). ORACLES is a five year investigation with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP) designed to study key processes that determine the climate impacts of African biomass burning aerosols. The first IOP has been carried out in 2016. The main focus of the field campaign are aerosol-cloud interactions, however in our first study related to this area we will investigate the aerosol plume itself, its origin, extend and its resulting health impacts. Here we will discuss results using the global mesoscale model NASA GEOS-5 in conjunction with the NASA GISS-E2 climate model to investigate climate and health impacts that are directly related to the anthropogenic fire activities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Focus will be on the SH winter seasons biomass burning events, its contribution to Sub-Saharan air pollution in relationship to other air-pollution sources and its resulting premature mortality.

  9. Origin, extend and health impacts of air pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Mezuman, Keren; Longo, Karla; da Silva, Arlindo

    2017-04-01

    Southern Africa produces about a third of the Earth's biomass burning aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles, their origin, chemical composition and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. These research questions motivated the NASA field campaign ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS). ORACLES is a five year investigation with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP) designed to study key processes that determine the climate impacts of African biomass burning aerosols. The first IOP has been carried out in 2016. The main focus of the field campaign are aerosol-cloud interactions, however in our first study related to this area we will investigate the aerosol plume itself, its origin, extend and its resulting health impacts. Here we will discuss results using the global mesoscale model NASA GEOS-5 in conjunction with the NASA GISS-E2 climate model to investigate climate and health impacts that are directly related to the anthropogenic fire activities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Focus will be on the SH winter seasons biomass burning events, its contribution to Sub-Saharan air pollution in relationship to other air-pollution sources and its resulting premature mortality.

  10. No one's discussing the elephant in the room: contemplating questions of research impact and benefit in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla; McCalman, Janya; Kinchin, Irina; Saunders, Vicki; Watkin Lui, Felecia; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Miller, Adrian; Lawson, Kenny

    2015-07-23

    There remains a concern that Indigenous Australians have been over-researched without corresponding improvements in their health; this trend is applicable to most Indigenous populations globally. This debate article has a dual purpose: 1) to open a frank conversation about the value of research to Indigenous Australian populations; and 2) to stimulate ways of thinking about potential resolutions to the lack of progress made in the Indigenous research benefit debate. Capturing the meaning of research benefit takes the form of ethical value-oriented methodological considerations in the decision-making processes of Indigenous research endeavours. Because research practices come from Western knowledge bases, attaining such positions in research means reconciling both Indigenous and Western knowledge systems to produce new methodologies that guide planning, evaluating and monitoring of research practices as necessary. Increasingly, more sophisticated performance measures have been implemented to ensure academic impact and benefits are captured. Assessing societal and other non-academic impacts and benefits however, has not been accorded corresponding attention. Research reform has only focussed on research translation in more recent years. The research impact debate must take account of the various standards of accountability (to whom), impact priorities (for whom), positive and negative impacts, and biases that operate in describing impact and measuring benefit. A perennial question in Indigenous research discourse is whether the abundance of research conducted; purportedly to improve health, is justified and benefits Indigenous people in ways that are meaningful and valued by them. Different research stakeholders have different conceptions of the value and nature of research, its conduct, what it should achieve and the kinds of benefits expected. We need to work collaboratively and listen more closely to the voice of Indigenous Australians to better understand

  11. Impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on composition and hydrolysability in a sugar platform biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaurs, L. P.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a widely available large volume source of lignocellulosic material containing a waste paper/cardboard mixture which can be converted into fermentable sugars via cellulolytic enzyme hydrolysis in a sugar platform biorefinery. Thermal pretreatments are generally applied to MSW to facilitate the extraction of the lignocellulosic material from recyclable materials (plastics, metals etc.) and improve the paper pulp conversion to sugars. Applying high temperature might enhance food waste solubilisation but may collapse cellulose fibre decreasing its hydrolysability. Low temperature pre-treatment will reduce the energy demand but might result in highly contaminated pulp. Preliminary results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis performances were dependent on the MSW origins. Using 8 different samples, the impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on pulp composition and hydrolysability was assessed in this work. Low pre-treatment temperature produced pulp which contained less lignocellulosic material but which hydrolysed to a higher degree than MSW treated at high temperatures. High temperature pre-treatment could have exposed more of the inhibiting lignin to cellulase. This information would have a significant economic impact on a commercial plant as expensive autoclave could be advantageously replaced by a cheaper process. Glucan conversions were also found to vary depending on the region, the recycling rate possibly because of the lower recycling rate resulting in the use of less paper additive in the material or the difference in paper production technology (chemical VS mechanical pulping). This could also be explained by the differences in paper composition.

  12. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Hayashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m3 forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  13. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Aiko; Crombie, Andrew; Lacey, Ernest; Richardson, Anthony J; Vuong, Daniel; Piggott, Andrew M; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf

    2016-03-16

    Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m³) forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm) of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  14. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  15. Publishing and Australian literature : crisis, decline or transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  16. On the Impact Origin of Phobos and Deimos. III. Resulting Composition from Different Impactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatale, Francesco C.; Charnoz, Sébastien; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Hyodo, Ryuki; Nakamura, Tomoki; Genda, Hidenori

    2018-02-01

    The origin of Phobos and Deimos in a giant impact-generated disk is gaining larger attention. Although this scenario has been the subject of many studies, an evaluation of the chemical composition of the Mars’s moons in this framework is missing. The chemical composition of Phobos and Deimos is unconstrained. The large uncertainties about the origin of the mid-infrared features; the lack of absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared spectra; and the effects of secondary processes on the moons’ surfaces make the determination of their composition very difficult using remote sensing data. Simulations suggest a formation of a disk made of gas and melt with their composition linked to the nature of the impactor and Mars. Using thermodynamic equilibrium, we investigate the composition of dust (condensates from gas) and solids (from a cooling melt) that result from different types of Mars impactors (Mars-, CI-, CV-, EH-, and comet-like). Our calculations show a wide range of possible chemical compositions and noticeable differences between dust and solids, depending on the considered impactors. Assuming that Phobos and Deimos resulted from the accretion and mixing of dust and solids, we find that the derived assemblage (dust-rich in metallic iron, sulfides and/or carbon, and quenched solids rich in silicates) can be compatible with the observations. The JAXA’s Martian Moons eXploration (MMX) mission will investigate the physical and chemical properties of Phobos and Deimos, especially sampling from Phobos, before returning to Earth. Our results could be then used to disentangle the origin and chemical composition of the pristine body that hit Mars and suggest guidelines for helping in the analysis of the returned samples.

  17. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of migrant status in adults with psychotic disorders: data from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Morgan, V A; Castle, D; Silove, D; McGrath, J J

    2015-12-01

    The links between migrant status and psychosis have attracted considerable attention in recent decades. The aim of the study was to explore the demographic and clinical correlates of migrant v. Australia-born status in individuals with psychotic disorders using a large community-based sample. Data were drawn from a population-based prevalence survey of adults with psychotic disorders. Known as the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP), it was conducted in seven Australian catchment areas in 2010. Logistic regression was used for the main analyses, examining associations of migrant status with sociodemographic and clinical variables. Of the 1825 participants with psychotic disorders, 17.8% (n = 325) were migrants, of whom 55.7% (n = 181) were male. Compared to Australia-born individuals with psychosis, migrants were more likely to be currently married, to have completed a higher level at school, to have left school later, and to be employed with full-time jobs. Migrants with psychosis were either no different from or less impaired or disadvantaged compared to their Australian-born counterparts on a range of clinical and demographic variables. In a sample of individuals with psychotic disorders, there was no evidence to suggest that migrant status was associated with worse clinical or socio-economic outcomes compared to their native-born counterparts.

  18. Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B

    2016-10-27

    The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the origin of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant impact event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact model for the origin of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a 'palaeo-barometer' to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.

  19. Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupavillon, Jacqueline L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2009-01-01

    With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant in the Southern hemisphere is proposed. In addition, the effects of different concentrations of desalination brine on the growth, survival and condition of cuttlefish embryos were investigated. The primary egg-laying sites for the cuttlefish were in the vicinity of Stony Point (sites 4 and 3) and the area with the least egg abundance was on the eastern and western areas around Point Lowly (sites 9 and 7) where no eggs were found. The survival of embryos decreased with an increase in salinity, with no embryos surviving to full term in salinities greater than 50 per thousand. Mean weight and mantle length also decreased with increasing salinity. Besides elevated salinity, the brine also had increased concentrations of Ba, Ca, K, Sr and Mg relative to water near Point Lowly. Brine discharge from seawater desalination poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

  20. Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeder, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a quantum leap in our understanding of the origins, diffusion, and impact of early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin. In large measure these advances are attributable to new methods for documenting domestication in plants and animals. The initial steps toward plant and animal domestication in the Eastern Mediterranean can now be pushed back to the 12th millennium cal B.P. Evidence for herd management and crop cultivation appears at least 1,000 years earlier than the morphological changes traditionally used to document domestication. Different species seem to have been domesticated in different parts of the Fertile Crescent, with genetic analyses detecting multiple domestic lineages for each species. Recent evidence suggests that the expansion of domesticates and agricultural economies across the Mediterranean was accomplished by several waves of seafaring colonists who established coastal farming enclaves around the Mediterranean Basin. This process also involved the adoption of domesticates and domestic technologies by indigenous populations and the local domestication of some endemic species. Human environmental impacts are seen in the complete replacement of endemic island faunas by imported mainland fauna and in today's anthropogenic, but threatened, Mediterranean landscapes where sustainable agricultural practices have helped maintain high biodiversity since the Neolithic. PMID:18697943

  1. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Browne, Catalina; Murúa, Maureen M; Navarro, Luis; Medel, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas.

  2. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González-Browne

    Full Text Available Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas.

  3. Impact of estradiol-valerate/dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiak, Radoslaw; Filonenko, Anna; Vanness, David J; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Stull, Donald E; Siak, Steven; Fraser, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol-valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira®/Natazia®) on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Methods Women aged 18–54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine) and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E2V/DNG (n = 149) or placebo (n = 82) for seven treatment cycles (196 days). The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work) and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels) at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196). The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated. Results Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E2V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1%) and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%). In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement) were estimated to be between US$22–62 and US$18–56 per month (in purchasing power parity of US$), respectively. Conclusion E2V/DNG has a consistent positive impact on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. These improvements were associated with a reduction in monetary burden of heavy menstrual bleeding compared with the placebo group, consistent with the response to treatment observed. PMID:22927764

  4. Impact of estradiol-valerate/dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiak, Radoslaw; Filonenko, Anna; Vanness, David J; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Stull, Donald E; Siak, Steven; Fraser, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol-valerate/dienogest (E(2)V/DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)) on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Women aged 18-54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine) and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E(2)V/DNG (n = 149) or placebo (n = 82) for seven treatment cycles (196 days). The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work) and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels) at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196). The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated. Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E(2)V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1%) and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%). In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E(2)V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement) were estimated to be between US$22-62 and US$18-56 per month (in purchasing power parity of US$), respectively. E(2)V/DNG has a consistent positive impact on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. These improvements were associated with a reduction in monetary burden of heavy menstrual bleeding compared with the placebo group, consistent with the response to treatment observed.

  5. Modeling the cadmium balance in Australian agricultural systems in view of potential impacts on food and water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, W. de; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The historical build up and future cadmium (Cd) concentrations in top soils and in crops of four Australian agricultural systems are predicted with a mass balance model, focusing on the period 1900–2100. The systems include a rotation of dryland cereals, a rotation of sugarcane and peanuts/soybean, intensive dairy production and intensive horticulture. The input of Cd to soil is calculated from fertilizer application and atmospheric deposition and also examines options including biosolid and animal manure application in the sugarcane rotation and dryland cereal production systems. Cadmium output from the soil is calculated from leaching to deeper horizons and removal with the harvested crop or with livestock products. Parameter values for all Cd fluxes were based on a number of measurements on Australian soil–plant systems. In the period 1900–2000, soil Cd concentrations were predicted to increase on average between 0.21 mg kg −1 in dryland cereals, 0.42 mg kg −1 in intensive agriculture and 0.68 mg kg −1 in dairy production, which are within the range of measured increases in soils in these systems. Predicted soil concentrations exceed critical soil Cd concentrations, based on food quality criteria for Cd in crops during the simulation period in clay-rich soils under dairy production and intensive horticulture. Predicted dissolved Cd concentrations in soil pore water exceed a ground water quality criterion of 2 μg l −1 in light textured soils, except for the sugarcane rotation due to large water leaching fluxes. Results suggest that the present fertilizer Cd inputs in Australia are in excess of the long-term critical loads in heavy-textured soils for dryland cereals and that all other systems are at low risk. Calculated critical Cd/P ratios in P fertilizers vary from 1000 mg Cd kg P −1 for the different soil, crop and environmental conditions applied. - Highlights: • Cadmium concentrations in soils and plants are predicted with a mass balance

  6. Modeling the cadmium balance in Australian agricultural systems in view of potential impacts on food and water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, W. de, E-mail: wim.devries@wur.nl [Alterra-Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Sustainable Agriculture Flagship, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia); University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    The historical build up and future cadmium (Cd) concentrations in top soils and in crops of four Australian agricultural systems are predicted with a mass balance model, focusing on the period 1900–2100. The systems include a rotation of dryland cereals, a rotation of sugarcane and peanuts/soybean, intensive dairy production and intensive horticulture. The input of Cd to soil is calculated from fertilizer application and atmospheric deposition and also examines options including biosolid and animal manure application in the sugarcane rotation and dryland cereal production systems. Cadmium output from the soil is calculated from leaching to deeper horizons and removal with the harvested crop or with livestock products. Parameter values for all Cd fluxes were based on a number of measurements on Australian soil–plant systems. In the period 1900–2000, soil Cd concentrations were predicted to increase on average between 0.21 mg kg{sup −1} in dryland cereals, 0.42 mg kg{sup −1} in intensive agriculture and 0.68 mg kg{sup −1} in dairy production, which are within the range of measured increases in soils in these systems. Predicted soil concentrations exceed critical soil Cd concentrations, based on food quality criteria for Cd in crops during the simulation period in clay-rich soils under dairy production and intensive horticulture. Predicted dissolved Cd concentrations in soil pore water exceed a ground water quality criterion of 2 μg l{sup −1} in light textured soils, except for the sugarcane rotation due to large water leaching fluxes. Results suggest that the present fertilizer Cd inputs in Australia are in excess of the long-term critical loads in heavy-textured soils for dryland cereals and that all other systems are at low risk. Calculated critical Cd/P ratios in P fertilizers vary from < 50 to > 1000 mg Cd kg P{sup −1} for the different soil, crop and environmental conditions applied. - Highlights: • Cadmium concentrations in soils and plants

  7. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success: methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speight Jane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will provide insights into how Australians manage their diabetes, the support they receive and the impact of diabetes on their lives, as well as to use the data to validate new diabetes outcome measures. Methods/design The survey was designed to include a core set of self-report measures, as well as modules specific to diabetes type or management regimens. Other measures or items were included in only half of the surveys. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS database. An online version of the survey was advertised nationally. A total of 3,338 eligible Australians took part; most (70.4% completed the postal survey. Respondents of both diabetes types and genders, and of all ages, were adequately represented in both the postal and online survey sub-samples. More people with type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes took part in Diabetes MILES--Australia (58.8% versus 41.2%. Most respondents spoke English as their main language, were married/in a de facto relationship, had at least a high school education, were occupied in paid work, had an annual household income > $AUS40,000, and lived in metropolitan areas. Discussion A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and

  8. Identification of the impact of crime on physical activity depends upon neighbourhood scale: multilevel evidence from 203,883 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Equivocal findings on crime as a deterrent for physical activity may be due to effects of geographic scale on exposure measurement. To investigate this hypothesis, physical activity was measured in 203,883 Australians and linked to standardised crime counts within small ('Census Collection Districts'; approx. 330 residents) and larger areas ('Statistical Local Areas'; approx. 32,000 residents). A median rate ratio of 2.26 indicated substantive geographic variation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Adjusting for confounders, multilevel negative binomial regression reported lower MVPA with more crime consistently in small, but not in larger areas. Reducing small pockets of local crime may encourage more physically active lifestyles. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Fear and overprotection in Australian residential aged-care facilities: The inadvertent impact of regulation on quality continence care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; O'Connell, Beverly; Dunning, Trisha

    2016-06-01

    Most residents in residential aged-care facilities are incontinent. This study explored how continence care was provided in residential aged-care facilities, and describes a subset of data about staffs' beliefs and experiences of the quality framework and the funding model on residents' continence care. Using grounded theory methodology, 18 residential aged-care staff members were interviewed and 88 hours of field observations conducted in two facilities. Data were analysed using a combination of inductive and deductive analytic procedures. Staffs' beliefs and experiences about the requirements of the quality framework and the funding model fostered a climate of fear and risk adversity that had multiple unintended effects on residents' continence care, incentivising dependence on continence management, and equating effective continence care with effective pad use. There is a need to rethink the quality of continence care and its measurement in Australian residential aged-care facilities. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  10. Brand origin : how does it impact brand awareness and brand image

    OpenAIRE

    Baeza, Julia; Ånmo, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    As globalization influences today’s world markets, many brands are becoming international and global. When a brand is in an international market it creates an opportunity for perceived brand origin to influence the consumers. Brand origin effect refers to the different ways that the perceived origin of a brand influences the consumers, for example, the consumer brand equity or purchase behaviour. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate brand origins effect on brand image and brand ...

  11. The impact of illicit drug supply reduction on health and social outcomes: the heroin shortage in the Australian Capital Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael; McFadden, Michael; Mwesigye, Sue-Ellen; Casey, Tony

    2004-03-01

    We seek to establish whether a substantial decline in the supply of heroin, as measured by indicators such as drug purity, is related to changes in drug-related health indicators such as ambulance callouts to heroin overdoses and numbers participating in methadone treatment programmes, and to changes in levels of property crime. The guiding hypothesis is that reduced supply will result in positive health and social outcomes. Standard time-series methods are employed to analyse official data from local law-enforcement and heroin supply indicators and several health and social outcome indicators within the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), spanning the late 1990s to early 2002. Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models are estimated to remove autocorrelation from these series. Cross-correlation and autoregression models are then employed to identify the best predictive models. When autocorrelation has been removed, a reduction in heroin purity predicts a large decline in heroin-related ambulance callouts and an increase in methadone treatment programme enrolments. There is little evidence of an increase in negative outcomes due to heroin users switching to other drugs. A reduction in purity also predicts declines in robbery and burglary but not in theft. The overall evidence indicates modest links between the declines in heroin supply and increases in positive health outcomes and decreases in crime, as predicted by a simple economic model. Due to the shortness of some of the series and consequent limitations in statistical power, these conclusions should be regarded as tentative.

  12. Impact of multidimensional poverty on the self-efficacy of older people: Results from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2017-02-01

    Self-efficacy has numerous benefits for active and healthy aging, including giving the people the ability to make positive changes to their living standards and lifestyles. The present study aims to determine whether falling into multidimensional poverty lowers self-efficacy. Longitudinal analysis of waves 7-11 (2007-2011) of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey using linear regression models. The analysis focused on the Australian population aged 65 years and older. The Freedom Poverty Measure was used to identify those in multidimensional poverty. Those who fell into multidimensional poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 had their self-efficacy scores decline by an average of 27 points (SD 21.2). Those who fell into poverty had significantly lower self-efficacy scores in 2011 - up to 57% lower (-66.6%, -45.7% P poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 than those who were never in poverty. Falling into multidimensional poverty lowers the self-efficacy scores of older people. In order to improve the chances of older people making long-term changes to improve their living standards, feelings of self-efficacy should first be assessed and improved. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 308-314. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Exploring the impact of training on the experience of Australian support group leaders: current practices and implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Rachel D; Juraskova, Ilona; Butow, Phyllis N; Jolan, Afsaneh; Kirsten, Laura; Chapman, Julie; Sedgwick, Christine; Charles, Margaret; Sundquist, Kendra

    2010-12-01

    Existing literature suggests that the effectiveness of a support group is linked to the qualifications, skills and experience of the group leader. Yet, little research has been conducted into the experiences of trained vs. untrained support group leaders of chronic-illness support groups. The current study aimed to compare the experience of leaders, trained vs. untrained in group facilitation, in terms of challenges, rewards and psychological wellbeing. A total of 358 Australian leaders of cancer and multiple sclerosis (MS) support groups, recruited through State Cancer Councils and the MS society (response rate of 66%), completed a mailed survey. Compared with untrained leaders, those with training were significantly younger, leading smaller groups and facilitating more groups, more frequently (all P leaders were more likely to be female, educated beyond high school, paid to facilitate, a recipient of formal supervision and more experienced (in years) (all P leaders reported more challenges than trained leaders (P leaders identified a number of unmet support and training needs. Overwhelmingly, leaders found their facilitation role rewarding and the majority reported a high level of psychological wellbeing. Group facilitator training has the potential to reduce the burden of support group leadership. Developing interventions to assist support group leaders will be particularly beneficial for leaders with minimal or no training group facilitation training. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Impact of Primary and Secondary Social Origin Factors on the Transition to University in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simonová, Natalie; Soukup, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2015), s. 707-728 ISSN 0142-5692 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : educational inequality * social origin * primary and secondary effects Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2013.854690

  15. The use of replacement cost method to assess and manage the impacts of water resource development on Australian indigenous customary economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Finn, Marcus; Scheepers, Kelly

    2014-03-15

    The value of functional and biologically diverse landscapes to indigenous societies is increasingly recognised in public debates about development pathways but rarely rigorously assessed in development decisions. Using the replacement cost method, we quantify the direct consumptive value of aquatic species and sites for indigenous subsistence in three Australian tropical river catchments where negligible data exists on indigenous water values and the extensive use of wild resources for food, art, craft and medicines. The results establish a baseline for assessing and monitoring the socio-economic impact of hydrological and ecological changes from water resource development. More than 90% of the gross replacement value in each catchment was accounted for by a small subset of high value species which could be used as integrated indicators of ecological and socio-economic change. The total value of species harvested was distributed across a large number of sites, justifying the need for a regional management approach to ensure the maintenance of diverse habitats for hunting and fishing. While 'value' is a cultural, context-dependent construct, studies like this one can lend legitimacy to a targeted approach to environmental and social impact assessment of water resource development proposals by calling for prioritisation of mitigation and management actions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A story of scrutiny and fear: Australian midwives' experiences of an external review of obstetric services, being involved with litigation and the impact on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Laraine; Fenwick, Jennifer; Butt, Janice

    2010-06-01

    to describe Australian midwives' experiences of an external review of obstetric services, involvement in legal proceedings and the impact on midwives' clinical practice and personal wellbeing. the external review process (commonly referred to as the 'Douglas Inquiry') was initiated by a state government and was in response to hospital staff and consumer complaints that focused on anomalies in client care and a significantly high rate of adverse outcomes and clinical errors. It took place within the context of a number of legal proceedings against medical practitioners. As a result, some midwives employed by the hospital were called to give evidence at a variety of legal forums. a qualitative study using an explorative descriptive design. Snowball sampling was used to invite 16 Australian midwives to participate in a tape-recorded interview. Thematic analysis and the techniques associated with constant comparison were used to analyse the data. Australian maternity tertiary referral centre. the analysis identified two overarching themes, 'A story of scrutiny' and 'A story of fear', each with a number of subthemes. 'A story of scrutiny' consists of three subthemes. 'A cloak and dagger affair' reflects the midwives' sense of being and feeling 'exposed' and 'vulnerable' whilst simultaneously being 'kept in the dark' and uninformed during the review process. The subtheme 'Being thrown to the wolves' describes the midwives' experiences of being involved, as witnesses, in medico-legal proceedings. The third subtheme, 'The Inquiry followed them home' outlines the effect on midwives' emotional wellbeing and personal relationships. The second major theme, 'A story of fear' again consists of a number of subthemes. 'Feeling unsafe at work: a culture of fear' describes the midwives' experiences of working within an environment they perceive as driven by the fear of litigation. In order to protect themselves and maintain a sense of control, the midwives adopted a number of

  17. Impact of estradiol-valerate dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiak R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radoslaw Wasiak,1 Anna Filonenko,2 David J Vanness,3 Kim U Wittrup-Jensen,2 Donald E Stull,1 Steven Siak,1 Ian Fraser41Centre for Health Economics and Science Policy, United BioSource Corporation, London, United Kingdom; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany; 3University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol valerate-dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira®/Natazia® on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding.Methods: Women aged 18–54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E2V/DNG (n = 149 or placebo (n = 82 for seven treatment cycles (196 days. The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196. The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated.Results: Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E2V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1% and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%. In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement were estimated to be between US$22–62 and US$18–56 per month (in purchasing power

  18. A decadal satellite analysis of the origins and impacts of smoke in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Val Martin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the record of aerosol optical depth (AOD measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard the Terra satellite in combination with surface PM2.5 to investigate the impact of fires on aerosol loading and air quality over Colorado from 2000 to 2012, and to evaluate the contribution of local versus transported smoke. Fire smoke contributed significantly to the AOD levels observed over Colorado. During the worst fire seasons of 2002 and 2012, average MODIS AOD over the Colorado Front Range corridor were 20–50% larger than the other 11 yr studied. Surface PM2.5 was also unusually elevated during fire events and concentrations were in many occasions above the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard (35 μg m−3 and even reached locally unhealthy levels (> 100 μg m−3 over populated areas during the 2012 High Park fire and the 2002 Hayman fire. Over the 13 yr examined, long-range transport of smoke from northwestern US and even California (> 1500 km distance occurred often and affected AOD and surface PM2.5. During most of the transport events, MODIS AOD and surface PM2.5 were reasonable correlated (r2 = 0.2–0.9, indicating that smoke subsided into the Colorado boundary layer and reached surface levels. However, that is not always the case since at least one event of AOD enhancement was disconnected from the surface (r22.5 levels. Observed plume heights from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR satellite instrument and vertical aerosol profiles measured by the space-based Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP showed a complex vertical distribution of smoke emitted by the High Park fire in 2012. Smoke was detected from a range of 1.5 to 7.5 km altitude at the fire origin and from ground levels to 12.3 km altitude far away from the source. The variability of smoke altitude as well as the local meteorology were key in determining the aerosol loading and air quality over the

  19. Breakfast and Breakfast Cereal Choice and Its Impact on Nutrient and Sugar Intakes and Anthropometric Measures among a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence in Australia that compares the nutritional impact of a breakfast cereal breakfast to a non-cereal breakfast, and includes the type of cereal. This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures among Australian children and adolescents. Data from 2 to 18-year-old in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 2821. Participants were classified as breakfast cereal consumers (minimally pre-sweetened (MPS or pre-sweetened (PS, non-cereal breakfast consumers, or breakfast skippers. Foods consumed for breakfast, foods added to the cereal bowl, and the impact of breakfast choice on daily nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures were determined. Although only 9% of children skipped breakfast, 61% of skippers were aged 14–18 years. Among breakfast consumers, 49% had breakfast cereal, and 62% of these exclusively consumed MPS cereal. Breakfast skippers had a higher saturated fat intake than breakfast cereal consumers, and lower intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients (p < 0.001. Compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers, breakfast cereal consumers had additional free sugars intake, lower sodium, and higher total sugars, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and almost all other micronutrients (p < 0.001. The only difference in nutrient intakes between MPS and PS cereal consumers was higher folate among PS consumers. No associations between anthropometric measures and breakfast or breakfast cereal choice were found. The highest prevalence of breakfast skipping was among 14–18-year old. Breakfast cereal consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers and skippers, and almost no differences were found between MPS and PS cereal consumers.

  20. Comparing the Nutritional Impact of Dietary Strategies to Reduce Discretionary Choice Intake in the Australian Adult Population: A Simulation Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Johnson, Brittany J; Wycherley, Thomas P; Golley, Rebecca K

    2017-05-03

    Dietary strategies to reduce discretionary choice intake are commonly utilized in practice, but evidence on their relative efficacy is lacking. The aim was to compare the potential impact on nutritional intake of three strategies to reducing discretionary choices intake in the Australian adult (19-90 years) population. Dietary simulation modelling using data from the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-2012 was conducted ( n = 9341; one 24 h dietary recall). Strategies modelled were: moderation (reduce discretionary choices by 50%, with 0%, 25% or 75% energy compensation); substitution (replace 50% of discretionary choices with core choices); reformulation (replace 50% SFA with unsaturated fats, reduce added sugars by 25%, and reduce sodium by 20%). Compared to the base case (observed) intake, modelled intakes in the moderation scenario showed: -17.3% lower energy (sensitivity analyses, 25% energy compensation -14.2%; 75% energy compensation -8.0%), -20.9% lower SFA (-17.4%; -10.5%), -43.3% lower added sugars (-41.1%; -36.7%) and 17.7% lower sodium (-14.3%; -7.5%). Substitution with a range of core items, or with fruits, vegetables and core beverages only, resulted in similar changes in energy intake (-13.5% and -15.4%), SFA (-17.7% and -20.1%), added sugars (-42.6% and -43%) and sodium (-13.7% and -16.5%), respectively. Reformulating discretionary choices had minimal impact on reducing energy intake but reduced SFA (-10.3% to -30.9%), added sugars (-9.3% to -52.9%), and alcohol (-25.0% to -49.9%) and sodium (-3.3% to -13.2%). The substitution and reformulation scenarios minimized negative changes in fiber, protein and micronutrient intakes. While each strategy has strengths and limitations, substitution of discretionary choices with core foods and beverages may optimize the nutritional impact.

  1. Breakfast and Breakfast Cereal Choice and Its Impact on Nutrient and Sugar Intakes and Anthropometric Measures among a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Petocz, Peter

    2017-09-21

    There is limited evidence in Australia that compares the nutritional impact of a breakfast cereal breakfast to a non-cereal breakfast, and includes the type of cereal. This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures among Australian children and adolescents. Data from 2 to 18-year-old in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used ( n = 2821). Participants were classified as breakfast cereal consumers (minimally pre-sweetened (MPS) or pre-sweetened (PS)), non-cereal breakfast consumers, or breakfast skippers. Foods consumed for breakfast, foods added to the cereal bowl, and the impact of breakfast choice on daily nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures were determined. Although only 9% of children skipped breakfast, 61% of skippers were aged 14-18 years. Among breakfast consumers, 49% had breakfast cereal, and 62% of these exclusively consumed MPS cereal. Breakfast skippers had a higher saturated fat intake than breakfast cereal consumers, and lower intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients ( p < 0.001). Compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers, breakfast cereal consumers had additional free sugars intake, lower sodium, and higher total sugars, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and almost all other micronutrients ( p < 0.001). The only difference in nutrient intakes between MPS and PS cereal consumers was higher folate among PS consumers. No associations between anthropometric measures and breakfast or breakfast cereal choice were found. The highest prevalence of breakfast skipping was among 14-18-year old. Breakfast cereal consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers and skippers, and almost no differences were found between MPS and PS cereal consumers.

  2. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Whiteside, Eliza; Humphreys, Janice; Lee, Kathryn; Thomas, Patrick; Chopin, Lisa; Crisp, Gabrielle; O'Keeffe, Angela; Kimlin, Michael; Stacey, Andrew; Anderson, Debra

    2014-01-08

    Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual's physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women.The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women's study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women's health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women's risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and health status in women.

  3. The Economic Cost of Suicide and Non-Fatal Suicide Behavior in the Australian Workforce and the Potential Impact of a Workplace Suicide Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Doran, Christopher M

    2017-03-27

    Suicide and non-fatal suicide behavior (NFSB) are significant problems faced by most countries. The objective of this research is to quantify the economic cost of suicide and NFSB in the Australian workforce and to examine the potential impact of introducing a workplace suicide prevention intervention to reduce this burden. The analysis used the best available suicide data, a well-established costing methodology, and a proven workplace intervention. In 2014, 903 workers died by suicide, 2303 workers harmed themselves resulting in full incapacity, and 11,242 workers harmed themselves resulting in a short absence from work. The present value of the economic cost of suicide and NFSB is estimated at $6.73 billion. Our analysis suggests the economic benefit of implementing a universal workplace strategy would considerably outweigh the cost of the strategy. For every one dollar invested, the benefits would be in excess of $1.50 ($1.11-$3.07), representing a positive economic investment. All variations of the key parameter hold the positive benefit-cost ratio. Rates of suicide and NFSB are far too high in Australia and elsewhere. More needs to be done to reduce this burden. Although workplace strategies are appropriate for those employed, these interventions must be used within a multifaceted approach that reflects the complex nature of self-harming behavior.

  4. The impact of employee level and work stress on mental health and GP service use: an analysis of a sample of Australian government employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen; Broom, Dorothy H; Strazdins, Lyndall; D' Souza, Rennie M

    2004-09-30

    This study sought to identify the extent to which employee level and work stressors were associated with mental health problems experienced by Australian government employees, and with their use of primary care services. 806 government employees aged between 40 and 44 years were surveyed as part of an epidemiological study conducted in Australia. Data collected from participants included sociodemographic attributes, physical health, psychological measures and work stressors relating to job control, job demands, job security and skills discretion at work. For 88% of these participants, information on visits made to general practitioners (GPs) for the six months before and after their survey interview was obtained from health insurance records. When work stress and personal factors were taken into account, men at more junior levels reported better mental health, more positive affect and used fewer GP services. Women at middle-management levels obtained less GP care than their more senior counterparts. Both men and women who reported higher levels of work stress were found to have poorer mental health and well-being. The impact of such stressors on GP service use, however, differed for men and women. Measures of work stress and not employee level affect the mental health and well-being of government employees. For governments with responsibility for funding health care services, reducing work stress experienced by their own employees offers potential benefits by improving the health of their workforce and reducing outlays for such services.

  5. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  6. The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change: Part II—Integrating impacts with adaptive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, R.; Kokic, P.; Crimp, S.; Martin, P.; Meinke, H.B.; Howden, S.M.; DeVoil, P.; McKeon, G.; Nidumolu, U.

    2010-01-01

    In the first paper in this series [Nelson, R., Kokic, P., Crimp, S., Martin, P., Meinke, H., Howden, S.M. (2010, this issue)], we concluded that hazard/impact modelling needs to be integrated with holistic measures of adaptive capacity in order to provide policy-relevant insights into the multiple

  7. University-Led STEM Outreach Programs: Purposes, Impacts, Stakeholder Needs and Institutional Support at Nine Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Kirsten; Eilam, Efrat; Bigger, Stephen W.; Barry, Fiachra

    2018-01-01

    University-led STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) outreach forms one potential avenue to address the continuing decline of tertiary student enrollments. Yet to-date the impact of these programs is not well understood, due to an historical emphasis on "delivering the goods" that obscures debate on which outreach…

  8. Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and impact-shock synthesis of organic molecules - An inventory for the origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of organic-rich comets, carbonaceous asteroids, and interplanetary dust particles and of impact shock-synthesized organics in the atmosphere to the origin of life on earth is studied and quantitatively compared with the principal non-heavy-bombardment sources of prebiotic organics. The results suggest that heavy bombardment before 3.5 Gyr ago either produced or delivered quantities of organics comparable to those produced by other energy sources.

  9. The impact of fresh produce specifications on the Australian food and nutrition system: a case study of the north Queensland banana industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy; Gallegos, Danielle; Hundloe, Tor

    2011-08-01

    To use the north Queensland banana industry as a case study to examine the extent to which cosmetic standards set by retailers influence the amount of edible waste generated on-farm and the effect of this on the sustainability of the Australian food and nutrition system. Waste audits were performed on-farm at a banana packing shed to quantify the amount of fruit discarded due to cosmetic imperfections. These data, together with production records provided by the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries and interviews with growers, were used to inform a nutritional analysis, a life cycle assessment and an economic analysis to quantify nutritional, environmental and economic impacts. North Queensland, Australia Banana farms and packing shed.ResultBetween 10 and 30 % of the north Queensland banana crop is discarded on-farm. Of this, 78 % was found to be due to cosmetic imperfections, which equates to an industry total of 37 000 tonnes per annum. This waste represents a loss of 137 billion kilojoules with accompanying macro- and micronutrients. The life cycle assessment indicated that approximately 16 300 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions, 11·2 gigalitres of virtual water as well as other natural resources are embodied in the waste. There is an industry-wide, economic loss of approximately $AU 26·9 million per annum. The majority of on-farm banana waste is caused by arbitrary cosmetic standards set by retailers, resulting in significant nutritional, environmental and economic losses. Public health nutritionists have a role to play across the entire food chain to minimize the impacts of waste on the food system.

  10. Effect of origin and composition of diet on ecological impact of the organic egg production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.E.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential to reduce the integral ecological impact (i.e. impact along the egg production chain per kg egg) of Dutch organic egg production by replacing currently used imported diet ingredients with Dutch diet ingredients. We realized this objective by

  11. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Regulation through revelation: the origin, politics, and impacts of the Toxics Release Inventory Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton, James

    2005-01-01

    ... of the TRI from its origin and implementation to its revision and retrenchment. The mix of case study and quantitative analysis shows how the TRI operates and how the information provided affects decisions in both the public and private sectors. The lessons drawn about the operation of information provision programs should be of interest to multiple audi...

  14. The Impact of Type of Examples on Originality: Explaining Fixation and Stimulation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogué, Marine; Kazakçi, Akin; Hatchuel, Armand; Le Masson, Pascal; Weil, Benoit; Poirel, Nicolas; Cassotti, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    There are obstacles to creativity: one of them is called fixation effect, the fact that some knowledge about existing or obvious solutions is spontaneously activated and constrains the generation of new solutions. Converging evidence in cognitive psychology has indicated that the ability to generate original ideas can be limited by recently…

  15. Inheritance of magma ocean differentiation during lunar origin by giant impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    The giant impact model for the Moon has won widespread support. It seems to satisfactorily explain the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, and the strong depletion of FeNi in the Moon. This model is usually assumed to entail no significant fractionation of nonvolatile lithophile elements relative to a simple binary mixture of impactor silicates plus protoearth silicates. Although the Earth may have been hot enough before the impact to be completely molten, analysis of the likely number and timing of major impacts in the prehistory of the impactor indicates that a fully molten, undifferentiated condition for that relatively small body is unlikely. Given selective sampling by the giant impact, any significant vertical differentiation within the noncore portion of the impactor would have been largely inherited by the Moon.

  16. Initiation, influence, and impact: adolescents and parents discuss the marketing of gambling products during Australian sporting matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Hannah; Thomas, Samantha L; Bestman, Amy

    2016-09-13

    Harmful gambling is a significant public health issue. Alongside the rapid diversification of gambling products, are rapid increases in the marketing for specific types of gambling products, such as online wagering. While concern has been raised about the impact of gambling promotions during sporting matches on the gambling beliefs and behaviours of adolescents, very little research has explored adolescents' and parents' attitudes towards the marketing of gambling products within sport. A qualitative study was conducted with 59 family groups comprising of at least one parent and one adolescent (14-18 years old) in Victoria, Australia. Parents and adolescents were interviewed separately and asked questions relating to their gambling attitudes and behaviours. They were then brought together, and advertising reception techniques were utilised to prompt discussions about the marketing of gambling during sport. A thematic approach to analysis was used, constantly comparing similarities and differences between and across groups. Three main themes emerged. First, was initiation of sport as a platform for the promotion of gambling. Adolescents perceived that the use of embedded promotions (for example during the match) and the use of athletes in gambling promotions were significant mechanisms for creating an alignment between gambling companies and sporting teams and codes. Second, was the influence of marketing messages in creating a perception that gambling was always accessible, and was an integral part of the sporting experience. Third was the impact of marketing messages on adolescent's discourses about sport. Parents described that they had noticed that wagering, and 'odds' discussions, had become embedded in adolescents narratives about sporting matches. Gambling marketing during sport has significantly increased. While the gambling industry states that it does not aim to intentionally target young people, adolescents are increasingly aware of the relationship

  17. The impact of racial discrimination on the health of Australian Indigenous children aged 5-10 years: analysis of national longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Carrington C J; Li, Jianghong; Cooper, Matthew N; Hopkins, Katrina D; Farrant, Brad M

    2017-07-03

    A growing body of literature highlights that racial discrimination has negative impacts on child health, although most studies have been limited to an examination of direct forms of racism using cross-sectional data. We aim to provide further insights on the impact of early exposure to racism on child health using longitudinal data among Indigenous children in Australia and multiple indicators of racial discrimination. We used data on 1239 Indigenous children aged 5-10 years from Waves 1-6 (2008-2013) of Footprints in Time, a longitudinal study of Indigenous children across Australia. We examined associations between three dimensions of carer-reported racial discrimination (measuring the direct experiences of children and vicarious exposure by their primary carer and family) and a range of physical and mental health outcomes. Analysis was conducted using multivariate logistic regression within a multilevel framework. Two-fifths (40%) of primary carers, 45% of families and 14% of Indigenous children aged 5-10 years were reported to have experienced racial discrimination at some point in time, with 28-40% of these experiencing it persistently (reported at multiple time points). Primary carer and child experiences of racial discrimination were each associated with poor child mental health status (high risk of clinically significant emotional or behavioural difficulties), sleep difficulties, obesity and asthma, but not with child general health or injury. Children exposed to persistent vicarious racial discrimination were more likely to have sleep difficulties and asthma in multivariate models than those with a time-limited exposure. The findings indicate that direct and persistent vicarious racial discrimination are detrimental to the physical and mental health of Indigenous children in Australia, and suggest that prolonged and more frequent exposure to racial discrimination that starts in the early lifecourse can impact on multiple domains of health in later life

  18. The impact of fossil calibrations, codon positions and relaxed clocks on the divergence time estimates of the native Australian rodents (Conilurini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria A; Härlid, Anna; Kullberg, Morgan; Janke, Axel

    2010-05-01

    The native rodents are the most species-rich placental mammal group on the Australian continent. Fossils of native Australian rodents belonging to the group Conilurini are known from Northern Australia at 4.5Ma. These fossil assemblages already display a rich diversity of rodents, but the exact timing of their arrival on the Australian continent is not yet established. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two native Australian rodents, Leggadina lakedownensis (Lakeland Downs mouse) and Pseudomys chapmani (Western Pebble-mound mouse) were sequenced for investigating their evolutionary history. The molecular data were used for studying the phylogenetic position and divergence times of the Australian rodents, using 12 calibration points and various methods. Phylogenetic analyses place the native Australian rodents as the sister-group to the genus Mus. The Mus-Conilurini calibration point (7.3-11.0Ma) is highly critical for estimating rodent divergence times, while the influence of the different algorithms on estimating divergence times is negligible. The influence of the data type was investigated, indicating that amino acid data are more likely to reflect the correct divergence times than nucleotide sequences. The study on the problems related to estimating divergence times in fast-evolving lineages such as rodents, emphasize the choice of data and calibration points as being critical. Furthermore, it is essential to include accurate calibration points for fast-evolving groups, because the divergence times can otherwise be estimated to be significantly older. The divergence times of the Australian rodents are highly congruent and are estimated to 6.5-7.2Ma, a date that is compatible with their fossil record.

  19. Dynamical Origin and Terrestrial Impact Flux of Large Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Roig, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical models of the asteroid delivery from the main belt suggest that the current impact flux of diameter D> 10 km asteroids on the Earth is ≃0.5–1 Gyr‑1. Studies of the Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population find a much higher flux, with ≃ 7 D> 10 km asteroid impacts per Gyr. Here we show that this problem is rooted in the application of impact probability of small NEAs (≃1.5 Gyr‑1 per object), whose population is well characterized, to large NEAs. In reality, large NEAs evolve from the main belt by different escape routes, have a different orbital distribution, and lower impact probabilities (0.8 ± 0.3 Gyr‑1 per object) than small NEAs. In addition, we find that the current population of two D> 10 km NEAs (Ganymed and Eros) is a slight fluctuation over the long-term average of 1.1+/- 0.5 D> 10 km NEAs in a steady state. These results have important implications for our understanding of the occurrence of the K/T-scale impacts on the terrestrial worlds.

  20. Reducing the impact of pesticides on biological control in Australian vineyards: pesticide mortality and fecundity effects on an indicator species, the predatory mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Martina B; Cole, Peter; Kobelt, Amanda; Horne, Paul A; Altmann, James; Wratten, Stephen D; Yen, Alan L

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, five insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in "worst-case scenario" direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food, and water supply were sprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulfur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 liter/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No significant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. Iprodione and penconazole had some detrimental effect on fecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/fludioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulfur (> or = 400 g/100 liter), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no significant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of findings is discussed.

  1. Impact of policy support on uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement activities and the quality of care for Indigenous Australians: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Ross; Matthews, Veronica; Larkins, Sarah; Thompson, Sandra; Burgess, Paul; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Bailie, Jodie; Cunningham, Frances; Kwedza, Ru; Clark, Louise

    2017-10-05

    To examine the impact of state/territory policy support on (1) uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) activities and (2) quality of care for Indigenous Australians. Mixed-method comparative case study methodology, drawing on quality-of-care audit data, documentary evidence of policies and strategies and the experience and insights of stakeholders involved in relevant CQI programmes. We use multilevel linear regression to analyse jurisdictional differences in quality of care. Indigenous primary healthcare services across five states/territories of Australia. 175 Indigenous primary healthcare services. A range of national and state/territory policy and infrastructure initiatives to support CQI, including support for applied research. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) Trends in the consistent uptake of evidence-based CQI tools available through a research-based CQI initiative (the Audit and Best Practice in Chronic Disease programme) and (ii) quality of care (as reflected in adherence to best practice guidelines). Progressive uptake of evidence-based CQI activities and steady improvements or maintenance of high-quality care occurred where there was long-term policy and infrastructure support for CQI. Where support was provided but not sustained there was a rapid rise and subsequent fall in relevant CQI activities. Health authorities should ensure consistent and sustained policy and infrastructure support for CQI to enable wide-scale and ongoing improvement in quality of care and, subsequently, health outcomes. It is not sufficient for improvement initiatives to rely on local service managers and clinicians, as their efforts are strongly mediated by higher system-level influences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Psycho-social resilience, vulnerability and suicide prevention: impact evaluation of a mentoring approach to modify suicide risk for remote Indigenous Australian students at boarding school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Russo, Sandra; Rutherford, Katrina; Tsey, Komla; Wenitong, Mark; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Jacups, Susan

    2016-02-01

    The proposed study was developed in response to increased suicide risk identified in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students who are compelled to attend boarding schools across Queensland when there is no secondary schooling provision in their remote home communities. It will investigate the impact of a multicomponent mentoring intervention to increase levels of psychosocial resilience. We aim to test the null hypothesis that students' resilience is not positively influenced by the intervention. The 5-year project was funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council from December 2014. An integrated mixed methods approach will be adopted; each component iteratively informing the other. Using an interrupted time series design, the primary research methods are quantitative: 1) assessment of change in students' resilience, educational outcomes and suicide risk; and 2) calculation of costs of the intervention. Secondary methods are qualitative: 3) a grounded theoretical model of the process of enhancing students' psychosocial resilience to protect against suicide. Additionally, there is a tertiary focus on capacity development: more experienced researchers in the team will provide research mentorship to less experienced researchers through regular meetings; while Indigenous team members provide cultural mentorship in research practices to non-Indigenous members. Australia's suicide prevention policy is progressive but a strong service delivery model is lacking, particularly for Indigenous peoples. The proposed research will potentially improve students' levels of resilience to mitigate against suicide risk. Additionally, it could reduce the economic and social costs of Indigenous youth suicide by obtaining agreement on what is good suicide prevention practice for remote Indigenous students who transition to boarding schools for education, and identifying the benefits-costs of an evidence-based multi-component mentoring intervention to

  3. Prevalence and correlates of suboptimal vitamin D status in people living with psychotic disorders: Data from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetani, Shuichi; Saha, Sukanta; Eyles, Darryl W; Scott, James G; McGrath, John J

    2017-09-01

    Having sufficient sera concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is important for a range of health outcomes including cardiometabolic diseases. Clinical studies in people with psychotic disorders suggest that a sizable proportion has suboptimal vitamin D status (i.e. vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency). Individuals with psychosis also have many of the risk factors associated with suboptimal vitamin D status such as smoking, obesity, and reduced physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socio-demographic and clinical correlates of vitamin D status using a large, population-based sample of adults with psychotic disorders. Data were collected as part of the Survey of High Impact Psychosis, a population-based survey of Australians aged 18-64 years with a psychotic disorder. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured in 463 participants. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was dichotomised into optimal (above 50 nmol/L) and suboptimal (below 50 nmol/L). The influence of a range of socio-demographic and clinical variables on vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. Nearly half (43.6%) of the participants had suboptimal vitamin D status. Those with (a) increased physical activity or (b) positive symptoms had significantly reduced odds of having suboptimal vitamin D status. However, there were no significant associations between suboptimal vitamin D status and other psychiatric symptom measures or cardiometabolic risk factors. Many people with psychotic disorders have suboptimal vitamin D status. As part of the routine assessment of physical health status, clinicians should remain mindful of vitamin D status in this vulnerable population and encourage the use of appropriate vitamin D supplements.

  4. Order or chaos? Origin and mode of emplacement of breccias in floors of large impact structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, B. O.; Reimold, W. U.

    2004-09-01

    Breccias in the crater floor of large impact structures are pseudotachylites (sensu largo), authigenic monomict and polymict clastic-matrix breccias, so-called footwall breccias, and impact melt breccias. Pseudotachylite bodies in the center of large impact structures (e.g., Vredefort Dome, South Africa) appear to have a random distribution and orientation, but most dip steeply or vertically. Large bodies of pseudotachylite in the more distal sectors of the >200-km-diameter Sudbury Structure have been interpreted as ring and terrace collapse features. In the Vredefort Dome, networks of randomly distributed pseudotachylite veins accompany large ("mother lode") pseudotachylite dikes. In general, pseudotachylites in the floors of central parts of impact craters may form through explosive transfer of thermal shock energy, in a process that could be termed "flash replacement melting", whereas pseudotachylites at large distances from the centers of large impact structure are believed to have formed through friction leading to partial or complete melting, similar to the formation of tectonic pseudotachylites. In smaller structures (e.g., Ries and Slate Islands), clastic-matrix breccias instead of pseudotachylites occur as the most common breccias in the crater floors. They have a chaotic distribution pattern. Their dips are commonly also steep to vertical. Melt breccia dikes in the target rocks of the crater floor are associated with melt sheets that fill the lower part of the excavation cavity. At Vredefort, erosion has removed the coherent melt sheet, but melt breccia dikes (Vredefort Granophyre) in the crater floor are preserved. They are characterized by a remarkably homogeneous chemical composition and are believed to represent the initial, undifferentiated impact melt. Near the Vredefort collar, the Granophyre forms more or less concentric dikes. In the more central parts of the Dome, their orientation is more random, but, in places, may be controlled by the Archean

  5. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  6. The origin of Pasteurella multocida impacts pathology and inflammation when assessed in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne E.; Chadfield, Mark S.; Sorensen, Dorte B.

    2016-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions of Pasteurella multocida isolates of different origin were studied in a mouse model, focusing on pathology, bacterial load and expression of the metalloproteinase MMP9 and its inhibitor TIMP1. Intranasal inoculation with one of three doses (10(6), 10(4), 10(2) CFU...... dose dependent and consisted of exudative bronchopneumonia, abscess formation in liver and a lower bacterial load in lung and liver. Both isolates caused increased expression of MMP9 and TIMP1. In conclusion, evaluation and comparison of pathogenicity and host-pathogen interaction of P. multocida...

  7. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Howland

    Full Text Available Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1 density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2 grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  8. The impact of suspended oyster farming on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide production in a sub-tropical Australian estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Dirk V.; Welsh, David T.; Bennet, William W.; Meziane, Tarik; Hubas, Cédric; Nizzoli, Daniele; Ferguson, Angus J. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this study we quantified nitrate (NO3-) reduction (denitrification, anammox and DNRA) and N2O production in sediments and epibiont communities associated with Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) farming. In sediments beneath an active suspended oyster farm, DNRA accounted for 98% of NO3- reduction with rates of up to 169 ± 45 μmol N m-2 h-1. Much of this DNRA was fuelled by NO3- derived from nitrification. Reference sediments had significantly lower DNRA rates of 83.8 ± 28.2 μmol N m-2 h-1, however this constituted 96% of the sites total NO3- reduction. Fatty acid analysis showed that sediment organic matter was more labile in the oyster impacted sediments, facilitating subtle shifts in sediment oxygen demand which increased the Fe2+ availability with respect to the reference sediments. The difference in DNRA rate between the sites was attributed to autotrophic oxidation of soluble Fe2+ in sediments underlying the oyster cultures. DNRA was absent in the oyster shell epibiont communities and rates of anammox and denitrification were lower than in the sediments. Production of NH4+ from the oysters and their associated epibionts was larger than DNRA and reached a rate of 206.2 μmol N m-2 h-1. Nitrous oxide production rates were generally low compared to other aquaculture systems and the net flux of N2O for the combined oyster cultivation system (i.e. sediments plus epibionts) was negative, i.e. there was N2O consumption in the sediments beneath the oysters. Overall, subtropical suspended oyster farming systems favour inorganic N retention over N loss.

  9. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  10. Exploring Australian Aboriginal women's experiences of menopause: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgenson, Janelle R; Jones, Emma K; Haynes, Emma; Green, Charmaine; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-03-20

    Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women's understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term "change of life" was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current services. While this study is with a select

  11. The Impact of Country-of-Origin Information on Consumer Perception of Environment-Friendly Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The intense process of internationalization of the food market is giving rise to new competitive scenarios. Growing market shares on the part of new export countries, along with other consumer and retail issues, impose different marketing policies for agri-food products. In particular, greater consumer awareness of environmental and health issues is changing the structure of demand for fresh products. In the past, the country of origin and a good quality/price ratio were the main strategic strengths for gaining and maintaining international market shares. Nowadays, market shares are gained by moving towards new product attributes, namely environmental friendliness and food safety. This paper draws attention to new, more successful marketing strategies. The case study is the German cherry tomato market. Our analysis of German consumer preferences on stated choice data produces interesting insights. Product attributes related to the environment are found to be relevant to forming consumer preferences. As these are termed "faith" attributes, we speculate that German consumers refer to product origin country as a proxy of its environmental aspects. Two separate competitive segments emerge, one with a higher level of environmental quality, namely Germany and Italy, and the other comprising Turkey, Spain, France and Holland.

  12. Awareness of stress-reduction interventions on work attitudes: the impact of tenure and staff group in Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees’ reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1 perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2 job satisfaction for employees with 0–19 years of tenure; (3 trust in senior management for employees with 6–19 years of tenure; and (4 affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6–10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20–38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual

  13. Awareness of Stress-Reduction Interventions on Work Attitudes: The Impact of Tenure and Staff Group in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA) and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees' reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1) perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2) job satisfaction for employees with 0-19 years of tenure; (3) trust in senior management for employees with 6-19 years of tenure; and (4) affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6-10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20-38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual issues in organizational

  14. The impact of socioeconomic status on changes in the general and mental health of women over time: evidence from a longitudinal study of Australian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Generally, men and women of higher socioeconomic status (SES) have better health. Little is known about how socioeconomic factors are associated with changes in health as women progress through mid-life. This study uses data from six survey waves (1996 to 2010) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) to examine associations between SES and changes in the general health and mental health of a cohort of women progressing in years from 45–50 to 59–64. Methods Participants were 12,709 women (born 1946–51) in the ALSWH. Outcome measures were the general health and mental health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36). The measure of SES was derived from factor analysis of responses to questions in the ALSWH baseline survey (1996) on school leaving age, highest qualifications, and current or last occupation. Multi-level random coefficient models, adjusted for socio-demographic factors and health behaviors, were used to analyze repeated measures of general health and mental health. Survey year accounted for changes in factors across time. In the first set of analyses we investigated associations between the SES index, used as a “continuous” variable, and general health and mental health changes over time. To illuminate the impact of different levels of SES on health, a second analysis was conducted in which SES scores were grouped into three approximately equal sized categories or “tertiles” as reported in an earlier ALSWH study. The least square means of general and mental health scores from the longitudinal models were plotted for the three SES tertiles. Results The longitudinal analysis showed that, after adjusting for the effects of time and possible confounders, the general (mental) health of this cohort of mid-aged women declined (increased) over time. Higher SES women reported better health than lower SES women, and SES significantly modified the effects of time on both general

  15. CAUSALITY OF WEATHER CONDITIONS IN AUSTRALIAN STOCK EQUITY RETURNS

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Vlady; Ekrem Tufan; Bahattin Hamarat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates causality of weather and its impact on the The S&P/ASX All Australian 200 Index has been selected as a proxy for the Australian capital market. The index consists exclusively of Australian domiciled companies. Following previous research in behaviour finance in the area of environmental psychology, the data set covers temperature, quality temperature, wet bulb temperature, quality wet bulb temperature, humidity, pressure and vapour pressure variables. The data set is a...

  16. Impact melting of frozen oceans on the early Earth: implications for the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, J. L.; Bigham, C.; Miller, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Without sufficient greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the early Earth would have become a permanently frozen planet because the young Sun was less luminous than it is today. Several resolutions to this faint young Sun-frozen Earth paradox have been proposed, with an atmosphere rich in CO2 being the one generally favored. However, these models assume that there were no mechanisms for melting a once frozen ocean. Here we show that bolide impacts between about 3.6 and 4.0 billion years ago could have episodically melted an ice-covered early ocean. Thaw-freeze cycles associated with bolide impacts could have been important for the initiation of abiotic reactions that gave rise to the first living organisms.

  17. Impact of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X

    2016-02-01

    Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Impact-driven planetary desiccation: The origin of the dry Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kosuke

    2015-11-01

    The fate of surface water on Venus is one of the most important outstanding problems in comparative planetology. Although Venus should have had a large amount of surface water (like the Earth) during its formation, the current water content on the Venusian surface is only 1 part in 100 000 of that of the mass of Earth's oceans. Here a new concept is proposed to explain water removal on a steam-covered proto Venus, referred to as ;impact-driven planetary desiccation;. Since a steam atmosphere is photochemically unstable, water vapor dissociates into hydrogen and oxygen. Then, hydrogen escapes easily into space through hydrodynamic escape driven by strong extreme ultraviolet radiation from the young Sun. The focus is on the intense impact bombardment during the terminal stage of planetary accretion as generators of a significant amount of reducing agent. The fine-grained ejecta remove the residual oxygen, the counter part of escaped hydrogen, via the oxidation of iron-bearing rocks in a hot atmosphere. Thus, hypervelocity impacts cause net desiccation of the planetary surface. I constructed a stochastic cratering model using a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the cumulative mass of nonoxidized, ejected rocks due to the intense impact bombardment. The ejecta mass after each impact was calculated using the π-group scaling laws and a modified Maxwell's Z model. The effect of projectile penetration into the ground on the ejecta mass was also included. Next, an upper limit on the total amount of removed water was calculated using the stoichiometric limit of the oxidation of basaltic rocks, taking into account the effect of fast H2 escape. It is shown that a thick steam atmosphere with a mass equivalent to that of the terrestrial oceans would be removed. The cumulative mass of rocky ejecta released into the atmosphere reaches 1 wt% of the host planet, which is 10 000 times of the current mass of the Earth's atmosphere. These results strongly suggest that chemical

  19. Impact of NHS Direct on other services: the characteristics and origins of its nurses \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, C.J.; Munro, J.F.; O'Cathain, A.; Warren, K.; Nicholl, J.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To characterise the NHS Direct nurse workforce and estimate the impact of NHS Direct on the staffing of other NHS nursing specialties. \\ud \\ud METHOD: A postal survey of NHS Direct nurses in all 17 NHS Direct call centres operating in June 2000. \\ud \\ud RESULTS: The response rate was 74% (682 of 920). In the three months immediately before joining NHS Direct, 20% (134 of 682, 95% confidence intervals 17% to 23%) of respondents had not been working in the NHS. Of the 540 who came f...

  20. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) in Istanbul: Origin, source areas and potential impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Im, U.; Bougiatioti, A.; Yenigun, O.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Water-soluble ions (Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, CO4-, Na +, NH4+, K +, Mg 2+,Ca 2+), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) and trace metals (Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were measured in aerosol PM 10 samples above the megacity of Istanbul between November 2007 and June 2009. Source apportionment analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) indicates that approximately 80% of the PM 10 is anthropogenic in origin (secondary, refuse incineration, fuel oil and solid fuel combustion and traffic). Crustal and sea salt account for 10.2 and 7.5% of the observed mass, respectively. In general, anthropogenic (except secondary) aerosol shows higher concentrations and contributions in winter. Mean concentration and contribution of crustal source is found to be more important during the transitional period due to mineral dust transport from North Africa. During the sampling period, 42 events exceeding the limit value of 50 μg m -3 are identified. A significant percentage (91%; n = 38) of these exceedances is attributed to anthropogenic sources. Potential Source Contribution Function analysis highlights that Istanbul is affected from distant sources from Balkans and Western Europe during winter and from Eastern Europe during summer. On the other hand, Istanbul sources influence western Black Sea and Eastern Europe during winter and Aegean and Levantine Sea during summer.

  1. The Impact of Positive Role Models on the Success of Students Involved in Original Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danch, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To maximize student understanding of the methods of science via performance of authentic scientific research, a mentorship program for middle school students was developed for the 2010 - 2011 school year. A population of 8th grade science students will be selected from a district middle school and be paired with secondary student mentors already conducting individual research as part of a successful preexisting science research program. Students will interact with mentors in a school setting to develop and implement original scientific research projects. Upon completion, students will present their findings at an interscholastic science symposium and/or an in-district science symposium. Students will also receive support from professional scientists at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey through interactive visitations and electronic communication. In an effort to provide diverse role models, mentors from a variety of racial, ethnic, and gender groups will participate. Student success will be evaluated through questionnaires, symposium participation and monitoring of future participation in authentic research programs as participants make the transition from middle to high school.

  2. The origin of Pasteurella multocida impacts pathology and inflammation when assessed in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Susanne E; Chadfield, Mark S; Sørensen, Dorte B; Offenberg, Hanne; Bisgaard, Magne; Jensen, Henrik E

    2016-04-01

    Host-pathogen interactions of Pasteurella multocida isolates of different origin were studied in a mouse model, focusing on pathology, bacterial load and expression of the metalloproteinase MMP9 and its inhibitor TIMP1. Intranasal inoculation with one of three doses (10(6), 10(4), 10(2)CFU) of an isolate from porcine pneumonia or fowl cholera showed marked differences between the two isolates. The avian isolate was highly pathogenic with severe signs of necrotizing pneumonia, liver necrosis and high bacterial load in lung and liver. Clinical signs and pathology related to the porcine isolate were dose dependent and consisted of exudative bronchopneumonia, abscess formation in liver and a lower bacterial load in lung and liver. Both isolates caused increased expression of MMP9 and TIMP1. In conclusion, evaluation and comparison of pathogenicity and host-pathogen interaction of P. multocida isolates from different hosts is possible in the intranasal murine model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Framing choice: The origins and impact of consumer rhetoric in US health care debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy S

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the origins of consumerist discourse in health care from a communication perspective via a historical textual analysis of health writing in popular magazines from 1930 to 1949. The focus is on Consumers Union's Consumer Reports and the American Medical Association's lay health magazine, Hygeia. Findings from Consumer Reports show that the consumer movement of the 1930s-40s staunchly advocated for universal health insurance. Whereas consumer rights language nowadays tends towards individual choice and personal responsibility, consumerism in health care during that era articulated ideas about consumer citizenship, framing choice and responsibility in collectivist terms and health care as a social good. This paper also illuminates the limits and weaknesses of a central tenet in consumerism-freedom of choice-by analyzing stories in Hygeia about the doctor-patient relationship. A textual analysis finds that the AMA's justification in the 1930s-40s against socialized medicine, i.e., the freedom to choose a doctor, was in practice highly controlled by the medical profession. Findings show that long before the rhetoric of the "empowered consumer" became popular, some patients exercised some choice even in an era when physicians achieved total professional dominance. But these patients were few and tend to occupy the upper socioeconomic strata of US society. In reality choice was an illusion in a fee-for-service era when most American families could not afford the costs of medical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nature, Origin, Potential Composition, and Climate Impact of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Thomason, L. W.; Natarajan, M.; Bedka, K.; Wienhold, F.; Bian J.; Martinsson, B.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations from SAGE II and CALIPSO indicate that summertime aerosol extinction has more than doubled in the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) since the late 1990s. Here we show remote and in-situ observations, together with results from a chemical transport model (CTM), to explore the likely composition, origin, and radiative forcing of the ATAL. We show in-situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter, which support the high levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. We also show in situ measurements from aircraft, which indicate a predominant carbonaceous contribution to the ATAL (Carbon/Sulfur ratios of 2- 10), which is supported by the CTM results. We show that the peak in ATAL aerosol lags by 1 month the peak in CO from MLS, associated with deep convection over Asia during the summer monsoon. This suggests that secondary formation and growth of aerosols in the upper troposphere on monthly timescales make a significant contribution to ATAL. Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations provide evidence that deep convection over India is a significant source for ATAL through the vertical transport of pollution to the upper troposphere.

  5. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  6. Germ Cell Origins of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Risk: The Transgenerational Impact of Parental Stress Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure impacting stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On the origins of Mendelian disease genes in man: the impact of gene duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jonathan E; Robertson, David L

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,000 human diseases are known to be linked to heritable genetic variation, mapping to over 1,700 unique genes. Dating of the evolutionary age of these disease-associated genes has suggested that they have a tendency to be ancient, specifically coming into existence with early metazoa. The approach taken by past studies, however, assumes that the age of a disease is the same as the age of its common ancestor, ignoring the fundamental contribution of duplication events in the evolution of new genes and function. Here, we date both the common ancestor and the duplication history of known human disease-associated genes. We find that the majority of disease genes (80%) are genes that have been duplicated in their evolutionary history. Periods for which there are more disease-associated genes, for example, at the origins of bony vertebrates, are explained by the emergence of more genes at that time, and the majority of these are duplicates inferred to have arisen by whole-genome duplication. These relationships are similar for different disease types and the disease-associated gene's cellular function. This indicates that the emergence of duplication-associated diseases has been ongoing and approximately constant (relative to the retention of duplicate genes) throughout the evolution of life. This continued until approximately 390 Ma from which time relatively fewer novel genes came into existence on the human lineage, let alone disease genes. For single-copy genes associated with disease, we find that the numbers of disease genes decreases with recency. For the majority of duplicates, the disease-associated mutation is associated with just one of the duplicate copies. A universal explanation for heritable disease is, thus, that it is merely a by-product of the evolutionary process; the evolution of new genes (de novo or by duplication) results in the potential for new diseases to emerge.

  8. Impact of the Four-Hour Rule in Western Australian hospitals: Trend analysis of a large record linkage study 2002-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hanh; Forero, Roberto; Mountain, David; Fatovich, Daniel; Man, Wing Nicola; Sprivulis, Peter; Mohsin, Mohammed; Toloo, Sam; Celenza, Antonio; Fitzgerald, Gerard; McCarthy, Sally; Hillman, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Western Australian (WA) Government introduced the Four-Hour Rule (FHR) program. The policy stated that most patients presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) were to be seen and either admitted, transferred, or discharged within 4 hours. This study utilised de-identified data from five participating hospitals, before and after FHR implementation, to assess the impact of the FHR on several areas of ED functioning. Methods A state (WA) population-based intervention study design, using longitudinal data obtained from administrative health databases via record linkage methodology, and interrupted time series analysis technique. Findings There were 3,214,802 ED presentations, corresponding to 1,203,513 ED patients. After the FHR implementation, access block for patients admitted through ED for all five sites showed a significant reduction of up to 13.2% (Rate Ratio 0.868, 95%CI 0.814, 0.925) per quarter. Rate of ED attendances for most hospitals continued to rise throughout the entire study period and were unaffected by the FHR, except for one hospital. Pattern of change in ED re-attendance rate post-FHR was similar to pre-FHR, but the trend reduced for two hospitals. ED occupancy was reduced by 6.2% per quarter post-FHR for the most ‘crowded’ ED. ED length of stay and ED efficiency improved in four hospitals and deteriorated in one hospital. Time to being seen by ED clinician and Did-Not-Wait rate improved for some hospitals. Admission rates in post-FHR increased, by up to 1% per quarter, for two hospitals where the pre-FHR trend was decreasing. Conclusions The FHR had a consistent effect on ‘flow’ measures: significantly reducing ED overcrowding and access block and enhancing ED efficiency. Time-based outcome measures mostly improved with the FHR. There is some evidence of increased ED attendance, but no evidence of increased ED re-attendance. Effects on patient disposition status were mixed. Overall, this reflects the value of

  9. Submission to the Senate Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology Inquiry into the impact that Australian industry, science and technology can make to reducing the impact of the Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The submission makes some comments on historical aspects of comparisons between nuclear energy and non-nuclear strategies and technologies (including conservation/efficiency and renewable energy) and the relative economics of nuclear energy and conservation/efficiency strategies. It seek to place the nuclear factor within a larger perspective of choices and trade-offs and then to analyse that nuclear factor in more detail to demonstrate its potential and limitations and to counter misinformation and distortion about it. The nuclear techniques described in Section 2 provide Australia and the world with tools which not only can provide basic data about the Greenhouse effect in the immediate term, but can also contribute immediate term solutions to aspects of the problems which are either contributing to the Greenhouse effect (industrial processes) or likely to be affected by it in the near future (land and water uses). The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has many of these nuclear-related and non-nuclear techniques which can be of assistance in building up the data base on Greenhouse effects and developing techniques for controlling or reducing industrial and other sources of Greenhouse gases. Therefore, nuclear energy can be a longer term strategy which could be integrated into many countries' programs of actions to ameliorate the impact of global warning. 23 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  10. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  11. Origin and history of chondrite regolith, fragmental and impact-melt breccias from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I.; Keil, K.; Wieler, R.; San Miguel, A.; King, E. A.

    1990-06-01

    Six ordinary chondrite breccias from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (Spain), are described and classified as follows: the solar gas-rich regolith breccia Oviedo (H5); the premetamorphic fragmental breccias Cabezo de Mayo (type 6, L-LL), and Sevilla (LL4); the fragmental breccias Canellas (H4) and Gerona (H5); and the impact melt breccia, Madrid (L6). It is confirmed that chondrites with typical light-dark structures and petrographic properties typical of regolith breccias may (Oviedo) or may not (Canellas) be solar gas-rich. Cabezo de Mayo and Sevilla show convincing evidence that they were assembled prior to peak metamorphism and were equilibrated during subsequent reheating. Compositions of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in host chondrite and breccia clasts in Cabezo de Mayo are transitional between groups L and LL. It is suggested, based on mineralogic and oxygen isotopic compositions of host and clasts, that the rock formed on the L parent body by mixing, prior to peak metamorphism. This was followed by partial equilibrium of two different materials: the indigenous L chondrite host and exotic LL melt rock clasts.

  12. Timing does matter: examining imagery's impact on the temporal origins of false beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Rebecca B; Foley, Mary Ann; Zabrucky, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    In the current study imagination inflation effects were revisited, giving special attention to decreases in confidence ratings following imagery. Reexamining false beliefs, 151 participants were instructed to rate their confidence that they experienced specific childhood events before and after imagery. No significant imagery effects emerged when examining differences in confidence ratings. However, imagery differentially enhanced (26.27%) and diminished (15.45%) belief ratings for specific events. Content analysis of participants' imagery descriptions revealed that only diminished false beliefs were distinguishable from genuine belief accounts, containing less affective and contextual detail as well as fewer words, but remaining comparable in the presence of cognitive operations. These findings suggest that deflation effects provide a route to studying the potentially positive impact of imagery on false beliefs. Because diminished false beliefs cannot be mistaken as veridical memories reconstructed during imagery, they are less subject to criticisms of traditional false belief studies using self-report measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  14. Early Australian Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John S.

    Comparative research indicates that almost without exception, late eighteenth century non-standard English pronunciation was very close to what is called Broad Australian. Present Australian English is closely akin to the blended, popular colloquial London English, spoken by the largest group of Australia's first settlers. This pronunciation…

  15. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  16. Origins of a 350-Kilobase Genomic Duplication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Impact on Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Pilar; Rog, Anya; Moolji, Jalal-ud-din; Radomski, Nicolas; Fallow, Ashley; Leon-Solis, Lizbel; Bowes, Julia; Behr, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the evolution and impact on virulence of a 350-kb genomic duplication present in the most recently evolved members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East Asian lineage. In a mouse model of infection, comparing HN878 subclones HN878-27 (no duplication) and HN878-45 (with the 350-kb duplication) revealed that the latter is impaired for in vivo growth during the initial 3 weeks of infection. Furthermore, the median survival time of mice infected with isolate HN878-45 is significantly longer (77 days) than that of mice infected with HN878-27. Whole-genome sequencing of both isolates failed to reveal any mutational events other than the duplication that could account for such a substantial difference in virulence. Although we and others had previously speculated that the 350-kb duplication arose in response to some form of host-applied selective pressure (P. Domenech, G. S. Kolly, L. Leon-Solis, A. Fallow, M. B. Reed, J. Bacteriol. 192:4562–4570, 2010, and B. Weiner, J. Gomez, T. C. Victor, R. M. Warren, A. Sloutsky, B. B. Plikaytis, J. E. Posey, P. D. van Helden, N. C. Gey van Pittius, M. Koehrsen, P. Sisk, C. Stolte, J. White, S. Gagneux, B. Birren, D. Hung, M. Murray, J. Galagan, PLoS One 7:e26038, 2012), here we show that this large chromosomal amplification event is very rapidly selected within standard in vitro broth cultures in a range of isolates. Indeed, subclones harboring the duplication were detectable after just five rounds of in vitro passage. In contrast, the duplication appears to be highly unstable in vivo and is negatively selected during the later stages of infection in mice. We believe that the rapid in vitro evolution of M. tuberculosis is an underappreciated aspect of its biology that is often ignored, despite the fact that it has the potential to confound the data and conclusions arising from comparative studies of isolates at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels. PMID:24778110

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES c(~rvical spine injury outcome- a review of 101 cases treated in a tertiary referral unit. K Friielingsdorf, R N Dunn. Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for the patient and family. It has a huge impact on society because of the intensive resources required to manage the patient in both.

  18. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO. Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4.C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  19. Non-linearity of geocentre motion and its impact on the origin of the terrestrial reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Danan; Qu, Weijing; Fang, Peng; Peng, Dongju

    2014-08-01

    The terrestrial reference frame is a cornerstone for modern geodesy and its applications for a wide range of Earth sciences. The underlying assumption for establishing a terrestrial reference frame is that the motion of the solid Earth's figure centre relative to the mass centre of the Earth system on a multidecadal timescale is linear. However, past international terrestrial reference frames (ITRFs) showed unexpected accelerated motion in their translation parameters. Based on this underlying assumption, the inconsistency of relative origin motions of the ITRFs has been attributed to data reduction imperfection. We investigated the impact of surface mass loading from atmosphere, ocean, snow, soil moisture, ice sheet, glacier and sea level from 1983 to 2008 on the geocentre variations. The resultant geocentre time-series display notable trend acceleration from 1998 onward, in particular in the z-component. This effect is primarily driven by the hydrological mass redistribution in the continents (soil moisture, snow, ice sheet and glacier). The acceleration is statistically significant at the 99 per cent confidence level as determined using the Mann-Kendall test, and it is highly correlated with the satellite laser ranging determined translation series. Our study, based on independent geophysical and hydrological models, demonstrates that, in addition to systematic errors from analysis procedures, the observed non-linearity of the Earth-system behaviour at interannual timescales is physically driven and is able to explain 42 per cent of the disparity between the origins of ITRF2000 and ITRF2005, as well as the high level of consistency between the ITRF2005 and ITRF2008 origins.

  20. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Rossana; Zhang, Yi; Subramaniam, Ajit; Blough, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO). Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield) of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure) of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  1. Non-linearity of geocenter motion and its impact on the origin of the terrestrial reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D.; Weijing, Q.; Fang, P.; Peng, D.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial reference frame is a cornerstone for modern geodesy and its applications for a wide range of Earth sciences. The underlying assumption is that the motion of the solid Earth's figure center (CF) relative to the mass center (CM) of the Earth system on a multi-decadal time scale is linear. However, past international terrestrial reference frames (ITRFs) showed unexpected trend change in their translation parameters. We investigate the surface mass loading impact on the geocenter variations from atmosphere, ocean, snow, soil moisture, glacier and sea level from 1983 to 2008. The resultant geocenter time series reveal noticeable trend acceleration from 1998 onward, in particular in the z-component. Such a non-linear trend change is statistically significant at the 99% confidence level by the Mann-Kendall (MK) test, and is highly correlated with the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) determined translation series. Our study, based on independent geophysical and hydrological models, demonstrates that the observed non-linearity of the Earth-system behavior in the inter-annual time scale has a physical cause, in addition to systematic error from network distribution and analysis procedures, and is able to explain 40% of the disparity between the origins of ITRF2000 and ITRF2005 as well as the good consistency between the origins of ITRF2005 and ITRF2008.

  2. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Gillian A.; Carpenter, Julia G. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Rd, Yallambie, 3085, Victoria (Australia); Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, GPO Box 461, Darwin, 0801 Northern Territory (Australia); Johansen, Mathew P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental impact assessments conducted for Australian mine sites involving naturally occurring radioactive material require an assessment of radiation doses to wildlife. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo}) are pivotal in these assessments and previous reviews have identified a need for a more complete and consolidated database of Australian-specific CR{sub wo} that could be used. Concern had also been expressed by some stakeholders in Australia about the suitability of the default CR{sub wo} values provided in standard biota dose models (e.g., ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, ICRP framework) for Australian wildlife and environmental conditions. In order to address these concerns and support the implementation of best-practice standards in environmental radiological assessment, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), with support from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), undertook an evaluation of existing data relating to wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments. CR{sub wo} values were calculated using data from a range of original sources. These included scientific journal publications, technical reports from Australian government organisations, site-specific data from mining operators and data from baseline environmental surveys undertaken during the 1970's and 1980's. The Australian data previously included in the international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD, www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org) were also reviewed and updated. This paper discusses the data analysis process and associated uncertainties. CR{sub wo} values are reported for uranium, thorium, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 for a range of endemic and introduced wildlife, with a focus on plants and animals from both terrestrial and freshwater environments where uranium mining has been proposed or undertaken. This has resulted in the calculation of more than 500 CR{sub wo} values for inclusion in the database

  3. Impact of residential displacement on healthcare access and mental health among original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Chan, Pui Ying; Walters, Sarah; Culp, Gretchen; Huynh, Mary; Gould, L Hannah

    2017-01-01

    As gentrification continues in New York City as well as other urban areas, residents of lower socioeconomic status maybe at higher risk for residential displacement. Yet, there have been few quantitative assessments of the health impacts of displacement. The objective of this paper is to assess the association between displacement and healthcare access and mental health among the original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City. We used 2 data sources: 1) 2005-2014 American Community Surveys to identify gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City, and 2) 2006-2014 Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Our cohort included 12,882 residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in 2006 who had records of emergency department visits or hospitalization at least once every 2 years in 2006-2014. Rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations post-baseline were compared between residents who were displaced and those who remained. During 2006-2014, 23% were displaced. Compared with those who remained, displaced residents were more likely to make emergency department visits and experience hospitalizations, mainly due to mental health (Rate Ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 2.2), after controlling for baseline demographics, health status, healthcare utilization, residential movement, and the neighborhood of residence in 2006. These findings suggest negative impacts of displacement on healthcare access and mental health, particularly among adults living in urban areas and with a history of frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations.

  4. Impact of residential displacement on healthcare access and mental health among original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available As gentrification continues in New York City as well as other urban areas, residents of lower socioeconomic status maybe at higher risk for residential displacement. Yet, there have been few quantitative assessments of the health impacts of displacement. The objective of this paper is to assess the association between displacement and healthcare access and mental health among the original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City.We used 2 data sources: 1 2005-2014 American Community Surveys to identify gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City, and 2 2006-2014 Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Our cohort included 12,882 residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in 2006 who had records of emergency department visits or hospitalization at least once every 2 years in 2006-2014. Rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations post-baseline were compared between residents who were displaced and those who remained.During 2006-2014, 23% were displaced. Compared with those who remained, displaced residents were more likely to make emergency department visits and experience hospitalizations, mainly due to mental health (Rate Ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 2.2, after controlling for baseline demographics, health status, healthcare utilization, residential movement, and the neighborhood of residence in 2006.These findings suggest negative impacts of displacement on healthcare access and mental health, particularly among adults living in urban areas and with a history of frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations.

  5. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  6. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  7. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  8. Assessing the impact of stocking northern-origin hatchery brook trout on the genetics of wild populations in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazyak, David C.; Rash, Jacob; Lubinski, Barbara A.; King, Tim L.

    2018-01-01

    The release of hatchery-origin fish into streams with endemics can degrade the genetics of wild populations if interbreeding occurs. Starting in the 1800s, brook trout descendent from wild populations in the northeastern United States were stocked from hatcheries into streams across broad areas of North America to create and enhance fishery resources. Across the southeastern United States, many millions of hatchery-origin brook trout have been released into hundreds of streams, but the extent of introgression with native populations is not well resolved despite large phylogeographic distances between these groups. We used three assessment approaches based on 12 microsatellite loci to examine the extent of hatchery introgression in 406 wild brook trout populations in North Carolina. We found high levels of differentiation among most collections (mean F′ST = 0.718), and among most wild collections and hatchery strains (mean F′ST = 0.732). Our assessment of hatchery introgression was consistent across the three metrics, and indicated that most wild populations have not been strongly influenced by supplemental stocking. However, a small proportion of wild populations in North Carolina appear to have been strongly influenced by stocked conspecifics, or in some cases, may have been founded entirely by hatchery lineages. In addition, we found significant differences in the apparent extent of hatchery introgression among major watersheds, with the Savannah River being the most strongly impacted. Conversely, populations in the Pee Dee River watershed showed little to no evidence of hatchery introgression. Our study represents the first large-scale effort to quantify the extent of hatchery introgression across brook trout populations in the southern Appalachians using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers.

  9. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues such ......-go’ principle at times conceptually overlaps with cosmopolitan ethics. However, it also bears the potential to hinder cosmopolitan practices. Ultimately national and cosmopolitan ethical frameworks have to be interrogated simultaneously when applied to micro-level interactions.......This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues...

  10. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  11. Workplace bullying in the Australian health context: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sharlene; Travaglia, Joanne

    2017-05-15

    Purpose During the past decade, there has been increased attention into bullying behaviours in workplaces. Research to date has varied in design, the definition of what constitutes bullying behaviour, as well as the methods used to collect data and measure bullying incidence and prevalence. Nonetheless, studies demonstrate that bullying is a significant issue, which warrants an increased research focus to develop greater understanding of the concept, its effects and implications in, and for, the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to focus on capturing a range of international and Australian literature regarding workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. As a result, this paper identified the gaps in the literature when expanded specifically to an Australian health context. Design/methodology/approach The purpose of this review is to summarise the existing literature, both internationally and in Australia which examines workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. This describes the review of the literature on workplace bullying in a health context undertaken from January to April 2014. The "Preferred Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" method was used to structure the review, which covered a wide range of literature from databases including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and InformIT, as well as reports, and grey literature. Findings The review included 62 studies that met the inclusion criteria and reported either: factors contributing to workplace bullying, at least one significant example of workplace bullying behaviour or the impact of workplace bullying behaviours in a health context. Originality/value There is limited data on workplace bullying behaviours in an Australian health context. The literature supports there is value in future research to develop consistent definitions, policies, procedures and frameworks, which could help to prevent or address workplace bullying

  12. The Australian stock market development: Prospects and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sheilla Nyasha; Nicholas M. Odhiambo

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the origin and development of the Australian stock market. The country has three major stock exchanges, namely: the Australian Securities Exchange Group, the National Stock Exchange of Australia, and the Asia-Pacific Stock Exchange. These stock exchanges were born out of a string of stock exchanges that merged over time. Stock-market reforms have been implemented since the period of deregulation, during the 1980s; and the Exchanges responded largely positively to these r...

  13. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  14. Responses to Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae by several commercial strains of Australian and North American honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of varroa (Varroa destructor, Anderson & Trueman. 2000) on Australian beekeeping and agriculture depends in part on the levels of resistance to this parasite expressed by Australian commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera). The responses of seven lines of Australian honey bees to ...

  15. Discovery of microscopic evidence for shock metamorphism at the Serpent Mound structure, south-central Ohio: Confirmation of an origin by impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, R.W.; Koeberl, C.; Baranoski, M.T.; SchuMacHer, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The origin of the Serpent Mound structure in south-central Ohio has been disputed for many years. Clearly, more evidence was needed to resolve the confusion concerning the origin of the Serpent Mound feature either by endogenic processes or by hypervelocity impact. A petrographic study of 21 samples taken from a core 903 m long drilled in the central uplift of the structure provides evidence of shock metamorphism in the form of multiple sets of planar deformation features in quartz grains, as well as the presence of clasts of altered impact-melt rock. Crystallographic orientations of the planar deformation features show maxima at the shock-characteristic planes of {101??3} and {101??2} and additional maxima at {101??1}, {213??1}, and {516??1}. Geochemical analyses of impact breccias show minor enrichments in the abundances of the siderophile elements Cr, Co, Ni, and Ir, indicating the presence of a minor meteoritic component.

  16. Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hassam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

  17. Original Good, Adaptation Bad”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    reflect that respondents take a more positive stand on the original series, whereas the Anglophone adaptations are viewed more critically in an almost knee-jerk fashion, and I analyse the possible reasons why this may be. However, instead of only arguing that these stark differences in reception...... the Australian respondents’ opinions with Danish respondents’ opinions of the same original series. Because, as it turns out, Danish respondents have much less positive and more balanced opinions towards the original series, resembling the Australian respondents’ opinions of the Anglophone adaptations. Finally...

  18. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    equalizer and tasseled cap transformation were employed to the image data. RGB to IHS conversions and color combination of the original image data have also been made. The Vegetation index, NDVI, has also been used to measure the presence and state of vegetation so as to distinguish vegetated areas from others.

  19. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-28

    Mar 28, 2013 ... food production in sub-Saharan Africa coun. (Sanchez, 2010). Soil is the most precious vital natural resource and it must be mana. Original Research .... Exchangeable K and Na were measured by fl photometer. Exchangeable acidity determined by saturating the samples with. KCl solution and titrated with ...

  20. Original Research Original Research

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    questionnaires and analyzed using cross tab revealed the transfer of ... informal enterprises with the rural economy. Original Research. 95 ... ise from the formal sectors ew (1994) accepts these is study of the dynamics of lared the informal tailoring inputs from intermediary of and this is economic of inputs. According to.

  1. Original Research Original Research

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    User

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... great value in Ethiopian socio-economic growt requires small capital, promote inter linkages as it is a base for medium and large enterprises, increased domestic saving investment. Also they help for bal development provision of goods and services. Original Research. 123. 3327 (Online) esearch Journal.

  2. Original Research Original Research

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    User

    , fatty makeup of compost and raised the tempera of composting dairy manure and bedding by average of 3.4°C during an 8-wk developm period. BD compost preparation are used to. Original Research. 32. 3327 (Online) esearch Journal.

  3. Original Research Original Research

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    User

    2013-06-25

    Jun 25, 2013 ... the feeding practices (Kassahun, 2000). This involves the use of fodder bank, f trees, agro-industrial by-products such as, seed cake and urea to overcome CP shor. (ILCA, 1990). Supplementation of poor q roughage feed with suitable energy and p. Original Research. 38. 3327 (Online) esearch Journal.

  4. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-24

    Mar 24, 2013 ... approach is to create a pseudo alignment by taking random positions of the original alignment. Some columns of the alignment ... Table 1: Sequences selected for MSA: Inform contains the organism name from wh sequences. Sequence format. Sequence number. Sequence 1. Sequence 2. Sequence 3.

  5. The impact of cohort substance use upon likelihood of transitioning through stages of alcohol and cannabis use and use disorder: Findings from the Australian National Survey on Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Glantz, Meyer; Bharat, Chrianna; Peacock, Amy; Lago, Luise; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-03-05

    We used population-level Australian data to estimate prevalence, age of onset and speed of transitions across stages of alcohol and cannabis use, abuse and dependence, and remission from disorder, and consider the potential impacts that an individual's age cohort's level of substance use predicted transitions into and out of substance use. Data on use, DSM-IV use disorders, and remission from these disorders were collected from participants (n = 8463) in the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Lifetime prevalence (95% confidence interval) of alcohol use, regular use, abuse and dependence were 94.1% (93.3-94.8%), 64.5% (62.9-66.2%), 18.7% (17.4-19.9%) and 4.0% (3.4-4.6%). Lifetime prevalence of cannabis use, abuse and dependence were 19.8% (18.6-20.9%), 4.4% (3.8-5.0%) and 1.9% (1.5-2.4%). Among those with the disorder, rates of remission from cannabis abuse, alcohol abuse, cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence were 90.5% (87.4-93.6%), 86.2% (83.8-88.7%), 79.6% (71.1-88.1%) and 53.8% (46.6-61.0%). Increases in the estimated proportion of people in the respondent's age cohort who used alcohol/cannabis as of a given age were significantly associated with most transitions from use through to remission beginning at the same age. Clear associations were documented between cohort-level prevalence of substance use and personal risk of subsequent transitions of individuals in the cohort from use to greater substance involvement. This relationship remained significant over and above associations involving the individual's age of initiation. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the causal pathways into and out of problematic substance use. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Australian uranium today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: Australia's resources; Northern Territory uranium in perspective; the government's decision [on August 25, 1977, that there should be further development of uranium under strictly controlled conditions]; Government legislation; outlook [for the Australian uranium mining industry]. (U.K.)

  7. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    introdution of defects during the synthesis proces growth of the films. But, still the origin of ferromag is in debate. ... se (Mn), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) ndidates for variety of practical application due to their spin of ... hexhydrate (Zn (NO3)26H2O), mangane hydrate (Co(NO3)2.6H2O), cobalt nitrate he.

  8. Non-impact origin of the crater-like structures in the Gilf Kebir area (Egypt): Implications for the geology of eastern Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orti, L.; di Martino, M.; Morelli, M.; Cigolini, C.; Pandeli, E.; Buzzigoli, A.

    2008-10-01

    Several small crater-like structures occur in Gilf Kebir region (SW Egypt). It has been previously suggested that they could be the result of meteoritic impacts. Here we outline the results of our geological and geophysical survey in the area. The proposed impact origin for these structures is not supported by our observations and analyses, and we suggest an alternative interpretation. The crater-like structures in Gilf Kebir area are likely related to endogenic processes typical of hydrothermal vent complexes in volcanic areas which may reflect the emplacement of subvolcanic intrusives.

  9. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  10. Remote Sensing Assessment of Forest Disturbance across Complex Mountainous Terrain: The Pattern and Severity of Impacts of Tropical Cyclone Yasi on Australian Rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson I. Negrón-Juárez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Topography affects the patterns of forest disturbance produced by tropical cyclones. It determines the degree of exposure of a surface and can alter wind characteristics. Whether multispectral remote sensing data can sense the effect of topography on disturbance is a question that deserves attention given the multi-scale spatial coverage of these data and the projected increase in intensity of the strongest cyclones. Here, multispectral satellite data, topographic maps and cyclone surface wind data were used to study the patterns of disturbance in an Australian rainforest with complex mountainous terrain produced by tropical cyclone Yasi (2011. The cyclone surface wind data (H*wind was produced by the Hurricane Research Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (HRD/NOAA, and this was the first time that this data was produced for a cyclone outside of United States territory. A disturbance map was obtained by applying spectral mixture analyses on satellite data and presented a significant correlation with field-measured tree mortality. Our results showed that, consistent with cyclones in the southern hemisphere, multispectral data revealed that forest disturbance was higher on the left side of the cyclone track. The highest level of forest disturbance occurred in forests along the path of the cyclone track (±30°. Levels of forest disturbance decreased with decreasing slope and with an aspect facing off the track of the cyclone or away from the dominant surface winds. An increase in disturbance with surface elevation was also observed. However, areas affected by the same wind intensity presented increased levels of disturbance with increasing elevation suggesting that complex terrain interactions act to speed up wind at higher elevations. Yasi produced an important offset to Australia’s forest carbon sink in 2010. We concluded that multispectral data was sensitive to the main effects of complex topography on disturbance

  11. Treating body, treating mind: The experiences of people with psychotic disorders and their general practitioners - Findings from the Australian National Survey of High Impact Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterreus, Anna; Morgan, Vera A

    2017-09-01

    To describe from the perspective of people living with psychotic illness their use of general practitioner services over a 12-month period and the experiences, attitudes and challenges general practitioners face providing health care to this population. A two-phase design was used. Phase 1, screening for psychosis, occurred in public specialised mental health services and non-government organisations within seven catchment sites across Australia. In Phase 2, 1825 people who were screened positive for psychosis were randomly selected for interview which included questions about frequency and reason for general practitioner contact in the 12 months prior to interview. General practitioners (1473) of consenting participants were also surveyed. Almost all (90.3%) survey participants had consulted a general practitioner in the 12-month period, on average 8.9 times, and 28.8% of attenders had consulted 12 times or more. The majority (83.5%) attended one general practitioner practice. Most (77.6%) general practitioners wanted to be involved in the mental health care of their patient. Although 69.1% said the management of their patient was not problematic for their practice, one in five general practitioners reported issues related to patient non-compliance with treatment and non-attendance at scheduled appointments; time constraints; and lack of feedback from treating mental health services. People with psychotic disorders consult general practitioners, some very frequently. Most Australian general practitioners believe they have a responsibility to review the physical and mental health of their patients. Improved communication between general practitioners and mental health services, and easier access to mental health support, may help general practitioners manage the complex mental, physical and social problems of their patients.

  12. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    science of Ayurveda plays an important role maintenance of health of an individual. In today's f paced life, the lifestyles of the people have undergone major shift. These changes have an impact on the hea of individuals. Earlier epidemic diseases caused m human fatalities, but in the present scenario, coron heart disease is ...

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    capital. Ostrom (2000) viewed social capital a shared knowledge, understanding, norms, rule expectations about patterns of interactions that gro individuals bring to a recurrent activity. Dekke ... Abstract e of social capital in rice production in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... he study revealed a positive impact of social capital on farm.

  14. Original Research Original Research

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    grows bigger than any other form of digital or internet customers who use mobiles have been rapidly inc. Response ... communicated by mobile media with the intent to influence the attitudes, intentions and behavior o ... dvertising and Its Impact on the Customers Mind: Case of New Delhi (India). Sarfaraz Karim and Sravan ...

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    under the forest land, while the impact on most paramet cultivated land. Applications of lime, organic and ino especially in the cultivated lands may enhance the produ for undertaking integrated ... quality degradation depends on land use systems, types, topography ... addition, change in land use, long term cul deforestation ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the change of direction in Australian universities. Geffen' argued for a plurality of models of medical education as ... This raises the question of the additional cost of such a degree structure to the students and to society and ... university costs based on historical funding data. He recognised that many students already have ...

  17. Impact of Primary and Secondary Social Origin Factors on the Transition to University in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonová, Natalie; Soukup, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to show to what extent and why students with the same academic aptitude but different social backgrounds have different odds of entering university. For our analysis, we separated primary and secondary factors of social origin in the formation of educational inequalities. The results show that the primary and…

  18. Contextual amplification or attenuation of the impact of pubertal timing on Mexican-origin boys' mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Deardorff, Julianna; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2013-12-01

    To examine the role of neighborhood contextual variation in the putative association between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing symptoms among Mexican-origin boys. In a sample of seventh-grade Mexican-origin boys (N = 353; x¯age=12.8years) we assessed a range of secondary sexual characteristics, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms. Reports on all secondary sexual characteristics were collapsed and age-standardized to represent total pubertal timing. We also distinguished between the timing of physical changes driven by adrenal versus gonadal maturation. Boys' residential addresses were geocoded and American Community Survey data were used to describe neighborhoods along two dimensions: ethnic concentration and socioeconomic disadvantage. Three years later (in 10th grade) we re-assessed internalizing and externalizing symptoms. We examined the moderating influence of neighborhood ethnic concentration and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage on the prospective associations between puberty timing (total, gonadal, adrenal) and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Earlier total pubertal timing predicted increases in externalizing symptoms, but only when Mexican-origin boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. Total timing results for externalizing symptoms were replicated for adrenal timing. Furthermore, early adrenal timing predicted increases in internalizing symptoms, but again, only when boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. No effects were observed for gonadal timing specifically. Early pubertal timing, especially advanced physical changes initiated and regulated by adrenal maturation, have important implications for Mexican-origin boys' internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but these implications depend on neighborhood characteristics. Ethnically concentrated neighborhoods are protective for early-maturing Mexican-origin boys. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  19. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  20. Australian synchrotron radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Radiation Program, ASRP, has been set up as a major national research facility to provide facilities for scientists and technologists in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science who need access to synchrotron radiation. Australia has a strong tradition in crystallography and structure determination covering small molecule crystallography, biological and protein crystallography, diffraction science and materials science and several strong groups are working in x-ray optics, soft x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet physics. A number of groups whose primary interest is in the structure and dynamics of surfaces, catalysts, polymer and surfactant science and colloid science are hoping to use scattering methods and, if experience in Europe, Japan and USA can be taken as a guide, many of these groups will need third generation synchrotron access. To provide for this growing community, the Australian National Beamline at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, has been established since 1990 through a generous collaboration with Japanese colleagues, the beamline equipment being largely produced in Australia. This will be supplemented in 1997 with access to the world's most powerful synchrotron x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Some recent experiments in surface science using neutrons as well as x-rays from the Australian National Beamline will be used to illustrate one of the challenges that synchrotron x-rays may meet

  1. The impact of processing on amino acid racemization and protein quality in processed animal proteins of poultry origin

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Bellagamba; Fabio Caprino; Tiziana Mentasti; Mauro Vasconi; Vittorio Maria Moretti

    2015-01-01

    Re-authorization of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in EU, derived from by-products of human food production, could increase manufacturing of proteins for feed ingredients and reduce the need of imported proteins mainly of plant origin. The PAPs production is largely done by the rendering process during which authorized animal by-products are heat treated to extract valuable protein and animal fat, ensuring sterilizing conditions of raw incoming materials. Proteins exposure to certain proces...

  2. The impact of private equity on employment: the consequences of fund country of origin - new evidence from France

    OpenAIRE

    Guery, Loris; Stevenot, Anne; Wood, Geoffrey T.; Brewster, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the country of origin effects of private equity investment on employment in France. Using propensity score matching methodology applied to establishment-level survey data, we find that foreign investors are significantly more likely to induce job shedding and employment insecurity than are French investors. As suggested by the literature on comparative capitalism, national differences may persist in conjunction with commonalities and trends in global capitalism.

  3. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  4. Microscopic planar deformation features in quartz of the Vredefort structure: anomalous but still suggestive of an impact origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Coderre, J. M.; Robertson, P. B.; Alexopoulos, J.

    1990-01-01

    The orientation and distribution of diagnostic shock-produced planar features in quartz has been examined in over 80 samples from both the core and collar rocks of the Vredefort structure in South Africa. It is concluded that, although anomalous, the evidence from planar features in quartz is still consistent with the Vredefort structure being an erosional remnant of a large, complex, impact structure.

  5. Do Contaminants Originating from State-of-the-Art Treated Wastewater Impact the Ecological Quality of Surface Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0–100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this

  6. Riding the rural radio wave: The impact of a community-led drug and alcohol radio advertising campaign in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Alice; Allan, Julaine; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Snijder, Mieke

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal people experience a higher burden of disease as a consequence of drug and alcohol (D&A) abuse. Although media campaigns can be a popular tool for disseminating health promotion messages, evidence of the extent to which they reduce the impact of substance abuse is limited, especially for rural Aboriginal communities. This paper is the first to examine the impact a locally designed D&A radio advertising campaign for Aboriginal people in a remote community in Western NSW. A post-intervention evaluation. The radio campaign was implemented in Bourke, (population 2465, 30% Aboriginal). Fifty-three community surveys were completed. The self-reported level of awareness of the campaign and the number of self-referrals to local D&A workers in the intervention period. Most respondents (79%) reported they listen to radio on a daily basis, with 75% reporting that they had heard one or more of the advertisements. The advertisement that was remembered best contained the voice of a respected, local person. There was one self-referral to local health services during the intervention timeframe. The community-led radio advertising campaign increased community awareness of substance abuse harms, but had limited impact on formal help-seeking. This paper highlights the value of radio as a commonly used, trusted and culturally relevant health promotion medium for rural communities, especially when engaging local respected Aboriginal presenters. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Pathways to research impact in primary healthcare: What do Australian primary healthcare researchers believe works best to facilitate the use of their research findings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Richard L; McIntyre, Ellen; Jackson-Bowers, Eleanor; Kalucy, Libby

    2017-03-02

    Primary healthcare researchers are under increasing pressure to demonstrate measurable and lasting improvement in clinical practice and healthcare policy as a result of their work. It is therefore important to understand the effectiveness of the research dissemination strategies used. The aim of this paper is to describe the pathways for research impact that have been achieved across several government-funded primary healthcare projects, and the effectiveness of these methods as perceived by their Chief Investigators. The project used an online survey to collect information about government-funded primary healthcare research projects. Chief Investigators were asked how they disseminated their findings and how this achieved impact in policy and practice. They were also asked to express their beliefs regarding the most effective means of achieving research impact and describe how this occurred. Chief Investigators of 17 projects indicated that a number of dissemination strategies were used but that professional networks were the most effective means of promoting uptake of their research findings. Utilisation of research findings for clinical practice was most likely to occur in organisations or among individual practitioners who were most closely associated with the research team, or when research findings were included in educational programmes involving clinical practice. Uptake of both policy- and practice-related research was deemed most successful if intermediary organisations such as formal professional networks were engaged in the research. Successful primary healthcare researchers had developed critical relationships with intermediary organisations within primary healthcare before the initiation of the research and had also involved them in the design. The scale of research impact was influenced by the current policy environment, the type and significance of the results, and the endorsement (or lack thereof) of professional bodies. Chief Investigators

  9. Out of Sight and Out of Mind? Evaluating the Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans on Smoking-Related Beliefs and Behaviors in a Sample of Australian Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally; Kite, James; Grunseit, Anne C; Rissel, Chris; Perez, Donna A; Dessaix, Anita; Cotter, Trish; Bauman, Adrian; Young, Jane; Currow, David

    2015-07-01

    The Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland implemented bans on tobacco pack displays at point-of-sale (PoS) in July 2010 and November 2011, respectively. This study evaluated the medium-term impact of the bans on youth. Data were drawn from the Tobacco Promotion Impact Study, a repeated cross-sectional survey of youth (12-24 years) in NSW and Queensland conducted yearly 2010-2012 (n = 6,014). Regression analyses examined differences in youth's recall of PoS tobacco displays, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking behaviors in relation to the timing of the PoS display bans. Recall of PoS tobacco displays was significantly less likely for youth interviewed after the bans versus before (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.52, p < .01). They were also less likely to report tobacco brand awareness (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.92, p < .01), to over-estimate peer smoking (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.96, p < .01), or be current smokers (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.96, p < .05). Stratified analyses showed that these differences were primarily apparent in the group of youth most likely to be affected by tobacco PoS displays: those who visit tobacco retailers most frequently. After the bans, smokers were less likely to report that they think about smoking as a result of seeing PoS tobacco displays (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37, 0.97, p < .039). Our findings suggest an immediate impact of display bans on youth's exposure to tobacco pack displays, and likely impacts on smoking-related outcomes. These results suggest that removing tobacco displays from retail environments can positively contribute to the denormalization of smoking among youth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A stochastic analysis of the impact of input parameters on profit of Australian pasture-based dairy farms under variable carbon price scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkan, Şeyda; Farquharson, Robert J.; Hill, Julian; Malcolm, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two different pasture-based dairy feeding systems were evaluated. • The home-grown forage system outperformed the traditional pasture-based system. • Probability of achieving $200,000 income was reduced by imposition of a carbon tax. • Different farming systems will respond to change differently. • The ‘best choice’ for each individual farm is subjective. - Abstract: The imposition of a carbon tax in the economy will have indirect impacts on dairy farmers in Australia. Although there is a great deal of information available regarding mitigation strategies both in Australia and internationally, there seems to be a lack of research investigating the variable prices of carbon-based emissions on dairy farm operating profits in Australia. In this study, a stochastic analysis comparing the uncertainty in income in response to different prices on carbon-based emissions was conducted. The impact of variability in pasture consumption and variable prices of concentrates and hay on farm profitability was also investigated. The two different feeding systems examined were a ryegrass pasture-based system (RM) and a complementary forage-based system (CF). Imposing a carbon price ($20–$60) and not changing the systems reduced the farm operating profits by 28.4% and 25.6% in the RM and CF systems, respectively compared to a scenario where no carbon price was imposed. Different farming businesses will respond to variability in the rapidly changing operating environment such as fluctuations in pasture availability, price of purchased feeds and price of milk or carbon emissions differently. Further, in case there is a carbon price imposed for GHG emissions emanated from dairy farming systems, changing from pasture-based to more complex feeding systems incorporating home-grown double crops may reduce the reductions in farm operating profits. There is opportunity for future studies to focus on the impacts of different mitigation strategies and policy

  11. The impact of PET-CT in suspected recurrent ovarian cancer: A prospective multi-centre study as part of the Australian PET Data Collection Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulham, M J; Carter, J; Baldey, A; Hicks, R J; Ramshaw, J E; Gibson, M

    2009-03-01

    To assess the impact of FDG PET-CT on the management of patients with suspected recurrent ovarian cancer and to determine the incremental information provided by PET-CT. This was a prospective, multi-centre, cohort study. Ninety women (mean age 59.9 years; age range 35-85 years) with a previous history of treated epithelial ovarian carcinoma and suspected recurrence based on elevated CA-125, anatomical imaging or clinical symptoms were studied with FDG PET-CT across two States. Referring doctors were asked to specify a management plan pre-PET, if management was altered after PET-CT and, the impact (rated - none, low, medium, high) of PET-CT on patient management. The pre-PET management plan could include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and 'other' including observation. Patients were followed at 6 and 12 months and clinical status, evidence of recurrence and progression were recorded. Patients were referred by 34 individual specialists. At least 168 additional sites of disease in 61 patients (68%), not identified by conventional imaging were identified by PET-CT. In 77% the additional lesions were located below the diaphragm and most were nodal or peritoneal. PET-CT affected management in 60% (49% high, 11% medium impact). Patients where more disease was detected with PET-CT were more likely to progress in the following 12 months. For women with previously treated ovarian carcinoma with recurrent disease, PET-CT can: a) alter management in close to 60% of patients, b) detect more sites of disease than abdominal and pelvic CT, c) is superior in the detection of nodal, peritoneal and subcapsular liver disease and d) offers the opportunity for technology replacement in this setting.

  12. The impact of processing on amino acid racemization and protein quality in processed animal proteins of poultry origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bellagamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Re-authorization of processed animal proteins (PAPs in EU, derived from by-products of human food production, could increase manufacturing of proteins for feed ingredients and reduce the need of imported proteins mainly of plant origin. The PAPs production is largely done by the rendering process during which authorized animal by-products are heat treated to extract valuable protein and animal fat, ensuring sterilizing conditions of raw incoming materials. Proteins exposure to certain processing conditions induces two important chemical changes, racemization of amino acids and formation of cross-linked amino acid. These changes are associated with appreciable reduction of protein digestibility and nutritional value. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of heat treatment on amino acid racemization in processed animal proteins of poultry origin and related nutritional implications by evaluation of their in vitro digestibility. The results reported confirm the detection of racemized amino acids in processed animal proteins, especially D-aspartic acid, as realistic indicators of thermal treatments during PAP manufacturing. In our results, the severe (115°C and prolonged heat treatment (180 minutes revealed a D-Asp content of 28.1%. Prolongation of temperature treatment (20, 30 and 180 min, at 115°C significantly (P<0.05 affects in vitro protein digestibility, which decrease from 86.0%, in no-treated sample, to 78.3% and 79.1% after 20 and 30 min, respectively, and to 76.3% after 180 min. The processing conditions applied during PAPs preparations and the racemization of proteins amino acids may reasonably be involved in the loss of protein quality.

  13. Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector's responsiveness to environmental sustainability issues: suggestions from Australian healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2013-05-01

    Identify strategies to implement change across the Australian healthcare sector to better support social and natural environments. Methods. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Australian healthcare professionals. Interviewees described multiple barriers to implementing change and numerous strategies to overcome these barriers. They argued that action must be taken at the individual and systemic levels to produce substantial and effective change. The strategies recommended fall into four main categories: altering workplace cultures and professional identities, community engagement, political activity, and change from within. The overarching goals of these strategies are to reduce negative impacts on the natural environment, and increase social equity within and across generations. By implementing the strategies described, a more cohesive effort to address sustainability issues across the sector can be made. This may improve local and global health, within current and future generations. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Healthcare has a significant impact on the natural and social environments, which in turn have a significant impact upon health and healthcare. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper describes strategies to alter healthcare to better support environmental sustainability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Collective implementation of the described strategies may allow a more cohesive and effective response across the Australian healthcare sector, to enhance local and global health for current and future generations.

  14. The origin of Phobos grooves from ejecta launched from impact craters on Mars: Tests of the hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsley, Kenneth R.; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of the martian moon Phobos is characterized by parallel and intersecting grooves that bear resemblance to secondary crater chains observed on planetary surfaces. Murray (2011) has hypothesized that the main groove-forming process on Phobos is the intersection of Phobos with ejecta from primary impact events on Mars to produce chains of secondary craters. The hypothesis infers a pattern of parallel jets of ejecta, either fluidized or solidified, that break into equally-spaced fragments and disperse uniformly along-trajectory during the flight from Mars to Phobos. At the moment of impact with Phobos the dispersed fragments emplace secondary craters that are aligned along strike corresponding to the flight pattern of ejecta along trajectory. The aspects of the characteristics of grooves on Phobos cited by this hypothesis that might be explained by secondary ejecta include: their observed linearity, parallelism, planar alignment, pitted nature, change in character along strike, and a "zone of avoidance" where ejecta from Mars is predicted not to impact (Murray, 2011). To test the hypothesis we plot precise Keplerian orbits for ejecta from Mars (elliptical and hyperbolic with periapsis located below the surface of Mars). From these trajectories we: (1) set the fragment dispersion limits of ejecta patterns required to emplace the more typically well-organized parallel grooves observed in returned images from Phobos; (2) plot ranges of the ejecta flight durations from Mars to Phobos and map regions of exposure; (3) utilize the same exposure map to observe trajectory-defined ejecta exposure shadows; (4) observe hemispheric exposure in response to shorter and longer durations of ejecta flight; (5) assess the viability of ejecta emplacing the large family of grooves covering most of the northern hemisphere of Phobos; and (6) plot the arrival of parallel lines of ejecta emplacing chains of craters at oblique incident angles. We also assess the bulk volume of

  15. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological

  16. Impact of oviductal versus ovarian epithelial cell of origin on ovarian endometrioid carcinoma phenotype in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Zhai, Yali; Kuick, Rork; Karnezis, Anthony N; Garcia, Paloma; Naseem, Anum; Hu, Tom C; Fearon, Eric R; Cho, Kathleen R

    2016-11-01

    Endometrioid carcinoma (EC) is a relatively indolent ovarian carcinoma subtype that is nonetheless deadly if detected late. Existing genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of the disease, based on transformation of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), take advantage of known ovarian EC driver gene lesions, but do not fully recapitulate the disease features seen in patients. An EC model in which the Apc and Pten tumour suppressor genes are conditionally deleted in murine OSE yields tumours that are biologically more aggressive and significantly less differentiated than human ECs. Importantly, OSE is not currently thought to be the tissue of origin of most ovarian cancers, including ECs, suggesting that tumour initiation in Müllerian epithelium may produce tumours that more closely resemble their human tumour counterparts. We have developed Ovgp1-iCreER T2 mice in which the Ovgp1 promoter controls expression of tamoxifen (TAM)-regulated Cre recombinase in oviductal epithelium - the murine equivalent of human Fallopian tube epithelium. Ovgp1-iCreER T2 ;Apc fl/fl ;Pten fl/fl mice treated with TAM or injected with adenovirus expressing Cre into the ovarian bursa uniformly develop oviductal or ovarian ECs, respectively. On the basis of their morphology and global gene expression profiles, the oviduct-derived tumours more closely resemble human ovarian ECs than do OSE-derived tumours. Furthermore, mice with oviductal tumours survive much longer than their counterparts with ovarian tumours. The slow progression and late metastasis of oviductal tumours resembles the relatively indolent behaviour characteristic of so-called Type I ovarian carcinomas in humans, for which EC is a prototype. Our studies demonstrate the utility of Ovgp1-iCreER T2 mice for manipulating genes of interest specifically in the oviductal epithelium, and establish that the cell of origin is an important consideration in mouse ovarian cancer GEMMs. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great

  17. Impact of a chronic disease management program on hospital admissions and readmissions in an Australian population with heart disease or diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, G Brent; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Wells, Aaron; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Larkin, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Chronic disease management programs (CDMPs) were introduced in Australia to reduce unnecessary health care utilization by the growing population with chronic conditions; however, evidence of effectiveness is needed. This study evaluated the impact of a comprehensive CDMP, My Health Guardian (MHG), on rate of hospital admissions, readmissions, and average length of hospital stay (ALOS) for insured individuals with heart disease or diabetes. Primary outcomes were assessed through retrospective comparison of members in MHG (treatment; n=5053) to similar nonparticipating members (comparison; n=23,077) using a difference-in-differences approach with the year before program commencement serving as baseline and the subsequent 12 or 18 months serving as the program periods. All outcomes were evaluated for the total study population and for disease-matched subgroups (heart disease and diabetes). Statistical tests were performed using multivariate regression controlling for age, sex, number of chronic diseases, and past hospitalization status. After both 12 and 18 months, treatment members displayed decreases in admissions (both, P≤0.001) and readmissions (both, P≤0.01), and ALOS after 18 months (P≤0.01) versus the comparison group; magnitude of impact increased over time for these 3 measures. All outcomes for both disease-matched subgroups directionally mirrored the total study group, but the diabetes subgroup did not achieve significance for readmissions or ALOS. Within the treatment group, admissions decreased with increasing care calls to members (12 and 18 months, Phospital admissions and presents a promising approach to reduce the burden associated with hospitalizations in populations with chronic disease.

  18. Origini e conseguenze dello stato sociale: 1883-1983. (Origins and impact of the welfare state, 1883-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MADDISON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L' articolo riguarda la grande e continua crescita delle spese per lo "stato sociale" . Esso analizza le ragioni per la nascita dello Stato sociale e il suo impatto sulla crescita economica . Il lavoro è inteso come una diagnosi di questa crescita dal 1883 , esaminando le forze causali dietro l'espansione e il suo impatto nel mitigare i conflitti sociali che Marx ha rilevato nei primi decenni del moderno sviluppo capitalistico .E' anche considerato che lo stato sociale ha raggiunto limiti disfunzionali che ostacolano le prestazioni economiche . L'autore aumenta il record storico con l'analisi cross-country di sviluppo nelle cinque grandi economie capitaliste più i Paesi Bassi , al fine di raccogliere prove convincenti The article is concerned with the large and continuous growth of “welfare state” expenditures. It analyses the reasons for the emergence of the welfare state and its impact on economic growth. The work is intended as a diagnosis of this growth since 1883, examining the causal forces behind expansion and its impact in mitigating the social conflicts which Marx detected in the first decades of modern capitalist development. Also considered is whether the welfare state has reached dysfunctional limits which impede economic performance. The author augments the historical record with cross-country analysis of development in the five big capitalist economies plus the Netherlands, in order to assemble convincing evidence. JEL: H53, I38

  19. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-11-17

    Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook. Consenting participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected penile swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of the study population with those of the general Australian male population, based on Australian 2011 census data. Between February 2015 and February 2017, targeted Facebook advertisements reached 1,523,239 men, resulting in 41,811 clicks through to the study website, with 1072 (2.56%) converting to lodgment of an expression of interest. Of these, 681 (63.53%) provided written informed consent and 535 (78.6% of recruited participants) completed all the study requirements. Reasons for participating in the study included altruism, past history of HPV, gaining more knowledge about HPV or the vaccine, working in the health industry, and the monetary compensation. The average advertising cost per completed study participant was Aus $48. Compared with the census population, HYM study participants were more likely to be Australian born (PFacebook is a feasible and efficient strategy for the recruitment of men from across Australia for HPV testing. This method could be used for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination. Additional targeting may achieve a sample that is broadly demographically representative of the Australian population. Future research should explore how the sexual risk behavior characteristics of

  20. Disentangling the impacts of climate and human colonization on the flora and fauna of the Australian arid zone over the past 100 ka using stable isotopes in avian eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Magee, John W.; Gagan, Michael K.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the Quaternary, the flora and fauna of Australia evolved and adapted to the high-amplitude, low- and high-frequency climate changes that characterized the ice-age cycles. However, during the last glacial cycle, between ∼120 and 15 ka, unprecedented irreversible changes in flora and fauna occurred, and in that same interval modern humans established their first firm presence in the landscape. Disentangling the impacts of the first-order trend toward a colder, drier planet through the Late Quaternary from the impacts of human colonization has been challenging, from both the chronological and paleoenvironmental perspectives. We utilize the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen preserved in near-continuous time series of Dromaius (emu) eggshell from five regions across Australia to provide independent reconstructions of ecosystem status and climate over the past 100 ka. Carbon isotopes are determined by the diet consumed by the female bird, whereas oxygen isotopes record the status of local moisture balance in the months prior to breeding. Together, δ13C and δ18O provide ecosystem status and climate from the same dated sample, reducing correlation uncertainties between proxies. Combined with recent improvements in the chronologies of Late Quaternary shorelines fringing inland lake basins and deflation during arid times, these data collectively reaffirm that Australia generally became increasingly, albeit irregularly, drier from the last interglaciation through to the last glacial maximum. Dromaius eggshell δ18O documents peak aridity between 30 and 15 ka, but shows no evidence of exceptional climate change between 60 and 40 ka. In contrast, Dromaius δ13Cdiet documents an irreversible loss of the majority of palatable summer-rainfall-related C4 grasses across the Australian arid zone between 50 and 45 ka, about the same time that the giant megafaunal bird, Genyornis, became extinct, and coincident with human dispersal across the continent. Our data

  1. The Australian synchrotron research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was established in 1996 under a 5 year grant from the Australian Government, and is managed by ANSTO on behalf of a consortium of Australian universities and research organisations. It has taken over the operation of the Australian National Beamline Facility (ANBF) at the Photon Factory, and has joined two CATS at the Advanced Photon Source: the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation CAT (SRI-CAT) and the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). The ASRP thus manages a comprehensive range of synchrotron radiation research facilities for Australian science. The ANBF is a general purpose hard X-ray beamline which has been in operation at the Photon Factory since 1993. It currently caters for about 35 Australian research teams per year. The facilities available at the ANBF will be presented and the research program will be summarised. The ASRP facilities at the APS comprise the 5 sectors operated by SRI-CAT, BioCARS and ChemMatCARS. A brief description will be given of the ASRP research programs at the APS, which will considerably broaden the scope of Australian synchrotron science

  2. Impact-melt origin for the Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites: implicatiions for impact processes beyond the Earth--Moon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floran, R.J.; Caulfield, J.B.D.; Harlow, G.E.; Prinz, M.

    1978-05-01

    The Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites are interpreted to be clast-laden impact melts that crystallized from immiscible silicate, metallic (Fe-FeS) liquids. The existence of silicate melts is shown by intergranular basaltic textures. Metallic melts are inferred on the basis of smooth boundaries between metal and troilite and the occurrence of troilite as anastomosing areas that radiate outward into the silicate fractions. These relations suggest that troilite crystallized after silicates, concentrating as a late-stage residuum. Evidence for impact melting includes: diversity and abundance of clast types (mineral, metal, lithic) in various stages of recrystallization and assimilation; differences in mineral chemistries between clasts and igneous-textured matrix silicates; unusual metal plus silicate bulk composition. Silicate clasts consist primarily of orthopyroxene and minor olivine with a range of Fe/Fe + Mg ratios, anorthitic plagioclase, and rare orthopyroxenite (diogenite) fragments. Substantial amounts of Fe-Ni metal were melted during the impact events and minor amounts were incorporated into the melts as clasts. The clast populations suggest that at least four rock types were melted and mixed: (a) diogenite, (b) a plagioclase-rich source, possibly cumulate eucrite, (c) dunite, and (d) metal. Most orthopyroxene appears to have been derived from fragmentation of diogenites. Orthopyroxene (En/sub 82-61/) and olivine (Fo/sub 86-67/) clasts include much material unsampled as individual meteorites and probably represent a variety of source rocks

  3. The impact of patient narratives on self-efficacy and self-care in Australians with type 2 diabetes: stage 1 results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Tina; Dunt, D; Fitzgerald, J L; Gordon, I

    2015-09-01

    A randomized-controlled trial (RCT) was conducted from September 2009 to June 2011. National Diabetes Services Scheme registrants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and aged 30-70 years were invited to participate in a 3-week intervention programme with follow-up at 4 weeks and 6 months. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires in the participant's homes. The intervention group received diabetes factsheets and a DVD comprising patient stories (narratives) of type 2 diabetes management. The control group (CG) received factsheets only. The RCT evaluated the impact of patient narratives on the study outcomes, self-efficacy and self-care, using the Aust/English Diabetes Management Self-efficacy Scale and the Summary Diabetes Self-care Activities measure. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or CG using block randomization. The study was not blinded. Six hundred and seventy people enrolled into the study with 335 allocated to each group. At 4 weeks, data were available for 598 participants. t-tests were used to analyse the results. The mean difference between the groups for self-efficacy was 7.2 units (P diabetes self-management programmes. ACTRN 12609000210279. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Long-term impact of a chronic disease management program on hospital utilization and cost in an Australian population with heart disease or diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, G Brent; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Larkin, Shaun

    2015-04-22

    To evaluate the longitudinal value of a chronic disease management program, My Health Guardian (MHG), in reducing hospital utilization and costs over 4 years. The MHG program provides individualized support via telephonic nurse outreach and online tools for self-management, behavior change and well-being. In follow up to an initial 18-month analysis of MHG, the current study evaluated program impact over 4 years. A matched-cohort analysis retrospectively compared MHG participants with heart disease or diabetes (treatment, N = 4,948) to non-participants (comparison, N = 28,520) on utilization rates (hospital admission, readmission, total bed days) and hospital claims cost savings. Outcomes were evaluated using regression analyses, controlling for remaining demographic, disease, and pre-program admissions or cost differences between the study groups. Over the 4 year period, program participation resulted in significant reductions in hospital admissions (-11.4%, P hospital claims was $3,549 over 4-years; savings values for each program year were significant and increased with time (P = 0.003 to P hospital utilization and costs for individuals with heart disease or diabetes and demonstrate the increasing program effect with continued participation over time.

  5. Australian coal industry continues expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent saleable Australian black coal production figures are given along with trends in development of new operations and new technology aiming to provide a sound basis for the continuing expansion of the Australian coal industry. Export prices from 1982 to 1991 to Japan (Australia's major export market) are provided, together with Australian dollar return to exporters at the exchange rate prevailing at the start of each contract year. An increased demand for steaming coal is expected, thus maintaining Australia's position as the world's larger exporter. 4 tabs

  6. Hybrid origins of Australian honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increased globalisation and homogenisation the maintenance of genetic integrity of local populations of agriculturally important species is of increasing concern. The honey bee provides an interesting perspective as it is both domesticated and wild, with a large native range and much larger int...

  7. Alcohol management plans in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous Australian communities in Queensland: community residents have experienced favourable impacts but also suffered unfavourable ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Clough

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, ‘Alcohol Management Plans’ (AMPs provide the policy infrastructure for State and Commonwealth Governments to address problematic alcohol use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We report community residents’ experiences of AMPs in 10 of Queensland’s 15 remote Indigenous communities. Methods This cross-sectional study used a two-stage sampling strategy: N = 1211; 588 (48% males, 623 (52% females aged ≥18 years in 10 communities. Seven propositions about ‘favourable’ impacts and seven about ‘unfavourable’ impacts were developed from semi-structured interviews. For each proposition, one-sample tests of proportions examined participant agreement and multivariable binary logistic regressions assessed influences of gender, age (18–24, 25–44, 45–64, ≥65 years, residence (≥6 years, current drinking and Indigenous status. Confirmatory factor analyses estimated scale reliability (ρ, item loadings and covariances. Results Slim majorities agreed that: AMPs reduced violence (53%, p = 0.024; community a better place to live (54%, 0.012; and children were safer (56%, p < 0.001. More agreed that: school attendance improved (66%, p < 0.001; and awareness of alcohol’s harms increased (71%, p < 0.001. Participants were equivocal about improved personal safety (53%, p = 0.097 and reduced violence against women (49%, p = 0.362. The seven ‘favourable’ items reliably summarized participants’ experiences of reduced violence and improved community amenity (ρ = 0.90. Stronger agreement was found for six ‘unfavourable’ items: alcohol availability not reduced (58%, p < 0.001; drinking not reduced (56%, p < 0.001; cannabis use increased (69%, p < 0.001; more binge drinking (73%, p < 0.001; discrimination experienced (77%, p < 0.001; increased fines, convictions and criminal records for breaching restrictions (90%, p < 0

  8. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Gillian A; Johansen, Mathew P; Carpenter, Julia G; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife concentration ratios for 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po and isotopes of Th and U from soil, water, and sediments were evaluated for a range of Australian uranium mining environments. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR wo-media ) were developed for 271 radionuclide-organism pairs within the terrestrial and freshwater wildlife groups. Australian wildlife often has distinct physiological attributes, such as the lower metabolic rates of macropod marsupials as compared with placental mammals. In addition, the Australian CRs wo-media originate from tropical and semi-arid climates, rather than from the temperate-dominated climates of Europe and North America from which most (>90%) of internationally available CR wo-media values originate. When compared, the Australian and non-Australian CRs are significantly different for some wildlife categories (e.g. grasses, mammals) but not others (e.g. shrubs). Where differences exist, the Australian values were higher, suggesting that site-, or region-specific CRs wo-media should be used in detailed Australian assessments. However, in screening studies, use of the international mean values in the Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD) appears to be appropriate, as long as the values used encompass the Australian 95th percentile values. Gaps in the Australian datasets include a lack of marine parameters, and no CR data are available for freshwater phytoplankton, zooplankton, insects, insect larvae or amphibians; for terrestrial environments, there are no data for amphibians, annelids, ferns, fungi or lichens & bryophytes. The new Australian specific parameters will aide in evaluating remediation plans and ongoing operations at mining and waste sites within Australia. They have also substantially bolstered the body of U- and Th-series CR wo-media data for use internationally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Holiday and School-Term Sleep Patterns of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-01-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient…

  10. Research Support in Australian Academic Libraries: Services, Resources, and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Mamtora, Jayshree

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade Australian academic libraries have increasingly aligned their research support services with assessment criteria used in the national research evaluation exercise (Excellence for Research in Australia). The same period has seen growing interest in research impact outside of traditional measures, such as bibliometrics. Social…

  11. Quality Australian Journals in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to test the journal diffusion factor (JDF) as an alternative to journal impact factors (JIFs) for ranking journals. Bibliometric research methods were applied to rank Australian architecture, communications and education journals by the JDF; this was with the total number of citations they attract in ISI indexed…

  12. GLBTIQ Teachers in Australian Education Policy: Protections, Suspicions, and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Gray, Emily; Harris, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of human rights on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status by the United Nations has led to the development of new policies concerning homophobia and transphobia in educational contexts. This paper examines new Australian education policies impacting gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer…

  13. Organisational Change and the Management of Training in Australian Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Oczkowski, Edward; Macklin, Robert; Noble, Charles

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 584 Australian companies investigated the impact of 5 management practices (total quality management, teamwork, lean production, reengineering, learning organizations) in relation to 8 training practices. New management practices had significant but differing effects on the organization of training: total quality management had the…

  14. New approach to the assessment and reduction of health risks and environmental impacts originating from TENORM according to EC regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poffijn, A. [Laboratory for Nuclear Physics, Gent (Belgium); Kraus, W.D. [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The New Basic Safety Standards as laid down in the Directive 96/29/Euratom differ from the earlier versions in that specific provisions have been formulated in Title VII for exposure to natural radiation sources. The scope of its application involves work activities, within which the presence of natural radiation sources may lead to exposures of workers and/or members of the public that cannot be ignored form the point of view of radiation protection. Two groups of work activities are of particular concern : the processing and/or storage of materials with enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and the production of residues causing a significant increase in the exposure of workers and members of the public. The Member States have to identity the activities of concern and they are given a high degree of flexibility in implementing the articles on natural radiation sources into national legislation. There is, however, a great need to harmonize the national approaches. Therefore guidance on the likely level of regulation of various materials and recommendations on the identification of such workplaces and on the nature of appropriate control have been prepared. The proposed set of screening and reference levels is intended as a first order approach, needing in some cases more detailed investigations. As a particular case, the detailed investigations done in relation to the phosphate industry and its environmental impact will be described and discussed. (authors)

  15. Impact of x-ray screening programmes for active tuberculosis in homeless populations: a systematic review of original studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis prevalence is generally low in industrialized countries, but many cities now operate surveillance programmes to actively screen for tuberculosis in known risk groups including homeless people. While several studies have reported on individual screening programmes, this study is the first known systematic review specifically looking at chest x-ray screening programmes for tuberculosis in homeless populations. Systematic review of relevant studies published in the last 20 years using the PRISMA checklist. Fourteen studies were reviewed: 12 cross-sectional studies, 1 retrospective cohort study and 1 'data-linkage' study. The studies were heterogenous in terms of the objectives, measured outcomes and methodological quality. Active tuberculosis prevalence was found to be higher in homeless populations and screening programmes appear to identify tuberculosis earlier, reduce prevalence and transmission, and increase treatment compliance. Active x-ray surveillance programmes in homeless communities appear to be cost-effective in reducing prevalence within the homeless population particularly in related strains and may have some benefits over passive finding. While there is a need for high-quality research to further assess the impact of these programmes, this study has outlined the benefits and limitations of existing programmes and included recommendations to achieve maximum coverage, uptake and cost-benefit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Population demography of Australian feral bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, B P; Thexton, E G; Lawler, S H; Crozier, R H

    1997-07-01

    Honey-bees are widespread as feral animals in Australia. Their impact on Australian ecosystems is difficult to assess, but may include competition with native fauna for floral resources or nesting sites, or inadequate or inappropriate pollination of native flora. In this 3-year study we examined the demography of the feral bee population in the riparian woodland of Wyperfeld National Park in north-west Victoria. The population is very large but varied considerably in size (50-150 colonies/km 2 ) during the study period (1992-1995). The expected colony lifespan for an established colony is 6.6 years, that for a founder colony (new swarm), 2.7 years. The population is expected to be stable if each colony produces 0.75 swarms per year, which is less than the number predicted on the basis of other studies (2-3 swarms/colony per year). Therefore, the population has considerable capacity for increase. Most colony deaths occurred in the summer, possibly due to high temperatures and lack of water. Colonies showed considerable spatial aggregation, agreeing with earlier findings. When all colonies were eradicated from two 5-ha sites, the average rate of re-occupation was 15 colonies/km 2 per year. Ten swarms of commercial origin were released and were found to have similar survival rates to founder colonies. However, the feral population is self-sustaining, and does not require immigration from the domestic population.

  17. Responding to the Challenges of Providing Mental Health Services to Refugees: An Australian Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ida; Stow, Hardy David; Szwarc, Josef

    2016-01-01

    There has been a growing recognition of the mental health needs of refugees in countries of settlement, as many are survivors of torture and other traumatic events experienced in countries of origin, during flight, and in places of temporary refuge. The challenges in providing access to services and quality mental health care arise not only from the fact that refugees generally come from cultures very different to the societies in which they settle and are not proficient in the languages of their new homes. Other significant barriers relate to the impact of the trauma and psychosocial stressors they experience despite finding apparent security. In response to the challenges, specialist agencies have developed ways of providing services that are trauma-informed, culture-informed, and holistic. This paper describes an Australian example of a mental health clinic as part of a community-based service for refugees who are survivors of torture and other traumatic events.

  18. Occupational therapy publications by Australian authors: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2018-01-18

    Bibliometrics refers to the collection and measurement of publishing and citation data configurations with the goal of quantifying the influence of scholarly activities. Advantages of bibliometrics include the generation of quantitative indicators of impact, productivity, quality and collaboration. Those parties who benefit from the results of bibliometric analysis include researchers, educators, journal publishers, employers and research funding bodies. A bibliometric analysis was completed of peer-reviewed literature from 1991 to 2015, written by Australian occupational therapists (who were able to be identified as such), and indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded) or the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. "Occupational therapy" and "occupational therapist(s)" were used as keywords to search journal articles' publication title, abstract, author details, keywords and KeyWord Plus. Between 1991 and 2015, 752 peer-reviewed journal articles were published by Australian occupational therapy authors. On average, those articles had 3.7 authors, 35 references, and were nine pages in length. The top four journals in which Australian occupational therapists published were Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, American Journal of Occupational Therapy, and Physical and Occupational Therapy in Paediatrics. The four Australian institutions that generated the largest number of occupational therapy articles were the University of Queensland, University of Sydney, La Trobe University, and Monash University. The top four countries with whom Australian authors collaborated in manuscript writing were the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Sweden. The volume of occupational therapy peer-reviewed literature has grown over the last two decades. Australian authors have and continue to make significant contributions to the occupational therapy body of knowledge nationally and internationally. © 2018

  19. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  20. The UnAustralian Condition: An Essay In Four Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Pavlides

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It was in the 1990s, following a flurry of the use of the expression ‘un-Australian’ by politicians, that the Macquarie Dictionary first included a definition of the term. In 2006, whilst conducting a review of the Hansard records going back 20 years, Professor Klaus Neumann found that politicians in the Senate and the House of Reps had used the term 600 times . Within the Australian parliament the term was used to describe anything from rental cars to socialism, to the imposition of import duties for agricultural equipment. So what does the term mean? In its earliest use from the mid 1850s onwards, ‘un-Australian’ was used in positive sense to describe the things that were akin to the British motherland and unlike the host country. In the 1990s, academic Joe Pugliese saw the use of the term as marking a profound anxiety about Australian identity and as signalling Australia’s failure to come to terms with its history . Former Australian Prime Minister John Howard invoked the word ‘un-Australian’ to great effect. In 2004, 28.2 per cent of the mentions of the word in major metropolitan newspapers were attributed to him by Media Monitor. Re elected to office four times, Howard took Australians into the new millennium by reinvigorating a homogeneous and one dimensional Australian identity forever indebted to its British origins. From the mid 1990’s, until the mid 2000s Australians failed to move beyond a state of mind that made a national identity contingent on the pre-eminence of the British diaspora. Thus, in this paper I argue that the constant anxiety about national identity for Australians links directly to the unresolved questions which surround diasporic belonging. I suggest that Australian national identity is condemned to oscillate uncertainly between the two terms – ‘parvenu’ or ‘pariah’– until new ways of national belonging are defined and accepted by Australians a new transnational era.

  1. The integrated impacts of natural processes and human activities on the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in the coastal aquifers of Beihai, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zhan, Y., , Dr; Chen, W. Ms; Yu, S., , Dr

    2017-12-01

    Salinization in coastal aquifers usually is the results of contamination related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction. The chemical and isotopic methods were combined to identify the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in Daguansha area of Beihai. The concentrations of the major ions that dominate in sea water (Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO2- 4), as well as the isotopic ratios (2H, 18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 13C) suggest that the salinization occurring in the aquifer water of the coastal plain is related to seawater and the prevailing hydrochemical processes are evaporation, mixing, dissolution and ion exchange. For the unconfined aquifer, groundwater salinization occurred in parts of the area, which is significantly influenced by the land-based sea farming. The integrated impacts of seawater intrusion from the Beibuwan Gulf and infiltration of seawater from the culture ponds is identified in the confined aquifer I at site BBW2. In consequence, the leakage from this polluted aquifer causes the salinization of groundwater in the confined aquifer II. At site BBW3, the confined aquifer I and lower confined aquifer II are remarkably contaminated by seawater intrusion. The weak connectivity with upper aquifers and seaward movement of freshwater prevents saltwater from encroaching the confined aquifer III. Above all, understanding of the origin and processes of groundwater salinization will provide essential information for sustainable planning and management of groundwater resources in this region.

  2. Impacts of conversion of the original Brazilian cerrado vegetation in agriculture systems: changes of soil organic carbon and δ13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Rosolen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian savannah (cerrado is an area of expansion of agribusiness. Among the various environmental changes related to deforestation of the savannah stand out impacts related to soil organic matter such as the imbalances in stocks and the changing nature of soil organic carbon. The objective of these study was to evaluate changes in nature (δ13C and quantity (C% of soil carbon after conversion of the dense savannah vegetation in areas under different lan duses (pasture, soybeans, corn / soybean rotation, management (conventional and zero tillage developed in soils with different textural characteristics. The results showed that the average data set of non–managed grazing was the most distanced from the value obtained in cerrado soil. Another factor that determined the lowest concentrations of organic carbon was the presence of sandy soil. The results showed that the carbon C4 grasses in areas occupied by pastures, with or without management, replaced the original C3 carbon originated by cerrado. In the areas of conventional tillage, and no–tillage soybean, and consortium soybean/corn, no clear trend of impoverishment or enrichment of carbon and the carbon substitution as well as the incorporation of different nature of the carbon could be found.

  3. Origin and climatic impact of a thermo-haline changes in next centuries in the IPSL-CM4 coupled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swingedouw, D.

    2006-11-01

    The thermo-haline circulation (THC) strongly influences the climate of the North Atlantic. The warming caused by the release of anthropic CO 2 risks to affect this oceanic circulation and then the climate. In this thesis we point to evaluate this risk and to understand the climatic impact of the THC in the future thanks to the tri-dimensional ocean-atmosphere-sea-ice-land IPSL-CM4 coupled model. In a first part we have done a survey of the principal theories and knowledge concerning the THC. We have then validated the pertinence of IPSL-CM4 to lead our study. The role of the salt has appeared primordial for the dynamics of the THC. Then, we have evaluated the sensitivity of the THC to the global fresh water forcing of the ocean. Different sensitivities of the convection sites of the North Atlantic, related to salinity transport process, have been revealed in IPSL-CM4. We have then analysed some scenario simulations for next centuries. It has appeared a significant diminution of the THC in those simulations, which is strongly magnified if the melting of Greenland is taken in account. The analysis of several scenarios taking into account or not this glacier melting has permitted to isolate in an original manner the role played by THC feedbacks. Last, the effect of the THC on the climate has been quantified in IPSL-CM4. It appears to be more slight that the global warming, even locally on Europe. The explanation of the mechanisms at the origin of the influence of the THC on climate has also been clarified. The impact of the THC on the oceanic carbon uptake in the ocean has been lastly evaluated, and appears to be very small on 140 years. This study thus gives a clear vision of the role of the THC on the climate and its possible future. (author)

  4. Elder participation and senior power in Australian electoral politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Allan; Hudson, Robert B; McCormack, John

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to assess the "goodness of fit" between the social science literature on the impact of older voters on electoral outcomes and the Australian experience of the politics of aging. While the literature suggests that the notion of senior power is a flawed one, Australia's 2004 federal election campaign indicated that this is not quite so. This article offers a possible explanation for the difference between the literature and the Australian experience in terms of the calculus that underpinned the election campaign, namely, capturing the votes of swing voters in marginal seats including "silver" swing voters in seats with a disproportionate number of older voters. The preliminary findings of a small exploratory study of campaign strategists suggest that there may be a real basis to this explanation. Thus, there does appear to be some basis for asserting that "gray power"does play a role in Australian national electoral politics.

  5. The prevalence of dental anomalies in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H Q; Constantine, S; Anderson, P J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies within an Australian paediatric population using panoramic radiographs. This was a prospective review of 1050 panoramic radiographs obtained as part of a school dental screening program in suburban and rural New South Wales, Australia. Fifty-four (5.14%) patients had a dental anomaly present. Agenesis was noted to have occurred 69 times across 45 patients (4.28%), along with seven cases of impaction (0.6%) and three cases of supernumerary teeth (0.28%). Dental anomalies rarely occur in the Australian population, which possesses a wide-ranging multiethnic cohort. Despite their rarity, they can be incidentally discovered so identification and management by dental practitioners are important. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Liminality, the Australian State and Asian Nurse Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Willis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades the flow of Asians to Australia through legitimate immigration programs has accelerated. This is particularly the case for Asian nurses coming from countries that were once subjected to European colonisation. The difficulties encountered by nurses from Asian countries mirror those of earlier waves of migrants. These include navigating the language and differences in cultural mores, values, and beliefs, along with the loneliness that may come from leaving strong family ties at home. While racism has been evident for all earlier waves of migrants, Asians face an additional hurdle linked to the uneasy relationship Australians and the Australian state has with Asia. Australia is geographically in Asia, but culturally Anglo and European.  The impact this might have on the working relationships of Asian and Australian born registered nurses is significant given the nature of their work in caring for the sick and elderly. This liminal relationship between the Australian state and Asians provides a theoretical insight into the particular difficulties experienced by Asian nurses and the integration programs that might assist them and their Australian colleagues to develop cohesive working relationships.

  7. A critical analysis of contemporary Australian social inclusion discourse and its effects on international students: a case study of an Australian metropolitan local government council

    OpenAIRE

    Paltridge, Toby Rupert

    2017-01-01

    Setting This study examines how the term ‘social inclusion’ is discursively constructed in Australia and the impact of this discourse on how international students’ needs, experiences and welfare are understood. International students enrolled in Australian tertiary institutions are very important to Australia. They are major contributors to both the Australian economy and cultural diversity. It is also argued that the presence of international students helps Australia forge links with its...

  8. Potential influence of selection criteria on the demographic composition of students in an Australian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puddey Ian B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to 1999 students entering our MBBS course were selected on academic performance alone. We have now evaluated the impact on the demographics of subsequent cohorts of our standard entry students (those entering directly from high school of the addition to the selection process of an aptitude test (UMAT, a highly structured interview and a rural incentive program. Methods Students entering from 1985 to 1998, selected on academic performance alone (N = 1402, were compared to those from 1999 to 2011, selected on the basis of a combination of academic performance, interview score, and UMAT score together with the progressive introduction of a rural special entry pathway (N = 1437. Results Males decreased from 57% to 45% of the cohort, students of NE or SE Asian origin decreased from 30% to 13%, students born in Oceania increased from 52% to 69%, students of rural origin from 5% to 21% and those from independent high schools from 56% to 66%. The proportion of students from high schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage remained unchanged at approximately 10%. The changes reflect in part increasing numbers of female and independent high school applicants and the increasing rural quota. However, they were also associated with higher interview scores in females vs males and lower interview scores in those of NE and SE Asian origin compared to those born in Oceania or the UK. Total UMAT scores were unrelated to gender or region of origin. Conclusions The revised selection processes had no impact on student representation from schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage. However, the introduction of special entry quotas for students of rural origin and a structured interview, but not an aptitude test, were associated with a change in gender balance and ethnicity of students in an Australian undergraduate MBBS course.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. PREVALENCE OF ANDROGENIC-. ANABOLIC STEROID USE IN. ADOLESCENTS IN TWO REGIONS. OF SOUTH AFRICA. Michael I lambert, Steven D Titlestad, Martin P Schwellnus. Objective. To determine the prevalence of androgenic- anabolic steroid (AAS) use among schoolchildren in two.

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    siderosomes), Golgi complex and ... containing proteins, ferritin and haemosiderin, in the jejunal epithelial cells of black children with pellagra as well as ... from 10 of the original 16 patients showed adequate ultrastructural preservation; tissue blocks of ...

  11. Eukaryotic origins

    OpenAIRE

    Lake, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the eukaryotes is a fundamental scientific question that for over 30 years has generated a spirited debate between the competing Archaea (or three domains) tree and the eocyte tree. As eukaryotes ourselves, humans have a personal interest in our origins. Eukaryotes contain their defining organelle, the nucleus, after which they are named. They have a complex evolutionary history, over time acquiring multiple organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, smooth and rough endo...

  12. From 'White Australia' to 'part of Asia': recent shifts in Australian immigration policy towards the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, J

    1995-01-01

    This article examines migration policy in Australia with reference to the "White Australia" policy prior to 1975 and the multicultural policy thereafter. Mass immigration has not caused major social tensions. Mass tourism has been welcomed. Australian attitudes have changed from fear of massive numbers of Asians and mass poverty and ignorance to multiculturalism. Suspicious attitudes toward Asians, however, are still present among a minority of Australians. The most influential arguments against Asians are the concerns about employment of new arrivals and the environmental impact of an increasing population. Although there are many cultural differences, Australia is linked to Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines in that all have a history of British or American influence. Educated Indians and Sri Lankans are linked to Australians by their common language and Christian religion. The integration of Asians in the business and financial community holds the potential for economic gain over the years. The author finds that the Australian relationship to Asia is more acceptable in public arenas than the comparable changing relationship between Britain and Europe. The roots of a Whites-only policy extend back to 1901, when the Commonwealth Immigration Restriction Act was ratified. The exclusion of non-European immigrants was not specified in the law. The mechanism for exclusion was included in the law. Undesirable immigrants could be excluded. Under mass migration programs after 1947 the population of non-English speaking Europeans increased. By 1973 government shifted from an assimilationist approach to a multicultural approach due to pressure from the Department of Foreign Affairs. Numerous historical events occurring during 1942-80 drew Australia out of its isolationist position in the world. At present about 25% of the total population are of non-British origin. Over 900,000 would have been excluded under the old migration policy. In 1991, 665,315 persons were born

  13. Indigenous Australians, Intellectual Disability and Incarceration: A Confluence of Rights Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Brolan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reviews the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians with intellectual disability in the Australian prison system through a human rights lens. There is an information gap on this group of Australian prisoners in the health and disability literature and the multi-disciplinary criminal law and human rights law literature. This article will consider the context of Indigenous imprisonment in Australia and examine the status of prisoner health in that country, as well as the status of the health and wellbeing of prisoners with intellectual disability. It will then specifically explore the health, wellbeing and impact of imprisonment on Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability, and highlight how intersectional rights deficits (including health and human rights deficits causally impact the ability of Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability to access due process, equal recognition and justice in the criminal justice and prison system. A central barrier to improving intersectional and discriminatory landscapes relating to health, human rights and justice for Indigenous Australian inmates with intellectual disability, and prisoners with intellectual disability more broadly in the Australian context, is the lack of sufficient governance and accountability mechanisms (including Indigenous-led mechanisms to enforce the operationalisation of consistent, transparent, culturally responsive, rights-based remedies.

  14. An Australian view of the uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. Introduction (principal Australian uranium deposits, possible Australian production, estimates of world-wide uranium resources and production, estimates of world-wide uranium requirements); Australian marketing policy; commercial considerations; uncertainties affecting the industry, including unnecessary and undesirable government involvement, and supply and demand. (U.K.)

  15. Australian Journalists' Professional and Ethical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, John

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the first comprehensive national study of Australian journalists. Finds that Australian journalists are similar to their United States colleagues in distributions of age, sex, and socioeconomic background, but have less formal education. Shows that Australians have mixed professional and ethical values and are committed both to…

  16. The potential for an Australian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, J.M.

    1982-06-01

    The production of uranium and its part upgrading to enriched uranium for export could be equivalent to 20-25 per cent of Australia's future export income from coal. Australia could be supplying 15,000 tonnes U/yr. and enrichment services of 2.5 million SWU/yr. by 2000. The principles of nuclear energy, nuclear power reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle are described and the relationship between nuclear power and the requirements for uranium and the other steps in the fuel cycle is discussed. Estimates are given of the future world supply-demand balance for each step in the fuel cycle. A survey is made of world uranium resources and fuel cycle upgrading facilities. The costs of production and pricing are assessed in relation to the potential for an Australian industry. Comments are made on the possibility that Australia could provide the repository for both low-level radioactive waste from small countries and the bulk of the world's high level waste. The impact of a uranium industry on the Australian economy is discussed

  17. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  18. Impact of the introduction of mandatory generic substitution in South Africa: private sector sales of generic and originator medicines for chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew Lofts; Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; J Wirtz, Veronika

    2016-12-01

    To assess the impact of mandatory offer of generic substitution, introduced in South Africa in May 2003, on private sector sales of generic and originator medicines for chronic diseases. Private sector sales data (June 2001 to May 2005) were obtained from IMS Health for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs; ATC code A02BC), HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins; C10AA), dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (C08CA), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I; C09AA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; N06AB). Monthly sales were expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 insured population per month (DDD/TIM). Interrupted time-series models were used to estimate the changes in slope and level of medicines use after the policy change. ARIMA models were used to correct for autocorrelation and stationarity. Only the SSRIs saw a significant rise in level of generic utilisation (0.2 DDD/TIM; P decrease in slope (-0.003 DDD/TIM, P = 0.046; -0.01 DDD/TIM, P cost-containment efforts. However, decisions taken outside of official policy may anticipate or differ from that policy, with important consequences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-20

    Dec 20, 2013 ... Post Box No: 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia. Abstract. Article Information. This paper aims to identify the impact of incentive schemes on factors that affect employee ... Banker, Lee and Potter. (1996) set out to examine the impact that contextual factors such as competitive intensity, customer focused strategy and ...

  20. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    .starjournal.org ... Soil pH can vary from 7 to 8.3 when only. Original Research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v2i4.9 ...... to solve fertility management related problems in the area. Thus identification of the reasons behind.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. FIREARM-RELATED INJURIES AND. DEATHS AMONG CHILDREN AND. ADOLESCENTS IN CAPE TOWN -. 1992 -1996. Alyssa Wigton. Objective. To determ.i.lle the epidemiological profile of fireann- related injuries among children and adolescents in Cape. Town during recent years in order to ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. PEAK RATES OF DIURESIS IN. HEALTHY HUMANS DURING ORAL. FLUID OVERLOAD. Timothy D Noakes, Gary Wilson, David A Gray,. Michael I Lambert, Steven C Dennis. Objective. To determine whether rates of intestinal fluid absorption and renal diuresis can match high rates of fluid ingestion ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. CRITICAL CARE FOCUS. AETIOLOGY AND OUTCOME OF. SEVERE COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED. PNEUMONIA IN CHILDREN. ADMITTED TO A PAEDIATRIC. INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. S D Delport, T Brisley. Objective. To determine the aetiological agents and outcome of severe community-acquired ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. UNPAID COMMUNITY. VOLUNTEERS - EFFECTIVE. PROVIDERS OF DIRECTLY. OBSERVED THERAPY (DOT) IN. RURAL SOUTH AFRICA. R D Barker, F J C Millard, M E Nthangeni. Objective. To il).ustrate successes and difficulties for the South. African National Tuberculosis Progranune in a ...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Dual protection in sexually active women. Immo Kleinschmidt, Baker Ndugga Maggwa, Jennifer Smit,Mags E Beksinska, Helen Rees. Objective. To determine the prevalence and co-factors associated with the practice of dual protection against sexually transmitted infections (STis) and unwanted.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE. CANCER IN THE WESTERN CAPE. C F Heyns, AM Naude, A J Visser, D C Marais,. H B Stopforth, J K Nyarko, G A Stellmacher. Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Nutritional variation and cardiovascular risk factors in. Tanzania - rural-urban difference. Marina Njelekela, Toshiaki Sato, Yasuo Nara, Tomohiro Miki, Sachiko Kuga, Takanori Noguchi, Torno Kanda, Masashi Yamori,. Josiah Ntogwisangu, Zablon Masesa, Yohana Mashalla, Jacob Mtabaji, Yukio ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Formative assessment promotes learning in undergraduate clinical clerkships. V C Burch, J L Seggie, N E Gary. Introduction. Clinical clerkships, typically situated in environments lacking educational structure, form the backbone of undergraduate medical training. The imperative to develop strategies ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. HISTORY OF MEDICINE. ELIM HOSPITAL - THE FIRST 100. YEARS. Part 2. C F van der Merwe. THE JAQUES ERA. The year 1957 saw the arrival of another giant in the history of. Elim Hospital. During this year Dr Pierre Jaques returned from postgraduate work in the UK. This son of the North was.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. Raftery J. Mental health services in transition: the United States and the United Kingdom. Br. J Psychiatry 1992; 161: 589-593. 2. Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health. The Mental Health Services Workforce: Present and Future. A Report for the NHS Executive. London: The Sainsbury ...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND. DENTAL CARIES IN A LARGE. SAMPLE OF 4- AND 5-YEAR-OLD. SOUTH AFRICAN CHILDREN. Peter Cleaton-Jones, Barbara D Richardson, Lars Granath,. L raul Fatti, Ruth SinweU, Alexander R Walker, Mirriam. Mogotsi. Background. Evidence from studies involving ...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. WHAT IS THE INFANT MORTALITY. RATE IN SOUTH AFRICA? THE NEED FOR IMPROVED DATA. Nadine Nannan, Debbie Bradshaw, Robert Mazur, Sim.phiwe. Maphumulo. Objectives. To review recent infant mortality and birth registration data in South Africa and to investigate geographical ...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY MAY 2017 ISBN 1595-689X VOL18 No. 2 ... aquaculture in particular is of great concern to environmental and public health. In Nigeria, regulation ..... Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 7 (2): 66-71. 29. Adebowale O.O ...

  16. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    Stroke in Palestine www.ljm.org.ly. Libyan J Med, AOP: 080920. Page 39. Original Article. Characterization of Hospitalized Ischemic Stroke Patients in. Palestine. Sawalha AF ... Key words: Ischemic stroke, Risk factors, In-hospital mortality, Palestine. ABSTRACT .... stroke in young patients seems to vary between different ...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alternatives to conventional care (homoeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.), and also recognise the groundswell of interest in and support for inclusion of benefits for services provided by traditional healers. The transition from the original, relatively restricted approach which was concerned with established, mainstream.

  18. original research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    Original Research: Computer-based learning for the enhancement of breastfeeding training. 2009;22(3) ... Conclusion: It is recommended that validated computer-based breastfeeding training modules be integrated as part of multi-media methods .... training and consultations at community and individual level. 3. 0.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES failure, breath-holding spells and even strokeY The decreased attention span and learning associated with iron deficiency may have adverse effects on cognitive and psychomotor development.'-' Furthermore, appropriate treatment of iron deficiency is effective and safe, It would therefore seem worth.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-01

    Apr 1, 2011 ... also trained as VCT counsellors by the Foundation for ... of VCT. As a further response to reaching the NSP target, the national HIV counselling and testing campaign3 was launched in April 2010 with a focus on mobilising all South Africans to be ... origin of HIV/AIDS, HIV as an infectious disease, stigma,.

  1. original articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reliably measured by double-beam X-ray absorptiometry. (DEXA), which ... The diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD relative to that of healthy young adults and criteria for diagnosis are arbritary. The original 'normal' BMD data published by some ..... measurement error and were regarded as unchanged, but 10%.

  2. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    102640

    stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Jamahiriya Medical Journal 2003; 2:43-46. 13. Trease G and Evans W. Drugs of biological origin. In: Trease and Evans, 11th ed. Bailliere. Tindall. London 1980; pp 319-320, 741. 14. Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, et al. High α-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum):.

  3. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... 1998) and involves the movement of water along evapotranspiration, precipitation, surface runoff, subsurface flow, and groundwater pathways. Evapotranspiration (ET) is usually the largest component of the hydrologic cycle, given that most precipitation that falls on land is returned to the. Original Research ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    warrant delivery:. was made in the presence of fetal heart rate baseline variability of less than 5 beats per minute continuing for at least 60 minutes, or repeated late decelerations. 4. Antepartum haemorrhage included bleeding due to abruptio placentae, placenta praevia and antepartum haemorrhage of unknown origin.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of MTB strain is less than 39,062,500 and. 4,444,444,444 with selective effect to INH and RIF ..... random generated cycles was used as the empirical data to further assess the simulated results of the ... Basically, the process is a form of pseudo sampling from the original dataset to determine the variability.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Paediatric immunity. The immaturity of the infant immune system is demonstrated by the increased susceptibility of children to infections by both viral and bacterial pathogens. The humoral arm of the immune system is underdeveloped and differs greatly from that of adults. Infants only develop the ...

  7. Cultural Originality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of originality for the concept of alterity (or difference) and endorse it rather than rejecting it as the bedrock of a ..... economies and tax-paying dynamics of established nation-states. How then do we ~ and people .... The book demonstrates particularly clearly certain features of the intellec- tual artisanship of anthropological ...

  8. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010 May;3(2):25-9. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Several reports described an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Chronic HCV infection is prevalent in Egypt. The present work aimed to evaluate the prevalence of proteinuria and neuropathy.

  9. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Stephen Craig

    2017-10-23

    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  10. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  11. Energy and the Australian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain, P.; Schuyers, G.

    1981-01-01

    The economic consequences of developing, and of failing to develop, potential sources of energy in Australia are examined. The analysis is preceded by a review of the past and present structure and performance of the Australian energy sector and a survey of the prospective world demand for energy in its various forms

  12. Australian Naturalism and Its Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Park Sun

    1997-01-01

    Details the ongoing debate between Australian naturalists and their critics since the publication of C.W. Evers and G. Lakomski's seminal book "Knowing Educational Administration." Examines critics' views in several categories: the coherence concept, coherentism criteria, the naturalistic fallacy, and questions concerning foundations and…

  13. Is enough attention given to climate change in health service planning? An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Anthony J; Bambrick, Hilary J; Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change. The first author interviewed (n=16) health service planners from five Australian states and territories using an interpretivist paradigm. All interviews were digitally recorded, key components transcribed and thematically analysed. Results indicate that the majority of participants were aware of climate change but not of its potential health impacts. Despite this, most planners were of the opinion that they would need to plan for the health impacts of climate change on the community. With the best available evidence pointing towards there being significant health impacts as a result of climate change, now is the time to undertake proactive service planning that address market failures within the health system. If considered planning is not undertaken then Australian health system can only deal with climate change in an expensive ad hoc, crisis management manner. Without meeting the challenges of climate change to the health system head on, Australia will remain unprepared for the health impacts of climate change with negative consequences for the health of the Australian population.

  14. Is enough attention given to climate change in health service planning? An Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Anthony J.; Bambrick, Hilary J.; Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Background Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change. Methods The first author interviewed (n=16) health service planners from five Australian states and territories using an interpretivist paradigm. All interviews were digitally recorded, key components transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Results indicate that the majority of participants were aware of climate change but not of its potential health impacts. Despite this, most planners were of the opinion that they would need to plan for the health impacts of climate change on the community. Conclusion With the best available evidence pointing towards there being significant health impacts as a result of climate change, now is the time to undertake proactive service planning that address market failures within the health system. If considered planning is not undertaken then Australian health system can only deal with climate change in an expensive ad hoc, crisis management manner. Without meeting the challenges of climate change to the health system head on, Australia will remain unprepared for the health impacts of climate change with negative consequences for the health of the Australian population. PMID:24947804

  15. Boomerang - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.; Garrett, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was one of seven major national research facilities funded by the Federal Government in December 1995. The program provides guaranteed access and travel funds for Australian scientists to conduct synchrotron radiation-based research at two overseas facilities - the Photon Factory at Tsukuba in Japan and the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National Laboratory in the US. The Federal Government also provided funding of $100K to carry out a Feasibility Study for an Australian-based facility. This has been completed and included a mission to a number of laboratories overseas that were or had recently constructed a facility that could be considered for Australia. Following the mission, consensus was achieved within the community for the specifications of a proposed Australian facility. The proposed facility, Boomerang, has an energy of 3 GeV, an emittance of 16 nm rad and will be equipped in the first phase with 9 instrument stations. Boomerang will be competitive in performance with other facilities currently under construction overseas. A detailed proposal has been submitted to the Federal Government for funding. No site has been specified in the proposal. The proposal was prepared within the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) following extensive consultation with industrial and scientific groups in all Australian states. Valuable contributions have been made by members of all the committees of the ASRP, the Australian synchrotron research community that works through the ASRP and the National Synchrotron Steering Committee. Important contributions have also been made by many industrial groups including consortia in Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales. The input from the ANKA staff at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and, in particular. Professor Einfeld has been a critical component. The estimated capital cost of a no frills laboratory has been estimated to be $100M in 1999 dollars. The

  16. Rheinbraun's Australian uranium business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, S.

    1989-01-01

    The leaflet argues against the mining activities of the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG in Germany and especially against uranium mining in Australia. The ethno-ecological impact on flora and fauna, aborigines and miners are pointed out. Uranium mining and lignite mining are compared. (HSCH) [de

  17. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  18. The effect of a carbon Tax on Australian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Commonwealth Government has adopted an interim planning target of stabilizing emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide based on 1988 levels, by the year 2000, and reducing these emissions by 20% by the year 2005. The Government also agreed that Australia will not adopt measures which would damage Australia's competitiveness, in the absence of similar action by major greenhouse gas producing countries. This paper reports on a study, carried out by London Economics, which assesses the impact of a carbon tax on the international competitiveness of energy-intensive australian industries. A special feature of the study is that analysis is done at a disaggregated level using information on all major world plant in each of the industries. The study finds that a tax imposed to meet the Toronto target would virtually wipe out australian steel and aluminium industries and have a severe impact on the coal industry. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Global Literacies for Australian Police: Thinking Globally, Policing Locally

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Allan

    2013-01-01

    Globalisation, immigration, and advancements in digital and information technologies present a range of complex socio-political, demographic, cultural and technological challenges for policing. Playing out across an increasingly diverse Australian society, these influences are progressively more likely to have a significant impact on policing, requiring a nuanced and flexible policing style with its attendant challenges for police education. Local challenges posed by regional and internationa...

  20. Technical report.Technical advise to the DINAMIGE ( Mining and Energy Directorate) Montevideo - Uruguay in relation to the environment impact which could originate the installation of gold mineral processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piret, N.; Shoukry, B.

    1990-01-01

    In 1990 Dinamige was assisted by a German mission in relation to the environment impact which could originate the installation of mineral of oro processing plants. This study were carried out in two priority zones: Project Mahoma by the Mining San Jose Co. S.A/Retamosa SRL in San Jose district /Stel S.A in Minas de Corrales in Rivera.

  1. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi

    2017-08-01

    research in different regions (B, annual shift of genetic improvement of variety due to breeding program (kt and Fixed and Variable costs due to research and extension of irrigated wheat breeding in experiment years (TVC were estimated as follow: Where: Pt: Price of wheat grain in year t, Qt: Quantity of wheat grain production in year t, Vit: Proportion of area of varieties in year t, gi: Genetic improvement for varieties i, S: Number of full time breeders and technicians involved in irrigated wheat breeding program, Cs: The costs of breeders and technicians in year t and Cvt: Fixed and variable costs of research and extension activities in year t For economic analyses of genetic improvement of a variety, profitability indexes including Net Present Value (NPV, Benefit- Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: PVB: Present value of benefits, PVC: Present value of Costs, r: Discount rate and n: period Results and discussion According to the results of this study, the mean reduction of costs for released irrigated bread wheat varieties during 2001- 2010 was estimated as 109.8 rials. The mean of shift in supply function for released irrigated bread wheat varieties during these years was estimated as %5.31. The mean of Net present value (NPV for released irrigated bread wheat varieties in study periods was estimated 4463.5 billion Iranian Rials. Based on results, breeding program of irrigated bread wheat was economic. Conclusion In general, released irrigated bread wheat varieties with national and international origins in irrigated wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII, Iran, was economically profitable. New Released irrigated bread wheat varieties have had considerable impacts on cost reduction and increasing of farmers income. Acknowlegemnets Authors would like to extend their sincere acknowledgements to the University of Sistan and Baluchestan and Seed and Plant Improvement Institute

  2. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi

    2017-01-01

    research in different regions (B, annual shift of genetic improvement of variety due to breeding program (kt and Fixed and Variable costs due to research and extension of irrigated wheat breeding in experiment years (TVC were estimated as follow: Where: Pt: Price of wheat grain in year t, Qt: Quantity of wheat grain production in year t, Vit: Proportion of area of varieties in year t, gi: Genetic improvement for varieties i, S: Number of full time breeders and technicians involved in irrigated wheat breeding program, Cs: The costs of breeders and technicians in year t and Cvt: Fixed and variable costs of research and extension activities in year t For economic analyses of genetic improvement of a variety, profitability indexes including Net Present Value (NPV, Benefit- Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: PVB: Present value of benefits, PVC: Present value of Costs, r: Discount rate and n: period Results and discussion According to the results of this study, the mean reduction of costs for released irrigated bread wheat varieties during 2001- 2010 was estimated as 109.8 rials. The mean of shift in supply function for released irrigated bread wheat varieties during these years was estimated as %5.31. The mean of Net present value (NPV for released irrigated bread wheat varieties in study periods was estimated 4463.5 billion Iranian Rials. Based on results, breeding program of irrigated bread wheat was economic. Conclusion In general, released irrigated bread wheat varieties with national and international origins in irrigated wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII, Iran, was economically profitable. New Released irrigated bread wheat varieties have had considerable impacts on cost reduction and increasing of farmers income. Acknowlegemnets Authors would like to extend their sincere acknowledgements to the University of Sistan and Baluchestan and Seed and Plant Improvement Institute

  3. Evaluating explanations of the Australian 'heroin shortage'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Reuter, Peter; Collins, Linette; Hall, Wayne

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we outline and evaluate competing explanations for a heroin shortage that occurred in Australia during 2001 with an abrupt onset at the beginning of 2001. We evaluated each of the explanations offered for the shortage against evidence from a variety of sources: government reports, police and drug law enforcement documents and briefings, key informant (KI) interviews, indicator data and research data. No similar shortage occurred at the same time in other markets (e.g. Vancouver, Canada or Hong Kong) whose heroin originated in the same countries as Australia's. The shortage was due most probably to a combination of factors that operated synergistically and sequentially. The heroin market had grown rapidly in the late 1990s, perhaps helped by a decline in drug law enforcement (DLE) in Australia in the early 1990s that facilitated high-level heroin suppliers in Asia to establish large-scale importation heroin networks into Australia. This led to an increase in the availability of heroin, increasingly visible street-based drug markets, increased purity and decreased price of heroin around the country. The Australian heroin market was well established by the late 1990s, but it had a low profit margin with high heroin purity, and a lower price than ever before. The surge in heroin problems led to increased funding of the Australian Federal Police and Customs as part of the National Illicit Drug Strategy in 1998-99, with the result that a number of key individuals and large seizures occurred during 1999-2000, probably increasing the risks of large-scale importation. The combination of low profits and increased success of law enforcement may have reduced the dependability of key suppliers of heroin to Australia at a time when seized heroin was becoming more difficult to replace because of reduced supplies in the Golden Triangle. These factors may have reduced the attractiveness of Australia as a destination for heroin trafficking. The Australian heroin

  4. The impact of the presence on global markets of calcium carbide originating from China on other industry role players: the case of sa calcium carbide (PTY LTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royce Sitshonile Mazo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research assesses how the presence of calcium carbide originating from China has impacted on the operations of other role players in the industry. SA Calcium Carbide (Pty Ltd. located in Newcastle, South Africa, was used as a case study. The study spanned all markets where the company has a footprint meaning domestically, regionally and internationally. The aim of the study was to discern the extent to which companies like SA Calcium Carbide have been affected by the presence of products from China on the global market with special focus being put on the competitiveness in terms of pricing of products. The study used a survey strategy, and was exploratory in nature. The choice of the survey strategy was motivated by the need to collect both quantitative and qualitative data in order to meet the research objectives. The data was gathered, with an 80 percent response rate, using a questionnaire method from more than 70 current SA Calcium Carbide customers both from the domestic and the export side of the business. In order to consider the different perspectives of the whole scenario, 10 companies involved in either manufacturing or trading of Chinese manufactured calcium carbide were interviewed, some face to face and some telephonically. The study revealed that current customers, who are predominantly from the African continent, buy product from SA Calcium Carbide primarily because of its high quality. It also evident from the results that the export volumes of SA Calcium Carbide were on a gradual downward trend due to loss of market share to Chinese companies

  5. Primary dermal melanoma: a West Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, James; Chin, Olivia; Hanikeri, Mark; Wood, Benjamin A

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify a subgroup of patients with putative primary dermal melanoma after thorough multidisciplinary clinical and histological evaluation, and to describe the clinical, histological and selected molecular features of these lesions. The records of the Western Australian Melanoma Advisory Service were searched for potential cases of primary dermal melanoma. The clinical and histological features were reviewed, immunohistochemical assessment was performed and clinical outcomes recorded. Eighteen cases of putative primary dermal melanoma with available clinical data were identified. Two of 12 cases in which further histological sections could be obtained were excluded because of the presence of findings suggesting an epidermal origin on these further sections. In one additional case, such origin could not be histologically excluded. Median follow-up period for the remaining cases was 68 months. Confirmed primary dermal melanoma accounts for 0.87% of cases of melanoma referred to a subspecialist melanoma advisory service. These cases show significant histological overlap with dermal/subcutaneous metastases of melanoma, but display a relatively good prognosis, with a 5-year survival of 87.5%. Our results support the recognition of a distinct group of melanoma that mimics metastatic melanoma, but is associated with a relatively favourable outcome. The group of putative primary dermal melanoma is likely to be heterogenous, including cases of primary nodular melanoma in which epidermal connection has not been identified, metastatic melanoma with an occult primary lesion and true primary dermal melanoma. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Distributional patterns and possible origin of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W. Nielson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a. when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary. Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126 are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76% of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian, from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities

  7. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    authenticity in professional judgment and identity building. I argue that this should be seen in the context that the professional status of the Danish pedagogues is being challenged by the current restructuring of public services with reference to knowledge economy discourse. Furthermore there is remarkable...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  8. Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Taylor, Duncan; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; Turkalov, Rust; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the origins of Aboriginal Australians is crucial in reconstructing the evolution and spread of Homo sapiens as evidence suggests they represent the descendants of the earliest group to leave Africa. This study analyzed a large sample of Y-chromosomes to answer questions relating to the migration routes of their ancestors, the age of Y-haplogroups, date of colonization, as well as the extent of male-specific variation. Knowledge of Y-chromosome variation among Aboriginal Australians is extremely limited. This study examined Y-SNP and Y-STR variation among 657 self-declared Aboriginal males from locations across the continent. 17 Y-STR loci and 47 Y-SNPs spanning the Y-chromosome phylogeny were typed in total. The proportion of non-indigenous Y-chromosomes of assumed Eurasian origin was high, at 56%. Y lineages of indigenous Sahul origin belonged to haplogroups C-M130*(xM8,M38,M217,M347) (1%), C-M347 (19%), K-M526*(xM147,P308,P79,P261,P256,M231,M175,M45,P202) (12%), S-P308 (12%), and M-M186 (0.9%). Haplogroups C-M347, K-M526*, and S-P308 are Aboriginal Australian-specific. Dating of C-M347, K-M526*, and S-P308 indicates that all are at least 40,000 years old, confirming their long-term presence in Australia. Haplogroup C-M347 comprised at least three sub-haplogroups: C-DYS390.1del, C-M210, and the unresolved paragroup C-M347*(xDYS390.1del,M210). There was some geographic structure to the Y-haplogroup variation, but most haplogroups were present throughout Australia. The age of the Australian-specific Y-haplogroups suggests New Guineans and Aboriginal Australians have been isolated for over 30,000 years, supporting findings based on mitochondrial DNA data. Our data support the hypothesis of more than one route (via New Guinea) for males entering Sahul some 50,000 years ago and give no support for colonization events during the Holocene, from either India or elsewhere. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public perceptions on national health insurance: Moving towards universal health coverage in South ... health care, national or social health insurance. South Africa is a middle-income country with a population ... shortfall of 19 000 nurses by 2011.10 The migration of health professionals and the impact of the HIV I AIDS ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    of about 5 US cents per child. The process was explained to the teachers a week before the program and they were encouraged to use their social contacts to sensitize the ..... Davey C, Aiken AM, Hayes RJ, Hargreaves JR. Re- analysis of health and educational impacts of a school-based deworming programme in western.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one gynaecological procedure) was more expensive in an ASC. (Table VIII). The average increase in in-facility cost varied between 3% and 41%. The removal of impacted roots or unerupted teeth was the most expensive procedure. Sources of cost saving. Thirty-seven procedures showed a cost saving of between 13%.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dysfunctions may present with discomforts which can impact negatively on academic performance. (Von Noorden and Campos, 2002; Thurston and. Thurston, 2013) and thus on the clinical training of optometry students. Several studies have shown higher prevalence of refractive errors especially myo- pia among optometry ...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-01

    Apr 1, 2011 ... systems limit our ability to demonstrate the population- level impact of these ... D E Bourne,1 BSc, BPhil. 1School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town ... 6The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland. Objective.

  14. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    premature death in dialysis patients are already present when patients are started on renal replacement therapy. (RRT). Among these, baseline congestive heart failure. [2, 3], diabetes [4] and malnutrition [5] have strong impacts on prognosis. Even when these factors are taken into account, survival is still shorter in this ...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... The coping skills and styles individuals utilise to deal with the stress of HIV infection greatly influence the psychological impact of this .... on Human Subjects, University of the Witwatersrand. For statistical analyses, the .... mation of new connections between nerve cells in the brain, psychotherapy works by ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    thus been established as good indicators of human male fertility. An understanding of the factors ... The impact of seminal zinc and fructose concentration on human sperm characteristic ... 0.09) and head defect (r = -0.20) and positively with motility (r = 0.18), count (r = 0.15) and tail de- fect (r = 0.11). Seminal fructose and ...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine blood lead levels among children attending schools in selected Cape Peninsula suburbs, and to assess the impact of a reduction in the lead content of petrol. Design. A cross-sectional analytical study of children's blood lead levels and associated risk factors. Setting. Selected inner city, suburban, ...

  18. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  19. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  20. Gauging Change in Australian Aid: Stakeholder Perceptions of the Government Aid Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Terence; Burkot, Camilla; Howes, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we use data from the 2013 and 2015 Australian Aid Stakeholder Surveys to gauge the extent of the changes to the Australian Government Aid Program since the 2013 federal election. The two surveys targeted the same set of stakeholders of the aid program, and both gathered data on a wide range of aspects of its functioning. As we assess the findings that emerged from the surveys, we situate our work amongst recent academic studies that have looked at the post-2013 aid changes in Australia. Our key findings are that the post-2013 changes to Australian aid have had wide-ranging impacts and have led to deteriorating overall aid quality. However, changes have not affected all aspects of the aid program equally, and some changes are starting to be reversed. In discussion, we examine what these developments mean for the future of Australian aid.

  1. Measures of Success: Cruel Optimism and the Paradox of Academic Women's Participation in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Briony

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the reworking of gender in the measured university and the impact this has on gender equality in academia. Neoliberal market rationalities and measurements embedded in academic publishing, funding and promotion have transformed Australian higher education and impacts upon the careers of academic women in ways that are gendered.…

  2. Curators and Australian art history

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sayers

    2011-01-01

    Most Australians do not read art history, but they do look at art in museums. There, visitors experience displays that embody art histories. The enthusiasms and research interests of curators combine with collection strengths to create these art histories. In this process, particular artists, ideas and mediums are privileged. Drawing on personal experience this talk looked at some examples of influential curators, displays, exhibitions and collecting programs over the last thirty years. In th...

  3. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  4. Home advantage in Australian soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumas, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the magnitude of home advantage (HA) in Australian soccer and to investigate how home-team crowd support and away-team travel may contribute to it. A paired design was used wherein each match contributed two observations, one for the home team and one for the away team. The data used in this study were all matches from the first seven seasons (2005/06-2011/12) of the Australian A-League - the major soccer league in Australia. Repeated measures Poisson regression analysis was used to investigate the effect that crowd size and density, distance and direction travelled by away teams, and crossing time zones may have on HA. HA in terms of the percentage of competition points gained by home teams in the A-League averaged 58% over the study period. HA increased significantly with increasing number of time zones crossed by away teams (pteam crowd support. Travel management programs aimed at reducing the effects of jet lag could significantly improve away team performance in Australian soccer. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  6. The carbon footprint of Australian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; McAlister, Scott; McGain, Forbes

    2018-01-01

    Carbon footprints stemming from health care have been found to be variable, from 3% of the total national CO 2 equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions in England to 10% of the national CO 2 e emissions in the USA. We aimed to measure the carbon footprint of Australia's health-care system. We did an observational economic input-output lifecycle assessment of Australia's health-care system. All expenditure data were obtained from the 15 sectors of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare for the financial year 2014-15. The Australian Industrial Ecology Virtual Laboratory (IELab) data were used to obtain CO 2 e emissions per AUS$ spent on health care. In 2014-15 Australia spent $161·6 billion on health care that led to CO 2 e emissions of about 35 772 (68% CI 25 398-46 146) kilotonnes. Australia's total CO 2 e emissions in 2014-15 were 494 930 kilotonnes, thus health care represented 35 772 (7%) of 494 930 kilotonnes total CO 2 e emissions in Australia. The five most important sectors within health care in decreasing order of total CO 2 e emissions were: public hospitals (12 295 [34%] of 35 772 kilotonnes CO 2 e), private hospitals (3635 kilotonnes [10%]), other medications (3347 kilotonnes [9%]), benefit-paid drugs (3257 kilotonnes [9%]), and capital expenditure for buildings (2776 kilotonnes [8%]). The carbon footprint attributed to health care was 7% of Australia's total; with hospitals and pharmaceuticals the major contributors. We quantified Australian carbon footprint attributed to health care and identified health-care sectors that could be ameliorated. Our results suggest the need for carbon-efficient procedures, including greater public health measures, to lower the impact of health-care services on the environment. None. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Drivers of adoption of safety innovations on Australian cotton farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragar, L; Temperley, J

    2011-07-01

    The Australian cotton industry has been a leader in the adoption of farm health and safety approaches in the Australian agricultural sector. In order to analyze factors associated with occupational health and safety performance, a review of available information and key stakeholder interviews were conducted A recently defined model for adoption of farm safety, emphasizing individual behavioral, environmental, community, and governmental factors, was used as the framework for the assessment. This hazard-based examination of changes describes improvements that have positively impacted health and safety. Improvements include: reduction in vehicle and on-farm traffic systems, safer irrigation systems, changes in cultivation technology, changes in pesticides and application technology, changes in harvest technology, adoption of gene technology, adoption of occupational health and safety (OHS) management systems, and government regulation. The introduction of genetically modified cotton has directly reduced potential exposure to pesticides, and it has indirectly impacted safety by, for example, reducing traffic flow on farms. This study demonstrates the considerable innovation and positive safety enhancements across the Australian cotton industry with respect to the interaction of management and production systems. These lessons should be used develop effective interventions in other agricultural industries.

  8. Good enough death: autonomy and choice in Australian palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Beverley

    2004-03-01

    This paper draws upon Australian fieldwork to trace the changing notions of a good death held by hospice and palliative care practitioners. Palliative care practitioners search for an ideology to inform their practice within the context of a complex society for which there is no one good death. Social demographics, the multicultural nature of society and institutional constraints frame the experience of dying in complex ways, while contemporary social responses to dying reflect the uncertainties held by many Australians. Despite the fragmentation evident within contemporary Australian society, the hospice movement in Australia and in other Western contexts has sought to reintroduce a ritual for dying. The good death ideology of the original hospice movement proposed a manner of dying in which open communication and acceptance of death were actively encouraged. The hospice model of a good death, however, has become increasingly inappropriate in the current climate of patient autonomy and consumer choice. The practice of palliative care, a holistic form of care for dying people, which follows the individualistic ethic of choice, has emerged from and replaced the original hospice movement. Consequently, the good death of the original hospice movement has been abandoned in favour of a philosophy of a 'good enough' death. However, what may appear a compromise informed by ethical practice masks a return to routine medical practices and a hierarchy of care which prioritises the physical management of symptoms. It appears that while palliative care practitioners may often fail in their facilitation of a good death for their patients, they can be proactive in alleviating their patients' pain and physical discomfort.

  9. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other…

  10. A Stalagmite record of Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon variability from the Australian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Polyak, Victor J.; Brown, Josephine R.; Asmerom, Yemane; Wanamaker, Alan D.; LaPointe, Zachary; Ellerbroek, Rebecca; Barthelmes, Michael; Cleary, Daniel; Cugley, John; Woods, David; Humphreys, William F.

    2013-10-01

    Oxygen isotopic data from a suite of calcite and aragonite stalagmites from cave KNI-51, located in the eastern Kimberley region of tropical Western Australia, represent the first absolute-dated, high-resolution speleothem record of the Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) from the Australian tropics. Stalagmite oxygen isotopic values track monsoon intensity via amount effects in precipitation and reveal a dynamic Holocene IASM which strengthened in the early Holocene, decreased in strength by 4 ka, with a further decrease from ˜2 to 1 ka, before strengthening again at 1 ka to years to levels similar to those between 4 and 2 ka. The relationships between the KNI-51 IASM reconstruction and those from published speleothem time series from Flores and Borneo, in combination with other data sets, appear largely inconsistent with changes in the position and/or organization of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Instead, we argue that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may have played a dominant role in driving IASM variability since at least the middle Holocene. Given the muted modern monsoon rainfall responses to most El Niño events in the Kimberley, an impact of ENSO on regional monsoon precipitation over northwestern Australia would suggest non-stationarity in the long-term relationship between ENSO forcing and IASM rainfall, possibly due to changes in the mean state of the tropical Pacific over the Holocene.

  11. The Australian stock market development: Prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla Nyasha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the origin and development of the Australian stock market. The country has three major stock exchanges, namely: the Australian Securities Exchange Group, the National Stock Exchange of Australia, and the Asia-Pacific Stock Exchange. These stock exchanges were born out of a string of stock exchanges that merged over time. Stock-market reforms have been implemented since the period of deregulation, during the 1980s; and the Exchanges responded largely positively to these reforms. As a result of the reforms, the Australian stock market has developed in terms of the number of listed companies, the market capitalisation, the total value of stocks traded, and the turnover ratio. Although the stock market in Australia has developed remarkably over the years, and was spared by the global financial crisis of the late 2000s, it still faces some challenges. These include the increased economic uncertainty overseas, the downtrend in global financial markets, and the restrained consumer confidence in Australia.

  12. Repeated evolution of carnivory among Indo-Australian rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kevin C; Achmadi, Anang S; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2016-03-01

    Convergent evolution, often observed in island archipelagos, provides compelling evidence for the importance of natural selection as a generator of species and ecological diversity. The Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) is the world's largest island system and encompasses distinct biogeographic units, including the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves, which together bracket the oceanic archipelagos of the Philippines and Wallacea. Each of these biogeographic units houses numerous endemic rodents in the family Muridae. Carnivorous murids, that is those that feed on animals, have evolved independently in Sunda, Sulawesi (part of Wallacea), the Philippines, and Sahul, but the number of origins of carnivory among IAA murids is unknown. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of carnivorous murids of the IAA, combined with estimates of ancestral states for broad diet categories (herbivore, omnivore, and carnivore) and geographic ranges. These analyses demonstrate that carnivory evolved independently four times after overwater colonization, including in situ origins on the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul. In each biogeographic unit the origin of carnivory was followed by evolution of more specialized carnivorous ecomorphs such as vermivores, insectivores, and amphibious rats. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  14. Muslims in Australian hospitals: the clash of cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Nooredin; Evans, David; Jones, Tina

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the multicultural nature of Australian society, with a specific focus on the Islamic culture. Islamic principles will be presented and the impact this has on the health-care provision of Muslim people will be explored. This paper highlights issues that Muslim patients face when hospitalized in Australia. Australia has seen a major shift in its society, from English-speaking European to one that boasts enormous cultural diversity. However, this cultural diversity poses a number of challenges for a Western-based health-care service based on differing needs and expectations. This challenge is perhaps most evident during times of illness, when the Muslim patient must attempt to adhere to the principles of their faith in the non-Islamic environment of the Australian hospital. The differences discussed in this paper serve to highlight the importance of having strategies that identify the needs and expectations of culturally diverse consumers of the hospital system.

  15. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  16. Using video analysis for concussion surveillance in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the relationship between various player and game factors and risk of concussion; and to assess the reliability of video analysis for mechanistic assessment of concussion in Australian football. Prospective cohort study. All impacts and collisions resulting in concussion were identified during the 2011 Australian Football League season. An extensive list of factors for assessment was created based upon previous analysis of concussion in Australian Football League and expert opinions. The authors independently reviewed the video clips and correlation for each factor was examined. A total of 82 concussions were reported in 194 games (rate: 8.7 concussions per 1000 match hours; 95% confidence interval: 6.9-10.5). Player demographics and game variables such as venue, timing of the game (day, night or twilight), quarter, travel status (home or interstate) or score margin did not demonstrate a significant relationship with risk of concussion; although a higher percentage of concussions occurred in the first 5min of game time of the quarter (36.6%), when compared to the last 5min (20.7%). Variables with good inter-rater agreement included position on the ground, circumstances of the injury and cause of the impact. The remainder of the variables assessed had fair-poor inter-rater agreement. Common problems included insufficient or poor quality video and interpretation issues related to the definitions used. Clear definitions and good quality video from multiple camera angles are required to improve the utility of video analysis for concussion surveillance in Australian football. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative study of the economic and social functioning of Vietnamese-Australians with low English proficiency living with psychotic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Yvonne; Sevar, Katherine; Tran, Nga; Mancuso, Serafino G; Chopra, Prem; Castle, David

    2015-06-01

    Because national surveys of people living with psychotic disorders tend to exclude people with low English proficiency (LEP), little is known of their economic and social functioning. Culturally influenced explanatory models may result in delayed presentation and poorer functioning. The study aimed to compare the functioning of LEP Vietnamese-Australian and Australian-born patients with psychosis and to investigate the Vietnamese-Australians' pathways to care. In all, 19 LEP Vietnamese-Australians, previously excluded from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP), were matched with 15 Australian-born controls, and interviewed by a Vietnamese bilingual mental health professional using the SHIP Interview Schedule. The Vietnamese-Australian patients were significantly more likely to live with family, rate spirituality as important and participate in community rehabilitation programs. Their work, social and independent functioning, was better than the controls. The groups did not differ in mental health services received and satisfaction with services. Although half of Vietnamese-Australians attributed mental illness to supernatural, among other causes, none had consulted traditional healers. Despite LEP, Vietnamese-Australians with psychosis showed comparable or better functioning than Australian-born patients. Further investigation is recommended into LEP patients' clinical and social recovery and the role of language communities' support networks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Australian Writing and the Contemporary: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annee Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s geographical location (within ‘Asia’—seen as a negative into the twenty-first century when the nation defined itself as culturally and aspirationally linked to the major Euro-American metropolitan cultural centres (the ‘West’—must now be reevaluated. After two hundred years of white settlement and of turning its back on the region in which it is located, some Australian writers are writing texts that illuminate an aspect of Australian literature that is in transition, becoming, by definition, in, of, and with the region as well as in, of, and with present time. Art historian Terry Smith’s theory of the three currents of contemporary art, particularly the third current, suggests a new paradigm, a potential break from modernism, and a different kind of entanglement and interconnection in a world that is witnessing shifts in world power, voluntary and involuntary mass movements of people, and real time global communication technologies. Adrian Snodgrass and David Coyne’s application of hermeneutical theory to the architectural design studio via the metaphor of excursion and return illuminates some imaginative intersections, understandings and energies in three texts by Australian authors—Michelle De Kretser, Chi Vu and Jennifer Mackenzie. In Smith’s terms too, the texts perform original leaps of the imagination in their diversity, freshness, and ability to surprise and invite questions about literature’s potential to stir up prior understandings and invite new ways of being in the present. In terms of Giorgio Agamben’s definition of the contemporary, the three texts bring the reader to a plurality and intercultural connectedness that we have yet to fully recognise and live. They represent a line of flight towards a literary imaginary in Australian writing that is contemporary, locally grounded, but also regionally and globally entangled.

  19. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  20. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  1. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  2. Impacts of extreme weather on the health and well-being of people who are homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrey, Catherine G A; Carey, Marion; Stanley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This letter responds to the article by Cusack et al., 'Extreme weather-related health needs of people who are homeless' (Australian Journal of Primary Health, 2013, 19(3), 250-255), which addressed the impacts of extreme weather on the health of the homeless population in inner city Adelaide. We compare the findings of Cusack et al. to our own original research, based on interviews with service providers to the homeless in urban and rural Victoria. We further place this issue in the broader context of climate change, which is crucial given the expected increase in extreme weather events and associated health impacts.

  3. Characteristics of Religious Knowledge among Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the Spirit of Generation Y project and extensions of that project undertaken in 25 Australian schools by the Christian Research Association, it is argued that the approach to religious knowledge by Australian students can be contrasted with their approach to other forms of knowledge by four features. These are diversity of opinion in…

  4. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  5. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the

  6. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/aifsc/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox ...

  7. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  8. Phylogeography of Poorly Dispersing Net-Winged Beetles: A Role of Drifting India in the Origin of Afrotropical and Oriental Fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenarova, Katerina; Chesters, Douglas; Bocak, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Ancient dispersal history may be obscured by subsequent dispersal events. Therefore, we intend to investigate the biogeography of metriorrhynchine net-winged beetles, a group characterized by limited dispersal propensity. We used DNA data to construct phylogenies and the BayesTraits and RASP programs to identify putative ancestral areas. Further, we inferred ultrametric trees to estimate the ages of selected nodes. The time frame is inferred from tectonic calibrations and the general mutation rate of the mitochondrial genes. Metriorrhynchini consists of two lineages with Afro/Oriental and Australian distributions. The basal lineages originated in Eastern Gondwana after the split of Australia, India and Madagascar; the Afrotropical and Madagascar Metriorrhynchini separated from the Oriental clades 65 and 62 mya. Several already diversified lineages colonized continental Asia 55–35 mya. A few genera of the Australian clade dispersed to the Oriental region 5–15 mya and reached Eastern India and Southern China. Only Xylobanus crossed the Makassar Strait to Sulawesi and does not occur further to the east. The current distribution of Metriorrhynchini is a result of drifting on continental fragments and over-sea dispersal events limited to a few hundreds of kilometers. We conclude that: (1) Afrotropical and Madagascar lineages originated independently from dispersal events during India's drift to the north and the Mozambique Channel completely isolates the respective faunas since then; (2) Oriental fauna is a recently established mixture of the Indian and Australian lineages, with predominance of the older Indian clades; (3) The fauna of islands located north of Australia colonized Sulawesi after collision with the Sundaland margin and the species rich Australian lineages did not reach Western Wallacea or the Philippines. Our results suggest an impact of subtle differences in biological characteristics on biogeographic history of individual lineages, when mostly

  9. Phylogeography of Poorly Dispersing Net-Winged Beetles: A Role of Drifting India in the Origin of Afrotropical and Oriental Fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenarova, Katerina; Chesters, Douglas; Bocak, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Ancient dispersal history may be obscured by subsequent dispersal events. Therefore, we intend to investigate the biogeography of metriorrhynchine net-winged beetles, a group characterized by limited dispersal propensity. We used DNA data to construct phylogenies and the BayesTraits and RASP programs to identify putative ancestral areas. Further, we inferred ultrametric trees to estimate the ages of selected nodes. The time frame is inferred from tectonic calibrations and the general mutation rate of the mitochondrial genes. Metriorrhynchini consists of two lineages with Afro/Oriental and Australian distributions. The basal lineages originated in Eastern Gondwana after the split of Australia, India and Madagascar; the Afrotropical and Madagascar Metriorrhynchini separated from the Oriental clades 65 and 62 mya. Several already diversified lineages colonized continental Asia 55-35 mya. A few genera of the Australian clade dispersed to the Oriental region 5-15 mya and reached Eastern India and Southern China. Only Xylobanus crossed the Makassar Strait to Sulawesi and does not occur further to the east. The current distribution of Metriorrhynchini is a result of drifting on continental fragments and over-sea dispersal events limited to a few hundreds of kilometers. We conclude that: (1) Afrotropical and Madagascar lineages originated independently from dispersal events during India's drift to the north and the Mozambique Channel completely isolates the respective faunas since then; (2) Oriental fauna is a recently established mixture of the Indian and Australian lineages, with predominance of the older Indian clades; (3) The fauna of islands located north of Australia colonized Sulawesi after collision with the Sundaland margin and the species rich Australian lineages did not reach Western Wallacea or the Philippines. Our results suggest an impact of subtle differences in biological characteristics on biogeographic history of individual lineages, when mostly lowland

  10. Phylogeography of Poorly Dispersing Net-Winged Beetles: A Role of Drifting India in the Origin of Afrotropical and Oriental Fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Sklenarova

    Full Text Available Ancient dispersal history may be obscured by subsequent dispersal events. Therefore, we intend to investigate the biogeography of metriorrhynchine net-winged beetles, a group characterized by limited dispersal propensity. We used DNA data to construct phylogenies and the BayesTraits and RASP programs to identify putative ancestral areas. Further, we inferred ultrametric trees to estimate the ages of selected nodes. The time frame is inferred from tectonic calibrations and the general mutation rate of the mitochondrial genes. Metriorrhynchini consists of two lineages with Afro/Oriental and Australian distributions. The basal lineages originated in Eastern Gondwana after the split of Australia, India and Madagascar; the Afrotropical and Madagascar Metriorrhynchini separated from the Oriental clades 65 and 62 mya. Several already diversified lineages colonized continental Asia 55-35 mya. A few genera of the Australian clade dispersed to the Oriental region 5-15 mya and reached Eastern India and Southern China. Only Xylobanus crossed the Makassar Strait to Sulawesi and does not occur further to the east. The current distribution of Metriorrhynchini is a result of drifting on continental fragments and over-sea dispersal events limited to a few hundreds of kilometers. We conclude that: (1 Afrotropical and Madagascar lineages originated independently from dispersal events during India's drift to the north and the Mozambique Channel completely isolates the respective faunas since then; (2 Oriental fauna is a recently established mixture of the Indian and Australian lineages, with predominance of the older Indian clades; (3 The fauna of islands located north of Australia colonized Sulawesi after collision with the Sundaland margin and the species rich Australian lineages did not reach Western Wallacea or the Philippines. Our results suggest an impact of subtle differences in biological characteristics on biogeographic history of individual lineages, when

  11. The relative impact of country of origin and universal contingencies on internationalization strategies and corporate control in multinational enterprises : Worldwide and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harzing, A.W.; Sorge, A.

    We examine the importance of country-of-origin effects and of universal contingencies such as industrial recipes in organizational practices at the international level of multinational enterprises. This is based on a study comparing European (Finnish, French, German, Dutch, Swiss, Swedish, British),

  12. "Don't forget your cotton underwear girls": femininity and Australian Army nurses in the Vietnam War (1967-1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Narelle

    2004-01-01

    War and nursing are unequivocally linked and the impact that this type of nursing has had upon the nursing profession in indisputable. However, a review of the Australian scholarly nursing literature revealed that the contribution and experiences of Australian nurses in the Vietnam War has not been widely published. The direct involvement of Australian women in the Vietnam War was limited and, as female nurses, they were unquestionably a minority. This paper describes the gender issues that confronted the nurses who worked within the confines of war.

  13. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  14. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  15. Social Origin and Graduation Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960–1975. These are cohorts for whom university...... on schedule. The impact of cultural capital decreases across cohorts, but the impact of economic capital is fairly constant....

  16. Exploring Positive Survivorship Experiences of Indigenous Australian Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst Indigenous Australians, “cancer” has negative connotations that detrimentally impact upon access to cancer care services. Barriers to accessing cancer services amongst Indigenous Australians are widely reported. In contrast, factors that facilitate this cohort to successfully navigate cancer care services (“enablers” are scarcely reported in the literature. Through qualitative interviews, this article examines factors that assist Indigenous Australians to have positive cancer experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve adult Indigenous oncology patients recruited from a tertiary hospital in Queensland, Australia during 2012–2014. Data generated from the interviews were independently reviewed by two researchers via inductive thematic analytical processes. Discussions followed by consensus on the major categories allowed conclusions to be drawn on potential enablers. Two major categories of enablers were identified by the researchers: resilience and communication. Individual’s intrinsic strength, their coping strategies, and receipt of support improved participant’s resilience and consequently supported a positive experience. Communication methods and an effective patient-provider relationship facilitated positive experiences for participants. Despite potential barriers to access of care for Indigenous cancer patients, participants in the study demonstrated that it was still possible to focus on the positive aspects of their cancer experiences. Many participants explained how cancer changed their outlook on life, often for the better, with many feeling empowered as they progressed through their cancer diagnosis and treatment processes.

  17. Intersectoral action on SDH and equity in Australian health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew; Baum, Frances E; MacDougall, Colin; Newman, Lareen; McDermott, Dennis; Phillips, Clare

    2017-12-01

    Intersectoral action between public agencies across policy sectors, and between levels of government, is seen as essential for effective action by governments to address social determinants of health (SDH) and to reduce health inequities. The health sector has been identified as having a crucial stewardship role, to engage other policy sectors in action to address the impacts of their policies on health. This article reports on research to investigate intersectoral action on SDH and health inequities in Australian health policy. We gathered and individually analysed 266 policy documents, being all of the published, strategic health policies of the national Australian government and eight State/Territory governments, current at the time of sampling in late 2012-early 2013. Our analysis showed that strategies for intersectoral action were common in Australian health policy, but predominantly concerned with extending access to individualized medical or behavioural interventions to client groups in other policy sectors. Where intersectoral strategies did propose action on SDH (other than access to health-care), they were mostly limited to addressing proximal factors, rather than policy settings affecting the distribution of socioeconomic resources. There was little evidence of engagement between the health sector and those policy sectors most able to influence systemic socioeconomic inequalities in Australia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Fire in Australian savannas: from leaf to landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B; Abramson, David; Arndt, Stefan K; Briggs, Peter; Bristow, Mila; Canadell, Josep G; Cernusak, Lucas A; Eamus, Derek; Edwards, Andrew C; Evans, Bradley J; Fest, Benedikt; Goergen, Klaus; Grover, Samantha P; Hacker, Jorg; Haverd, Vanessa; Kanniah, Kasturi; Livesley, Stephen J; Lynch, Amanda; Maier, Stefan; Moore, Caitlin; Raupach, Michael; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Scheiter, Simon; Tapper, Nigel J; Uotila, Petteri

    2015-01-01

    Savanna ecosystems comprise 22% of the global terrestrial surface and 25% of Australia (almost 1.9 million km2) and provide significant ecosystem services through carbon and water cycles and the maintenance of biodiversity. The current structure, composition and distribution of Australian savannas have coevolved with fire, yet remain driven by the dynamic constraints of their bioclimatic niche. Fire in Australian savannas influences both the biophysical and biogeochemical processes at multiple scales from leaf to landscape. Here, we present the latest emission estimates from Australian savanna biomass burning and their contribution to global greenhouse gas budgets. We then review our understanding of the impacts of fire on ecosystem function and local surface water and heat balances, which in turn influence regional climate. We show how savanna fires are coupled to the global climate through the carbon cycle and fire regimes. We present new research that climate change is likely to alter the structure and function of savannas through shifts in moisture availability and increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, in turn altering fire regimes with further feedbacks to climate. We explore opportunities to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from savanna ecosystems through changes in savanna fire management. PMID:25044767

  19. Observations of geomagnetically induced currents in the Australian power network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. A.; Gorniak, H.; van der Walt, T.; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.; Miller, M.; Dalzell, M.; Daly, T.; Pouferis, G.; Hesse, G.; Wilkinson, P.

    2013-01-01

    such as pipelines and power networks at low-middle latitude regions have historically been considered relatively immune to geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Over the past decade there have been an increasing number of investigations into the impact of GICs in long grounded conductors at these latitudes. The Australian region power network spans thousands of kilometers from low to middle latitudes. The approaching maximum of solar cycle 24 and recent findings of studies into power networks located at similar latitudes have stimulated the Australian power industry to better understand this phenomenon in their region. As a result, a pilot study to compare space weather activity with in situ GIC monitors at strategic locations within the power network was initiated. This paper provides some results from the first of these operational GIC monitors during a modest geomagnetic storm, showing the first observational evidence of space weather well correlated with GICs measured in the Australian power network. Transformer neutral currents show a high degree of similarity with the geoelectric field derived from the closest available geomagnetic observatory. Current maxima of 4-5 amperes were observed in association with geoelectric field values of ~0.06-0.07 volts per kilometer. This paper also discusses the GIC measurements obtained during this storm in terms of the space weather drivers and the considerably larger geoelectric field values anticipated during larger geomagnetic storms.

  20. Depression, Suicidal Behaviour, and Mental Disorders in Older Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tang Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%, current late-life depression (18.1%, and suicidal ideation (11.1%. Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies.

  1. Impact of Brassica and Lucerne Finishing Feeds and Intramuscular Fat on Lamb Eating Quality and Flavor. A Cross-Cultural Study Using Chinese and Non-Chinese Australian Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Watkins, Peter; Ball, Alex; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Sewell, James; Ortuño, Jordi; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2016-09-14

    Use of forage brassicas (Brassica napus) and lucerne (alfalfa; Medicago sativa) as ruminant feeds has been linked to unacceptable flavors in sheepmeat. Lambs from low and high intramuscular fat sires were allocated to one of four finishing feeds-perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), lucerne, and two brassica forages-for a 6 week period. Grilled loins (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum) were subjected to chemical and sensory analysis by a trained panel and also evaluated by non-Chinese and Chinese background Australian consumers. Consumer liking was similar for both groups, and liking was highest for the brassica- and lucerne-finished lamb, especially from high intramuscular fat sires. No evidence of a distinctive lucerne- or brassica-induced flavor taint was measured by the trained panel or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The diets influenced the composition of lipids and branched-chain fatty acids in the subcutaneous fat, and the concentration of total branched-chain fatty acids was positively correlated with flavor and overall liking. Significantly higher levels of key aroma volatiles were measured in the higher fat samples.

  2. Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic Impacts of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5 of Outdoor Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Much of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 of outdoor origin occurs in residences. High-efficiency particle air filtration in central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems is increasingly being used to reduce concentrations of particulate matter inside homes. However, questions remain about the effectiveness of filtration for reducing exposures to PM2.5 of outdoor origin and adverse health outcomes. Here we integrate epidemiology functions and mass balance modeling to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of HVAC filtration for reducing premature mortality associated with indoor PM2.5 of outdoor origin in residences. We evaluate 11 classifications of filters (MERV 5 through HEPA using six case studies of single-family home vintages and ventilation system combinations located in 22 U.S. cities. We estimate that widespread use of higher efficiency filters would reduce premature mortality by 0.002–2.5% and increase life expectancy by 0.02–1.6 months, yielding annual monetary benefits ranging from $1 to $1348 per person in the homes and locations modeled herein. Large differences in the magnitude of health and economic impacts are driven largely by differences in rated filter efficiency and building and ventilation system characteristics that govern particle infiltration and persistence, with smaller influences attributable to geographic location.

  3. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  4. Australians Abroad: Narrative Paths and Divagations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Nooy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although commonly characterized as an immigrant nation, Australia has been shaped just as importantly by the overseas journeys of its people, and the liminal experiences thus provided have not only been self-defining and defining of the other, but at times nation-defining. This special issue proposes a multidisciplinary analysis of Australian travellers and expatriates past and present: the reasons for and destinations of their travel, its impact on their identity, the roles they play, their writings and reflections, their linguistic and intercultural competence. Clusters of travellers to particular destinations give rise to narrative patterns which solidify into templates, the narrative equivalent of the beaten track. The essays that follow highlight both discursive grooves and off-piste accounts that challenge the patterns. In both cases, the emphasis in the essays is on the travellers’ active engagement in the experience and on their negotiation of existing discourses. For even those who follow the trail invest it with personal meanings.

  5. Electron microprobe analysis (WDS EPMA) of Zhamanshin glass reveals the impactor and a common role of accretion in the origin of splash-form impact glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetvicka, I; Frank, J; Drtina, J

    2010-01-01

    Impact glass samples collected during expeditions to the Zhamashin and Lonar craters were subjected to a morphology survey and compared to Wabar, Henbury and Darwin impact glasses to reveal that the accretion of fibres and spherules is not exclusive for irghizites but occurs in other splash form glasses over the world. WDS EPMA and LA-ICP-MS assays of Zhamanshin and Lonar glasses enabled the definition of akmurynites as Zhamanshin glass of specific morphology, chemistry and absence of extraterrestrial contamination. However, extraterrestrial contamination in irghizites was verified and further WDS EPMA analyses led to the conclusion that the Zhamanshin crater had been formed by the impact of a primitive achondrite of Lodran chemistry.

  6. Setting the scene: early writing on Australian Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together some of the earliest writings on Australian Aboriginal art. It examines references to specific examples of this unique art in a range of sources including journals of early British and French explorers, the field reports of naturalists and ethnologists, early Royal Society papers and newspaper articles of the day. By tracing the impact of important texts and images, certain connections, collaborations and disagreements over the meaning, worth and ability of Australias first art and artists are revealed. An analysis of these previously unrelated accounts contributes to an understanding of early European perceptions and attitudes towards Aboriginal art.

  7. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, J.

    1987-01-01

    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  8. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  9. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.W.; Trahair, R.C.S.; Powell, R.J.; Walker, R.M.

    1985-08-01

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  10. EQA from an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Renze

    2007-11-01

    Enrolment in external quality assurance programs is part of the accreditation process for medical laboratories in Australia, with the majority of Australian laboratories being enrolled in programs from RCPA Quality Assurance Programs Pty Limited, a company owned by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. An important feature of these programs is that they have been developed with the involvement and contribution of the profession. For example, the Chemical Pathology programs are a joint venture between the company and the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). Some of the unique features of the programs are the composition of the material, the use of target values, the structure and information in the reports and the use of the internet for data entry and data review. Over the past thirty years, the development of these programs has made a significant contribution to the quality of laboratories in Australia.

  11. Quality marks: protected denomination of origin (pdo, protected geographical indication (pgi and traditional speciality guaranteed (tsg as social and economic impact on the local cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In July 1993, the European Community Regulation (EEC: ProtectedDenomination of Origin (PDO and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI No. 2081/92 came into force. This Regulation has set up the criteria, which are needed for protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs. The Regulation has been extended (Regulation EEC No. 1804/99 to the products, which specific features are due to a production method or traditional composition without any link with a particular area (TSG. According to the Regulation, countries outside the European Community have also been given an opportunity to formally recognise and to protect their own specific products under the concept of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, Protected Geographical Indication (PGI and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG. Since then, among EU countries, France, Italy, Spain and Greece have succeeded to protect the highest number of their own traditional cheeses. The total number of PDO and PGI cheeses, registered by the European Committee, are 128 and 10 respectively (Ba r jo l l e and S y l va n de r , 2000. It is worth to stress that PDO/PGI/TSG policy is much more than economic success. This is a strategy that encourages a number of social, environmental and cultural benefits. Law on the protection of geographical indications of products and service (The Official Gazette 78/99 has been already adopted in Croatia. However, nothing has been done to protect cheeses under the Europeans requirements. In that respect, if Croatia really wants to protect their unique cheese varieties against the misuse and imitation, the framework of regulations has to be very close to the proposition adopted by the EU. This report is based on the experience of other countries in the implementation of the concept of the legislation necessity to develop an effective system of cheese protection under EU Regulations 2081/92 and 1804/1999.

  12. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverd, V.; Raupach, M. R.; Briggs, P. R.; Canadell, J. G.; Davis, S. J.; Law, R. M.; Meyer, C. P.; Peters, G. P.; Pickett-Heaps, C.; Sherman, B.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2) budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990-2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes) project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP); net ecosystem production (NEP); fire; land use change (LUC); riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock) and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial). Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012), a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05°) offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011), a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean) and 68 ± 15 TgC yr-1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes), which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr-1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr-1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP) is 36 ± 29 TgC yr-1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr-1) by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV) in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009-2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  13. Wolf presence in the ranch of origin: impacts on temperament and physiological responses of beef cattle following a simulated wolf encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Reis, M M; Cappellozza, B I

    2013-12-01

    This experiment evaluated temperament, vaginal temperature, and plasma cortisol in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Angus-crossbreed cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center located near Burns, OR (CON; n = 50), and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; n = 50), were used. To date, grey wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple confirmed wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2012. Following a 50-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were ranked by temperament, BW, and BCS and allocated to 5 groups (d 0; 10 CON and 10 WLF cows/group). Groups were individually subjected to the experimental procedures on d 2 (n = 3) and d 3 (n = 2). Before the simulated wolf encounter, cow temperament was assessed and blood samples and vaginal temperatures (using intravaginal data loggers) were collected (presimulation assessments). Cows were then sorted by origin, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (10 WLF and 10 CON cows/pen), and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min, which consisted of 1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, 2) continuous reproduction of wolf howls, and 3) 3 leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, WLF and CON cows were commingled and returned to the handling facility for postsimulation assessments, which were conducted immediately after exposure to wolf-urine-saturated cotton plugs, wolf howl reproduction, and 20-s exposure to the 3 dogs while being restrained in a squeeze chute. Chute score, temperament score, and plasma cortisol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.01) from pre- to postsimulation assessment in WLF but did not change in CON cows (P ≥ 0.19). Exit velocity decreased (P

  14. Australian Apprenticeships: Trends, Challenges and Future Opportunities for Dealing with Industry 4.0. Conference Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveder, Phil

    2017-01-01

    The Australian economy is in transition. Its future prosperity will depend on greater economic diversification and on innovation and entrepreneurship, hallmarks of Industry 4.0. This has implications for skills development for future workers and for those needing to move into new jobs or roles. It also has a direct impact on apprenticeships--an…

  15. Factors Affecting Language and Literacy Development in Australian Aboriginal Children: Considering Dialect, Culture and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gwendalyn L.; Williams, Cori J.

    2018-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children, in general, lag behind their mainstream peers in measures of literacy. This article discusses some of the complex and interconnected factors that impact Aboriginal children's early language and literacy development. Poor health and historically negative socio-political factors are known influences on Aboriginal…

  16. Occurrence and orientation of shatter cones in Pretoria group quartzites in the collar of the Vredefort ‘dome’: Impact origin precluded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol

    1981-11-01

    Shatter cones have been found cutting completely indurated fault breccia associated with the down-faulting of previously overturned Pretoria Group quartzites around the Vredefort structure. The evidence indicates that the shatter cones formed later than the overturning. Hence they cannot be considered to have been formed by an impact-generated shock wave which penetrated the strata just before overturning.

  17. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolář, Jan; Hajnalová, M.; Abraham, V.; Macek, Martin; Tkáč, Péter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, May 15 (2015), s. 15-27 ISSN 0277-3791 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/0649 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : pollen analysis * REVEALS * Holocene Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.521, year: 2015

  18. Different impact of heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin on turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Lluch, Nuria; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Magadán, Susana

    2015-05-01

    In aquaculture, several criteria should be considered to select an appropriate probiotic, including the aquatic origin and safety of the strain and its ability to modulate the host immune response. The properties and effects of probiotics are strain-specific and some factors such as viability, dose and duration of diet supplementation may regulate their immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of eight heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of aquatic origin belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella on the viability and innate immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) leucocytes. Head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with viable and heat-inactivated LAB at different concentrations. After incubation, the viability of leucocytes was evaluated using colorimetric assays (MTT and LDH) and flow cytometry (annexin V/propidium iodide). Heat-inactivated LAB showed no cytotoxic effect while viable LAB exerted variable influence on apoptosis of turbot phagocytes and lymphocytes. Leucocyte respiratory burst activity and phagocytosis were also differentially activated, as viable LAB stimulated leucocytes more efficiently than the heat-inactivated LAB. Our results suggest diverse strain-specific mechanisms of interaction between the evaluated LAB and turbot leucocytes. Furthermore, our work sets up in vitro systems to evaluate the effect of LAB as potential probiotics, which will be useful to develop efficient screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Origin and Biological Source on Chemical Composition, Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Properties of Some St. John’s Wort Species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae from the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Božin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John’s wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at a local market and four Hypericum species autochtonous to the Balkan Peninsula (H. maculatum subsp. immaculatum, H. olympicum, H. richeri subsp. grisebachii and H. barbatum. All the examined extracts exhibited notable antioxidant potential, but in most of the cases indigenous Hypericum species expressed stronger effects compared to the original source of the drug, H. perforatum. The changes in the content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin, related to the source of the drug affected the investigated activities. Since all of the investigated species have shown prominent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in vitro activity, they could be further investigated as potential substances in preventing of Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. Impact of origin and biological source on chemical composition, anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of some St. John's wort species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae) from the Central Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božin, Biljana; Kladar, Nebojša; Grujić, Nevena; Anačkov, Goran; Samojlik, Isidora; Gavarić, Neda; Conić, Branislava Srđenović

    2013-09-25

    The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John's wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at a local market and four Hypericum species autochtonous to the Balkan Peninsula (H. maculatum subsp. immaculatum, H. olympicum, H. richeri subsp. grisebachii and H. barbatum). All the examined extracts exhibited notable antioxidant potential, but in most of the cases indigenous Hypericum species expressed stronger effects compared to the original source of the drug, H. perforatum. The changes in the content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin, related to the source of the drug affected the investigated activities. Since all of the investigated species have shown prominent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in vitro activity, they could be further investigated as potential substances in preventing of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Holiday and school-term sleep patterns of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-10-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient sleep for their needs and reporting lowered mood and daytime functioning. Support was found for the hypothesis that trait circadian preference mediates mood, daytime functioning and academic grades through its effect on sleep variables at school time. It was concluded that while the imposition of school schedule negatively impacted on mood and daytime functioning for the sample as a whole, evening-oriented adolescents were the most vulnerable to poorer outcomes. These students obtained poorer quality and less sleep than morning-oriented students. Sleep factors impacted negatively on evening-oriented students' mood and ability to function at school during the day, which in turn predicted poorer academic achievement.

  2. The Size and Organisation of the Australian Army in the Near Future Given the Australian Defence Force White Paper 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    over the past ten years are Defending Australia : Defence White Paper 1994, Australian Strategic Policy 1997, and Defence 2000 Our Future Defence Force...Australian Army. Commonwealth of Australia , 1994. Defending Australia : Defence White Paper 1994, Canberra, A.C.T: Australian Government Publishing Service. de...THE SIZE AND ORGANISATION OF THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY IN THE NEAR FUTURE GIVEN THE AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE WHITE PAPER 2000 A thesis presented to the

  3. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, Meg; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience

  4. Australian Vocational Education: Learning from Past Mistakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, John

    1992-01-01

    Competing pressures on Australian educational managers include pressure to implement competency-based training, to manage using the industrial model, and to husband resources, conflicting with traditional educational goals, government policies, and demands for accountability. (SK)

  5. Healthier times?: revisiting Indigenous Australian health history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The perception that Indigenous Australians were primitive hunters and gatherers who lived in a nomadic 'Stone Age' culture resonates through most narratives found on Indigenous people in pre-colonial times. This narrative is better placed in the realm of myth; I contest claims that the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians was only forty years in pre-colonial times, by providing suggestive evidence that there is a strong probability that longevity favoured Indigenous Australians in comparison to many poorer sectors of the European population living in slum habitats. As well, I will challenge notions that Indigenous Australians were more violent than supposedly 'civilised' nations. Finally I express the hope that future researchers will revisit archival sources to develop a more nuanced perspective on the past.

  6. Linguistic aspects of Australian Aboriginal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard Australian English (SAE) at one end, through to something very close to creole at the other. The phonetics and phonology, grammar, and lexicon of AAE are influenced to varying degrees by the Australian Aboriginal language substrate. There are also some features typical of non-standard Englishes in general, and some which have been retained from earlier forms of the colonial language. Many teachers still see this variety as an uneducated or corrupted form of Standard Australian English, rather than as a different dialect of English that is just as efficient a medium of communication.

  7. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  8. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  9. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Jared Denman

    2009-01-01

    The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintai...

  10. The Legal Origins of Corporate Social Responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...

  11. Isotopic tracing of the impact of mobility on infectious disease: The origin of people with treponematosis buried in hull, England, in the late medieval period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C A; Millard, A R; Nowell, G M; Gröcke, D R; Macpherson, C G; Pearson, D G; Evans, D H

    2013-02-01

    Treponematosis has been one of the most studied and debated infectious diseases in paleopathology, particularly from the standpoint of its origin, evolution, and transmission. This study links evidence for treponematosis in skeletons from the 14th-16th century AD cemetery of the Augustinian friary of Hull Magistrates Court, England, with data from stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis that the people with treponemal disease buried at this site were not locally born and raised. The objective is to explore the potential of using stable isotope data to track the place of origin and extent of mobility of individuals with an infectious disease. Dental enamel samples of 12 skeletons were selected for strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr ratio) and oxygen (δ(18) O) stable isotope analysis based on the presence (six - diseased) or absence (six - controls) of bone changes associated with treponemal disease. The oxygen isotope ratios of all but three individuals (1047, 1121, 823) overlapped at two standard deviations with the inferred local precipitation range, and only one individual (1216) had a strontium isotope ratio outside the regional range. Two of the four had probable/possible treponemal bone changes. Those with treponemal bone changes were not demonstrably more likely to be migrants than those without such lesions. However, because of extensive documentary evidence for trade with the Baltic Sea area, and for merchants from towns such as Stralsund, Danzig and Elbing being in Hull, it is very plausible that the four migrants came from the Baltic area or even southern Sweden. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Balancing innovation and access to healthcare through the patent system--an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the enforcement of gene and other research tool patents in Australia. An empirical analysis of patenting practices in the Australian medical biotechnology industry showed heightened concern about the impact of patents on research and diagnostic testing, but provided little evidence to support these concerns at that time. Since then, the Australian company Genetic Technologies Ltd. has been enforcing its patents for non-coding DNA sequences. The governments of Australia are encouraging the biotechnology industry to better protect and enforce intellectual property rights, but recognize these needs to be balanced against access to healthcare. The article discusses proposals made by the Australian Law Reform Commission to adjust the balance, both by tightening the requirements for obtaining patents and by introducing various options to assist providers of diagnostic services and others in using patented inventions, but at the same time maintaining the incentive to innovate. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Associations between periodontal disease and cardiovascular surrogate measures among Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellas, Kostas; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; Bartold, P Mark; Wang, Hao; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Sullivan, David; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-05-01

    Inflammation is a key pathogenetic factor in atherogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory source which can have systemic impacts. Indigenous Australians have a higher prevalence of periodontal disease and experience cardiovascular disease earlier than non-Indigenous Australians. The aim was to describe the association between severity of periodontal inflammatory disease and measures of arterial structure and function. Periodontal disease in a convenience sample of Indigenous Australians was assessed clinically; for those with periodontal disease, the extent of periodontal pockets ≥ 4 mm was stratified into quartiles. Vascular health was measured non-invasively via carotid-dorsalis pedis pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and via B-mode ultrasound of the common carotid intima-media (IMT). Non-fasting blood samples were collected for lipid and inflammatory marker evaluation. Linear regression models were constructed to determine the associations between extent of periodontal pocketing and vascular health, adjusting for traditional cardiovascular common risk factors. 273 Indigenous Australian adults were recruited and complete data was available for 269 participants (154 males), median age 39 years. Arterial stiffness (PWV) significantly increased with increasing extent of periodontal pocketing (p trend=0.001). By contrast, carotid IMT did not differ across quartiles. Periodontal pocketing was associated with central arterial stiffness, a marker of presymptomatic arterial dysfunction, in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  15. Eat, drink and gamble: marketing messages about 'risky' products in an Australian major sporting series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sophie; Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Westberg, Kate; Moodie, Rob; Jones, Sandra

    2013-08-05

    To investigate the alcohol, gambling, and unhealthy food marketing strategies during a nationally televised, free to air, sporting series in Australia. Using the Australian National Rugby League 2012 State of Origin three-game series, we conducted a mixed methods content analysis of the frequency, duration, placement and content of advertising strategies, comparing these strategies both within and across the three games. There were a total of 4445 episodes (mean = 1481.67, SD = 336.58), and 233.23 minutes (mean = 77.74, SD = 7.31) of marketing for alcoholic beverages, gambling products and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages during the 360 minutes of televised coverage of the three State of Origin 2012 games. This included an average per game of 1354 episodes (SD = 368.79) and 66.29 minutes (SD = 7.62) of alcohol marketing; 110.67 episodes (SD = 43.89), and 8.72 minutes (SD = 1.29) of gambling marketing; and 17 episodes (SD = 7.55), and 2.74 minutes (SD = 0.78) of unhealthy food and beverage marketing. Content analysis revealed that there was a considerable embedding of product marketing within the match play, including within match commentary, sporting equipment, and special replays. Sport is increasingly used as a vehicle for the promotion of range of 'risky consumption' products. This study raises important ethical and health policy questions about the extent and impact of saturation and incidental marketing strategies on health and wellbeing, the transparency of embedded marketing strategies, and how these strategies may influence product consumption.

  16. Spirituality, religion, social support and health among older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxey, Annette; McEvoy, Mark; Bowe, Steven; Attia, John

    2011-06-01

    To examine the impact of perceived importance of spirituality or religion (ISR) and religious service attendance (RSA) on health and well-being in older Australians. A cross-sectional survey of 752 community-dwelling men and women aged 55-85 years from the Hunter Region, New South Wales. Overall, 51% of participants felt spirituality or religion was important in their lives and 24% attended religious services at least 2-3 times a month. In univariate regression analyses, ISR and RSA were associated with increased levels of social support (P < 0.001). However, ISR was also associated with more comorbidities (incidence-rate ratio= 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). There were no statistically significant associations between ISR or RSA and other measures such as mental and physical health. Spirituality and religious involvement have a beneficial impact on older Australians' perceptions of social support, and may enable individuals to better cope with the presence of multiple comorbidities later in life. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  17. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  18. Slipping through the cracks: the taxonomic impediment conceals the origin and dispersal of Haminoea japonica, an invasive species with impacts to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Dieta; Cooke, Samantha; Hirano, Yayoi; Malaquias, Manuel A E; Crocetta, Fabio; Valdés, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Haminoea japonica is a species of opisthobranch sea slug native to Japan and Korea. Non-native populations have spread unnoticed for decades due to difficulties in the taxonomy of Haminoea species. Haminoea japonica is associated with a schistosome parasite in San Francisco Bay, thus further spread could have consequence to human health and economies. Anecdotal evidence suggests that H. japonica has displaced native species of Haminoea in North America and Europe, becoming locally dominant in estuaries and coastal lagoons. In this paper we study the population genetics of native and non-native populations of H. japonica based on mt-DNA data including newly discovered populations in Italy and France. The conclusions of this study further corroborate a Northeastern Japan origin for the non-native populations and suggest possible independent introductions into North America and Europe. Additionally, the data obtained revealed possible secondary introductions within Japan. Although non-native populations have experienced severe genetic bottlenecks they have colonized different regions with a broad range of water temperatures and other environmental conditions. The environmental tolerance of this species, along with its ability to become dominant in invaded areas and its association with a schistosome parasite, suggest H. japonica could be a dangerous invasive species.

  19. A systematic review of adherence in Indigenous Australians: an opportunity to improve chronic condition management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dassel, Jessica Langloh; Ralph, Anna P; Cass, Alan

    2017-12-27

    Indigenous Australians experience high rates of chronic conditions. It is often asserted Indigenous Australians have low adherence to medication; however there has not been a comprehensive examination of the evidence. This systematic literature review presents data from studies of Indigenous Australians on adherence rates and identifies supporting factors and impediments from the perspective of health professionals and patients. Search strategies were used to identify literature in electronic databases and websites. The following databases were searched: Scopus, Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Library, Trove, Indigenous Health infonet and Grey Lit.org . Articles in English, reporting original data on adherence to long-term, self-administered medicines in Australia's Indigenous populations were included. Data were extracted into a standard template and a quality assessment was undertaken. Forty-seven articles met inclusion criteria. Varied study methodologies prevented the use of meta-analysis. health professionals believe adherence is a significant problem for Indigenous Australians; however, adherence rates are rarely measured. Health professionals and patients often reported the same barriers and facilitators, providing a framework for improvement. There is no evidence that medication adherence amongst Indigenous Australians is lower than for the general population. Nevertheless, the heavy burden of morbidity and mortality faced by Indigenous Australians with chronic conditions could be alleviated by enhancing medication adherence. Some evidence supports strategies to improve adherence, including the use of dose administration aids. This evidence should be used by clinicians when prescribing, and to implement and evaluate programs using standard measures to quantify adherence, to drive improvement in health outcomes.

  20. Chinese Australian Urban Politics in the Context of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Tsen Kwok

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and the rise of East Asia have accelerated the migration of Chinese populations across the Asia-Pacific rim. Ethnic Chinese populations from highly diverse sub-ethnic, socio-economic and political backgrounds are increasingly aggregated in major cities throughout the region. Nonetheless, there remains insufficient attention to the implications of greater economic interdependence and accelerated population movement upon the political cultures of host nations such as Australia, especially in the context of ensuing spatial and economic concentrations of activity. Both articulate and interlocking relationships between political and economic fields exist in the metropolitan engagements of Chinese Australian community groups and associations. Many of these political dimensions extend into ‘formal’ modes of politics. Framed by urban regime theory and the broader notion of urban politics, this paper claims that network resource exchange within Chinese Australian communities are tied to ethnic economies, and in certain contexts global processes. These kinds of social dynamics have implications for the expression of diasporic Chinese affinity and constructions of Chineseness. Explorations of transnational political tensions, in fact, highlight the diversity and potential fragility of diasporic interdependence within ethnic Chinese communities – communities that are persistently refashioned through new waves of migration and from different points of origin. This paper seeks to advance these perspectives through a case study of a particular period of tension between two representative peak bodies in Brisbane, Queensland. Grounded in the testimony of elite political actors, it reflects upon the nature of ethnic Chinese community representation in contemporary Australia.

  1. Sea-change or Atrophy? The Australian Convict Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia vanden Driesen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an offshoot of a larger project which explored the possibility for the erstwhile settler-colonizer undergoing the sea-change into settler-indigene emergent through a study of selected novels of Patrick White. It became apparent to me that the convict figure, who played an ancillary role in these works, could lay claim to the status of white indigene well ahead of the main protagonist. Robert Hughes (in The Fatal Shore discredits the idea of any bonding between the convict and the Aborigine but acknowledges examples of “white blackfellas”—white men who had successfully been adopted into Aboriginal societies. Martin Tucker’s nineteenth century work, Ralph Rashleigh, offers surprising testimony of a creative work which bears this out in a context where Australian literature generally reflected the national amnesia with regard to the Aborigine and barely accorded them human status. Grenville’s The Secret River (2005, based broadly on the history of her own ancestor, appears to support Hughes’ original contention but is also replete with ambivalences that work against a simple resolution. This paper will explore some of the ambivalences, the ‘food for thought’ on aspects of the Australian experience highlighted by these literary texts, and glances briefly also at variations on the theme in Carey’s Jack Maggs and the The True Story of the Kelly Gang.

  2. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  3. Basaltic glass formed from hydrovolcanism and impact processes: Characterization and clues for detection of mode of origin from VNIR through MWIR reflectance and emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, W. H.; Wright, S. P.; Rogers, A. D.; Glotch, T. D.

    2016-09-01

    The CheMin X-ray diffraction instrument on-board the Curiosity rover in Gale crater has measured a consistent X-ray amorphous component in drill core samples examined to-date, clearly demonstrating that X-ray amorphous materials are a significant fraction of the martian surface layer. Glasses are potential components of this amorphous material and in this study, basaltic tephras from several hydro- and glaciovolcanic centers, as well as impact melts from India's Lonar Crater, were examined using thin section petrography, visible and near-infrared reflectance and mid-wave infrared emission spectroscopy as well as measuring major and minor element chemistry of representative samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The objectives of this study have been to look for distinguishing characteristics between volcanic and impact glasses and to determine features that indicate whether the glasses are fresh or altered using methods available on current and planned Mars rovers. Spectral features in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) that can be used as indicators of alteration include the development of hydration features at 1.9 and ∼3 μm and a feature attributed to ferric oxide development at 0.48 μm. In the mid-wave infrared, it was observed that glass-rich tephra field samples did not display a broad, disordered glass feature near 9-10 μm (as is observed in pristine basaltic glasses) but rather a doublet with centers near 9.5 and 11 μm attributed in earlier work to incipient devitrification into SiO4 chain and sheet structures respectively. A tentative observation was made that the Si-O bending feature, observed in all the sample spectra near 22 μm was broader in the hydro- and glaciovolcanic glass samples than in the impact glass samples. Hydro- and glaciovolcanic glass-rich tephra samples were used as library spectra in linear deconvolution analyses of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS TES) surface spectral types. These

  4. INFLUENCE OF THE MINICUTTING POSITION, IN THE QUALITY OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR CUTTINGS AND THEIR INICIAL GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele de Alvarenga Ferreira; Deborah Guerra Barroso; Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva; Juliana Sobreira de Souza; Teresa Aparecida Soares de Freitas; José Geraldo de Araújo Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987553The Toona ciliata (Australian cedar), originated from Australia showed high acclimatization in Brazil, where it found appropriate conditions for its growth, particularly in southern Bahia and throughout the southeastern region. However, the plantings presented irregular stems. Besides the seeds are a limiting resource, in result of their production seasonality and short viability period. This study aimed the evaluation of the quality of cuttings grown fro...

  5. Searching for public benefits in solar subsidies: A case study on the Australian government's residential photovoltaic rebate program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macintosh, Andrew; Wilkinson, Deb

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Government ran a renewable energy program in the 2000s that provided rebates to householders who acquired solar Photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. Originally called the Photovoltaic Rebate Program (PVRP), it was rebranded the Solar Homes and Communities Plan (SHCP) in November 2007. This paper evaluates both the PVRP and SHCP using measures of cost-effectiveness and fairness. It finds that the program was a major driver of a more than six-fold increase in PV generation capacity in the 2000s, albeit off a low base. In 2010, solar PV's share of the Australian electricity market was still only 0.1%. The program was also environmentally ineffective and costly, reducing emissions by 0.09 MtCO 2 -e/yr over the life of the rebated PV systems at an average cost of between AU$238 and AU$282/tCO 2 -e. In addition, the data suggest there were equity issues associated with the program, with 66% of all successful applicants residing in postal areas that were rated as medium-high or high on a Socio-economic Status (SES) scale. - Research highlights: → We evaluated a solar photovoltaic (PV) rebate program. → The program was ineffective, reducing emissions by 0.09 MtCO 2 -e/yr. → The average abatement cost was ∼AU$250/tCO 2 -e. → The program had a relatively minor impact as an industry assistance measure. → The distribution of rebates was skewed toward higher SES areas.

  6. Biogeographic patterns in the Australian chondrichthyan fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, P R; White, W T

    2011-11-01

    The major biogeographic structure and affinities of the Australian chondrichthyan fauna were investigated at both interregional and intraregional scales and comparisons made with adjacent bioregions. Faunal lists were compiled from six geographical regions with species from these regions assigned to distributional classes and broad habitat categories. Australian species were further classified on provincial and bathomic structure following bioregionalization outputs from regional marine planning. About 40% of the world's chondrichthyan fauna occurs in Indo-Australasia (482 species) of which 323 species are found in Australian seas. The tropical Australian component, of which c. 46% of taxa are regional endemics, is most similar to faunas of Indonesia, New Guinea and New Caledonia. The temperate Australian component is most similar to New Zealand and Antarctica with about half of its species endemic. Highest levels of Australian endemism exist in bathomes of the outer continental shelf and upper slope. A relatively high proportion of regional endemism (57% of species) on the slope in the poorly surveyed but species-rich Solanderian unit is probably due to high levels of large-scale habitat complexity in the Coral Sea. The richness of demersal assemblages on the continental shelf and slope appears to be largely related to the spatial complexity of the region and the level of exploration. Much lower diversity off Antarctica is consistent with the pattern in teleosts. The complex chondrichthyan fauna of Australia is confirmed as being amongst the richest of the mega-diverse Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Species-level compositions of regional faunas across Indo-Australasia differ markedly because of moderate to high levels of intraregional speciation. Faunal assemblages in Australian marine provinces and bathomes differ from each other, supporting a broader pattern for fishes that underpins a marine planning framework for the region. © 2011 CSIRO. Journal of Fish Biology

  7. Marine biodiversity in the Australian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Alan J; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J

    2010-08-02

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas.

  8. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  9. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  10. Corrosive places, inhuman spaces: mental health in Australian immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Pauline; Warin, Megan

    2008-06-01

    Since their establishment in 1992, Australian Immigration Detention Centres have been the focus of increasing concern due to allegations of their serious impact on the mental health of asylum seekers. Informed by Foucault's treatise on surveillance and the phenomenological work of Casey, this paper extends the current clinical data by examining the architecture and location of detention centres, and the complex relationships between space, place and mental health. In spatialising these relationships, we argue that Immigration Detention Centres operate not only as Panopticons, but are embodied by asylum seekers as 'anti-places': as places that mediate and constitute thinned out and liminal experiences. In particular, it is the embodied effects of surveillance and suspended liminality that impact on mental health. An approach which locates the embodiment of place and space as central to the poor mental health of asylum seekers adds an important dimension to our understandings of (dis)placement and mental health in the lives of the exiled.

  11. Loss of native rocky reef biodiversity in Australian metropolitan embayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Jemina F; Barrett, Neville S; Fowles, Amelia E; Hill, Nicole A; Cooper, Antonia T; Myers, Andrew P; Oh, Elizabeth S; Pocklington, Jacqui B; Thomson, Russell J

    2015-06-15

    Urbanisation of the coastal zone represents a key threat to marine biodiversity, including rocky reef communities which often possess disproportionate ecological, recreational and commercial importance. The nature and magnitude of local urban impacts on reef biodiversity near three Australian capital cities were quantified using visual census methods. The most impacted reefs in urbanised embayments were consistently characterised by smaller, faster growing species, reduced fish biomass and richness, and reduced mobile invertebrate abundance and richness. Reef faunal distribution varied significantly with heavy metals, local population density, and proximity to city ports, while native fish and invertebrate communities were most depauperate in locations where invasive species were abundant. Our study adds impetus for improved urban planning and pollution management practises, while also highlighting the potential for skilled volunteers to improve the tracking of changes in marine biodiversity values and the effectiveness of management intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in social activism across Australian minority communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores trends in social activism across Australian ethnic minority communities over a ten year period (1999-2009 and its relationship to indicators of social cohesion. It explores the impact of social modernisation in enabling the facilitation of effective grassroots campaigns on issues relevant the communities', and how they may influence public policy. Consideration is afforded to the impact on community participation with the rise of security policy on the national agenda, and significant events on domestic and global scales over a period which encompassed extraordinary acts of terrorism, irregular arrivals of asylum seekers, and unparalleled political and community confutation. It is asserted that participation in social activism is an important indicator of political empowerment within the dominant political structure, and could suitably enrich research into social cohesion in Australia. Keywords: political participation, public policy, social activism, social cohesion, social modernisation

  13. Cultural safety and its importance for Australian midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Jasten; Dietsch, Elaine; Bonner, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Cultural safety is an important concept in health care that originated in Aotearoa (New Zealand) to address Maori consumer dissatisfaction with health care. In Australia and internationally, midwives are now expected to provide culturally safe midwifery care to all women. Historically, Australia has received large numbers of immigrants from the United Kingdom, European countries and the Middle East. There have also been refugees and immigrants from South-East Asia, and most recently, from Africa. Australia continues to become more culturally diverse and yet to date no studies have explored the application of cultural safety in Australian midwifery practice. This paper explores how cultural safety has evolved from cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity. It examines the importance of cultural safety in nursing and midwifery practice. Finally, it explores the literature to determine how midwives can apply the concept of cultural safety to ensure safe and woman centred care.

  14. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolář, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojtěch; Macek, Martin; Tkáč, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-15

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam.

  15. Original article The Me and My Disease Scale: measuring state hope and determining its impact on coping in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties, factor structure, measurement invariance, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Me and My Disease Scale – a tool for state hope measurement for adults suffering from chronic medical conditions. Participants and procedure Two clinical groups, patients with type 2 diabetes (DM (n = 278 just before and 1 month after introducing insulin treatment, and cardiac patients (n = 232 five days and one month after their first uncomplicated myocardial infarction (MI, participated in the study. Cognitive appraisal, emotions and depression (MI group were measured to establish the construct validity of the scale. Results A single-factor model which consisted of 4 items was established. The structure was characterized by good measurement model fit and satisfactory indicators of reliability for the MI subgroup. A less satisfactory model fit was obtained for the DM subgroup – this may point to the impact of specific medical conditions on the scale. Furthermore, the findings indicated metric invariance for the scale. The moderate correlations between hope and cognitive appraisal, emotion and depression confirm the construct validity of the scale. Conclusions The Me and My Disease Scale is characterized by satisfactory psychometric parameters and can be used in scientific research to measure hope as a dimension of cognition and to compare the relationships between hope and other variables in medical patients. However, caution should be taken during analysis when comparing means between clinical groups.

  16. IMPACTS !

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  17. Assessing Australian Rainfall Projections in Two Model Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschetto, A.; Haarsma, R. D.; Sen Gupta, A.

    2016-02-01

    Australian climate is projected to change with increases in greenhouse gases. The IPCC reports an increase in extreme daily rainfall across the country. At the same time, mean rainfall over southeast Australia is projected to reduce during austral winter, but to increase during austral summer, mainly associated with changes in the surrounding oceans. Climate models agree better on the future reduction of average rainfall over the southern regions of Australia compared to the increase in extreme rainfall events. One of the reasons for this disagreement may be related to climate model limitations in simulating the observed mechanisms associated with the mid-latitude weather systems, in particular due to coarse model resolutions. In this study we investigate how changes in sea surface temperature (SST) affect Australian mean and extreme rainfall under global warming, using a suite of numerical experiments at two model resolutions: about 126km (T159) and 25km (T799). The numerical experiments are performed with the earth system model EC-EARTH. Two 6-member ensembles are produced for the present day conditions and a future scenario. The present day ensemble is forced with the observed daily SST from the NOAA National Climatic Data Center from 2002 to 2006. The future scenario simulation is integrated from 2094 to 2098 using the present day SST field added onto the future SST change created from a 17-member ensemble based on the RCP4.5 scenario. Preliminary results show an increase in extreme rainfall events over Tasmania associated with enhanced convection driven by the Tasman Sea warming. We will further discuss how the projected changes in SST will impact the southern mid-latitude weather systems that ultimately affect Australian rainfall.

  18. Any action? Reflections on the Australian Midwifery Action Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joanne E; Smith, Rachel M

    2017-06-01

    In 1997 a group of midwifery academics, researchers and practitioners met to discuss issues of concern related to the midwifery profession in Australia. It became clear from this discussion that midwifery in Australia was lagging behind similarly developed countries and that urgent action was required. From this meeting, a plan was developed to seek funding for a major national study into midwifery education and practice standards and as such, the Australian Midwifery Action Project (AMAP) was born. This discussion paper presents an overview of a number of midwifery education and regulation changes within the framework of the recommendations from the Australian Midwifery Action Project. A key question arising from this discussion is whether our current midwifery education and regulation standards provide a fit-for-purpose workforce that ensures all women and their families receive best practice midwifery care. Over the past 20 years the Midwifery profession in Australia has undergone significant changes and developments and these changes have had, and continue to have, significant impact on midwifery education and therefore on the quality of midwifery practice in Australia. Many changes have been implemented in the nearly 20 years since AMAP was first conceived. However, many of the issues that provided the impetus for a project such as AMAP remain and are still to be resolved. The midwifery profession continues to be subsumed with nursing, it is not possible to gain accurate midwifery workforce data and, despite the development of national standards for midwifery education, wide variations in courses still exist across Australia. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rubella antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; Bertolini, Joseph; Kotharu, Pushpa; Maher, Darryl; Cripps, Allan W

    2017-08-03

    Rubella antibodies are not routinely measured in immunoglobulin products and there is a lack of information on the titer in Australian products. To facilitate future studies of the effectiveness of passive immunisation for preventing rubella and congenital rubella syndrome, this study measured the concentration of rubella-specific antibodies in Australian intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) human immunoglobulin products suitable for post-exposure prophylaxis using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. The GMT ± GSD for the IM product was 19 ± 1.2 IU/mg (2980 ± 1.2 IU/mL). The GMT ± GSD for the IV product was 12 ± 1.5 IU/mg (729 ± 1.5 IU/mL). At present, Australian guidelines recommend offering non-immune pregnant women exposed to rubella 20 mL of intramuscular immunoglobulin within 72 hours of exposure. This equates to 42,160 IU of rubella antibodies if the lowest titer obtained for the Australian IM product is considered. The same dose would be delivered by 176 mL of the Australian IV product at the lowest measured rubella-specific antibody titer.

  20. The Australian National Proton Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.; Rozenfeld, A.; Bishop, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Protons have been used in the treatment of cancer since 1954 and over 30,000 patients have been treated around the world. Their precise dose distribution allows the treatment of small tumours in critical locations such as the base of skull and orbit and is an alternative to stereotactic radiotherapy in other sites. With the development of hospital-based systems in the 1990's, common tumours such as prostate, breast and lung cancer can now also be treated using simple techniques. The therapeutic ratio is improved as the dose to the tumour can be increased while sparing normal tissues. The well defined high dose region and low integral dose compared with photon treatments is a particular advantage in children and other situations where long-term survival is expected and when used in combination with chemotherapy. In January 2002, the NSW Health Department initiated a Feasibility Study for an Australian National Proton Facility. This Study will address the complex medical, scientific, engineering, commercial and legal issues required to design and build a proton facility in Australia. The Facility will be mainly designed for patient treatment but will also provide facilities for biological, physical and engineering research. The proposed facility will have a combination of fixed and rotating beams with an energy range of 70-250 MeV. Such a centre will enable the conduct of randomised clinical trials and a comparison with other radiotherapy techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Cost-utility comparisons with other medical treatments will also be made and further facilities developed if the expected benefit is confirmed. When patients are not being treated, the beam will be available for commercial and research purposes. This presentation will summarize the progress of the Study and discuss the important issues that need to be resolved before the Facility is approved and constructed

  1. Optical, physical and chemical characteristics of Australian continental aerosols: results from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radhi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust is one of the major components of the world's aerosol mix, having a number of impacts within the Earth system. However, the climate forcing impact of mineral dust is currently poorly constrained, with even its sign uncertain. As Australian deserts are more reddish than those in the Northern Hemisphere, it is important to better understand the physical, chemical and optical properties of this important aerosol. We have investigated the properties of Australian desert dust at a site in SW Queensland, which is strongly influenced by both dust and biomass burning aerosol.

    Three years of ground-based monitoring of spectral optical thickness has provided a statistical picture of gross aerosol properties. The aerosol optical depth data showed a clear though moderate seasonal cycle with an annual mean of 0.06 ± 0.03. The Angstrom coefficient showed a stronger cycle, indicating the influence of the winter-spring burning season in Australia's north. AERONET size distributions showed a generally bimodal character, with the coarse mode assumed to be mineral dust, and the fine mode a mixture of fine dust, biomass burning and marine biogenic material.

    In November 2006 we undertook a field campaign which collected 4 sets of size-resolved aerosol samples for laboratory analysis – ion beam analysis and ion chromatography. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of all filter samples, although elemental ratios were considered the most reliable output. Scatter plots showed that Fe, Al and Ti were well correlated with Si, and Co reasonably well correlated with Si, with the Fe/Al ratio somewhat higher than values reported from Northern Hemisphere sites (as expected. Scatter plots for Ca, Mn and K against Si showed clear evidence of a second population, which in some cases could be identified with a particular sample day or size fraction. These data may be used to attempt to build a signature of soil in this

  2. Prevalence and correlates of everyday discrimination among black Caribbeans in the United States: the impact of nativity and country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Mouzon, Dawne M; Keith, Verna M; Chae, David H; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-07-01

    Black Caribbeans in the United States have been the victims of major discrimination (e.g. unfairly fired, denied a promotion, denied housing). What is not known is the degree to which they also experience more routine forms of everyday discrimination such as receiving poor restaurant service, being perceived as dishonest, and being followed in stores. This paper investigates the distribution and correlates of everyday discrimination among a national sample of black Caribbeans in the U.S. This analysis used the black Caribbean sub-sample (n = 1,621) of the National Survey of American Life. Demographic and immigration status correlates of ten items from the Everyday Discrimination Scale were investigated: being treated with less courtesy, treated with less respect, receiving poor restaurant service, being perceived as not smart, being perceived as dishonest, being perceived as not as good as others, and being feared, insulted, harassed, or followed in stores. Roughly one out of ten black Caribbeans reported that, on a weekly basis, they were treated with less courtesy and other people acted as if they were better than them, were afraid of them, and as if they were not as smart. Everyday discrimination was more frequent for black Caribbeans who were male, never married, divorced/separated, earned higher incomes, and who were second or third generation immigrants. Black Caribbeans attributed the majority of the discrimination they experienced to their race. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of everyday discrimination among the black Caribbean population. It provides the frequency, types and correlates of everyday discrimination reported by black Caribbeans in the United States. Understanding the frequency and types of discrimination is important because of the documented negative impacts of everyday discrimination on physical and mental health.

  3. Vertical distribution of soil organic carbon originated from a prior peatland in Greece and impacts on the landscape, after conversion to arable land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayrotis, Theodore; Charoulis, A.; Vavoulidou, E.; Tziouvalekas, M.

    2010-05-01

    The vertical distribution and the status of soil organic carbon (Corg.) in 66 surface and subsurface soil samples were investigated. These soils originated mainly from organic deposits of Philippoi (northern Greece) have been classified as Histosols and belong to the suborder of Saprists. The present study consisted of an area of 10,371 ha where about 90% of the soils are organic. The main crops are maize (Zea mays L.), sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).The surface horizons consist mainly of well-humified organic materials mixed with mineral soil particles. Usually, they have moderate or insufficient drainage regime and conditions become favorable for microbial growth. Microbes decompose and transform the soil organic compounds into mineral forms, which are then available as nutrients for the crop. The organic matter was derived primarily from Cyperaceae (Cladium mariscus, various Carex species, etc.) and from decomposed residues of arable crops. The dominant features of these soils are the high content of organic matter and the obvious stratification of soil horizons. In contrast, most arable soils in Greece are characterized by low organic matter content. The stratification differentiates the physical and chemical properties and the groundwater table even during dry summers lies at depths,150 cm beneath surface. The Corg. content was high and varied greatly among the examined samples. In the surface layers ranged between 3.57 and 336.50 g kg2 (mean 199.26 g kg2) and between 22.10 and 401.10 g kg2 in the subsurface horizons (mean 258.89 g kg2). It can be argued that surface layers are drier and part of soil organic matter was seriously affected by the process of oxidation. At drier sites, soil subsidence was appeared as a consequence of soil organic matter oxidation. Increased contents were found in the northern part of the

  4. PCR Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Faecal Samples from Australian and Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensdale, Joshua T; Xian, Darren Ten Wei; Wei, Chooi Ming; Lv, Quanjun; Wen, Xiajian; Guo, Jing; Coorey, Ranil; LeSouëf, Peter; Lu, Fengmin; Zhang, Brad; Dykes, Gary A

    2018-03-31

    Recent public awareness campaigns on the risk of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes has placed pressure on governments to enforce stricter antimicrobial stewardship policies on the hospital and agricultural industry. This study aimed to screen faecal samples from Australian and Chinese children for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes to identify demographics at risk of carriage of these genes and examine antimicrobial stewardship policies from the two countries which may influence carriage. Faecal samples from 46 Australian and 53 Chinese children were screened for the presence of six clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes using PCR. Clinical and demographic data was also collected from each patient. Over 90% of faecal samples from Chinese children tested positive for β-lactam, macrolide, tetracycline, and aminoglycoside resistance genes, which was substantially higher than Australian samples. Besides country of origin, no clear trend could be seen to predict carriage of resistance genes. The exception to this was Chinese born children who immigrated to Australia having higher rates of carriage for bla TEM and tetM genes than children born and still living in Australia. These data indicated that Chinese children were more likely to carry certain antibiotic resistance genes than Australian children. The Chinese government has recently implemented strict policies to control the overuse of antibiotics in hospitals. However, many of these policies do not extend to the agricultural industry which could explain the differences seen in this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The view from within and the view from without: Australian landscape research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Yencken

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available THE LANDSCAPE RESEARCH TASK in Australia is one that commands our attention. The Australian landscape, compared to that of other countries, is still not well understood scientifically as a rich and diverse biome, pragmatically as a productive base, or perceptually as a source of emotional support and inspiration. Australian society is multicultural and changing rapidly. There are complex and shifting strands of interwoven relationships-involving the people and the land-among the original occupiers, the children of European and other settlers and more recent migrants. There are important forces at work which are changing the way knowledge and information are generated, interpreted, shared and disseminated. These include powerful new technologies on the one hand and new epistemologies on the other. Australian landscape practice is young, unfocused and without a distinctive style or philosophy of its own. The discipline of landscape architecture lacks the intellectual depth needed to command respect in Australian society. Only through excellent research and fine writing will the schools of landscape architecture, those now in place and those emerging, respond to these issues in thoughtful ways, prepare students adequately, support and assist those in practice and contribute properly to the intellectual life and development of the country. To explore these issues this paper examines the realm of landscape research, discusses further the distinctive aspects of the landscape research task in Australia, reviews the research so far completed and looks at the route we might take in the future to develop a rich research culture.

  6. Bioelectromagnetics Research within an Australian Context: The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Sarah P; Al Hossain, Md Shahriar; Bentvelzen, Alan; Elwood, Mark; Finnie, John; Horvat, Joseph; Iskra, Steve; Ivanova, Elena P; Manavis, Jim; Mudiyanselage, Chathuranga Keerawella; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Martinac, Boris; McIntosh, Robert; McKenzie, Raymond; Mustapic, Mislav; Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Pirogova, Elena; Rashid, M Harunur; Taylor, Nigel A; Todorova, Nevena; Wiedemann, Peter M; Vink, Robert; Wood, Andrew; Yarovsky, Irene; Croft, Rodney J

    2016-09-29

    Mobile phone subscriptions continue to increase across the world, with the electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by these devices, as well as by related technologies such as Wi-Fi and smart meters, now ubiquitous. This increase in use and consequent exposure to mobile communication (MC)-related EMF has led to concern about possible health effects that could arise from this exposure. Although much research has been conducted since the introduction of these technologies, uncertainty about the impact on health remains. The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR) is a National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence that is undertaking research addressing the most important aspects of the MC-EMF health debate, with a strong focus on mechanisms, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and exposure dosimetry. This research takes as its starting point the current scientific status quo, but also addresses the adequacy of the evidence for the status quo. Risk communication research complements the above, and aims to ensure that whatever is found, it is communicated effectively and appropriately. This paper provides a summary of this ACEBR research (both completed and ongoing), and discusses the rationale for conducting it in light of the prevailing science.

  7. Discounting of medicines in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Loc P; Vitry, Agnes I; Moss, John R

    2014-11-01

    There are many medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in which point of sale price is less than the level of the general patient co-payment. In these circumstances, the patient covers the total cost of the medicine from their own pocket with no government subsidy. The aim of the present study was to compare the consumer prices of under general co-payment prescription medicines between banner group pharmacies with open discounting policies and community pharmacies without; and to assess the impact of the April 2012 PBS price disclosure policies on the discounts offered. The consumer prices of 31 under co-payment medicines were collected from banner group pharmacy websites and individual pharmacies both before and after April 2012. PBS maximum prices were obtained from the PBS website. Absolute and relative price differences between PBS and pharmacy groups were calculated. Before April 2012, banner group pharmacies provided discounts to patients of around 40% per prescription, whereas other pharmacies provided discounts of around 15%. Total price savings were on average $9 per prescription at banner group pharmacies and $3.50 at other pharmacies. Percentage discounts did not change greatly after April 2012, when price decreases occurred on the PBS. Banner group pharmacies with pricing strategies are able to provide greater discounts to patients compared with other pharmacies. Community pharmacies still have the ability to provide substantial discounts after the April 2012 price reductions. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: There is currently little known about the under co-payment medicines market in Australia and the price discounts available to patients. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This research shows that patients who purchase under co-payment medicines are able to save money if they purchase from pharmacies with openly advertised discounting policies. Price reductions related to the implementation of the price disclosure policy had a

  8. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  9. Australian regulatory changes open crudes to export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R.A.

    1988-01-18

    Since the price collapse of 1986, the Australian Government has been deregulating its domestic crude oils, which since the late 1960s, have been allocated solely to Australian refiners at set prices, and where no crude oil was exported. This arrangement is now being dismantled, and has allowed export since 1983, with modest free-market sales since 1985. Much of the exported crude is currently from older, established fields, but with a number of new fields that have come into production recently, some of the newer streams are beginning to find their way to many distant parts of the refining world. There are five important Australian crude oils either now being, or likely to be, exported: Barrow Island and Gippsland crudes, which are produced from fields discovered in 1960s; and Jabiru, Jackson blend, and Northwest Shelf condensate, all coming to production during the last 5 years. This article discusses each of these oils.

  10. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  11. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  12. Crossing borders: extraterritorial application of Australian directors’ duties

    OpenAIRE

    McKeown, Peter Julian Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Australian corporations operate in an increasingly international environment. It has intuitive appeal that Australian law should regulate the conduct of directors of Australian corporations even if it occurs outside Australia. This however can create tension with the competing rights of the foreign state in whose territory this conduct occurs to regulate such conduct. This thesis examines two questions. Firstly, does Australian law governing directors’ duties in fact apply to activities of a ...

  13. SU-E-P-03: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, a Bespoke National Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, I; Lye, J; Alves, A [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Vic (Australia); Lehmann, J [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Kenny, J [Epworth HealthCare, Richmond, VIC (Australia); Dunn, L [Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Kron, T [Peter MacCallum Cancer Instit., Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, (ACDS) was a pilot program to enable the Australian Government to determine whether a locally designed audit program was suitable for mitigating dosimetric error risk to radiotherapy patients within Australia. The outcomes from four years of operations will be presented and discussed with a focus why and how the pilot requirements were met. The consequnces of success will be considered, the lessons learnt from the pilot program and how they are impacting the future ACDS design, operation and engagement with stakeholders. Methods: The ACDS was designed over 2010/11 by experts drawn from the three professions in consultation with the national Department of Health. The list of outcomes required over a three year pilot was expressed in a Memorandum of Understanding, (MoU) between Health and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) which hosted the ACDS. Results: The ACDS has achieved all the MoU requirements. This paper describes how the staff within the ACDS engaged with the professional clinical workforce and provided a successful and functioning audit service. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses within the MoU and the ACDS structure and how the ACDS resolved a number of conflicting issues. It identifies the successes within the ACDS and how these were achieved. It provides details to assist and advise those seeking to design or modify national or regional auditing programs. Finally the paper reviews potential futures for the ACDS. Conclusion: The raw number of audits and outcomes indicate that the ACDS has met the MoU auditing requirements. The reasons for the ACDS’ success are highly dependent on: attracting quality staff who can respond with agility to changing situations, a high level of communication with the professional community, a high level of engagement by the community and an interested and engaged Federal Department. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service is a

  14. SU-E-P-03: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, a Bespoke National Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, I; Lye, J; Alves, A; Lehmann, J; Kenny, J; Dunn, L; Kron, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, (ACDS) was a pilot program to enable the Australian Government to determine whether a locally designed audit program was suitable for mitigating dosimetric error risk to radiotherapy patients within Australia. The outcomes from four years of operations will be presented and discussed with a focus why and how the pilot requirements were met. The consequnces of success will be considered, the lessons learnt from the pilot program and how they are impacting the future ACDS design, operation and engagement with stakeholders. Methods: The ACDS was designed over 2010/11 by experts drawn from the three professions in consultation with the national Department of Health. The list of outcomes required over a three year pilot was expressed in a Memorandum of Understanding, (MoU) between Health and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) which hosted the ACDS. Results: The ACDS has achieved all the MoU requirements. This paper describes how the staff within the ACDS engaged with the professional clinical workforce and provided a successful and functioning audit service. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses within the MoU and the ACDS structure and how the ACDS resolved a number of conflicting issues. It identifies the successes within the ACDS and how these were achieved. It provides details to assist and advise those seeking to design or modify national or regional auditing programs. Finally the paper reviews potential futures for the ACDS. Conclusion: The raw number of audits and outcomes indicate that the ACDS has met the MoU auditing requirements. The reasons for the ACDS’ success are highly dependent on: attracting quality staff who can respond with agility to changing situations, a high level of communication with the professional community, a high level of engagement by the community and an interested and engaged Federal Department. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service is a

  15. Childhood Stress and Adversity is Associated with Late-Life Dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Delbaere, Kim; Draper, Brian; Mack, Holly A; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Chalkley, Simon; Minogue, Cecilia; Broe, Gerald A

    2017-10-01

    High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses. Participants completed a life course survey of health, well-being, cognition, and social history including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with consensus diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer disease. CTQ scores ranged from 25-117 (median: 29) and were associated with several adverse childhood indicators including separation from family, poor childhood health, frequent relocation, and growing up in a major city. Controlling for age, higher CTQ scores were associated with depression, anxiety, suicide attempt, dementia diagnosis, and, specifically, Alzheimer disease. The association between CTQ scores and dementia remained significant after controlling for depression and anxiety variables (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.05-2.45). In contrast, there were no significant associations between CTQ scores and smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, or cardiovascular risk factors. Childhood stress appears to have a significant impact on emotional health and dementia for older Aboriginal Australians. The ongoing effects of childhood stress need to be recognized as people grow older, particularly in terms of dementia prevention and care, as well as in populations with greater exposure to childhood adversity, such as Aboriginal Australians. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. L'impact de la tempête "Martin" sur le couvert forestier en Auvergne. Origine des chablis et logique de reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Jubertie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La tempête du 27 décembre 1999 a laissé des traces durables sur le couvert forestier auvergnat. Aussi semble-t-il aujourd'hui intéressant, non seulement de connaître les raisons qui expliquent la localisation et une telle ampleur des dégâts, mais aussi d'aborder le problème des reconstitutions.Le système dépressionnaire océanique responsable des rafales tempétueuses (158 km/h enregistré à Clermont-Aulnat ! sort de l'ordinaire. Il fut remarquable à cause de sa petite taille, de sa grande mobilité et surtout par le fait qu'il trouva son maximum d'intensité en pénétrant à l'intérieur des terres. D'une manière générale, les vents ont atteint, en Auvergne, des valeurs presque comparables à celles qui avaient été enregistrées lors de la tempête de novembre 1982, événement de référence pour le Massif Central. Associés à ces vents violents, de fortes pluies ont été enregistrées. Saturant largement les sols, elles ont ainsi rendu plus efficace l'impact de la tempête sur les forêts.L'inégale répartition des chablis apparaît clairement en visualisant des cartes départementales des dégâts établies par l'Inventaire Forestier National, ainsi qu'à travers une étude personnelle réalisée à l'échelle locale dans une forêt témoin de la Haute-Loire. L'interprétation de ces cartes permet de montrer quelles interactions ont joué entre facteurs météorologiques et orographiques. De même, elles mettent en évidence la trop grande présence de parcelles de conifères à forte densité, fragiles face au vent, issues des reboisements artificiels réalisés principalement après la Seconde Guerre mondiale.Du coup, l'importance des dégâts, en partie liée à la mauvaise gestion sylvicole, a provoqué chez les forestiers une remise en cause des pratiques qui avaient prévalu jusqu'alors. Un véritable changement dans la stratégie des reconstitutions forestières semble aujourd'hui se développer. Des r

  17. Potential for Australian involvement in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D. J.; Collins, G. A.; Hole, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Fusion, the process that powers the sun and stars, offers a solution to the world's long-term energy needs: providing large scale energy production with zero greenhouse gas emissions, short-lived radio-active waste compared to conventional nuclear fission cycles, and a virtually limitless supply of fuel. Almost three decades of fusion research has produced spectacular progress. Present-day experiments have a power gain ratio of approximately 1 (ratio of power out to power in), with a power output in the 10's of megawatts. The world's next major fusion experiment, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will be a pre-prototype power plant. Since announcement of the ITER site in June 2005, the ITER project, has gained momentum and political support. Despite Australia's foundation role in the field of fusion science, through the pioneering work of Sir Mark Oliphant, and significant contributions to the international fusion program over the succeeding years, Australia is not involved in the ITER project. In this talk, the activities of a recently formed consortium of scientists and engineers, the Australian ITER Forum will be outlined. The Forum is drawn from five Universities, ANSTO (the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) and AINSE (the Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering), and seeks to promote fusion energy in the Australian community and negotiate a role for Australia in the ITER project. As part of this activity, the Australian government recently funded a workshop that discussed the ways and means of engaging Australia in ITER. The workshop brought the research, industrial, government and general public communities, together with the ITER partners, and forged an opportunity for ITER engagement; with scientific, industrial, and energy security rewards for Australia. We will report on the emerging scope for Australian involvement

  18. Origin of the current discretization in deep reset states of an Al2O3/Cu-based conductive-bridging memory, and impact on state level and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, A.; Degraeve, R.; Fantini, A.; Kim, W.; Houssa, M.; Jurczak, M.; Goux, L.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a Quantum-Point-Contact (QPC) model describing the state conduction in a W/Al2O3/TiW/Cu Conductive-Bridging Memory cell (CBRAM). The model allows describing both the voltage- and the temperature-dependence of the conduction. For deep current levels, a resistance component is added in series to the point-contact constriction to account for electron scattering in the residual filament. The fitting of single-particle perturbation also allowed to estimate the number and effective size of the conduction-controlling particles in the QPC constriction. The results clearly point to smaller particles for CBRAM (Cu particles) as compared to oxide-based resistive RAM involving oxygen-vacancy defects, which is discussed as a possible origin of deeper reset level obtained in CBRAM. We also evidence a beneficial impact of this smaller particle size on lower Random-Telegraph-Noise amplitude measured on CBRAM devices.

  19. Regulation of online pharmacy: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Paul

    2003-02-01

    This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.

  20. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research relations.......This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...